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Mi. ',j 'jfc, ( - ' ,2 s r Waging Worldwide War on Rats r . ! ,4lmMmm w t fi" B W JWi guard HUNGRY R STEAMERS RODENTS I nEW 'vlT UvJIl H YORK FEARFUL of Che rapid spread of bu bonic plague through tho different Mediterranean countries and of the many MM! that have recently occurred In some of the cities of the United States which Harder the Gulf of Mexico, the departments of health of every seaboard city In tho United States have begun a 6trlngent cam paign toward the extermination of the. rat, mat pestiferous rodent which indirectly Is the cause of the dread disease. The crusade also has bqen taken up In many inland sec tions. Gov. Allen of Kansas Inaugurated one of the greatest drives In the war against' tin rodents when he proclaimed a "rat killing week" beginning August 23 in the Interests of health and food preservation. Aside from spreading disease rats cost the nation hun dreds of millions of dollars annually In food and property destruction. Incident to Gov. Allen's proclamation it was stated that In Kansas alone $30,000,000 a year is lost In fi odstuffl through the ravages of rats and mice. The war against the rat, however, is not eonfined to this country; H is being waged the world over. Fighting the Pest in New York. The Board of Health of New York city, at the piers of which thousands of ships from foreign ports dock- yearly, has for some time been helping in the war on rats on an extensive scale. The work carried on here to prevent rats from getting into the country, and to exterminate those which are ulready in. typifies the wark that is go ing on ' in other American cities. Dr? Royal S. Copeland, Commissioner of Health in tho metropolis, has recognized thte. importance of ridding the country of rats and in view of the recent outbreak of plague In various parts of tho world, includ ing some of the .Southern cities of the GASSING RATS in LONDON THOSE NOT ASPHYXIATED ARE POUNCED ON BY TERRIERS United States, has begun a vigorous cam paign that he believes will be successful In preventing the dread disease from getting a foothold In this country. "The importance of exterminating rats cannot be overestimated," he said. "In New Orleans recently 10,000 of these rodents were rounded up In one week and eight of them were later found to be' plague carriers. A single pest might be sufficient to bring end less agony to many people, and our cam paign Is toward the prevention of even one such rat entering our city. The ravages of the plague may be realized when it is considered thit in one Southern city, where there was a slight epidemic recently, out of thirty-flve cases of plague brought to the attention of the authorities thirty-two proved fatal. "The bubonic plague Is caused by a para sitic flea which thrives on the body of the rat. This flea needs warmth, with the re sult that when the rat dies the flea imme diately seeks the first warm and living body that Is at hand. In many cases this hap pens to be the body of a human being. The person, If infected, 'will die usually In about forty-eight hours. The recent out breaks of tho disease are the first of serious moment that have, occurred since 1903, when II raged In Russia and other Eastern regions. "An excellent means we have found of preventing rats from entering this country is with the aid of a large round metal disk which Is attached to the hawsers of all ships before they dock. These disks psevent the rats from finding a runway to the docks. The fight against the rodents, however, is really begun as soon as a ship leaves a coun try whore the plague is prevalent, such as the ports of Algeria, Tunis. Egypt and others In the Orient. These measures are taken to prevent rats getting aboard the vessels. Then, during the voyage, the ship, if It does not carry foodstuffs or other cargo that Is liable to be damaged. Is thoroughly fumigated with cyanide gas. "As soon as the ship docks every hawser Is equipped with one of the metal rat guards. Besides this precaution we have made a rule that the placing of gangplanks shall go on only at the timo of the loading and unloading of the vessel's cargo. But we go even further than this. While the gang planks are down during the unloading guards are placed at either end to prevent any stray rats from getting ashore. If, despite these precautions, rats do happen to get ashore, all of the docks are equipped with up-to-date traps, which make the rats' existence a short one. With these precau tionary measures we feel confident that our city will not be afflicted with even one case of plague." New York's Food Lots. Dr. Copeland then explained that the structures along the waterfront, which are often made of wood, unfortunately ofTer an exceptional refuge for the rodents. In some years when the War on rats was not on mere than $1,000,000 worth of foodstuffa along the New York docks has been de stroyed by them. As a further means of exterminating them the Department of Health has solicited the cooperation of the owners of docks and storehouses, and here after these structures are to be built of concrete. In view of the campaign that Is being carried on in this country great Interest is being shown by Ixith municipal health au thorities and the United States Department of Agriculture, which is doing research work to help wipe out rats In a new device that has Just been put Into operation In Great Britain and which has ibeen found very ef fective in killing off these pestiferous ro dents. In England, as in America, for years traps of every description have been used, but the rats have refused to be caught. It seems now, however, as if this heyday la' rbout to pass. In Great Britain the war on rats is being most successfully conducted with the aid of poison gas. Already the ftlclency of the gas machine abroad has given rise to the belief that if an organized campaign along similar lines Is carried ou. in this country and other countries through out the world the complete extermination of the pests will be only a matter of a short time. The mechanism of the gas machine Is elm pie. It Is of a light and portable type, con slating simply of a generator, a fan with handle attached and a reversible tube. In the process of charging ordinary rook sulphur Is wrapped In a piece of dry paper, which Is Ignited and placed In the generator. Sulphurous fumes of a high strength are produced, and these are driven by meane of the fan along the tube, the mouth of which is placed In the rat hole. At the first demonstration held in England the fumes Hlled most of the rats In the hole, only those which were far away In the run be ing able to escape, and they were killed toy rn alert terrier. Other Meant of Killing Rate. Of earlier methods of rat destruction, squill poison has generally been conceded to have been among the best. Barium car bonate was also found very effective, Inas much as about two grains would kill a rat, while fifteen grains are harmless to a chicken and one hundred grains has no ef fect on a dog. Strychnine is effective against rats, but too dangerous for general use. The same holds true of phosphorus and arsenic. Trained terriers play a part in poison gas attacks on rats. They stand at hanil ready to pounce on the victim as soon as the fumes have driven him from his lair. Sometimes as many as half a dozen stagger out from one hole. Little Mr. Terrier then starts to work. Nets also are used at the mouth of the hole to capture the rodents driven out by gas. T. A. Clayton, an ex-soldier who had some experience with gas machines during the war, devised this gas machine for rat de struction. He declares that two hundred rats Is a conservative estimate of the average number of the rodents on an ocean going liner. In England as well as America the farmer are great sufferers from rats, which annu ally consume enormous amounts of grain. Valley Dwellers Give Mohawk Turnpike New Hold on Its Name THE people of the Mohawk Valley are "out "to fbmahawk the make believe Indian who, foisted the name of 'On ondaga Trail' onto the old Mohawk Turnpike," The historic road running from Schenectady to Rome, . and to perpetuate the name given the highway wiien it was built by the State 120 years" ago. This movement re i elves its greatest impetus from the recently organized Mohawk Valley Historical Society and has the support, too, of Col. Frederick Stuart Greene of Albany, State Commis sioner of Highways; Col. John W. Vrooman, president of the Herkimer County Historical Society: the. Rev. V. N. P: Bailey of the Collegiate ReformefDutch Church of New Vork; Dr. James Sullivan of Albany, State historian; Nelson Greene of New York, a nativeiurf trie? Mohawk,s Valley, who has wrltterilmuch about Mts history, ' and many others. The new historical society Itself represents thirty or more organizations of kindred In ti rests, Including several' chapters of the Sons and Daughters of the American Revo lution, it was organized largely through the initiative of the Herkimer County His torical Society at a meeting held August 6, anniversary of the Battle of Oriskany, at the Gen. Herkimer homestead, on the State reservation, three miles east of Little Falls. The federation of historians and patriotic bodies was formed with the general purpose of placing before the public In a more def inite and extended manner the Mohawk Valley's richness in history and beauty of location. Its programme calls for the erec tion of markers and monuments, preserva tion of places having special historic in terest and the further sifting of records to clear up historical Incidents which are still veiled In uncertainty. Mohawk Turnpike Gains First Attention. Popular interest linked with the Impor tance of the Mohawk turnpike, both as a present day trunk line for motorists and a hiEhway famed in history, impelled the or ganization to bend its first efforts toward cor recting what has beerf termed a grossly in appropriate and misleading example of arbi trary nomenclature. The leaders of the move ment are confident that the name "Onondaga Trail" will fade quickly in the light of the highway's true history, and in fact declare that public sentiment already has waxed rtrong for "Old Mohawk Turnpike" as the ucctpted and official designation! Nelson Greene of New York has assisted in the campaign to impress the approved name on the public mind by setting forth the rightful claim it gatns from history. "I have just come across a recent map of New York which carries on Its back an automo bile route map of the State," says Mr. Greene, in his historical sketch- of the Mo hawk Turnpike. "To put it mildly, I was astonished to find that the Mohawk Turn pike was therein designated as the 'Onon .Uga Troll,' a name which I had never seen used in connection therewith and a name vhich I believe is largely an Invention, thor oughly inappropriate, and one which should be abolished by the force of public opinion. "Another remarkable feature of this map I that various roads and highways, all over tba State, are designated by tly; name 'Onon daga Trail.' Others are called 'Iroquois Trail' and 'Adirondack Trail,' these being the only namaa used. The extreme lnap- Historians Call Recent Appellation of "Onondaga Trail" a Gross Misnomer for Schenectady Rome Highway Thirty Organizations Join in Stirring Public Sentiment propriateness of this road naming is seen in that there is an 'Adirondack Trail' shown running from Yonkers to Port Chester in the New York city metropolitan district! Another 'Adirondack Trail' Is shown running from Newburgh to Binghamton' Why 'Adirondack' when it runs through the Cats kill section? One of the many 'Onondaga Trails' is also shown running up the west side of the Hudson from Nyack to New burgh to Catsklll! Why 'Onondaga' when it runs through an Algonquin Indian sec tion? A Misleading Name. "On the map I mention the 'Onondaga Trail' name Is given te the entire New York to Buffalo automobile highway. This is an arbitrary and utterly misleading naming of this route. As It is the most Im portant motor car highway in the entire world, such a stupid appellation is worthy of some attention. This great turnpike ie also weighted down with the additional name of 'National Parks Transcontinental Highway.' "Imagine a motorist asking an Otsego county farmer, 'Hey, mister, how do I get to the Onondaga Trail-National Parks Transcontinental Highway?' Instead of 'Which way to the Mohawk Turnpike?' "This 'Onondaga Trail' la certainly a weighty addition to the many historical errors foisted upon the people of the Mo hawk valley by enthusiastic but misin formed people. This sort of arbitrary nomenclature ought to be prohibited by law. "Onondaga refers merely to one tribe of the Iroquois Confederation, resident near Syracuse at the time of the Revolution. To give the New York to Buffalo Highway the name of this one tribe Is ridiculous. "Does the New York Central call Its rail road from Albany to Syracuse the 'Onon daga division?' Hardly It's the 'Mohawk division,' as you will see by reference to Its time table, and has been appropriately so called since the road had Its present sub divisions. 0 "Some historical and geographical writers have seen fit to call the Albany to Buffalo road the 'Iroquois Trail.' As a name for this) route it is fitting, as the five nations of the Iroquois Confederation were all lo cated' directly on and along thla route, from Scoharie on the Mohawk to the banks of the Genesee River Mohawks, Oneldas, On ondagaa, Cayugas, Senecaa. "The first road into the Mohawk Valley was probably made by Albany Hollanders about 1661, following the Albany-Schenectady Indian traM and conne:ting the two settlements. Both Albany and Schenectady were known aa Skan-ek-ta-de, 'the place beyond the open plnsa' the pine woods on the aand flats between Albany and Schenec tady. Thla later became the celebrated Al bany turnpike, a famous stage coach route and a line closely approximating the New York Central Railroad. "For a long time following the Hollanders' entrance into the valley the river was the main transportation route. By 1725 the south Later It went on to the portage fort at shore turnpike had been developed from present Rome; Until 1800 It was proba- Schenectady to Fonda and probably by 1730 bly the main valley highway, just as it Is this road was opened to present Mohawk, to-day, from Mohawk to Rome. The north Historic Spots Along Old Mohawk Turnpike Here are listed some of the many historic places and spots of scenic gran deur along the famed old Mohawk Turnpike: Indian Statue (site of old fort and 1 6 go Indian Massacre). St. George's Church, Schenectady ('7S9)- Union College, Schenectady (1795). Vrooman House, Schenectady ( 1680). Gov. Yates House, Schenectady ( I73S)- Sanders House, Scotia (1713). Mabie House. Rotterdam (1680). Yantapuchaberg Mountain, Rotter dam (1,100 feet above Mohawk). Guy Park, Amsterdam (1766); built by Sir William Johnson for Col. Guy Johnson. Fort Johnson (1742); built by Sir William Johnson. Parsonage at Fort Hunter (171a); site of Fort Hunter and lower Mohawk Castle. Shrine at Auriesville (marks the mar tyrdom of Jogues, 1646, Jesuit Mission ary among Mohawks). Old Court House, Fonda K 1836). Butler House, Fonda (174-3). The "Noses" Mohawk River. Canajoharie Falls, Canajoharie. The Van Alstine House, Canajoharie (1750). Fort Frey, Palatine Bridge (1739). Fort Klock, near St. Johnsville, site of the battle of Klock' s Field (1780). Indian Castle Church (1769); site of the Great Castle of the Mohawks. Gen. Herkimer Homestead (1764), near Fall Hill. The Little Falls Gorge. First American Lock Canal at Little Falls (1796). Great Lock, Barge Canal, at Little Falls highest in the world (4oyt feet) at time of erection. Marker, site of Gen. Herkimer's birthplace (1738) South side road. Fort Herkimer Church (1756); site of Fort Herkimer. Marker, site of Fort Dayton (1776), Herkimer. Mirror Lake, Herkimer. The Tory Spy House place), Mohawk. The Oneida Stone, Utica. Whiteboro Settlement (n4)- Marker of the site of camp before the Oriskany gust 5, 1777). Oriskany Battle Monument (August 6, 1777). Site of Fort Schuyler, Rome f777,). (Shoemaker Monument Herkimer's battle (Au- shore pike attained its greatest Importance In 1810, when the first bridge was built across the Mohawk at Schenectady, thua connecting the Albany and Mohawk turn plkea. The name Albany turnpike was oc casionally used also for the Mohawk River road. When It Was the King's Highway. "From 1864 to 1776 the north shore turn pike was called 'King's Highway." After the revolution it became the 'Mohawk Turnpike' and has so remained ever since, with the increasing addition now and then of the word 'Old' 'Old Mohawk Turnpike.' It never was called the 'Onondaga Trail' by anybody anywhere, so far as the writer can learn. Its name is natural, because the Mo hawks dominated the river region up to its headwaters and their villages generally lay close to the river and its paralleling trails. However, there's no use arguing the matter, as names of rivers and highways are regu lated by the people living on and along them, and the people of the Mohawk Valley would as soon call the Mohawk the 'Onondaga River' as they would call the 'Old Mohawk Turnpike' the 'Onondaga Trail.' "The Mohawk River section la one of the most Important historically and commer cially In the United States possibly the most vital spot in North America. Its waters make the only link on the United States Atlantic seaboard between those of the Atlantic, '"and the great lakes a fact of tremendous Import to our future transpor tation, commerce and manufactures its great railroads and Its famous motor high way dally carry thousands through this beautiful region where American history was so largely made. It 1b vitally important that the name of the valley or Its highways should In no way be impaired or Its signifi cance ruined. The name 'Mohawk Turnpike' in itself Is a tabloid lesson In history, geog raphy and transportation. Notice should be served on map makers, automobile book publishers, &o., that the name is the Mo hawk Turnpike,' and nothing else. "Imagine 'Fort Plain on the Onondaga Trail,' 'Herkimer on the Onondaga Trail,' 'Canajoharie on the Onondaga Trail,' 'Sche nectady on the Onondaga Trail,' 'Amsterdam on the Onondaga Troll," Johnstown, three miles from the Onondaga Trail," 'Little Falls on the Onondaga Trail,' 'Utica on the Onon daga Trail,' Ac. "In a number of the valley towns situated directly on the Mohawk Turnpike, the main street of the place is merely a section of this historic road- This Is true of Amster dam, Fonda, Palatine Bridge, Nelliaton, St. Johnsville, Little Falls and other towns. The Inhabitants of these favored places will doubtless be somewhat surprised to learn that they are native Bona no longer of the old Mohawk Turnpike, but that they have been adopted by the so-called 'Onondaga Trail,' according to Mr. Mapmakrr. "Since the white occupation of the Hudson Valley the New York-Albany road has been known aa the 'Albany Road' or the 'Albany Post Road,' by which name it Is generally known to-day. From New York to Tarry- town' It la known aa 'Broadway, and It really la an extension of New York's moat famous avenue. "The portion of the New York-Buffalo highway westward from Utica was called the Oeneeee Road,' meaning the road to the Genesee country, prior to and following the Revolution, when thousands of emi grants followed this road and peopled the upper Mississippi Valley and the great lakes region. The Albany Poat Rood, Mo hawk Turnpike and river and the Genesee rood the backbone of the State of New North America. "We have no general, comprehensive name for the New York to Buffalo route other than the New York to Buffalo high way, but we have four names for four sharply- defined sections of the same great road - the backbone of the State of New York. Thus we have from New York to Al bany, 'Albany Post Road;' from Albany to Schenectady, 'Albany Turnpike;' Schenec tady to Rome, 'Mohawk Turnpike;' Rome to Buffalo, 'Genesee Road' to Avon on the Genesee river, and thence to Buffalo. "Some people seem to have gone daft ovei naming roads 'trails.' It should be done with discretion and with strict regard to history and. geography. At present It seems to be frequently done without rhyme or reason." Plant Road Improvement!. Col. Greene, State Commissioner of High ways, haa offered to placard the whole course from Schenectady to Rome with signs bearing the inscription "Old Mohawk Turn pike," providing a supply of such slgna be given the Department of Maintenance. Plac ing the signs, he explained, could ,be done without expense to the State since there are forces already available for the work. Ool. Greene also haa promised his support In a project to improve the turnpike. He out lined a plan to widen the road wherever practical, making It a two-line highway twenty-four feet in width, with nine feet of concrete on each side and six feet of bitu men In the centre. This, Col. Greene says, would coat no more than a twenty-foot road, since the bitumen already la in place and can be preserved in the reconstruction. Col. Greene figures that the rebuilt road would be as near acci dent proof as is possible to make and would last fifty years. y Stage Letter Writing NE thing that I never could under stand," aald a playgoer, 'la the manner of writing and addressing Mters on the stage. The hero's pen fairly Hies across the page and when he comes to address the envelope one sweep of the pen from left to right suffices for that, though the address thus produced must be one that no post office clerk in the world could ever decipher. "I suppose, of course, the purpose of thla manner of letter writing la to give the air of action, despatch; to avoid any sense of lagging in the movement of the play; but wquld It not be more realistic and striking if It were done with a sufficient measure of precision to make us feel that the letter and the address could actually be read!"