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The herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1835-1837, January 12, 1837, Image 1

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?whuiliu*. NEW YORK, THURSDAY, JANUARY 12, 1837. whom no. *?#?
J* Ma OMwon MM***, ml Urn comm if I
ImImm itrNto.
of ABTKnTI8WU.-TWMt.ml 11 nh !*?? sftha
Uetulii, butk HI tewn and country, stake it a winrw ebaanai fur
Iter, #? W | 4 <Uya, ?l*|74ay>. ?i87|iadaya, tin
- - ? ??&?? i so a - - avail- - aw
* < ? i m I < ? ? 17? I? - - a ia I u ? ? aw
Sweeka, fa 90 I a month*. #8 oe
1 bmuUi, 3 aa I a mouth*, is M
C3-AflMhrar: mianU t? be paid for before (Mi inaertion.
A^nXawMwb maarted ia tue VTbbblt Hbbal?,bI#1 oa per
?quan: every inaertatu.
(From ??ietitific Tract* puUliabed at Boaton]
titology?Uraulte Rock.
by Samucl Fish.
Recka?Specie a?d in kuiltiing?(Jeuloay?Falae idea* reiyec'jua
eartb-~VolMuiia,iui iiige ioiia theory?MomUc' ^ *
of the cr- atiiHi 8?u/fcaof the eurtli'a asjeteaw^Eg^ce***
fiery abya?-Mtt'.'?**iiefurma'ioiiof !' '" ?
4itionol'>k?earth andof the rock*? If * r^-f.eaj-th-J
bie?their ai>poi?al ui .
uuakea-ElflcU ?f the detri'ie*
tk!S^m?k?iOmuite?OaaKoTOmoito in thecoun
"""r* ^.^?l5uSli F ?Mtaloaoua U?Urni<ite bow
*r>, ^^'lICffi-Qma^aar of gtanitu atructurea?their dnrabiiity.
lit mr-ifff through the country, at a distance front
any popukfua city, nothing appears more useless than
th-: rocks scattered promiscuously over the ground.
With peolle in general, there ia no beauty percepti
ble in th^n, and no interest taken in the examination
of their j spective varieties. They are looked upon
as an in^mbranee, rather than as an article of use
By ihfsaentific and the artist they are viewed in a
different light. The geologist takes an interest in
them f<fthe sake of the information they furnish in
regard I ithe formation of thr globe; the sculptor and
archite for the use which is made of them in the
?rt?wk h they respectively practice.
Thou i granite, particularly for architectural pur
poses, used more extensively than any other spe
cies of ck, yet other kinds are abundantly used,
not onl Tor building, but for a great variety of pur
pones. Primitive limes:one, sometimes called statu
ary mi^le, is a valuable article fi>r statuary pur
>hyry is an excellent, though expensite
| the columns of splendid edifices; clay-slate,
easily separated into sheets, is much
)ie outside covering for the roofs of houses ;
>r plaster of pans, is used in agriculture, and
i limestone, for the purpose of making quick
a building stone, and tor slabs to nre-pla
&c. The uses to which the different
focka are applied, are too numerous to men
r is but a single species of the great variety
belonging to the globe we inhabit. To give
idea of this substunce, it will be neccssary to
^ i same account of rocks in general. A per
son talig a careless view of the rocks .scatto ed over
the eart, would consider them too numerous to ad
mit of systematic arrangement. A more careful ob
servatfi shows this to be a mistake. Nothing is
more fy than to arrange them into distinct classes,
and tffubil them under their appropriaie names.
Thoui they seem to exhibit an endless variety, they
are at/composed of about nine different minerals.
The tfious combinations of these mineral*, or sim
ple stlstances, is what principally occasions this va
Unfl within a few years, nothing has been so much
negated as this branch of natural philosophy. Man
kind, to a very great extent, have been contented to
(live it ignorance in regard to the component princi
ples of tne globe. Very inaccurate and inconsistent
ideas have been entertained in respect to rocks. Same
persons suppose that they have ever existed just as
we behold tnetn at the present day. Others suppose
that (key grow?vegetate like plants. Even the
great Mr. Locke, the most prolbuud metaphysical
philosopher that ever lived, entertained such an idea.
Though they cannot be said to grew, they may be
??id to be formed?just aa many other things are
fnrm??H?out nf materials which previously existed.
All that now composes the rocks, existed at some
ancient period in the form of something else. The
outer ahcll or cruet of the earth, as it i? commonly
called, waa osnao idstsd out of a very different mate
rial or of different materials, to prepare a place for the
residence of animals, and the growth of vegetables.
The outef ahell or crust of the earth does net always
t?xi*t in the same form. All that is new loose soil, in
Geology called diluvium and diluvium, has existed in
the fonn of rock*, and much that is now in a consoli
dated form, has existed in the form of diluvium and
alluvium. Erom certuin causes, with a considerable
portion of the outward crust, there have been alterna
tions in this respect. From the effects of the atmos
phere, the attrition of rain, running streams, the beat
ing and rolling of the ocean, frost, and a variety of
Other causes, solid matter has been broken down and
pulverized ; and from protracted rest, heat, pressure,
a cemen ing principle, and other causes, loose soil
has been consolidated and converted into thick bed*
4>f recks.
All the different rocks upon the surfaceof the globe
ma divided into four classes. The names of the four
classes are, primary or Drimitive, trauaition or inter
mediate, Meeondary, and tertiary. Besides these, some
geologists have a fifth class, called quaternary, but
generally what are called uiiariernary are included
?nder the head of tertiary. These were formed, one
ffter the other, in the order they have been named.
There have been a great number of theories formed,
in regard to the earth, some of them so inconsistent a*
to be exploded as soon a* they were promulgated.?
those theories which have borne the test of the great
sst scrutiny, are what has been called the Neptunian,
thich accounts for all the rscks from a watery oh
|iii, and the Vulcanian, which ascribes ihein l? nn
enrolls or fiery origin. Home persons are averse to
lioorie*; nnd when they arunot founded onfartband
litional principles, they dooHly serve to mislead. It
a difficult, however, to communicate information to
|ny great extent without some regular theory.
The Vulcani.nn theory, which asenbes the forma
tion of the recks to an igneous origin, seems to have
the most facta to support it; and that is the theory
most believed in by those who have had the best op
portunity to judge.
According to this theory, or that modification of it
which seems to be the most rational, the earth was
once an enure body of igneous materials. It existed
in thia nate for a lone time; and when the heat at its
surface was sufficiently dissipated, it begnn to be in
crusted over, juat as water freezes, when the tempera
ture of the weather is below 72? F. This incrustation
extended deeper and deeper, until the whole of thaf
class of rocks was formed denominated primitive.?
Thin, to judge from appenrances, took place when
he earth was comparatively in an undisturbed state;
?nd the consolidation ex tended round the entire globe.
The other rocks were formed afterwards, from differ
?nt canees, and in a different manner.
From a variety of circumstances, and a multiplicity
?f evidences, we have the greatest reason to suppose
test the earth, since H was first sp iken into existence,
tas undergone many gn at change*. The account of
fhe ereni on given by Moses shows this. Its primur
[ial state, according to thw sacred historian, was
* without (r?rm and void." This was its embryo state,
ind was probably n very different stat'* from what
'tome people unngine. The second slate, as mention
id by ihe same historian, was when n firmament was
brmed. Hie third state was when the waters under
he whole hi aven wete gathered unto one place, and
he dry land was made to appear, so that ihe earth
fraught forth grtss, herb yielding ?,ed after his kind,
ml fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind. The fourth
was when lights wrfsplaced ?n the heavens, when day
mmdivided from night, and when days, and seasons,
find years, were meted out hy tfc* heavenly bodies.
The fifth was when the waters brought forth abun
dantly the moving creatures that have life whales
asd every thing that move'h in he waters, end every
winged fowl attsr his kind. Creatures which could
scarcely be said to have life, and that could not be
cnlral moving cmatures, such is coral hies end other
un locomotive animals, were d labtlesn created when
the earth was in a diHrrent state. The sixth state
was when the larirer and more perfect land animals
were created?cattle, oth> r beasts of the earth, snd
man. This showa that the earth has existed in dif
ferent stn'es. The only difficulty is to explain how
all th se changes could take place in so short a space
as fix days. The most rational method i?, to snp
Ke that time waa not measured then as it is now.
i sun nnd moon were not en sted until the fourth
H*y ; of course it ia irrati inal to suppose that it was
measured by daya, and months, anil years. Fur
ther moie, one day with the Lord is as a thousand
yen'*, and a thousand years as one day. A rations)
?enoiirit of all these states and chsngrs could he ex
hibited, r Moctdin" w,th the geological construction of
the globe, but it would prolong this essay to too great
an extent.
There are other changes which it is necessary to
apeak of. The first, or primordial state of the earth,
might with propriety be subdivided into three state*.
First, when the epithet "without firm and void"
would with most propriety apply to it; second, when
it w?i in the form of a fiery abyss; and third, when
it was in the form of u watery abyss. The last was
that form of it, previous to the time when the waters
over the whole earth were separated into one place,
and the form which has so often been spoken of un
der the name of the " watery abyss," by philosophers
ofevery nge.
The existence of a fiery abyss is proved from a
Seat variety of circumstances, and acceeded to by
e most enlightened geologists. Formerly such a
belief waa thought to be unconformable to the sacred
oracles, but latterly it is supposed to coincide with
them. The most prominent evidences of the earth's
having formerly existed in the form of a fiery abyss,
are the facts that primary rocks have"4the appearance
of an igneous origin, the evidences of a tropical tem
perature having tormerly existed in high northern and
ponthern latitudes, and the increase ot temperature in
the descent into the internal parts of the earth. There
ure innumerable evidences to show that the earth is
in a state of igneous fusion at its centre at the present
period. This, with the testimony which has been ad
duced, is sufficient to establish the fact that it was
formerly an entire body of fire.
The primary rocks having been composed first,
formed the basis of all the other classes. They were
formed, as before stated, by the cooling and consoli
dation of the mass at its surface, just as water freezes.
As they are not all alike, the circumstances under which
they were fbrmed were sufficiently unlike to account
for this want of conformity. The other classes were
formed afterwards, succeeding each other in the order
they have been mentioned. Tney are supposed to
have been formed of the three-fold combination of the
ruins of former rocks, volcanic and submarine erup
tions from the ignited mass, and fossil remains. Be
ing composed at different periods, and the mate lalsof
which they were formed being somewhat different
from each other, there is sufficient variation in their
construction to render it proper to divide them into
classes. * .
What is meant by former ruins, is the broken and
pulverised condition that large portions of rocks have
from the earliest peribds existed in. From what might
be called an elemental strife, rocks in many places
were broken in pieces, lifted from their former posi
tions, jammed and dashed against eaoh other, and
pulverised to atoms. These, when the other materi
als which have been mentioned had become mingled
with them, and they had reposed long enough to be
come consolidated, were reconverted into rooks, and
one after the other of the classes were formed accord
ing to the period when (hey were brought into exist
ence. Should all the loose soil now reposing upon
the more solid materials of the earth, mingled as it is
with fragments of former rocks, volcanic eruptions
and fossil remains, be thas consolidated, it would form
a class similar to those which were formed in succes
sion to each other after the primary class.
Notwithstanding the different classes were compo
sed one after the other, reposing upon each other as
they were formed, yet when our observation is ex
tended to these which are in view, we find them in
many places jumbled promiscuously together?all the
different classes mingled upon the same spot. Lest
this should not be fully comprehended, a little further
explanation will be devoted to this particular.
It has been seen that the earth has not always ex
isted in that uniform, quiet, and unchanging cwndition
we are inclined to suppose. Changes are continually
taking place in our own times, and history informs us
of greater changes than any which are known to pre
dominate at the present period. Judging from this,
and from what seem to be certain criterionsol'change,
they existed in a greater deg'ee previous to the period
when history begsn to record the Acts, than siaoe
that date. Wherever we cast our eves, we behold
something to convince us of this. A large portion of
the smsller rocks seem to be only fragments of larger i
ones. Rocks, wherever they are found, exniDit marks
of violence and agitation. Hlocksof granite and other
formations, seeming te be only portions of larger
rocks, present themselves in detacked masses. How
ever large the maws, or however extensive the bed,
wherever such rocks are seen, the same thing is ob
served in them. Hough and broken edges are sure
accompaniments of those which are detached, and
seams, and ruptures, and fissures, of ihose which are
only lifted from their original beds. Wherever a bed,
a dilli a lodge is beheld, time has altered it, violence
has operated upon it, and change has marked it.?
Even the mountain ridges and lolty emi:iences exhi
bit marks that show tlmt they were not alway such.
Cragged and broken, they throw up their towering
peaks and precipices; and in a ruptured condition,let
fall their loosened fragments, like dilapidated edifices,
falling piecemeal to the ground. The towering Alps,
the extended Apennines, the lofty Andes, if the marks
of violence depicted upon them are tho same in those
which they are in other things, were not always what
they are now. The earth has boen convulsed, roeks
which were once entire have been ruptured, and for
mation which were beneath all others, have been ele
vated. In this way, gr.uiitc, which was crcatcd first,
has been thrown up to take its place with rocks which
were created last.
A little reflection will exhibit to the ?xpericnaed ob
server the cause of this, as well as the cause of all the
most important changes upon the globe. The igne
ous mass, winch furnished materials for the primary
rock*, still exists m the centre of the globe, and is, and
ever has been, the prime mover of every disturbance.
Water mingled with this mass, issuing through the
crevices of the rocks, ?perates by expansion, after it
has been converted into steam, to rend the hardest
ada nant and upraise the loftiest emmences. Koine
are merely broken, being raised only far enough to
produce this effect. Some are raised so high, and are
of such steep ascent, that large masses are detachsd,
and precipitated to regions below. In some places
there is a perfect bursting?or more properly, a pro
pulsion of rocks from their nethermost beds, so that
those which lie beneath all the rest are raised above
them all;?just as when a quire of paper is divided by
a sharp instrument, and the two portions are r<u*?-d
where such division is made, the lowermost sheets
which before were concealed, are lifted into full view;
and just as whi n a globular body of any kind, from
some impulse from the centre, is so operated upon
that its central portions open for themselves a situa
tion upon the surface.
Innumerable situations upon the earth's surface
may be seen where th s lias occurred. Granite, from
such a cause, crops out, as it iscalltd, upon the moun
tain* and lesser elevations. More thsn hslf the gra
nite scattered over the earth is of that kind which
once existed beneath tho superincumbent mass.?
Earthquakes, like those which have occurred within
the remembrance of |KM?ple now upon the stage, were
among the immediate, as were internal fires the re
mote agencies of these thinfs. The jar of an earth
qu ke, the s at of w hich was at l.islion, was fe t over
one quarter of the globe, and land at the same tune
was permanently elevated in some places, and swal
lowed up in others, never to be seen a?y more. Vol
canoes, two hundred of which are now in existence,
are powerful agents in changing the condition fthe
globe. Two hundred active volcanoes, and as many
th'Hisand extinct ones, go far to show what lias been
efl' cted by these powers alone.
Not all the rocks of the granite class situated upon
'ke earth's surface, are those which were propelled
from beneath. Over extensive regions none but the
primary class was ever formed, ami over no inconsid
erable spaces, none but the giamte. Changes which
""d taken placn in relation to the ocean, lakes, rivers,
so affected the external condition of
strSi!!2i1 . "'her classes were more or less re
r*. According to the extent of those changes,
" Period when those classes were brought into
more ? '*htto he mentioned, previous to
en ng upon a more particular account of the vane
.n n L?Ir,er c?nswWation. Roc*a sf irregular
ami broken edge*, an(| |arge t|PKj
| have been spoken of. Besides these, alone and rocks
I of a round, oval or irregular shape, with smooth sur
i faces, presenting themselves in extensive l>ed.?, are
found In great abundance. They appear of different
sizes, from the pebble thut weighs but an ounce, to
i the boulder of the weight of a ton. They exist not
only upon the surfuce, but at cons.derable depths be
neath. They are found in gorges, ravines, valleys,
plains, and sometimes, but not often, upon high
mountains. They were worn round, smooth, &c., by
being rubbed against each other th.oUgh the instru
mentality of water. Rivers have run in cnannels now
exhibiting but few marks of such u circumstance;?
lakes have spread themselves in situations, and rip
pled upon shores, where i uiess to the close observer,
there are no signs of their having existed; oceans liuve
rolled their waves upon rtgions where now the up
lifted mountain sends its towering summit to the sky.
Primary rocks are said to compose the frame vr
(groundwork of the globe. They compose the most
ofty mountains, and, as said before, form the base
ment of all other rocks, descending to the deepest
foundations. They cover vast spaces where no other
rocks ever existed ; and from having be?n propelled
through other formations, show themselves in places
where they never could have been situated, but from
an all-powerful cause beneath. They exist in many
places merely from such a cause, and in others iroiu
having been carried there by inundanon, which tnore
'than once has swept over the surface of the globe.
The primary rocks aie divided into granite, gneiss,
mica-slate, clay-slate, primitive limestone, called
sometime! statuary marble, porphyry, and sienite.?
Granite is the most important species belonging to
this class; and ftoui its having been first lormed, ex
ists in the greatest abundancw. It even coveisover
space* where no other rocks abound, showing, from
causes that admit of an easy explanation, that only a
single spe tea of rocks were formed over some exten
sive surfaces. Granite crops out, as it is called, at
the tops of a great many mountains, and forms in
others their entire bulk. It appears in detached mas
ses, where it has been carried front its native regions
by inundation, cluste ed together in small fragments
in many places, and as the principal ot only rock over
large tracts of country. Tlic state of New Hamp
shire is called emphatically ttie granite state, from the
predominance of this material. It is used to a great
extent as a material for building, much more, espe
cially in this country, than tormerly. Many of the
most noted edifices in the city of Boston are Compo
sed of it. The old United States Branch Bank, facing
State street, at the head of Wilson's lane, is composed
of granite. This building is forty-four feet in front,
and riincty-six feet deep ; the portico is an imitation
of the primitive form of the Grecian Temple; the co
lumns are of the Grecian Doric, four feet in diameter,
and twenty-four feet high, the shafts of which are en
tire. The granite oft tin edifice was brought fr-m
Chelmsford. The County Jail in Leveret! street, the
House of Correction connected with it, and the Mu
nicipal Court House, are formed of granite. The Mas
sachusetts General Hospital, considered the finest
building in the state, one hundred and forty-eight feet
by fifty-ldur, having a portico of eight Ionic columns
in frontis composed df Chelmsford granite. St. Paul's
Church, situated upon Trement street, fronting the
Common, built in imitation of the Greciain model of
the Ionic order, is composed of gray granite. The
Boston Exchange Cotfee House, then the most spa
cious and most extensive establishment of the kind in
the United States, finished in 1803, and destroyed by
fire in 1818, was of granite. The New Court House,
and the front of the Tremont House and Tremont
Then tie, are of granite. An elugant block of stores
upon Water street it of this material. The basements
and front posts of many of the blocks of stores now
building, and private houses too numerous to mention,
are of granite.
Another important edifice composed of this mate
rial is tho New Market House. This is the most su
perb huilding of the kind in the world. The centre
of it is seventy-four and a half feet by fifty-live, the
wings two hundred and thirty-one by fifty, and two
stories high. The wing* have each a portico of four
columns, three feet seven inches in diameter, aiM
twenty-three feet high, the shafts of which art; of
granite, and in n single piece. The whole of this struc
ture is composed of hammered granite, of a uniform
appearance. The pouts around the Common in Bos
ton areof granite, likewise the nosts and wall around
the State House. That useful, expensive and noble
work, called the Drv Dock, in ( hnrlestown, in of
granite?likewise the State Penitentuiiy in that
The State House at Montp< lier in the atate of Ver
mont, the noblest specimen of architectural grandeur
in the United States, isfonmd of granite. It is a
Htrueture of great expense. The columns of the por
tico, six in number, each shaft of which is compost d of
six pieces, cost, after the tough material was deliver
ed upon the spot, what amounted to thirty six years'
labor of one man. The site of this edifice is upon a
spot where formerly existed a high granite cliff, remo
ved at great expense expressly for this purpose. It is.
therefore, not only composed of granite, but banded
upon it. Unless some unforeseen disaster should l>e
fall it, it will be likely to exist for ages. Good judges
have asserted that it is susc< ptible of existing in a tol
erable dagrco of preservation, upwards oft wo thousand
The great use rnnde of granite may be estima'ed
from the large number of workmen continually em
ployed in IntniiMring it, and fitting it for iia destina
tion in this city, and from the vast quantities of the
rough material deposited upon so many of the wharves
in Boston. When fully filt'-d for use, it is worth frmn
fifty cents to a dollar a faot. A great part of what is
used tn Boston anJ us vicinity is brought from Hum
cy, by way of the Umncy Railroad, and is called by
the workmen the Quinoy Blue. It is brought from
Chelmsford, from Medtord, from the atate of New
Hampshire, from Green Bay, and aotneother places.
Tha first operation performed upon granite is called
quarrying, which is merely splitting it into blocks at
tiM ledge. It is done by drills, wedges and aledges.
Holes by means of the drills are made in a straight
line, in some targe block, two or throe inches apart,
with ever* third hole three inches deep, and the others
more shallow. When thisis completed, small wedges
are driven by a sledge into theeeHole*, and the rock
split with as much facility a* a block of wood. The
next thing t? performed, is to transport it to some
convenient place m Boston,Charlc? town, Cambridge,
or elsewhere, to be hammered. Those who hammer
H, must each of them have their hammers, clns< Is,
and aotne other tools. It is lined by a sort of chis I,
faced by the facing hammer, farther operated upon by
thepean hammer, and finished by the bush haminrr.
The chief use made of granite, in the country, ttesulc*
the use made of it in common with othi r stone for
stone wall, is for nnd< running of house*, and posts for
board fenbe. For the tatter purpose, the use made of
it has greatly increased within halfa dam n years. In
mnnv place* it may Ue split ??"t into h ocksof the pro
per dimensions, and delivered upon the spot for twen
t v-five cents for each p?i*t. In some place*, howe er,
the procuring it is much more costly than in others.
Granite is a compound rock, composed of three dis
tinct minerals, aggregated into a solid t?rm. Tlie
names of the mini rata are quarts, felspar and niica.
Quartz has commonly a white color, a glassy lustre,
and doe* not separate into layers when broken ; gen
erally it forms the greatest proportion of ihc granite;
very often it is found pure, and sum tunes in the form
of large, very beautiful crystals Kelapaf is of " yfi
lowish or milk-white color, a*d when broken, divide*
into layera of considerable thielinesa, with smooth,
shining surface*. Mica is eometimee white, but mere
generally of a da-k green color. It consists of thin,
tlcxibl' leave*, adhering slightly together, hut easily
separated. It i* known by the name of isinglass, ami
whi'n existing in pi.-ten, is used for light* for ship*,
windows for atove* and lantern*. All thoae ihr?e in
gredient* of gran te are very often found in a pure
separate state. In soino rocks, specimens of all t ?*??
may be found in different parts of them, of no incon
awl era ^ le site.
Granite never consist* of layer* or strata, I kegn iss
and mico-atale. Being crystaluwd and compounded
of the thr?* ingredient* before mentioned.it i* of a
granular form Tlie grain a are Itrger or ainalbr in
different rucks. In some, the grains or crystals are a
fool in diumeter; in others, no larger than a grain of
sand. The coarse grained iu generally the least dura
ble, and of course the least proper for architectural
purposes. Granite, gneiss and nuca-slatc are com
posed of the ?auie meteriiils, or simple minerals, but
differently combined. The two latter are composed
of smaller grains than granite. In gneiss and mica
slate, the felsparand quartz are aggregated closer to
gether, forming strata or lay era, with intervening scales
of mica between them. Mica-slate is chiefly compos
p?sed of quartz and mica. The mica, commonly in
tine scales, predominates.
Granite is of all colors, from almost a perfect white
to a bluish, and even purplish color. It may be dis
tinguu tied from the rocks of the other classes by its
granular and crystalised form ; from gneiss from its
less perfect crystalization, and from not being com
posed of layers; and from nnca-slate, from the latter
being more stratified und of a slaly structure.
Whai the difference of cost between granite and
brick as a building material is, cannot, at tnis* time be
determined for want of data. It is evident, however,
that the bare cost of granite, wrought in bldcks and
hammered, is the greatest. In regard to beauty and
durability, to the granite must be $ warded the pre
eminence. The rough material,, where its transporta
tion is not from too great a distance, to judge from
inert- conjecture, must be cheaper than Inick. The
grandeur of even this is superior to that of brick, and
it may even bo said of the hammered stone. What
appears more grand, solemn and majcatie, than a num
ber of the churches in the'city of Boston, with their
stately walls, their uplifted turrets, and towering
Sres, which are formed of granite in its native form ?
ere is a grandeur m them that ever so much labor
can never icach. Thpro is a gTandeur that inspires
the mind with awe, and carries it back ii"|tu remote an
tiquity. A'hat a labor-saving business it would be to
form all our nouses of stone, at the same time paying
more attention to them, to guard them against the
devouring element of fire. What grandeur would be
imparted to Boston, if all her edifices were of granite,
even if one ha f of it were juqt as it was taken from
the field. It would be something worthy of bti;;g
famed in after days. ? Stone is the most imperishable
material we have among us, and edifices formed of it
might transmit the names of their foun ters to a thou
sand generations. Cities constructed Irom it, like Ba
bylon, Palmyra, and Balbec, might be venerated even
in ruins.
There are structures formed of stone, a great part,
no doubt of granite, which will probably continue in
existence as long as time shall last. The Egyptian
pyramids are as durable as the everlasting hills; the
great wall of China has existed through many genera
tions; and even our own Bunker Hill inonumqnt,
j when it shall hav? arrived at its perfect s ature, will
tell a deed of fame to after generations, until time
shall be no more.
On on improved principle which givi* an appearance equal
to new.
? 11 HkiK8'?
patent qraphic pencil cases.
PENCIL, which wa* bvbr invented. The subscribes
jit 1ST K mail way, New Yark.
m t:ib ?ame, is now oppebrb rt tub size*
IM liruadva^, &rw York,
n tm' W. A ANDEOBE ft CO.
*11.Ks > i.Ks Mll.lv*
assortment OP SI.ace and BI.VB 81.ACE BILKS Of
pashionasi.B Ell A dbs, POR SALE LOW AT
?14-r IIUVKit * imt.DSm rH't.li Catherine.!.
riM-If N?wTori.
TA 1 I.OK ?v DC Ml AM,
53 wnLL street,
!mm. Nitn mnl Bill* of Kxchance nemlmted dlt lM
A|?|'ly At Mi 4(18 Wilier street, mid l?l Pulton si eel.
rfIB Ins*
CAR PENT*; R.?t. ,
Tbeaiib??riter? have jne1 n ri-i?i i| a ?iil'iirtij assortment of
which tberoder st No. <10 UieenwiiU * re**, corn rof Barc'aj.
dm Mi iWtfl A JKNKlNH
PstfBt Vanll LlKhU,
rmwmm bi ii*kt,
Uroenwtth IXiepeneary, So. 39 Sixth Arrant, S. Y ,
N B U rhini and ('annni tiaucimllf m'rnilfil tn, si | mnnl>i
rti'tirv iIh or iiifht Pre-cnpi u a auil laiiniy recip< * ea i-BtU)
imbe jiiy
Ctr-ntr tj Sn?*au and Pint ttt., 9ity of Ket? York.
The Proprietor of lh above wIiIiIIiIhihiI relunia hm ameefs
iliank? to lhe iml,lie for ihr rtty It >er*l manner in ?lie n ,1 baa been
?n?talm?l Rnmjl h*? liern under hi* diieclmn. sml hop* a that hie
fu'ureajra i m of nMnsEria.nl will ram* nice hi < friends that he la
determine tu leave niKlMnf un .oi?e on hia i>arl to merit a ronurm
4iir of their i atimafe.
The Hot i'I la mmedia lei y adjmninc I In ('ualom llmtae, ami within
a niiimt .?'* walk of Wail'tree , Bnmlwar mimI oil srprinHpnl hai
amr??aic I , eoneeqnenilir isvery mumtnl lor those v nth men
whn rea.de in the upper art ofthe cit>. lb akin'rwlr iMameil
at the Be ?d orf at. II hour* rotn (A M. bllmmn, anal dinner from
> o ?> till ? I* M The l*ropnet>,r feel* warranted in s-<rM>K thai hei
t beeamfurtr <hed in a iiMni.eenot eit^Medliiraiif eata.ili?hwieni
in therMf.
Arrai'f mrnta ha*ebeen made, with ? tents in the crnii'ry, I'f
wlorhihe C1 ?? ran House lintel will, i ? mtuci be ? applied w ilhthe
? arlie?t f> i' i, ra'ite, Hiidoth r dolis ri a of tb? es'ioua aessons.
and with n emMHinl im.nrti it Inmi i.f lb.? ritj. fnt a e matani
a>ipt'l|r of ih I'huin al wmea anil lk|H is. JAMB# HoRN, M
j7 ;<m
tr_F" R 0 BEHEH > i ii in us ib li'" 1111 i
ilfce-!n a#>iral, a' .No It Warmi #tr>-et, ami lal ' in ? etosfc of tR>
dEcni WmmsBi Lnjaora, A> . h??i?1 bf s'rtet alletl'n t.. lae
?ah. a ol ill. H t lattiniera, ti> iiierli a aliart ol pw<>lie i> iirona?e.
IrYrMi 'ara WRICiirr * ROWK le; a leAVS In infirm their
'rMMi and the pa1, he ilias n?e? a?e il -ia*e?l of their etank aad
.??lore, com iff Br a>lwa> awl (-'analat. i d l?<?e njiened at lit
Ht?diriif where tliey knepthe mval aplxn hd aaa^linentnf llata
amiror.^.'Sl'he^, WRK3HT * ROWE.
try- HHE Adwriafi'Kfit ABERNBTHY- <'nraianira* Li
HHW Cwinh 'MlureJil liaea ti??f?>e.ial A "nt,l'/7 lkiwar) .rnr
(iran-al ha< la- no Imbm M?emt??Sieiie ? a the *reat <ii-nian<i <4
ilia Maihri rom the toHfT|RirtVlifl ""St anle at I he cit?. tn il
i?anl Hui'HKR rnr Hnri l?t| an<l franklin at ami I'NIIkiH
Mil.I. ror Ik'ckman ami Wilbainala. Afi i lor this Mialure.
r M (HUON. nt the old e??Wa>lMr?l l>ni? Wore, ItT Bow
try enme? (IranH BtRiI, ha* the iileaaur" to iniiir a the t ahlic. luat
rhe llrs whwh a?irn imded M* f*?nsiaea ieat rda* monimr, aril
ihri-auneil un with iria ant d a mclion. h a aot int-<f r< il wi'h laa
hMnneas In the lens ; wlnirto 'ht mrlt*irrritd tfort.ru/tht Kirt
Ittpnrtimnl fn?tvvlng it* profit** to tehmn <? nd 'i* friend*,
ht return i* *lnrtrt thank*; and be ta th ? i nah ?d tu ae<ae
tbeai b< aati<fieioril|p a* hf< h a le too- en?hs?i.red to do. with Use
v ry bst actio es in ths Itrutt, MsdIclnt a d Perfumery tns
wkicba <<i?crnmiinlinr HUM m*y lie ?ali?ii .1 af lir jrivm* him B
rail, when- he * >JI e hi|?|>? st sH Iwiea to ???'?<? them Aher
??'h?'a f'narll Viltwre, Union "a Warm Drsps, ami fla 0''a Umwt
aal PI ater slil<nontixue 'a rerstee the unrjoalified ainweW of
an i^ilntMened |obbr |Be? sdvertiaemsnt Ni w V.ra. | dlT tf
AL? u nerved toSuWrdjrr* 19 tta* city, "f"'?'r evnry laornma^
(except Sunday,) at the rate o* TWO rents par eosry, po? able
U udrunce to Um> Ntwunm.
Country Huhncrrbers. id any pun of th? tinted State* or il Cns*
tla, cau receive the Daily Hkhalu, by iti i|, at lha rate at !*#?
cents per copy, am remitting ea?h m advaucv far wNk period of
tune u I bay pleaae.
The Wkkkly Hkhald. containing all the matter of the dailr.v
?ant by Hittil, at thicbk Dot.LAUa twr annum, in advmnu. Iu th?
sity it i* *old at the utfice at ?ix canta per copy.
Latter* to the Editor to be pout paid.
'PHE Proprietot* have cone'uded their additional arrxnremetit*
I for the dem ntrh of extra H. ring Htnps, to eave Liveri?>< I in
the month* of February, March, and April Persons desirous at
s,-ndl"( itr tla'ir friends, nhnild make early uppli ation ; 111**11*
?*. they Mill proven' detention, delay and diMippointmei t AU
will bo> nti'l.-d (h a Tree pussajte in thesttniners rwMiin* fmm iho
different ports ih Ireland. Scotland and Wales. Draft* aa uaual Mi
the Hank of Irel nd, pavabl in 1 very Province, County and In
land TwWU. Apply mr vudrens. S34 Pearls'.
ROBINSON * BK0THKR8, Bai.ker*, Liverpool,
js tf ROBIN8Ult A CO. Dublin
For HietTtiBt fuiinifrrifrom Knelund, ScolUmd,and II n/*e.
';t, THE (*ub?crdier* have w??Je arrangement* for irltM
7!"pa. out Steerage Huuertfrriftuiu Great Britain nnd Ireland,
?'"*? with proinpine**, economy, and comlort. Pt r*o?i* wisb
inc tusendfot vh< ir friandt, Wv applying at No. 10# P/N?-H'T.?
ur 167 S0VTH-8T., can secure their pasuge* on the iiaoat
derate terms in v< ssel* of I he lir?t class. No expellee wilt ha
spared in the different (hip* by which the pa>aeii#ef? will bora*
i eeived, to iu*ure to thein every comfort during the pa*Mfe. ??
Hi: ca?e* where the persons decline comihi.tbe money win be re
turned. F.very facility will he irivcti in ohtaieinf intermit tie* ol
IK-ison*. prnpertr, 4lc in Kneland, Irvlamt unci ftcotlnhd. V??
?ols w ill leave Liverpool werklv. ... that there wit I be no detec
tion. r*n the accommodation nt those petsouaeuxacinf paaeaaiv
for their friends, whoiv ay wmli to vend them money to twnft
t l,e*ii to provide for ihe voyage, Drafts will be lives en the fol?
lowinc gentlemen, vis;
William Miley,25 Men Quay. Dublin.
John Hiram hhaw, Chichester Quay. Belfaat.
Matthew M"C?nn, Steam Packet tilliee, Wexford.
John McAulitl'.Merchaut Uuay.Ctuk.
Jelei Keeunn, Weitntreel, 1 mgheda.
John Bent, Stwar Uland.Newry.
M.Donaherty.Co orume
Jiime* Cairnn, Com Market, Lutidonderf.
Jatne* (.iiImuii, 23 Itadclift utreet, Hiiro.
J nine* Finnerun, Lacarrow near Athloee.
John Mmt'ifh, Ua linacarny.
J?irph Ronan, Mulliofur.
John Atkinaon, Carliale
Daniel Wn|h< 4 Ce., 3 R?h<n?on ftreet, GUrnaow.
Aaenlii who will alao give evary amivstance in forwarding triwrim
fer* to LiveriMMil.
Application* for pawn* Irom person* reviihng in the coentrv*
(port puid) wiW meet witheve.ry utteuiu?n. For particular*, appt*
to RAW80N & M MURRAY. 100 Pine aC
ol-Stn* or l?r South?t.
.TAMES VV. \V r Hit hnvmr 'nkei the kt> rc Ibr
m^-rl> oocbpied by WRI(S)|T A ROWS, Broadway<erner
<3[ 01 Canal ??., b e* leave to ititorm l.i* IV end and tl.e pubiie
r<*oi rill y, that lie ho* opened with a *p etv'id a*a?rtmenC
of Far, >dk, and lleavor Hata ; Otter and Heal Cape, and every oth
er article in hi* line.
The Htlk Hatiare rvade on the finest fur bodies, which render*
them Iil'M, elastic, and durabla, and warranted to retain their ahap*
ami nilar nut ? I worn ?ut.
The public are invited to five In in a call before pershasinf ring
M. IL?The old stock will he sold clieap for cash.
nil 3m JAMF.3 W. WKBB.trt Broadway,cor. Canal M.
w BRCWN A CO. Clietlviiu Htpiare. continue manufac
oSW tiinmr their celelirated Hats p iee 'I HKKK DOLLARS,
^ as rs alt i*h?d >n bM. In (irtsent iif tleso h a Is to the
puh jc, the propiieiors 'hink 'bey li?\e 1 early reached the ultiann
tumof beauty, darahili >, c eai<i es?a*d comfort to the weanr.
All sales for ?a*h ; ne piK-xl an.turner therefore pays the losses ef
the Ixid 178 Chritham H',u..re, cornel ol'Motl stnet
?JM Cortl wlt street - Be* to iiW'orwi the tiada, that they he-."
^9r ri'Hiovod from No I Cortlanik at., to (he above lar?e aod
eln?aut Now Htore, where thisy have on haod, and ai?
nonstantlv reocivin#. fresh supplies of Hatter's Plush and Tr*n
miiHts?also, fancy colored Ptuihes fot Ladle* Boueets, whicB
they will svlUn aceominod?tiii? terms.
Hat?, Cap?, Stock*, and Block frames, at whoioeaie.^
RlJSHTOIf A. A?PINWALL, No. M William (tract,
offer leraale the !o lowing aitwWa-White Ginger Root. Ja
maica opt Burgundy Pilch, Hnglieh. ?upi-rior for pinatera, Am.?
Vanilla Bean*, piinK?White Wax. in Uixue of 30 a 5e lb. eacfi- -
German Cokicii, Fauna, war anted-Tooth Bniehea, French anil
Eiigliah. niacfp to mil?, a aige aaaertment- Heidlitz and Hmla
Powder*. raiefally i>ul up. < l" aupern r quality- Medicine CbeeU. m
great variety of pa It rna, which will If filled to order at abort no
tice, fiirahipa ami larnilwa Mwaima Panacea mid Vern,iifu?c, at
man fir-'wem |?ici??Taitanc Acid?gup.r CnrbmiaW Jtoda, *a.
1/ OK SARtf APARlLIJk.?Toyoa Itul aif fttrfhl of Ukinf ?
making 'ii* of advert iaiil laeiiicinea. Dr. Stillman'a "??rup of Haraa
parilbi m prepared Imm the M unfit nan .Saraai?nl(a root, by the
newly invented proeeaa, fry ?hteh meana all tne mrdicinaj propcr
tiee of mot are extract d, at the aame time made vary yaiata
j>|r, <o that tlie infant can take it without producing UmInata eating
?nddievgreeable effect which tnvetaynipe arc apt to ra? a* Sar
aaimrilla' anbeen naed roan the moat remote prnacbi withauohun
Imunded aurxea* in tlie removal of old euro*. inmplea.b*iaa, aypfei
litic affcctioaa. colda, influen* ia. and all diecnaea arietng from a
? ontaniinniadatate of thr hlood, tie... yet it baa never tjoeu mm]
with more aat? action. hot', to the practitioner and pntient than it
ha* of late. And why I Becouae it hue nevei been picpMrnd pro
perly bchicc 'Him i>re|>aratioa la now tfee only pret?ra4ieii at
XaraaiMirilla generally naed
It may lie hail ?f A Ciidr-alull. 3* Beekman. cornerofWMIiam ft,
H. Henry,?l?FultonnearGre*nwie!iat, Dr Button, Grand at. near
Centre ainrkat, III H Hart, c ?rner llr adwar aid Chamhrra at,
|>r Hyine, Boweiy, coiner Walker at, Or Onion. Bowery, comer
Grand ai. Apothnc.i'y'a Hall Bod.m. l:M Waahmctou atreet. Mr-o
another c? mini ol thla paper. Price ? I pet bottle dtt-lm
I CA III) TO TUB laADIBS. -The aubecnbei'e optn
i\ ion of the teiitalc iihuiI and character la ton fai exaMed In aup
l?Me for a moment that the ,nliea of Ihia city and eeewbeic, to
i, liom thin c.iril ia politely aiklream >1. can lie c a ailed or llnUrred to
i*tr<xnxe hnn.Utit wiahea toaddn ?? himaell In thrir food aenaeon
ly They aie maiieetfully inl<>riiie?l, tliat " Baileaa'a ceb-hrated
Strengthening Plvatera," were pn-jaired with aprc ml reference to
then nvm,? ml thei arc moat ciiinoih re< oinmended to auch aa
.'..I vultM ?!.U. a*thn ft. Me i? confident that
if it Mvre ihhmiIiI' t? obtain the naaii a of the Imhea who hava te
rcM luncfit l?y wearing the U-auttful plaatera he could prrawot
in artay. which, for modem worth, intelligence and owpectability,
tt ,,mM lai outweigh hi* highi-at recomniciaintmna They a>e ?]>o ati
un the ioat I), auttful. aoll mw) i hahie acurb-t. pink and fawa colo?
d laiTkli akin , will m?t ami tt ewtiittat I nen and may it worn hy
hfiMMt delicate f m.tle iu a.laituataoni, with eai. and comfort fur
jt>i n .rtith.
'I in ure aold ?l the Bowery Medicine .Stare, 2M Bowery, by th?
mil a iiiaat obliged ami hutiihle a#rt ai.t.
Ihe^RANKUM roFFKi: llOt'MM, No lit N.itatu atrect, nenHf
? o|>|??ufc't lint cm IUII. 'I lie aiilwcriber Ih |< leaf* to Hibn-m
[the r"ilni' Mint In' lull ? pened n refectory at Iht-fhoti- |%re, wiiero
he will, at all tirtiea, keen the lieat of entahfca Vuit the iwnrk<t< af
fird. an.lal eocb eaaooalde rat.a aa h?" thirika muet m?"re to him
aiicccaa All ? ?rtaofnifrnhinerita. oyatetk, 4re from ? A M un
til lOo'clnek, P M. JOHN ALUM.
dl7 |m __ _
\1' JH. II. NAXW KI.L, rnuntflh.r at I./tin and Cam'
?? No. S. Naaaau at . near H all atrnot, la didv an
thorffl bylaw, to take tha ecknow Moment ami certify tbn ewr
eutK.nol aliyde.il, nmrtgnge |ajwn? of AtUirncy or inatnaixnt
imdei a>-al, t1? lm oaed or t*ror?l"?l in thn atatea of New Jeraey,
Connecticut, tieoma. New llami>alHre. Ma??aehnaetta. Florida.
Pnnii^lvania. North ami <<outh Canaina. Ae. Alao. to take and
nertlfy deiaaaitmna. to be waed in anid Htatea, and to take Teatr
mooy to he ic id in the courta of ('uuneeticiit. New ll^miaikire and
Maaaaclioaotta. ?H hi
TIIF. aiibecriVerahavinccatablia ied a Branch oltheir Office, at
Mrooklvii, No. I Fr<Mit atreet. <e<|teetfully intorm their ftietite
and the public in general, that thai are prepared to rveei?t of*
dera tnf ttieaale aedpurchaaeofraaleatatn, cidlret??n ol Mc>r. ?*,
letting and renting of tomaea. al.rrea turrr.a A< Ar y ordera h ft
at either of the. t otlicca will In- reomptlr at'ended to.
? ffilRWRON * n.KMINO.M Naaa?? at. N. Y.
and No I Front at Br?M>klyn,neitdoniio IS? Ul.|bfek.
at r
_ petII BATH*, n John atft?el J. P t'AKRiH.L retuma
gratefulacknowh-drfieuieiite l?tl.e 11 Mic. ami to g^ntieinen of tho
?n-?hca' |>ndea?i<>n, lof 'be Idaral patronage bratow?M on hia . aiab
liahnnnt. which h en in auceeaaful oprration utiwarda of
eleven y< ir? A ? tlie limita of a in-watwip>'r aitvertiaenw' fin-clottr*
the jau?iUlity "f rirnu an antlilir il tietatl of the m< i.tcinal vir
inc. <d' lua V u?a llalh hela- a leavo merely to atife that it baa
.?II f.Miivl a aifr. huwgh powerful leinMlr l< alltbe following ibe
eaara BcaofitW. Cutaneoua ih e.ma. Rheumttion itout Inrt
,,.,1,1. . ,aia tiiinora, I Ha aara of 'tH' mtnta. tt latrh enMlaMlt.
Cf\int>, A'h-eUona id he I, vet. Aatlima Huiblencotda,and Hefahty,
^r lie bna in hia pan ea-wm the atrini^-t written rrCwoimemla -
Ik me. r*g Ming l?ji aaMy - n I iffbnrr of ? ta Vapo- B.i?h.f imi ti?
ino-t eminetil |>hyai -?an?. eoine of wln< h be eubmita l? tho im tioo
of tb' laitibe.
Mima ma veral 'man-na vtaitcil t?ie V ipnf Rath e?? nliahwnnt
m J fin atrrat, i-ooduct, ilhy Mr A Mia < nrroll. ami bare ? ntirelr
an Marie* I my elfltMUtbr itatheare adniiniatered there with akiN
and ttb-ntMR. UX H HTKVRNM M I).
I can elKfrfnll* ?iate 'hat I hare 'noml th? RatIw in Jaahn atir?4 '
well attrmlnl toaiidevery enmloct ofthi- t*atl nta r,?.?uli?W
vAi.fi.* ii-nf Mtvrr. m i>.
I have heen for many yearain the hnhit of aetxlint { itu nta to Mr
>tra ( arnJI'a Vaiair Uatb< HI John at an. I ha * ,rak< n diem frw
ifleptM my-elf, main allnecaitiMi* I ' ? > I - nlelM With
theaki'land alien iwn ?-;ln which tber wen a<lieiniei>?eil, >ind Ibo
Ik-vc toat n thM reapnet Mr A Mra Carroll leevem>fhbif It he'.to
? ired hy male or fnma'" bother* WM J MACNFVKN, M P
The Ita ba a ein conatnnt imll" *a I'm ? a o'clock in the n* r? inf
tillt o'clock at nigtit PortaMe Hatha, wttfi c?am? !?'??( perw na ?o
a mi I >t to any purl ol tin ci r , r M'ooklyn at ftvo
rmnn ea iwdme. Nn conneamn with an? other eatal IMnrwat
?117 Tw*
Mo morftciiHi i?l oB'e erl to tee world, ever |loe?eaa?"d the in
imittl b' eirtoea. e?1 aordinar. am ri ea, and the univeraal preieo
ami ailmi al on of lit .*1A?<,,' ^ Vl.OETA BLR F.XTRACT IfR
UVRKWOKT The e?Ki'itleaa irxtivnl'iala labor ng i nder all tbn
a'rmn ona nf thnl d rend m^lnd*. (Jirtie mptmn o eh aa violent
c<iv 'a apl'mao' ofriiptKi and hbeal. paina in the ' reaat eb- rt
I lirpnlh'ii., I na of lleell a> d aptietit 'hat hia mialnalde ex'reet
i , -,r, > a ch" nn al pro ea?i Iwvi mved fmm an nn
,,,, ,|y grave, - a a ?i ea of menta' exiillatim nfdy nb anirecia
ted h tnoa. wSo e , ne-*y of M) n,| an4 loir atu^y have produced
a, .in,- lint i?i ' v ?' eflt I'lfu tKHiian family
Ag.nam *ew Vorb wbolta.tle and retail, ^y A BAD Han. fa
.??i? Fultirn ami William; a"d retail, hr Vdnor A liaajle,
,.)K lley and ftrnoilway ; J <-cor, cor 'anal ami Brood way ;
j a fine tj Howery. cor Walk?r atreet, ami J B Naoe* M?
llmeilway i Jobo OolviUe. J?m nor Br?ene and Broadway : T.
K Analin, l > Cartnme at . ami H J ifabom, eor Hooeoet aa4
?tatn- rrtea M eenta ???? '?*

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