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Morning herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1837-1840, August 27, 1839, Image 2

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MORNING HEKALl).
tvimavi u'?m __
Tm* Cmt*r Aqviddct. ? We refer iwr elmietl,
a* ^prell as political reader* to the elaborate article
which we publish in another column on Ancient
Aqaedacts. Thej will there find that mismanage
ment in auch matters began very early in the Roman
Republic. We verily believe that thia city will have
to expend tiftlvt million* of dollars, a\jd wait many
year* before a drop of water can be got. la it not
time for the whole body of the people to inquire into
thia awful waste and extravagance? to discard all the
miaerable squabbles of party? aKd to elect men to
the next legislature that will remove the whole batch
of Commissioners who hava blundered so terribly 1
1* it not timet
?talc of Mailer* and Thing* in General.
" Thia ia a beautiful sunny day," aaid a broker to
me yesterday, aa I took a walk round Wall street, to
see what rogueries were committing. " It ia," aaid 1 ;
"it is worth about $1,230,000, the same amount which
Swartwout rua away with." " What do you mean 1"
asked the broker. " I mean that the beautiful, soft,
lovely, balmy, exquiaite sunshine to-day, ia equal to
#1,250, 000, specie currency, in ripening the crops and
getting in the harvest. And 1 mean further, that, far
the last tea days, the aggregate value of the sun
ahina alone ia worth $12,000,000 to $15,000,000 of
hard currency in the crop* af corn, ?ott?n, tobacco, po
toea, wheat, rye, fitc. I suppose the moonlight ia
worth a couple of million*." "The moonlight !" aaid
the broker; " Why tha meealight V " If sunlight
ripens tha wheat, moonlight ripens love and causes
a luxarant crop ef engagements, marriages, and all
the fascina^jng consequence* of pretty children and
beautiful progeny. Ha ! ha ! he ! ho ! ho ! ho !"
And such is actually the case with the holy, happy
year of 1839. Such gentle showera, and brilliant
nuns and silver moons we never saw before. 1 doubt
whether they have better or brighter in Heaven. The
whale earth on this blessed 27th Au. is as green a* on
the first of June. Talk not to u? of the scarcity of
money ? the contraction of the banks ? or the expor
tation of specie. The crops and the womea are as
beautiful as beantifnl can be. The sunshine for the
last ten days is equal to $15,000,000, and of gold and
?ilvertooin the vaults of the Wall Street Banking pa
laces. If there is a scarcity of money ? a shortness of
funds, it is all artificial ? all the result of bad man
agement and bad habits. Look at me, ye sinners of
New York. I never had so much money. Why so 1
Because fortunately I was, as the Yankees are, taught
to read the bible in early youth, and to acquire the
habits of economy and reflection. Many of those
who are now dashing through Broadway, in fine car
r.ag es drawn by blood horses, will, before they know
where they are, be reduced to loafers with a bor
rowed segar in their dirty mouths. The bad, extra
vagant, foolish hnpes of the age have caused the re
vulsions in trade ? the suspensions of hanks ? the scar
city of money? and the bankrupticies breaking out
around us. No nation, or people, or racc ever had
a more glorions country than this, or more bril
liant suns or gentler showers? or finer vales ? or
richer forests, or more promising crops than we
have during; this present year. If our government ?
oar banks? our financiers? onr merchants? our own
peeple would only act on right principles, the coun- 1
try would get rid of all their debts before a couple
of years can have elapsed. Indeed I believe that the
sad experience of the past two years have taught
us all a little wisdom.
"ifhaoney be scarce now ? don't despair ? it cannot
be scarce long. As foon as the next crops begin to
come to market, then the banks will begin to let out
?things will rise briskly ? parsons will preach 1
shorter sermon*, and kiss fewer of their fair parishio- I
ners ? and every thing will improve. Even the Herald ;
Will improve? that sink of sin and iniquity that once
was, bnt is so no more. As soon as the rogues of I
Wall St. were satisfied 1 was getting rich, they dis
covered a vast improvement in my raarals; 1 feel it
already. Our advertisements are improving ? onr
?irculation is improving ? our whole business is im
proving ? and one ef the surest indications of pros
peroM times, is the prosperity of the newspaper
press. Don't despair. If you want business, adver
tise in the Herald. It will yield sure returns ? soma
two fold, some ten fold, some fifty fold, and some a
hundred fold ? and no mistake.
The Spanish Slater again. ? Attempted Pi
k act. ? Further intelligence, and corroberation hare ,
been received from Ihii vessel. A week ago yester
day (he was boArded by Captain Scare of the Sch.
Eveline, now At Philadelphia, 7t mile* from EKf
hArbour. They, as usual, wanted wAter.
Capt. S upon boarding her, found her sails in bad
oreer, umbrella*, looking glasses, crockery, &lc.
?trewed about derka, and under t?od that the Capt. i
wai tick, and all the white people had been wa?hed
overboard. Her name wu L'Amstead, the iame ai
reported by the John C. Davidson, with a large eagle
on the how, topsail yard gone, and bottom very foul.
He towed her until dark, about 30 miles, when bear
ing a voice in English ordering sail to be made, ao
aa to get a!onga:de and " take sails and water," he
cut fr.-xn her. The crew were armed with knivea,
and doubloons were plenty among them. Captain S.
recreived one for some proviaiona, with some silver
coin.
She chased the Bark Hercules, also at Philadel
| hia, for two hours on the 11th inat. off the Isle of
Pinea and attempted to board her, but fortunately the
Herculea escaped. She has now been seen nearly a
dozen times, and each account corroborates the wne
previously given. According to thia laat account
she has been for over fourteen days in our waters.
We have not yet heard anT thing from the Wave,
but suppose ere this ahe has captured the slaver.?
If thia piratical vessel is not brought into some port,
in less than one week, we shall think there is no
great danger in being a pirate. By this time there
are four revenue cnttera cruizing for kar, but the
steam frigate Fulton, the beat veasel that sould be
asnt on snch a chase, ia laid np in the Bight or But
termilk channel, perhaps to rot. This famous steamer
was despatched last Friday, in pursuit of the pirate,
bnt returned in twenty hours after for fuel, and they
have not yet been able to get any ! Tho Wave is the
only vessel worth a farthing in an emergency, for
she is always ready, and we hope Lieut. John H.
Mitahell, her commander, will soon bring the pirate
into port.
riie< aptain of the slaver is the only person on
hoard who knew* any fhink of navigation? the rest
are a parcel of ignorant Marks.
^ W Doctor < harles King, Licenciate of Sala
manca, do a?t shoot a little less in the country, and
?hoot a little more in town, he cannot expect to
maki the " American" a papular paper in favor of
(General Scott. This lounging away Ins time in the
wilderness, cultivating whiskers and thistles, will
not do, in the present active, stirring, intellectual
age. We must jump a little livelier at the tap of the
dram if we mean in elect General Scott, which we
can do if we choose, ff. B - - We have a great mind
ta forgi v? Charles one of these days, for his manifold
transgressions done in the flesh and in trade, pro
vided he will stick to General Scott, and fight the
good Aght in the good eanse.
(*>? Dr. William A. Smith has been appointed
?>urg*on General of Texas.
REMAINS OF THE AQUA APPIA, THE FIRST ROMAN AQUEDUCT.
Aariral smd VflMicrn Aquednla.
It is not a little singular, that there is bo one work
upon record, in this or any other country, which
tontains an accurate account of these stapca
daus aud magnificent works of art, of aacicnt and
modern times. The task of collating and col
lecting all the facts concerning them, seems to have
been one of so much labor and difficulty, and to
have required such an outlay of money and of tra
velling, that n? one has yet been found willing to un
dertake it. Nay more, there is no one wark extant,
that contains even all the names of the ancient or
the modem aqueducts; and those who wish to ob
tain even this single item of intelligence have to
wade through at least one hundred volumes, same
of which are not to be found in any part of this coun
try, and all of which are expensive and difficult to
obtain.
Having, however, obtained every know* work that
has treated of this highly interesting subject, we
here subjoin a list, as accurate as we can possibly
make it, of all the important aqueducts of ancient
and modern construction, classified, as nearly as they
possibly can be, in the order of their dates, with
other localities, and the names of those by whom
they were desigaed or erected. They are as follow:
AkciEnt A'ti" EOi a ra.
Aqueduct of Scaiiramis Aqueduct of Hesekiah
Aqaedurts of raia^ra. Aqueducts of I'etra in Pertia,
Aqueduct of Balbec. Aqueducts of Pheax, Sicily.
In R?me.
Aqua Appia, 44J A. U. C. Aqua Alscitina, 763 A. U. C
Aqua Vc 1Mb, 441 " Aqua Claudia,
Aq .a Tepula, " Aqua Novu?.
Aqua M.ircia, 640 ?' Aqie Trij.ma,
Aqua Julia, Til " Aqua Sabatina,
Aqua Virginia, 736 "
EUewkert.
Aqueduct of Nismes France built by Agrippa.
Do of Lvous do do by Augustas and Tiberias.
Do of Mete do do by Aagastus
Do at Evora in SO B.C. do by ({uuiius Sertorius.
Do at Carthage.
Do at Morocco.
Do of Hadrian, at Athens, by Hadrian.
Do at Rourgus, Con?tautiuo|>le, by Justinian.
Aqueduct of Valensar. near Purao, Turkey.
Sit feral Aqueducts between Belgrade ai.d Constantinople.
Aqueduct at Canterbury, England 1 160, by Arrhbishsp Wilbert.
Llo of Spoletto 741 by Theodoric, King of tl>e (Jotlis.
Do Biscari, Sicily, by Piiuce Biscari.
Do of ^eguvia, Spaiu, by Trajau.
Do of Sa:ita Maura, Ionian Islands by BajazeC
Do of Los Cauof de Cannon*, near Seville, by Jlciaaat
and Moors.
Do of Toledo.
Du of Acipini mar old Rouda, Spaia.
Do ol Tarragon*, by the Moors.
Do in the plain ol Aaover, by Philip 6th.
Do of Aluasora, in the plain of Ctalellon, in 1460, by
Jayme el Conqu;?tador.
Do of Syracuse, Sicily.
Do of i'atrai, Grecee.
Do of Paris by Juli.iu, the Ein|*ror.
Do of Bouaat, France.
Do of Uargallvn, Prance.
Modtin .Iqurdut Is.
Aqas. Paula by I'aui 6th asd Ctrdissl Omui,
Do FeliCl by Seitu? 6th.
Aqu-duct ?f Beianca, Lisdbu, by Manuel dal Maga.
Do af Casrrta, -Naples, in 1761, l\ the King af Naples.
Da af Castellaaa.
Do af Moalpelitr b* M. Pitot
Do of Arcuril, Paris, 1634 by Henry 4th
Ku of Maiatenoa, France, 1780, by Loais 14th.
Do ofCenoa.
Do of Lucca.
Do af Trsri, Italy.
Do of Paatcycytle, Wales.
Do of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Do of New Riter, Loudon.
Do ofCrotoo, New York.
The principal authors who have written on aque
duct*, whose statements ara to be relied apna, are
the following:
Froutiuus de Aqueductibut Urbit Romsr.
Studio Joannis Poleni. I'atavia. 17 W.
F isrettus de Aquis et Aqneductibx* Veteris Roaisr.
Alberto Cassio, crso otll' Aqua Autiche e Moderne di
It atna-.
Monlfaucon, Historic Aatiquite Ei|.lique.
Be idar's Arrkiierture Hydranliquc.
Livy, book it., c. 99.
Pliny, Hist. Nal. 1?36. r. 16.
Abbe Hicard's Travels.
Procopias and P. Victor.
Herodotus. b. iii. c. 60.
Pawn.ll's Aatiquite Profiucia Romaua ?t Gaul. 17W
Lhishuir* Travels.
Link's Travels.
Waod's Travels in Asia.
Bud.ru* Hi*tane Antique.
G*ilt, Vnrurius, p hi.
Gwilt, Hud., p. 167-170
The above the* are the name* of the principal
aqueduct* in the world, and th? writers who treat of
the same. The bluglislrwnrd '? Aqueduct" i( syn
onimois with the French w ard aqurrlucl, the Italian
aque ioto, the Latin in/uf ductus, and the German trai
nerlrtlwN n The word is derived from a compound
of the two word*, aquu wat> r, aad ductui a pipe or
canal or conductor. Although there have been Vari- j
oua meanings and limitations attached to thin word, i
jet it may with propriety be applied to any kind of I
channel or pipe used for the conveyance of water !
from one pltce to another either under or above i
ground. The bridges used for carry ing canals aarnsa
rivers or roads, are strictly aqueduct bridges, al
tS a ,h Irequantly called viaducts; and tha latter term
la strictly applicable ta rail-way bridges when tliev
cross roads. The engineers employed on the line <>f
the Croton Aqueduct, teria all those bridges on the
line of the work which carry the water of the nana*
duct across a stream, or river, or canal, " Aqueduct
Bridges and on the other hand they term all those
bridges which carry the water of the aqueduct 1
across a turnpike or rail road, or street, a " viaduct
Bridge " Barton's Bridge, in Lancashire, England,
whiah carries the Duke of Hridxewater'a canal acroa*
the river lrwell is an aqueduct bridge; so are the
bridges which convey the Edinburgh aad Glasgow
Union ('anal over the valley of the water of Leitn at
Nlatefsr I; aid the Pontcycylte bridge which carries
the Kllesaa* re canal across tha Chirk near the Vale nf
Llangollen la Denbigshire.
These am all strictly aqueduct bridges; the New
River Canal that runs from Ware to L >ndon, is pro
perly an aqueduct, although on no part of its route
does it approach to the character and appearance of
what was understood as an aqueduct by tne ancirnts
All the above are examples of what is understood
by aqueducts and aqueduct bridges, whilst on the
contrary, the beautiful bridges on the Haltimore anil
Washington Rail K<>ad, and the Liverpool and Man
chester Kail Hoad, across the Sankey, are strictly
viaduct bridges.
Aqueducts then, are continuous conveyances of
brick or stone, or metal, to carry water from one
place to another ; anil an aqueduct bridge is a aeries
of piers, equi-distant or nearly so, with arches con
necting their heads to form one cont inuousand nearly
level I me on the back or top of which it tha channel I
or water curse, or aqueduct proper. A distinction
is made by liit? rt ?? between visible and subterran
eous aquedti' ta. Most of the Homan aqueducts he
long to the former class, and resemble the above
drawing nf Aqua Anpia, the first K?man aqueduct
ever constructed ; theae were enrried across the val
leys and marshes in the neighborhood of Home, and
protracted in latitude or longitude as the situation of
the ground required. These were unifmmly com
posed of adminirula for supporting the arches and
confining the streams, and of arcades one above the
other. The Croton aqueduct will, for nearly its
whole line, be a subterraneous aqueduct ; for except
where it crosses streams and valleya, inch as at
Sing Sine, Saw Mill Valley, Harlem River, Manhat
tan and Clendenning Yallies, and a few other points,
it will be comploly hid from sight ; fur where it is
not tunneled through earth or rock, the aqueduct
i? covered over with dirt ; in many ia^lanoes grass
will grow over it and cattle graze thereon, and there
will be nothing to point out even the course of the
aqueduct except the ventilators which are to be ex
actly a mile apart, and built in the form of a kiuall py
ramid ; in this respect differing from the Roman ven
tilators which were square and built up only 3 feet
from the ground.
The Subterranean Aqueducts of the Romans were
tunnelled through rocks and hills, on a scale quite
as extensively as any thing on the line of the Crotou
Aqueduct, and in many instances much more so.
Mouutfaucon says that he once entered on? ofthe.se
aqueduct tunnels in a rock above Tivoli, at a place
called Vicovaro, (the ancient Vicus Varronis) which
was aore than a mile long; the tunnel was fire feet
high and four feet broad. Our tunnels on the
Crotou are none of then# a mile long; the longest it
that at the Manhattan Hill, on this island, l,215feet;
but then, on the other hand our rock tunnels are nono
less than 7 feet 5 inches in width at the chord of
the roofing arch, and tr.tm 8 feet 5 inches to 9 feet in
hight from the lowest point of the inverted arch, to
the top of the rock euttiug. And although it is usual
ly stated by almost every author, that has written on
the subject, that the Greeks knew little or nothing in
relation to aqueducts, and therefore constructed none,
yet we find a very clear account in Herodotus, (Har
per's Classical Library, No 30, page 52, lection LX)
of the manner in which Enpalinus, an architect of
Megara, supplied the citv of Samoa with water; a
hill 900 Greek feet high (l5o orgyice) was pierced by
a tunnel -1.200 feet long (7 stadia), which was 8 feet
high and 8 feet wide, about the same area as the
Croton tunnel Procopius says, but he is unsupport
ed, that the water channel in the Roman Aqueducts
were all of such a height, that a man on horseback
could ride through theui without difficulty . At several
points of the Croton aqueduct we rode in on horse
back without much trouble
In point of length, we have reason to believe that
our Croton Aqueduct exceec' s that of any other in the
world, in a straight line. Taking the zig zag course
of the Roman Aqueducts into consideration there was
only ono that reached 40 miles in its winding extent,
and only one that went beyond that length. Again in
height we shall certainly excel them; for the extreme
height of one point of our work, Harlem Uridge, is
160 feet, whereas on no point of the lines of Roman
Aqueducts do we meet with a greater height than 109
feet, wh?i even one row of arches was placed above
another Still however there are Modern Aqueducts,
those of Caserta and Maintenon, that exceed the
Croton Aqueduct in the mere height of the work. In
the matter of th? supply of water, we shall also ex
ceed that yielded by all tho Roman Aqueducts.
Whether they had 14 Aqueducts according to Pro
copius, or 20 according to Victor, (in the year 580 H
C.) they only delivered into tho city of Rome a total
of 40.000, WOO of gallons daily; whereas the Croton
Aqueduct will deliver 50, 000, 000 of gallons daily, or
can be made to deliver that quantity immediately
?ftcr it is once fairly in operation, which we presume
will take place in two years, after the present mis
managing Commissioners are removed.
However, it is but proper to state here, that there
in .till an unsettled auction with regard to the terms
made use ?( la the Unman author* in relation te the
Siiaufity of water furniahed by the anueduct*.
'rontinus, who was the superintendent of the aque
ducts, or the "Curatore Aquarum," under Nerva,
says, that nine of the aqueducts had each 13,?KM
pipes of one iach diameter, making a total of 122,346
inches in diameter of pipe to deliver water from;
and a pipe of ?ne inch diameter at adepthof four feet
it is said, will discharge M35 cubic feet of water per
minute; so that there must hare been seme error in
this calculation, for the highest total of water de
livered in Home is said by no one to exceed 50,000,
000 of cubic feet daily. Rome had a million of in
habitant, and this gave them 5? cubic feet for each
individual. London has not over ti,0U0,0t0 cubic
feet daily; some say .10 ,000,000 of gallena; Paris has
? supply of half a cubic foot for each inhabitant. In
Turkey, each person is allowed two-thirds of a cubic
foot daily, or about 42 pound*. ()? the other hand,
Vigeros, in speaking of the supply of water from the
aqueducts, says, they yielded but 900,000 bogheads
daily, or about 31,500,1100 gallons; making an average
of little more than 3R gallons to each person. So that
considering all these circumstances we think it ia
more than than probable that onder proper regula
tions our single aqueduct will yield us a more abun
dant supply than the whole of the Roman Aqueducts
yieldea the inhabitants of the KternalCity.
Before leaving the subject of the supply of water
to Ancient Rome, which is a most interesting and
important topic, we will show the quantities of water
which were furnished by seven of the aqueducts, as
given by Frontinus, from a measurement a' the head
of each aqueduct, except in the cases of the Aqaa
Julia and Virgo, which he states from tbe quantity
delivered by the registers: ?
Aslo Vttw. 4W1 (jiiinuir.
However, a great quantity of this was ?t?>len or
abstractfd in some way surreptitiously from the
aqueducts by the loafers of ancient Reme, although
none of them wore shoes, or stockings, or shirts.
Tbe total amonnt of water, as ?aid to be delivered by
the public registers, kept bv the erfi/es, only amounted
ed to I4.01H quinariv; the deficient quantity ha* been
stated to be equal to 27,748,1(10 cubic feet English;
this, then would give SOeuhic feet to eac IT person ; and
still some incline to think that thia calculation does
not include over half the entire quantity of water
conveyed by the aqueducts to the city ; for Ntrabo
has compared it to "rivers flowing through the
street* and sewers." The supply of wells, in ad
dition, aaust have been considerate ; because when
Yitigis besieged Rome some hnndreds of years after
wards, he destroyed the aqueducts and yet the inhabi
tants far from the river had plenty of water from the
wells.
Ia the foregoing estimate frequent reference is had
to a measure called the " cm inmrH.** It is spoken
of by Piranesi,but no true definition of it seems to have
been given by any writer. Paleni *ays it is a pipe
whose diameter is equal to a *ood sired finger rinr,
or three-fourths of an inch. If this was a precise
measure, still we have no account ef what depth under 1
the usual surface the pipes were placed, nor any da
tum to determine the velocity of the water. The
qutnartu* may have been of the diameter of a coin of
that name ; or if may have been the name of a liquid
measure, equal to five quarters of the sextarius, !
which was abeut a pint ; hut still there ia no time
giv?n in which this measure was supplied. Forcel
lini, who quotes Frontinus says, a quinariu* is a pipe
of the diameter of fi?e quatit unit t, hihI adds that a
quadrans ia a quarter of a pint.
Thia certainly is a nonsensical statement ; for the
ancient reaaains show that, on an avrraire, the sec
tion of each watercourse could not have exceeded an
area of 10 square feet. And a circular opening, be it
remcbered, f of an inch in diameter, at 4 feet depth
from the surface, (alwavs maintained at the same
level) will send ont 51 enbic inches per second. A
t/uinririi, therefore, appears to have been five fourths
of something, though no one is now able to tell of
what; and that, after all, really appear* to he all that
is known, with any certainty, about this matter.
There is one curious body of facts which w have
obtained, in eonneetinnlwith th?- supply of water, that
is as interestinr as any thin^ yet stated It appeara
that Ancient Rome, was divided into 14 wards call
Aqi a Mareia,
Aqaa V iryu,
Aqua JuIm.
Aqua Clau4< i,
Aui* Nuras,
4690
3AJ4
lib*
40(17
473*
JflTft
Aqua AUictina,
ed " Regions;" ami the following was the manner in
which the wards were supplied with water: ?
Ctilella, or
Rneivtiii s. Supplied ward*.
Aqua Julia. 17 3. 5. 6. 8. 10, 12
Do Teinjla, 14 3, 4, 5. 6, 8 ?, 14
Do Appia, tW 3,6,8,9, 11,14.13, 14
Do Virgo, 18 7,8,14
Anio Veins, 35 1,3.4,4. 6.7,8 13,14
Ai|ua AUietin, ?r > 13 all beyond (he Tiber, the 18th
Aqua Paolo ) ward.
Aqua Claudia \ United within the city, and had
Auto Notus, ) 9*i reservoirs
From the reservoirs the water wan distributed in
leaden pipea. The greater part *f these reservoirs,
we have reason to believe, were built by Agrippa,
who. in the year of his edileship, built for the use of
his felfow citizens 130 reservoirs of water, and 1(15
public fountains; and employed in adorning them
SOU marble or bruss statues, and 400 marble co
lumns.
We have before alluded to the management of our
modern aqueduct ; and it may not, therefore, be to
tally uninteresting t* give an account ot the manner
in which the Koman aqueducts were managed- The
care of them anciently belougtd to ediles and een
sors. Afterwards, through the instrumentality of
Agrippa, particular magistrates were appointed to
manage them, (not sail-makers and shoemakers, like
Stephen Allen and Saul Alie\) and these were called
" Uuratnres Aquarum." Metsala was curator ?f
the aqueducts under Augustus; and Julias Scxtns
Frontinus was curator under Nerva These had
72W men under them, paid by the public to keep them
in repair; ttiese men were divided into two bodiea
the ?ne called public*, first instituted by Agrippa,
?oder Augustus, consisting of 2ti0; the nther Fami
lia Casuris, of 460, instituted by the Emperor Clau
dius. The slaves employed in taking care of the
water were called Aquarii Then there was a per
son employed to measure the height whence water
might be brought, and lie was called Librator; the
instrument which he used was called Aquaria Li
bra. The curator, himself, or perfectu ? aquarum,
was invested by Augustus with considerable autho
rity; attended without the city lty two or three lie
tors, three public slaves, an architect, secretaries,
&c. &c ; hence tinder the later emperors he was
called " Cocsularis Aquarum."
Whether our aqueduct managers will ever arrive
at such honors and dignities as those of old Rnine,
remains to be seen, but although we have no means
of knowing what cuius they were paid, and althoagh
neither Frontinus, nor Vihuvius, nor Longinus, nor
Livy. nor Pliny, nor Procopius. nor any of tkeu have
left an account of the salaries paid to the aqueduct
regulators, yet w a will venture to say that our Cro
tou men get better pay than those of ancient Itom*.
Let us see how they stand. We have
b Water CominiMiobers
1 Chief Eugiu er
4 Rem. lent Engineers
3 Drnft?mf n
g Auittast Engineer*
i Kodmrn
AmkuiiI Rudssea
Clerk
Assistant Clerk
Engineer department incidental*
paid yearly
4 Resident
$8000
?, coo
?.000
3-000
4 MB
4 M9
3,000
1.000
1,000
?0000
*M,H00
Suoh are the names and salaries and eaaolumeuts of
oar modern Kdiles, and Curators, Liberators, and A
quarii. How many of them will be left to rcrulate
our one Aqueduct remains to be seen when it ia finish
ed, if it ever i? finished; but we hare little doubt
'that they will manage matter* so well, as to reader it
necessary to have double as many persons to look
after our one Aqueduct as were reqaired at Rome to
regulate a dozen or twenty Aqueducts The actual
cost of the Komaa Aqueducts is difficult to get at.
We find that the magnificent Claudian Aqueduct
cast I,3H5,5(JU crowns (according to Hudteus) and the
Aqua Virginse cost <?1.<NM).000 to repair. Our Croton
Aqueduct will cost $l2,OtO,INH) to erect it, and about
half a million annually t* keep it in repair.
Tut Aqt'A Am a. ? The most ancient of all the
Roman aqaeducts ia that of the Aqua Appia, erected
by Appias Claudius Crassus, then Censor, during the
first consulship of the Second Decius. It was huilt
A. U. C. *12, or 812 years before the birth of Christ
C. Plautiu*, n ho had taken immense paina to trace
the sources far the supply of the water in this aque
duct, was associated with Claudius in its contrac
tion. The plate which we give above is a very ad
mirable representation of tho Appian Aqueduct. It
had less at arch work in its construction than any
other of the aquedurts that were afterwards erected,
because it was earned along the sides of hills and
(1st, marshy ground, and was built very solid for du
rability. ft was brought a distance of 11,11)0 Roman
paces, (over 11 miles) aad was carried along the
ground, in solid masonry or by tannel work, for 1 1, (MM
paces; and for 19# paces it was erected on archas.
Same small springs, discovered subsequently, were
conducted into its channel, ia aftar times, by different
emperors Its level was high enough to supply the
more elevated parts the city, although a great part of
it. elevation was lost by giving too great a declivity
to the channel.
The great Porta Maggiore at Rome (between the
ancient gates of the Prirnesti and Lahicuin, is formed
out of one sf the arches of the Ca$tellan of tbia
aqueduct; and affords us a good idea of the magni
ficence of the Roman aqueducts. At Rome, in the
present day, thu aqueduct may be seen entering the
wall close on the right ? f the above gate, the lawest
of the four that enter there; it then winds along
over the Aventiae hill ; but in many places it is bu
ried. It deserves to he singled out for illustration
from all the rest, not only on accoant of its beiag
the earliest, but because af the singularity of its con
struction ; it is not plain or gradual in its descent,
but much narrower at the lower than at the upper
end, which we will show an illustration of hereafter
One othur point of singularity about it is also worlh
remembering, la the construction of this wark Ap
piua Claudius Crassus, oa account of his mismanage
ment, caused Plntiu* to resign his office as associate
"Commissioner," before the work was finished.
They were then carried on totheir completion oy Ap
pias, who gave his name to the work. Appius then had
the period of his Censorship prolonged from time
to time, until he finished this Aqueduct and the Ap
pian Wav Ho with our Croton Aqueduct, and our
madera Platius and his associates; their mismanage
ment will canse their removal ; alt h< ugh they ara
moving heaven and earth ta get the periad of their
Censnrsip, or Commissionrrship extended from year
to year till the work is finished, which they would
not effect in ten yesrs, if they dared so far to
delay it.
The clique of old political reprobates who
msnage the '* Kvening Star," have issued their de
crees relative to the next election. Having secretly
nominated aa assembly ticket, and made a bargain
for the Register of Deeds, they come out aad give ail
vice on the approaching cisis. We have a few
words on these matters. In a day or two we shall
he ready give a history of the intrigues of the last
spring elections, with a statement of t^ie intrigues
now preparing among the clique fo carry their selfish
views in the next election.
Pious Rxpimatsri iw N?w Yon* ? Wc learn
from a hi?hly respectable saurce? not the Blessed
Virgin, bat nearly as good? that there i? n certain
handsome clergyman ia New York, who ia actively
engaged in a roars* af experiments in the new phi
losophy, that will entirely outstrip the develope
menfs in ade hy the Rev. Calpril Fay. Particulars
?ext Sabbath.
riMr MII fmrw rh- yilli? me _
The organisation of the twenty-sixth Congress will
present a eurioua spectacle. Two hwdrnd and forty
two regular and legal, and about aix irregular and
illegal member* will preaent themselves in the House
of Representatives next winter each claiming the
p ivilege of regulating the affairs and correcting the
aii uud rascality of this great country. There are
only two hundred and forty-two arm chairs in the
groat Hall and how two hundred ami forty eight ef
the intellect of these United States are to occupy
them, puzzles many. Dispute, contention, wrang
liu^, fighting and swearing will be the order of
the day, ami Washington will present the same dia"
orderly, and perhaps a more disgraceful appearance
th.ix marked the convening of the Pennsylvania
legislature at Harrisburg last October. We should
not be surprised if an army of fitly thousand men
should march into the Capital and engage in a gene*
rat fi;;ht for their rights. Hlood may, hut undoubt
edly hrandy will be spilt, and we advise Col. Webb
to keep clear of the Avenae, even if bis " two chival
ric friends' do attend him We shall anxiously
await the coming together ofthe troubled spirits, and
it is with dread or delight, we 8carcely know whioh,
we see the dav approaching.
On the settlement of this vexed question, whether
five of the New Jersey delegation shall be whiga or
locofocoa, depends the next presidential election Mid
ttie lite or death of the sub-treasury scheme, besides
the salvation of twenty six states and three territo
ries. It is of the highest importance, therefore, to
sift and discover the correct state of the matter, if
fiossible. We have been at much trouble to pick up
acts, and are now enabled to lay them before our
readers.
For the twenty-aixth Congress, each party in New
Jersey puts forth its aix candidates, and from the
votes polled it appears that the state is, politically,
pretty nearly balanced. From the returns, the loco*
foco candidates have the majority of votes, but the
whig* have the certificates of membership which
they obtained in consequence of the reported infor
mality in the returns from the Mill ville and South
Amboy townships, both of which gave a locofoco ma
jority. Let us examine more particularly into this
point, and, to illustrate, we will give the nnmber of
votes polled for each candidate:
Whin*. I Locofocos.
John B. Ayerit'g ? 28.294 i Philrmau Dickcrsoj - J8.453
Johu P B. Mniwell ? 28 383 | Peter D. Vroom - ? 28,4?2
Win. HaUtead - ? 28,3 36 | Daniel B Kynll - - 29,441
Ch.irleiC. Straltan . 2^,396 | William 11. Ijooixr - *.28,446
Thomu Jmm flu ? ? ?
Thomas June* York* 28 321
Jostph F. Randolph . 28,427
Jotepli Rille . . - 28,427
Manning Fores - . 28,314
This shows a majority for five locofocos and one
whig. They are elected? if nothing illegul is proved
against the returns, according to the Taw of New
Jersey, which reads thus : ? " The six persons who
have the greatest number of votes from the whole
State shall be the Representatives in the Congress of
the United States from this State." So far it is very
plain. Hut it appears that the returns from MillvilJe
and South Amboy were rejected bv thv county clerks,
in consequeuce of the former arriving six hours af
terthe time specified, and the latter arriving without
the signature of the election clerk. Throwing oat
these returns, the whig candidates are elected, and
vice verta.
As the majority of either party, in the next Con
gress, will depend on this state", both factions are
rabid, and will contest the election to their utter
most. The whigs have the advantage thus far, for
their candidates have the certificates, but the loco
focos say that they have so many precedents for the
legality ef tbeir course, that it will be utterly im
possible for the whigs to retain, if they once
possession, of the seMs in dispute. Hut the whigs
and locofocos all lie like Satan, and it is impossible
to say which is right, er which wrong. In the Mill
ville* affair, something similar occurred in l!$32, and
in the same township. The returns were sent in
six or seven hour* alter the time allotted ; but, then,
they were not refused, and " why," the locofocos
ask " should they be now 1" In the South Amboy
case, they say that a dozen precedents will be brought
forward; but we have no particular one to give, and
here rests the matter for the present. We now give
the votes in the disputed townships, merely for re
ference and reflection :
Lorn foco
Mill'ille 800 1,23*
Kouth A in hoy 204 1,776
Aggregate 864 3,011
Here is a case upon which hangs the destiny of
the greatest nation la existence, though both parties
are as corrupt as they can be. It is so much lute the
recent Pennsylvania affair that it may result the sane
for there is no telling what may happen. Everyone
is aequainted with the particulars of that dispute and
the manner m which it ended. The whigs then were
clearly in the wrong, but whether tbey are or are not
in this case remains to be seen. It i* connected with
and involves so many important questions that it will
be the first thing brought up after a Speaker is elect
ed if there is net a fight before hand.
The foregoing exhibits the precise position of the
question. How will it end? '1 his no one yet knows,
but we are sure that the dispute will create such an
excitement on the meeting of Congress, that not onlr
one but two speakers may be elected. The difficul
ty may cause a division in the House of Representa
tives ? the locofocos meeting in one place with their
speaker, and the whigs in another with theirs.
Should this be the ease, and it is highly probable,
there will be more fun, folly, wickedness and sin
committed in Washington duri..g next winter, than
was ever before dreamed of. Lying, and cheating,
and fightings, and rows, and nimpnssc*. and rioting,
will reign supreme, and the Capitol will present one
continual scene of roguery, rascality and philosophy
throughout December, January, February, and even
into March. The Lord have mercy on us poor sin
nersrs. Amen.
Tur.ATaicAL Debut. ? To-morrow night Miss
May wood, who made so successful a debv.t in London
last spring, makes her first appearance to a New York
audience in the character of Bianca, iu Fazio Great
curiosity is expressed to see this fair debutante. Oar
letters from Paris and London state that she resem
bles, but is superior, to the celebrated Mademoiselle
Rachael, who has created so great a furor in France*
We have a strong desire to see this most interesting
young actress.
OO* Yesterday we gave intelligenci rc?pef ting the
slaver, M pirate, up to Saturday ra.-niing, thereby
beating every other paper in the city. Kvery day
we beat them in ship news, and, wb-.it in more, we
intend to follow up the advantage we have gained.
fc^-Cnptain Iliern, of the Nicholas Kiddle, frera
Liverpool, reports (peaking on the 7th inst. the
ateamer Rritieh Queen. The lat. and long, are net
given. Captain Roberta reported all well on board
the Queen. Captain II. aaw nothing of (he Greet
W eatern.
ftrj-llugh Terrrnre and John Rock, were eech fin
ed ?10 in Albany laat week for riotova, conducted in
struggling for baggage the arrival wfthe steamers.
Why not fine e few of auch runners iiere? They
richly deserve it.
Cmt Riuri. ? Some of the Wall street paper*
are talking very large and leng of a batter, named
Jarvis, who preaented a new hat to >lr. Clay, and
took the nld hat in return. The following it a*
extract : ?
MJar?ia still haa the Old Hat, ami avnwa hi* intention of
k* aping It a? Inn* <*? h* Uvea, ana wh*n iltr? )if tlrrlsrea be
Mill Wrqarathit aa an hf if Inow te his rlOett bmn an * aseat
preciom legsejr."
I can match thia "old hat." 1 have got one of the
roses which fell from the coronet, made by the six
young ladies at Saratoga, and used on the great day
of bis coronation. Thia ia an heiHoom aa valuable
aa that of Jarvis'a. Ia it notl
Siw? Sinn Sympathy. ? A aet oi political block
beada ia now at Sing Sing, trying to make out that
the raar.ala confined there are badfy u??-d. Why don't
th?y get a pardon from Governor reward ? bring
these rogues out at once ? rnise a fond in Wall atreet
and have them boarded at the Aator honar 1 I reside
at the Astor House now, and can b? ar witness to the
good entertainment for man and beaat. I do verily
believe the silly whigs will take more pains to be
defeated neat fall, than the locofoeot tvill to gain the
' victory.

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