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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, December 07, 1844, Image 2

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When it niijht, would endanger the general peace, and
hair Bach Mexico might be the loeer by it.
la tho mean iii?*,the condition of T>iu would be render
ed uncertain, Uer settlement end prosperity in conse
quence retarded, an J bei commerce crippled, while the
fyaerai jwa.e would bj rendered much mure insecure.
: could i.ot but greatly sifdct ua. li the annexation of
Texas should be |?rmuted to take place p^oooably now,
(as it wuuli, wuuouiihe interference ol otner powers,)
me eurr^iu ul our people would, fur along tune to come,
be directed to tue puc jabi? pursuit* ol redeeming, aud
bun<in< aritniu Uiu pole ol cultivation, improvement*
aud ci? an tiiou, in it large portion ul tne continent lying
b.-uvee.i .tleXtc > o.i oue aide, aud tne Biitish possessions
ou the other, wnich u uow, wuu little exception, a wil
derness with a sparse population, consisting, tor the moat
part, ul wandering indiaii tribe*
it i.ourdeitiujr to u.'.oup, tint vast regiin; to intersect
it with roads an I canals; to hll >t with dtius, towus, vtl
la|M,md larms; to exteudoverit our religion, customs,
constitution an I lawn; aud to preaeut it as .1 pei. elul aud
apleniid addition to the domains ol couiuieice and civi
lisation. It 1a our policy to increase, by growing aud
(presiding out into unoccupied regions, assimilating ail
we mcoiporate; iu a word, to increase by accretion, and
not, through conquest, by the addrion 01 masses held to
gainer by trie cuuesion of lorce. No?ylitem cau be more
unsuied to the litter proceaa, or better adapted 10 the
former, thau our admirable lederal system. It it should
not he resisted iu ita course, it will probably fulfil ita dea
tiny without disturbing our neighbors, or putting in jeo
pardy the general p< ace; but if it be opposed by foreign
luierleieice, a new direction woul I be given to our eoer
gy. much loss tarorable to harmony with our neighbors,
11.id to tne geueitl pence ol the world.
Che ci inge would be 11 desirable to us, an I much 1> a*
io x ooidauce arith >1141 I uave a-sutiiaU iu- b primary
o"j 0.1 ui policy on tbe part ol Krauoe, Engiund, aud
M-xi o.
d it to d< *ce.id 10 pat'icuUr': it ia cenain that while
E a-vd, K? Kri ioe, de?ir.s tn? 1 dope d. ne o' i'exa>,
1.'1 . ta view to c .iii ueraiil connexion., it lanot iea? ??>,
11 -me oi iiie lend >g motlvea or Ennlsnd d -mug it,
i.the u.ipethti, 'in usli her tiipi macy and iuti 1 nc-,
Uegru *1 iVeiy m iy b ? h .lishi d there it. d ullieialei) , by
cu ? ? q leuoe, ia l1* United tjtiis and throughout the
while i.f tiki * c.uun lit That ita Ultimate ab >11 i hi
thr <u<nuut the cu ire continent ia an object ardently de
sired by u r, we have deciiv. proof iu ilia ducUrati m
ul tne Eir) i.f Aberdeen delivered to this dep .nm.nt,
uud i f which you will fiiid a espy umong <he docu
ineuta trdn,united to Congress with tue 1'exiao ueaty.?
Thut >he deairea ita abolition in Texas, and haa used
her iiidnenCH and diplomacy 'o eltect it there, the name
docuHi' nt, with the correspondence of this department
with Mr. PaHenbaa*. siao to be lound among the docu
ine.iU, lurm>h *? pioof not less coucluxive. That one of
1 He obj. cta of ubuiishiug it there, ia to facilitate ilsuboli
lion iu the United States, aud throughout the continent,
is maniUst fium the declaration ul the abolition party aud
Mtcieties, b >th iu this country and iu England. In fact,
there is goo.', reason tu believe that the scheme tf abul
i'hi'ig 1, iu Ttxa*, wi h the view to ita uhjliiiou in the
United St itt a and over the continent, oii^inated with the
promi.ient Mem here ?f the inrty it the United Stales;
and wan fl'st broach* d t/>" th-ni iu the (so called) World 'a
Ci/uvxuiion, held iu L :cdouiu iheyear 1841', und through
its agency brought to the notice of the Biitish govern
ment
Now, I hold, not only that Prance can Lave
no interest in tue consummation of this grand
scheme which England hopes to accomplish through
Texas, il she cau anient the annexation ; but that her in
terest, and those of all the continental powera of Europe,
are directly and deeply opposed to it
ft is too late in the day to contend that humanity or
pUilaothropy is the grtat object of the policy ol England
in attempting to abolish African slavery on this continent.
I do nut question but humanity may him been one of her
leading inotivos fir the abolition of the Aftiean slave
trace, aud that it may hive had ? considerable influence
in ubolisiiing slavery in tier West India d issessiona ?
aided, indeed, hy the fallacious calculation tnat the labor
ol the negroes would b>* at loait us profitable, il not mere
no, in councquence of the measure. She acted on the prin
ciple that trupical products can bo produced cheaper by
tree African tabor an t Kast India labor, thin by slave
labor. She knew full well the valuo of such product*
to her commerce, navigation, navy, manufactures, reve
nue, and power. She was not Jcnoraut that the support
of her political prtpmderauce depended on her tropical
possessions, and hud no intention of diminishing their
productiveness, nor any snticipa ion that such would be
the effect, when thn scheme ol abolishing slavery in her
colonial possessions was adopted. On the contrary, she
ealcula'ed 10 combine philanthropy with profit and pow
er, as is not unusual with fanaticism. Experience has
couviucsl her of the fullacy of her calculations. She
lias failed in all her objects. The labor ol her negroes has
provod /ar less productive, without affording the consola
tion ol haviog improved their condition.
Tbe experiment has turned out to be a costly one. She
txp.jnded nearly one hundred millions of dollars in in
demuifying the owners of the emancipated slaves. It is
estimated that|the increased price paid since, by the people
ofOreat Brit tin, lor sugar and other tropical productions,
in cousti]uence ol the measures, is equal to half that sum ;
n I that twice that amount has been expended in the sup
pression ol the slave trade; making together, two hundred
and lift y millions of dollars as the cost ol the experiment,
lustead of realizing her hope, the result has been a sad
disappointment. Her tropical products have fallen off to
a vast amount. Instead ol supplying her owu wants and
those of nearly nil Europe with them, as formerly, she has
now, in some of the most important articles, scatcely
enough to supply her owo. What ia worse, her own colo
uies are actually contuming sugar produced by alave la
bor, brought direct to Englund, or refiaed in bond, and
exported and sold in her colonies as cheap or cheaper than
taeycai be produced there : while the slave trade, in
stead of diminishing, hua been in tact carried on to a great
er extent thau ever. So disastrous has bet 11 the result,
that her fixed capital vested in tropical possessions, esti
mated at the value of nearly fire hundred millions of dol
lars, is said to stand on the brink of ruin.
But this is net the worst While tbWcostly scheme has
had such ruinous ell' cts on the tropical productions of
Oreat Britain, it has given, a powertul stimulus,loliowed
by a corresponding increase of products, to those coon
triea which have nad the giml sense to shun her vxample.
There haa been vested, it is estimated by then, ia the
producii >n ef tropical produc's, tince 1908, in fixed
capital, nearly $4 om 000,000, wholly dependent on slave
labor. In the same period, the value of their products
his been estimated to have risen from about $7d,000,000
annually, to nearly $]20M4.u00 ; while the whole of tbe
fix?d .capital of Great Biitain, vested in cul ivatiog tro
pical products, both in the ??*' arid West Indies,
i< rstimned at only about $S80,000,000, and tbe
value of the products aunuaiiy at about $ jtl 000 000
To present u s'itl more stiiking vi w of thr.e
articles o ttopical products, (sugar, coftee, and cotton,)
the British posseasieus, including tbe West a id East In
dies and Mauritius, produced, in ln42, uf sugar only
3,99i 771 pounds; whilo Cuba, Brazil, and the Uuited
S ates, excluding o<her countries having 'ropicul posses
sions produced 9 600,OOt) pounds; of coffe, the British
possessions produced onlv 37,393 003, while l.uba and
Brazd produced 'J01,b90,IJA pounds; and wf cotton, tbe
B iti.h po?s*?aioiis, including shipments to China, only
137,443 441 pounds, while the United States alone produced
7JO 479 J7S pounds.
Ths above facts and estimate' have all been drawn from
u Br uah periodical of high standing and authority, and
are believed to be entitled te credit.
This vast increase 01 the capital and production on thr
part of th ise nations who have continued their farmer
puncy toward* the negio race, compared with that 01
tlre.it Britain, indicates a corresponding relative inerease
of the uieaua of commerce, naviga'ion, manufactures,
wealth, und power. It is no longer a question of dtnbt,
hat the great source of the wealth, prospeiity, and pow
srof the more civilized nations ol the temperate zone, (es
pecially Europe, wh?re the arts Wave made the greatest
advance,) depends, in a great decree, on the exchange ol
their products with those of the tropical regions So
great has been the advauce made in the arts, both chem
ical and mechanical, within the lew last generations, that
all the old civilized nations can, with bat a small part of
their labor and capital, supply their respective wants :
which tends to limit within narrow bounds tbe amount
of the commerce between them, and forces them all to
seek for markets in the tropical regions, and the more
n?wiy settled portions of the globe. Those who can best
Hucceed in commanding those markets, bave the beat
prospect ol outststripping the others in the career of com
merce, navigation, manufactures, wealth, and powtr.
This is seen and felt by British statesmeo, and has open
ed their eyes to the errors which they have committed.?
Tbe question now with them is, how shall it be counter
acted I What haa been done cannot be undone. The
question is, by what meana can Oreat Britain regain and
keep a superiority in tropic 1 cultivation, commerce and
infl lence I Or, shill that be abandoned, and other na
tions be suffered to acquire the supremacy, even to the
ex'ent of supplying British markets, to the destruction
of the capital already vested in their production ? These
are the questions w hich now profoundly occupy Ihe at
tention of her statesmen, and have the greatest influence
over ner councils.
In ord r to regain her superiority, she not only seeks
to revive and increase her owu capacity to produce tro
pical productions, but to diminish and destroy the capa
city of those who have so lar outstripped her in come
quence of her error. In pursuit of tne former, she has
cMt her eyes to her Esst India possessions?to central and
eastern Atrica?with the view ol establishing colonies
there, and even to restore, substantially, the slave trade
itaalf, under the specious namti of transporting fr>e
laborers from Africa to her West In*li? possessions, iu
order, if possible, to compete successfully with those
who have refuted to follow her suicidal policy. But
these ail atfard but unoertain and distaut hopes of
recovering her lost superiority. Her main reliance is
on the other alternative--to cripple or destroy
the prodnctions of her successltil rivals. There is but
one way by which it can badone, and that is by abolish
ing African slavery thionghout this continent; and that
she openly avows to be the constant object of her policy
and ex?rtions. It matters not how, or from what motive,
it may bn done?whether it be by diplomacy, iufluence,
or lorce; by secret or open means, and whether the mo
tive be hum?ne or selfish, without regard to manner,
means, or motive. The thing itsell, should it be accom
plished, would put down all rivalry, and give her the
undisputed supremacy in supplying her own wants and
those ot the rest ot the world, and th ireby more than
fully retrieve what abe haa lost by her error*. It would
give her the Monopoly ef tropical produotion*, which I
shall next proceed to show.
What would be the conaequenee if thia *bj-et of her
unceasing solicitude and exertions should be (fleeted by
the abolition of negro slavery throughout this continent,
some idei may fcefoimed from the immense diminution
of productions, as baa boen ahown, which has followed
abolition in her West India poaaaeeions. But, as great us
that has been, it is nothing compared to what would be
the ?ffect il she should succeed in abolishing slsvery in
the United States, Cuba, Brazil, and throughout this con
tinent. The experiment in her own colonies wss made
under the most favorable circumstance*. It was brought
.?bout gradually and peaceably, by the steady and firm
operation ol the parent country, armed witn compete
power to prevent or crush at once all Insurrectionary
movemen's on the part of the negroes and able and dis
posed to maintain to tho full the political and social as
r en lency of tbe former masters ovur their former slaves.
It is not at all wonderful that tha change of the relations
ur matter sad sisvetook place under such circumstances,
VLV0* an'' bloodshed, and that order and peace
snonld hsve be,ii since preserved. Very diir-rent would
be the result ol "boll-ion, should it be effivt-il by her in
r?ion? In the possessions of other countries
? ifT MP*r-"??y In 'he United ntates,
t^oiVatcultivator* or the principal
* # Xs^ " A?"!0" To fornl ft concep
L7^t.W0"MhVh' MTOlt wi'htliem, wn must
ki not to Jamaica, Lut to Bt Domingo, for example.
Theohaog* would ba followed by unforgiving hate be
Ivmo the two rac??, and end in ? bloody eud
struggle betweeu them firth* e*p?riorlty Oa#?rlh?
other would bore to besobjajtatedjextirpat. d,or exp^led
?ad desolation would over?preaJ their lerutoriee, ?? ?"
81. Domingo, from which it would take centuries to it
cover. '1 he end would ba, that the luperiority in cult -
vating the greet tropical emples would be trauU-irred
from hem to the BH i?h trvp cal p:>B?ee?ioiis.
Tnev are of va.i extent, end tuo?e beyond the Gape ft
O<od Hope itoitetard ot an unlimited amount oi l.Dor
?tending ready, by the aid of B.fuk capital, to supply
the d licit which would be occanK-ued b> destroying the
tropicni production* uf the United tttttii Cuba, Bran
and ottter countries cultivated by slave labor on tin* con
tinent, so noon m the increased price, in consequence.
would yield a p/xifit. It ia the succ sslul competition of
that labor which keeps the prtcea of the great tropical sta
ples so low, as to prevent their oult.va.ion witli profit in
tbe possessions of Ureal Britain, by what she is pit used
to call fre i labor. If she can destroy Its competition, she
would have a monopoly in thoae productions. She has
all the means ol lurnishing an unlimited supply ; vast and
tortiie possessions in botu Indies, boundless command ol
capital and labor, and ample power to supprtssoistuib.
ances, and preserve order throughout her wide domains.
It is unqiesiiouable, that she regards the aboliuou of
slavery iu Texas as a most important step towards this
great object of policy, so much the aim of her solicitude
and exertion* ; and tne defeat of the annexation ol Texas
to our Union hi indiipeD'ibk to the abolition iliv^ry
there. SUe is too sagacious not to se? whit a iatal blow
it would give to slavery in the Uulted States, and bow
certainly its abolition with us would abolish it
over th? whole continent, and thereby giv? her
a monopo.y in 'hi pioduction* ol the great
tiotmal staple*, aud the command of the com*
m c? uHVigatiuli, and manu actuies of the world,
with an esiuMinned n?v.il a?c ndeucy and political pre
uoiidri auce T? 0>s coniiu?-nt tn? blow i> ould be cala
iniiuus bejond description. It would des ruj , in a graa
m aau'e, (ue cultivation *i?d production ot ihe great tro
).icil ?i ple?, amounting eunualiy iu vaiue to neatly
$3UOt"UOOOO (he lunJ which Miniulatvs aud upholds al
111 .1 ever* oth- r biau' h ol us industry,commerce, navi
aaiion, and manuiactu'es The whole, by their joiut in
HueiicM, are rapidly spreading population, weal'h, im
,iiov. nient, and civilization over the whole continent,
aad vivify ing, by their overflow, tbe industry ol Europe ;
inereby increasing its populations, wealth, and advance
ment in the arts, iu power, and in ci vilization
Such must be tne result, should Grest Britain succeed
in accomplishing the constant objact ol her desire aud ex
ertions?the obolitiou of negro slavery over this conti
nent : and towards the effecting ol which she regards the
deleat of the anuexition of Texas to our Uuiou 10 lUjpor
tent. Can it be posihle that govenmentaso enlightened and
aa^acioux us those ot France and the other great continen
tal powers, can be so blinded by the plea of philanthto
py as not to see what must inevitably l> How, l>e her mo
tive what it mav, should ?h? succeed in her objects . it
is little short rf mockery to tatk of philanthropy, with
the examples before us ol tho rffacts of abolishing
slave) y in her own colonies, iu 8t. Domingo, end ine
northern States ol our Bnion. where statistical fact", not
to be shaken, prove that the freed uegro, slier the i xpo
rienca oi sixty yesre, is in a far wor e condition than in
thi other States, where he has been leit it* his former
condition. No: ihe tffict of what is called abolition,
where the number is few, is not to raise the ii.fetur race
to the condition of freemen, but to deprive the negro of
the guaidian csreof his owner, subject to all the denies
sion and oppresvioa belonging to hisinfeiior condi ion.
But, on the other band, where the number is greet, and
bears a large proportion to tbe whole population, it would
be still worse. It would be to substitute lor the existing
relation a deadly strife between the two races, to
end in the subjection, expulfion, or extripation of
one or the other: and such would be the case
ovorkhelgreaterpartol this continent whereslavery exists
It would not end there: but would in all probability ex
tend, by its example, the war of races over all South
America, including Mexico, and extending to the Indian
as well as to the Atricsn race, and make the whole one
scene of blood and devastation. . . ,
Diainieairg, tlicu, iti? uufvunflCfl plea OI pnl
lanthropy, can it be that France and the other great con
| tinental powers?seeing what must be the result of the
policy, for the accomplishment of which England is con
stantly exerting herself, and that tho deleat ol the annex
ation of Texas is so important towards its consummation
?are prepared to back or countenance her in her efforts
to effect eith r T What possible motives can they have
to favor her cherished policy 7 Is it not better lor
them that they should be supplied with tropical pro
ducts in exchango for their labor, from the United
Suites, Brazil, Cuba, and this continent generally, than
to lie dependant on one great monopolizing power,
for their supply? Is it not butter that they should
receive them at the low prices which competition, cheup
er means ol production, and nearness of market, would,
furnith them by the former, than to give the high prices
which monopoly, dear labor, and great distance lrom mar
ket would impose ? 1? it not better that their labor should
be exchanged with a new continent, rapidly increasing
iu population and the capacity for consuming, and which
would furnish, in the course of a lew generations, a mar
ket nearer to th>m, and of almost unlimited extent; lor
the products or their industry and arts, than with old and
distant regions, whose population has long since reached
it* growth 7 ... 1.,
Tue above contains those enlarged views ol policy
which it seems to me, au enlightened European states
man ought to take, in making up his opinion on the
subject of tho annexation of Texes, and tha grounds,
as it may be inferrrd, on which England vainly op
poses it. They certainly involve considerations of
the deepest importance, and demanding the greatest
attention. Viewed in connexion with them, the ques
tion of annexation becomes one ol the first mag
nitude, not only to Texas and the United Sutes
but to this continent aud Kui?|?. 't'hoy are premn ?|
that you may use them on all suitable occasions, where
vou think they may be with effect ; In your corrAHpopd
ence, where It can be done with propriety or otherwise.
The President relies with confidence on your sagacity,
prudence, and real. Your mnsioti is oue of the first mag
nitude at all imos, but especially now ; aud he icew u?
aursd not lung will h? left Uii.louu an youvpait to do jus
tice to the country and the government in reference to
'k'i'have said nothing as to our right of treating with
Texas, without consulting Mexico. You so fully under
stand the grounds on which we rest our right, and are so
tamiiiar with aU the facta necessary to maintain Uiem,
I that it was not thought necessary to add anything in re
ference to it. , ,,
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient^er^nt,^
William R. Kino, Esq , Sc3.
Ma. Shannon to Ma. Calhoun.
[Extract ]
Mexico, Oct. 38, 1844.
Sia,?Your despatch of the 10th September last reached
me oil the I Jth instant; and, in compliance with your in
Htructions, I lost no time in addressing to the Minister of
Foiegu Relations of this government a communication
? xprr?siv?> of the views of the President ol the United
States in rel tion to a renewal of the war on tbe part oi
vlexico against Texan, and to the manner in whicu it is
prepoa d to be conducted. A<tcompany ing this despatch,
you will find a copy ol this communication, man ed No
I I have rtceived no reply, as jet, to this no'e. and can
not say when one may b? expected Pr. sident Santa Anna
is at bis hacienda, near Jalapa; aud until he can be heard
from, no reply will be given. The uncertainty ol tbe
ime when a reply will be received, has determined me to
deiay this despstch no longer.
? ? ? ? * *
? __
Ma. Shannon to Mb- Rhon.
Leuation or thi: Unithj States,
Mexico, October 14, 1844
The undersigned, envoy extraoidinnry and minister
plenipotentiary ol tbo United States ot Ametica, has tbe
honor to inform his excellency M. C. Hejon, minister of
toriisn relations and uoveinmeut of'he repuolic of
Mexico, that the President of the United States has learned
with deep regret that tbe Mexican government has an
nounced its determination to renew the war against the
republic of Texai, and is now engaged ia extensive pre
paration* with a view vo an early invasion ol its territory )
and instructs the undersigned to protest, in the moat
solemn form, both against lie invasion at this time, aad
the manner in which it is proposed to be conducted.
The orders ol the commander of tbe army of the north,
(General Woll,) Wsued on the 20th of June last, and tho
uecree of the provisional President of the Mexico, of the
iTihof June, 1843, leave no doubt ai to the minner in
which the war ii to be conducted The decree makes
the general in-chiel of division cf the army, and the com
mandan'-generalof the coast and frontier, responMble f.ir
its exact fn filment. It was under this responiitility.it
would seem, that General Woll,' to whom the Texan
Irontier was assigned, issued his order of the 20th ot
June.
Alter announcing that the war was renewed against
Texas ; that all communication with itroii't cease ; and
mat every individual of whatsoever condition, who may
nave communication with it. shall be regarded as a traitor,
and, as such, punished according to the articles of war ;
it states that every indivtdual who may be lound at the
distance of one league from the left bank of the Rio
Bravo will be regarded as ? favorerand an accomplice of
the usurpers of that part of tha national territory, wd us
a traitor to Mexico, and, after a summary military trial,
nhall be putiish? d accoidingly. It also atates that evei y
Individual who maybe embraced in the foregoiog, and
who may be rash enough to fly at tha light of any torce
belonging to tho supreme government, shall be pursued
until taken or put to death.
In what spirit the decree of the 17th June, which the
Older is intended tw lullil, is to be extcuted, the fate of the
party under Goneral Sentmanat, at Tobasco, Mffjrdi an il
lustration. Undvr it, they were arrested and executed,
without hearing or trial, against the express provision of
the constitution and the sanctity ol treaties, which were
in vain invoktdfor their protection.
If the decree itself wai thus enlorccd, in tiireof peace,
against the aubjecU of lereign powers, some laint concep
tion may be formed of the barbarous and inhuman aplnt
in which the order of Oeneri.1 Woll may be expected to
he executed sgaiost the inhabitants of Texas, and all who
may in any way aid th? ir causa, or even have commum
cation with them .
It was under a decree of a similar character, issued on
th? 30 h of October, 1835, but not so comprehensive
or barbarous in its provisions, that the execution ol
Fannin anJ his pirty was ordered, in a firmer in
vaaion. This decree waa limited to foreigners who
should land at any port of Mexico, or arrive by Innd,
and having hostile intentions, or who should intro
duce arma or munitions ot war to be used at any
nisei) in rebellion, or placed in the hands of ita enemies
Highly objectionable as were iU provisions, the order
of General Woll, intended to carry out that oI June,
IS48 goes lar beyond It. It embrace* every Individual
who may be lound east of a line drawn three miles east of
the Rio Bravo, without diatinction of age or sex, foreign
ers or citixans, condition or vocation. Allot every de.
?crlption are to bo treated as ttaltora It proclaims, in
iliort, a war of extermination ; all are to be destroyed or
driven out, and Texas left a desolate waste.
Such is the barbarous mode In which the government
I ol Mexico has proclaimed to the world it is her intention
o conduct the war And here thw inquiry nit'irally
ui?es,?what is her object in renewing at this time a war,
to be thus conducted, which has been virtually ?u*j end
"d for eight yearn, and when her tcsoarces are known ti>
Dri so exhausted us to leave her without the means ot lul
rilling her unprmtements7 But one object can be asaignerf,
nnd that ia to deie.at the annexation ol Texas to the United
Htstes. She knows tail well that the measure is still
.'ending, and thut the rejection ol the treaty has but post
iponed it. She knows that when Congress adjourned, it
wm pending in both homes, ready to bo taken up and
acted upon at its next meeting, and that it is at present
actively canvassed throughout the Union. She i-i uot ig
n-rant that the decision will in oil probability be in Ha
favor, unless it ?hould bo defeated by sumo movement ex
terior to the United States. The projected invasion of
l'exus by Mexico, ut this time, is that movement ; and it
is intended to ettect it, either by conquering and sot'jiiga
ting Texas to her power, or by foicing her te withdraw^
n r proposition lor annexation! and to lorm other con."
uux ons leas acceptable to her.
The United States cannot, w hile the measure of a?nex
tion la pending, stsnd quietly by. and permit either of
these results. It baa been a measure ot policy longcher
1 bed, and deemed indispensable to their safety aud wel
fare; and has accordingly been an object steadily pureued
by all pai tiwa, and the acquisitieu ot the territory niB\e
the subject ot negotiation hy almost every administration
for the laat twenty years. This jK>licy may be traced to
the belief, generally entertained, tbat Texaa was em
braced in the cession of Louisiana by France to the
United States in 1803, and was improperly surrendered by
the treaty ol Florida in 1619; connected with the fact that
a large portion ol the territory liea in the valley ol the
Mississippi, And is indispensable to the defence of a distant
and important frontier. The hazard of a conflict of policy
upou impoitant points between the United States and one
of the leading European powers, since the rt cognition of
Texas, has rendered the acquisition still more essential to
their salety and welfare, and accordingly baa increased
in proportion the necessity ol acquiring it. Acting under
the conviction ol this necessity, and the impression that
the measure would be permanently defeated by a longer
postponement, the Preaident of the United States invited
f'exasto reue.w the proposition for annexation. It was
accepted by her, and, as has been stated, ia still pending.
And h>re the question again rer.uis, Snail the United
States quietly stand by, on the eve of lis consummation,
and pei mit the measure to be deleated by an invasion by
Memco I And shall they jutfer Texas, lor having ac
cepted an mvi'ation to j >in then1, and consummate a
meusure alike essential to her aud their peimanent peace,
w.llare, and safety, to be desolated, her inbabitauta to be
butchered or driven out; or. in ore ur to avi rt so great a
calamity, to belorced, against her will, into oiner al
liances, which would terminate in producing lastiug
hostilities ket veen her and them, tothe permanent danger
ot both 7 , .
The President has fully and deliberately examined the
subject, and has come to the conclfision tbat honor and
humanity, as well as the salety ar>d welfare of the United
States, torbid it; and he would accordingly be compelled
to regard the invasion of Texaa by Mexico, while the
question of annexation is pending, as highly offensive to
tne United States. He entertains no doubt that they had
a right to invite her to renew the proposition lor annexa
tion ; and that she, as an independent state, had a right to
accept the invitation, without consulting Mexico or ask
ing her leave- He regards Texas, in e.veiy respect, as in
dependent as Mexico, and as competent to transler the
whole or part of her territory, aa she is to transfer the
whole or part of hers. Net to insist on the unquestiona
ble right ol Texas to be regarded and treated in allri
sju'cuasau independent power, on the ground that who
h is successfully resisted Mexico and preserved her inde
pendence for nine years, and has been recognized by
other powers as independent, it is only necessary to re
cur to the constitution of 1621, to show that she is per
fectly entitled to be so regarded and treated. Under that
constitution, she, with Coabuiia, formed a separate State,
constituting one member of the federation ot the Mexican
States, with a right secured to Texas, by the constitution,
to form a separate State as soon as her population
would warrant it. The several Btatea of the federa
tion were equal in rights, and equally independent of
each other; and remained so until 1833, when the
constitution was subveited by the army, and all the
States which dared to resist were subjugated and
consolidated into one, by force, except Texas. 8be
stood up bravely in deience of her rights and inde
pendence, and successfully asserted them on the bat
tle-ground of San Jacinto in 1838, and has ever since
maintained them. The constitution, then, of 1824, made
her independent, and her valor and her sword have since
maintained her so. She has been acknowledged to be so
by thraaot the loading powers ol Christendom, and is re
garded by all as such, except by Mexico heiself She
neither now stands nor ever bas stood in relation to Mexi
co, as arebellious province or department struggling to
obtain independence after.throwing off her yoke much
li-ss as a band of lawless intruders and usurpers, without
government or political existence, as Mexico would have
the world to believe. On the contrary, the true relation
between them is that of having been independent mem
bers of what was once a federal government, but now
subverted by force; the weaker of which has succcss
lully resisted, against fearful odds, the attempts of the
stronger to conquer and subject her to its power. It is in
this light that the United Hia'es regard her; and in that
they had the right to invite her to rene.w the proposition
for annexation, -nd to treat with her lor admission into
the Union, without giving any just olience to Mexico, or
violating auy obligation, by treaty or otherwise, between
us and her.
Nor will our honor, any more than our welfare and
salety, permit onnexa ion to be defeated by an invasion ol
Texas, while the question is pending. If Mexico has
thought proper to take oiiVnce, it is the United Slates,
who invited a renewal of the proposition, aud not Texas,
who accepted the invitation, which should be held respon
sible ;v,and we, as the responsible party, cannot, without
implicating our honor, permit another to sutler in our
place. Entertaining these views, our honor and interests
being both involved, Mexico will make a great mistake if
she supposes that tho President can regard with indif.
ference the renewal of the war which she bas pioclaimed
against Texas
But another, and still moie elevated consideration,
would forbid him to regard the invasion with indiffer
ence. Strong as the objections to it, of itself, arc, in con
nexion with existing circumstances, those to the man
uer in which it is proclaimed it will bo conducted aro
sill more so. U honor and interestjorbiij
crBP'WoAtf1 ekaiiikt tho pioposed mode ot conducting it.
All tho world have aa interest that lh>a rules and usages
of war, as established between civili*ed nations in modern
times should bo respected, and are in duly bound to re.
kist their vioUtiou.iu order to preserve them. in this case,
that duty is pre-eminently ours. We are neighbors; the
nouro&t to the scone, oi tho propoaedatiocitie#} tlie molt
competent to judge, from our proximity, and, for the
same reason, enabled the more readily to interpose. For
the same reason, also, our sympathies would be more
deeply roused by the scenes #1 misery which would pre
sent themselves on all sides; not to mention the dangers
to which we must be exposed, in consequence of an in
vasion so conducted, near a distant and weak Irontier,
with numerous aud powerful bands of Indians in Its vi
II anything can add to these strong objections to the
manner iu which it is*proc.laimed the war will be waged,
it is the fiction, regardless ol the semblance af reality, to
which the government ot Mcxiao has resorted as a pre
text for the decrae of the 17th of June 1843, and the or
ders of General Woll oi the 20th of Juno last Finding
nothing in ihs conduct or people ot Texaa tojustily their
baibarotis character, and paipsble violation of the laws
ol nations and humanity, it has assumed, in wording theui,
that there is no such government or communiiy as Texa<;
th?t the individuals to be lound there are lawless intru
ders and usurpeis, without political existence, who may
be ngbtlully treated as a gang ot pirates and outcaats
from Society, and, as such, are uot entitled to ?he protec
tion ot the laws ol nations or humanity. In this assump
tion the government ol Mexico ob>tinately presists, in
?pite ol the well-known fact, universally admitted by all
except itsi It, that the colonists who settled Tesas, instead
ol being intrudeis and usurpers, were mv.ted to settle
theie, first under a grant by the Spanish authority to
Moses Austin, which was alterwards confirmed by the
Maxicau authoritj; aud alterwards bj similar grants
Irom the State of Coahuil* and Texas, which it was au
thorized to make by the constitution of 1824. They came
there, than, as invited guests;?uot invited lor their own
interests, but for those ot Spiin and Mexico, in order to
protect a weak and helpless province Irom wandering
tribes of Indians, to improve, cultivate, and render pro
ductive, tv ild and aimuit uninhabited wast en j and to make
that valuable which was before worthless.
All this they ?fleeted at great cost and much donger
and difficulty, which nothing but American energy,
industiy, and perseverance could have overcome?not
only uuaided by Mexico, but in despite of the inpedimauts
caused by her interference, lnatead, than, of a lawless
band ot adventurers, as they are assumed to be by the the
government of Mexico, these invited colonists becamc, in
a lew years, constituent portions ol one of the members
ol the Mexican federation ; aud, since their separation,
have established wise and free institutions, under the
influence ol which they have enjoyed peace and security;
while their energy and industry, protected by equal laws,
have widely extended tha limits of cultivatian and im
provement. It is such a people, living under such insti
tutions, successfully resisting all attacks from the period
of their reparation nine yeais ago, aud who have been
recognisid and admitted into the lamily of nations, that
Mexico ha? undertaken to regard as a lawltss bani.itti,
aud against whom, as such, she has proclaimed awaref
extermination ; forgetful of their esatted and generous
humanity in relusing to exercise the just right ol retalia
tion when, in a former invasion, victory placed in their
hands the most ample means of doing so. The govern
ment of Mexico may delude itself by its IIiUons, but it
cannot delude the rest ol the world. It will be hold res
ponsible, not by what it may choose to regard as facts,
but what are in reality such, and acknowledged so t? be
by all, save itaell.
Such are the views entertained by the I resident of the
United States in regatd to the pioposed invasion while
the question of anneaation is pending, and ol the barbar
ous and bloody manner in which it ia proclaimed it will
be conducted : and, in conformity to his instructions,
the uudersigned solemnly protests agaiust both, as highly
injurious and offensive to the United States.
The undersigned, while n akicg this protest and declar
ation, has been instructed at thesama time to repeat to his
excellency tho Minister of Foreign Relations and On
vcrnmeut of Mexico, what was heretofore communicated
to hiui by the charge d'affaires of tho United State*, in
announcing the conclusion of the treaty,?that the
measure was adopted in no spirit of hostility to Mexico ;
and that II annexation should be consummated, the United
States will be prepared to adjust all qutstious growing
out of it, including that of bauudary, on the roost liberal
The undersigned avails himself of thia occasion to
renew to his excellency M. C. Kejon, minister of foreign
relations, and government ol the republic ol Mexico, the
insurance ef bis distinguished consideration.
WILSON SHANNON.
To his Exoellency M. C. IUjo*.
Minister of Foreign Relations, &.C.
Court fob thk Correction ok Error?.-?Tues
day, Dec 4,18-14 ?I'reaent?Senaior Bocker, pre
siding, and 28 oMier Seoarors. On the opening ot the
Court, the following communication was read : ?
Albany, I)?C. 8, 1844
Ho*. Dsnih. S. Dickinson, LiiuT.O0vr.aK0H
Diak Sib? I hereby lesign the oWce af Senator of tha
State ol New York, from the Fifth Senate District.
In srparatiiig fiom the legislative body over which you
creside, permit me to express to you, and to all its mem
bers and officer*, my grateful sense of the frequent mani
festations of your and their kindness towards me, and my
earnest desire ior the welfare and happiness ol each ona
of you. I have the honor to be,
Very respectfully,
Your obedient serv.int,
HKNRY A. FOBTKR.
Thereupon, on motion of Senator Porter,
Resolved, 'i hat the Hon. Abraham Bockee be, and he is
herebv appointed, Prn^idsnt jtrn trm of thia ( oiirt
No :t J,?Supervisors of Onondaga vs. J. J. Brigg* Mr
I I. nnggi wa< heard for the delt. in t rrnr, in person?
vlr. I). B Noxon in reply, i but without concluding the
Court took a rcocM to ?! o'clock, P. M.
NEW YORK HERALD.
I New Kuril, Saturday, December T, W4*.
Weekly Pictorial Herald.
MOCK AUCTION STORE.
The Oyster Cellar Literati Discussing
the Philosophy of the Age In a Orog Shop.
EXTERIOR OF ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL.
1 he Weekly Herald, will be issued thiu muming
at nine o'clock, uncommonly rich in interesting
engravings. Price tij cents.
The Steamer.
No appearance of the Caledonia at Boston at S
o'clock yesterday morning. She was then in her
seventeenth day. Westerly gales, such as those
that damaged the Sea, Uticaand Kalamazoo, have
probably impeded her progress a little.
Texas and Mexico?The Official Correspon
dence.
By incredible labor and expense, we have pro
cured Irom Washington a copy of the official cor
respondence during the last summer between the
United States government and those of Texas and
Mexico, relative to the question of annexation, and
we present these important documents at full length
this morning to our readers. They will be deeply
interesting to all cluBses,especially to the merchants
and politicians.
This correspondence embraces all the diplomatic
negotiations between this government and Texas
and Mexico, during the lata summer up to the
opening of the present session of Congress It pre
sents the commencement of the denouement which
a few weeks or months may bring to an issue, for
there is daily expected at Washington a special
messenger from Texas and Mexico, with further
importantidocument* and correspondence on the
subject,that may have a most important bearing on
the question before Congress. Amongst the docu
ments now published, however, the most impor
tant paper is the letter addressed by Mr. Calhoun,
the Secretary of State, to the Hon. W. R. King,
American Minister at Paris, copies of which have
also been addressed to the American Ministers at
the other European courta. In this letter,Mr.Calhoun
takes high and strong ground against the policy of
Great Britain in relation to abolition and other
questions. We have no doubt thatthiB whole cor
respondence, but particularly this celebrated letter,
will be equal to the bursting of a bomb-shell in
the European diplomatic circles. Its effects we
shall see in time.
We have no time to-day for the further observa
tions which this important correspondence bag
gests. But we cannot close these hurried remarks
without stating that according to our intelligence
from Washington, we are informed that the Mexi
can authorities here have been commanded by
their government, under a certain contingency, to
leave immediately on the issuing of the President's
Message, to proceed to Havana, and then to issue
letters o! marque and reprisal on American csm
merce. Of course such a measure was dictated with
reference to belligerunt movements on the part ol
the President or Congress. At all events,thie Tex
as question is now coming to close quarters. The
recent election of Mr. Polk decided that the peo
ple of the United States are in favor of annexa
tion, as a single naked question, without reference
either to Mexico or any other country. Can the
Senators iu Congress,with this decision of the peo
ple belore them, again dare to oppose the mea
sure 1 Can the Senators of Virginia, who believe
in the dectrine of instruction, oppose it ? Can Mr.
Benton himself, with the vote of Missouri staring
him in the face, oppose it 1
?da^lty?.-8ome lime uBo
Carolina?u Mr. I'.ck,?, -''-"'.1""-'"" ol
a pilgrimage to Tennessee, in order to ascertain
the lengih, breadth, thickness, and other special
attributes of the President elect, on the subject ol
the tarift and other questions; and that having as
certained all these particulars to his satisfaction,
geologically and geographically, he had returned
to South Carolina, and made a full report of his
investigations, which were regularly and officially
published in the Richmond Enquirer. Since that
time, we have no doubt, a number of private mis
sions have been sent out by various political cliquei
of the democracy throughout the country, on
the same and similar errands. We see,
also, by the Morning Newt of yesterday,
that a special mission has been sent on
irom the Van Buren clique of politicians
iu this neighborhood, and that they have had
the good lortune to select one of the most
accomplished diplomatists in these parU?we
mean Major Davezac. It appears by the last ac
counts that he had got as far as Cincinnati on his
way to Tennessee, and probably the next official I
promulgation of his movements will record him as
amongst the arrivals at Nashville.
All these movements are very significant, and
indicate the approach of a great dispensation on the
4th of March next. Mr. Polk himself, at the date
of the last accounts,was on his way Irom Columbia,
through Nashville, to the Hermitage, tor the pur
pose of consulting with the elder branch of the
Hickory lamily, and ascertaining what his views
were of the present position of affairs through
out the country, and particularly what would
be the best materials for the construction of
a new cabinet. We have also sent out our pri
vate diplomatist towards those regions, to report
progress in the Herald, and we have already re
ceived some private despatches which indicate
prrtty broadly, that" old Hickory" will give some
good and sound advice to the young scion ol that
venerable stock, before his flight from Tennessee
towards Philadelphia and Washington?of such a
character, too, as will disappoint many of the poli
ticians. We have it on very good authority, that
the young democracy of the present day are to be
the advisers, and counsellors and associates of the
" Young Hickory," that is to be our President?
and if such should be the case, a very interesting
light is thrown on the certainty of the tenure by
by which all the officials, put in by Cap.^in Tyler,
hold possession of the "spoils."
It is said that Mr. Polk has already been written
to on the subject of Dorr, of Rhode Island, but
that he returned a very cool answer to the enthusi
asts. In a few days, however, we shall receive
from our messenger and diplomatist in Tennessee,
very interesting additional information relatfte to
the views, purposes and pursuits of the President,
and the course which he will probably adopt in
relation to a variety of men and measures.
Tub Electoral Vote.?The 3d inst, was the day
set apart for the meeting of the Presidential Elec
tors in every State in the Union. Among those
heard Irom the utmost harmony prevailed; the
votes were given as the recent elections indicated.
There were no splits as many fondly hoped there
would be
Sudden Death of Doctor S. C. Roe.?We re
gret to state that the Doctor was taken suddenly
ill yrsterduy morning when going to visit a patient.
He feil on the side walk, was taken up by a watch
man and assisted home, when he soon cea se<lo
exist. His heart was supposed to be affected.
Association i*or the Improvement or the Con
dition ok the Poor.?We have a f ull report of the
first meeting of this association, held last evening
in the Tabernacle, in type, but are compelled, Irom
i preps of other valuable matter, to leave it out un
til to-morrow.
Ohio Lioisi.att'rk ?This assembly met on the
2d inst David Chamber* was elected Speaker of
the Senate, and John M. Gallagher of th Home
Catholicity aud Peotestanissi?Da. P)in and
Binoi Hughes?'The eontrovenial leetur w deli
vered t>y the Rev'd. Dr. Piae at St. Peter's church
in this city, and of which we have given ample
and faithf ul reports, have excited a great deal of
attention and remark, aa well amongst Catholics
aa Proteatanta. Dr. Piae ia quite two ingenuous
for the management of polemical discussion. The
amiabl* simplicity, which ia ao characteristic of
this erudite dtv.'ne, leads htm to announce, with"
out the slightest attempt at reserve or conceal me nt,
whatever he really believes, and regardless of the
mannerin which the declaration may be received
by his auditors. The Doctor haa been thus Jed to
make a broader and more unvarniahed exhibition
of several of the dogmas of the church, than uny of
his fellow, laborers in Catholic controversy -of the
present day. Indeed,ou some points of belief which
prevailed in the dark ages, such as the miracles of
the Saints,the Doctor has succeeded, by his ingenu
ousness in exciting a laugh amongst the Protestants,
and a little dissatisfaction amongst some professors
of his owa creed.
The appearance of Bishop Hughes in the field Qf.
controversial theology 011 Thursday evening last,at
St. Patrick's Cathedral, appeara to favor the'idea
which haa been mooted abroad in certain quarters,
that the Bishop does not regard Dr. Pise's annun
ciation and defence of the Catholic dogma*, as al
together discreet, however zealous and well-meant.
The Bishop intends, himself, to give a serues of lec
tures on the distinctive tenets of the Catholic faith,
and thiB movement may be considered aa a sort of
"countercheck quarrelsome," as Shakspeare ex
presses it, to the lectures of the Rev. Dr. Pise.?
Bishop Hughes is a controversialist of an altogether
different stamp from the amiable pastor of St.
Peters. He is subtle?ingenious?and vigilant;
practised in the lists, and skilled in the use of the
ological weapons. He conciliates rather than pro
vokes his antagonists, and after establishing gene
ral principles, to which their absent is readily giveo,
rather seeks to drive them into acquiescence w'.th
his conclusions, than to present in all their breadth
and detail the distinctive dogmas of hia cb urch,
for the purpose kof convicting Protestants of gross
departure from the truth in rejecting them. He
also appears to be free from that querulous, peevish
and irritable manner which is almost universally
characteristic of Catholic theological disputants;
and as a mere orator, is fluent, pleasing, and effec
tive in no ordinary degree.
The Bishop's Lecture on Thursday evening was
attended by a very crowded audience. It was
merely introductory to the intended series of lec
tures. The nature of belief, and the natural cra
vings of the human mind for some sort of religious
belief, constituted the chief subject of the remarks
that were offered. The organization and estab
lishment of " the church" as the depository of the
revealed will of God, and as its authorized witness
and expounder, was also dwelt on at some length|;
and the great difference between Catholicity and
Protestantism was represented as consisting in the
fact that the latter received the scriptures, but re
jected the witness and expounder, whilst the for
mer recognized both. In the succeeding lectures
the Bishop will, we are led to suppose, enter into a
philosophical, mathematical and physiological ex
planation and vindication of the dogmas of the
Catholic church. We have no doubt that they will
be well attended.
Italian Opera.?There was a very elegant and
full house last night, and the oi>era of Belisario was
received with much more enthusiastic apprcbation
than on the preceding nights of its performance.?
The troupe is indeed now one of the best ever col
lected in this country. After next week the opera
will be given on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Satur
days, in order to avoid some nights most frequent
ly chosen for parties and balls. The fashionable
patrons of this elegant amusement ought (to recol
lect, in the selection of the nights for their toiriet
and balls, not to interfere with the opera. The ex
celleuce of the company, the fine style in which
. ~ **?- , ----- r "?*va
lotted for the enjoyment of this most refined oi all
amusements, should certainly receive the warmest
and most considerate patronage of the public.?
Next week Cenerentola will be given, with Pico
as the heroine, and Antognini, "Don Ramir,"
Tomasi, "Dandini,"' and Sanquirico,"Magnifico,"
?an adm irable cast.
The English opera at the Park appears to be
losing somewhat in attractiveness. There was un
evident falling off in the house last night. The
"processions" and dances,and all that, are becom
ing tiresome to the multitude.
Ole Bull.?This distinguished musician is ex
pected here in a day or two. Next week, we un
derstand, he will commence a series of concerts, at
the first of which he will play some ot his recent
compositions, including the "Solitude of the Prai
ries" and the" Falls ot Niagara." He has been giv
ing concerts in Boston and the neighboring towns,
like Worcester, with great success. He will ',)e re
ceivedwith enthusiasm by his old friends when he
appears again in this metropolis.
Fashionable Movements.?Eorpoaay, who is
teaching the whole beau monrfe the Polka, gives
a grand ball at the Alhambra on the 27th inst The
tickets are to be #5, and the proceeds go for the
benefit of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. It will be
a magnificent affair.
Captain Rynders, the Don Giovanni of modern
Democracy and the Empire Club, intends proceed
ing to Washington, to take part in the grand inau
guration ball.
Arrangements for the Winter.?The North
ern mail during the winter will arrive in this city,
via the HouBatonic Railroad and Bridgeport steam
boats. It will leave Albany at seven o'clock, A.M ,
and reach here about eight o'clock in the evening.
On Monday next the steamers for New Haven
will leave Here at half-past six o'clock, A. M., and
New Haven at eleven o'clock at night.
These changes are made in consequence of the
completion of the railroad from Hartford to Spring
field. Passengers who leave Boston at three P.M.
by this route, will reach New York eatly the next
morning. This gives us four routes to Boston.
Steamer Worcester ?This steamer, which left
here on Wednesday afternoon for Norwich, was
obliged (o return to the city. When of! Hunting
ton Light, the piston rod of her air pump broke,
and she was worked back by hand. She arrived
in season to send on her passengers by the Long
Island Railroad train yesterday morning.
Meeting on Prison Dibciplin*.?The meeting
held last night, at the Apollo roomr, was well at
tended.
Mr. J. W. Edmonds stated the objects of the
assembly, which he supported at gieat length by
elaborate and various argument!, moral, phrenolo
gical, statistical and religious. A Committee ap
pointed by the Chairman, Vice-Chancellor M'Coun,
presented the draft of a Constitution for the So
ciety, which we believe was adopted. Mr. Chan
ning made a feeling address and was followed by
two or three others, including a lady from among
the audience.
Our reporter's full account of the proceedings is
unavoidably crowded out.
Member of Congress from Niw Jersey ?
Isaac G. Farlec intends to contest the scat of John
Hunk in the next Congress. The latter has a ms
jority of sixteen votes, and is opposed to demo
cracy.
Case of Polly Bodine.?It having been found
impossible to impannel a jury for the trial of Polly
Bodine at Richmond, the court adjourned on
Thursday evening tint die.
No Message at Albany.?This document had
not reached Albany yesterday morning.
Navigation.?Tlu? river continued open to 'Al
bany on Thursday.
Intklliosnce from Canada.?Our advices from
Montreal are to the SOth ult. inclusive.
The only news of con^equcnce m the opening of
the Provincial Parliament, the Governor Generals
speech?its mock kingly display?and the earth
quake at Montreal. Annexed ?? the speech which
the Gov. read iu a voice clear, distinct, and audi*
ble in every part of the room:
HonorabU GentUman ?/ the Legislative Council, and Gen
Hewn of the House of *1ssemhly :
1 h?VM us?enibied y uu mi tue earliest period that the
completion of the recent General (election would allow,
and 1 have high tuti.Uclion iu meeting you iu order that
we may devote ourselves to the care ol the great inteies's
committed to our charge.
The lemon ol the year being unfavorabla for the pros
ecution ol those ayqeations in which many ol you are
engaged, you will be enabled 1 trust with less incouve
nience, tQ?UM>? totho disrhurge ol the impoitant func
tion* which yt>u have to perioral.
1 huve fhc happiness to announce to you that the Birth
ot a Prince has gladdened the hearts of the subjects ot
our gracfjus Queen throughout. Her vast dominions in
every xj'.iarter ol the glob*, and tier Majesty's continued
safety anil health demand our gratitudu to the Almighty
<*vjVof all good. 87
>'iauy subjects in which the welfare of the Province is
d ecply involved will be entitled to your earnest confide*
ration. None can be more important then the itnprovt ?
ment ot the e tucatlon*of thu people, which is ono of the
mwt urgent duties of the SUte; and I auxioHsly hope
that in addition to such other amendments of existing
Laws on th s momentous question as may be required ui
either section ol the Pioviuce, your wisdom msy be able
to devise some arrangement respecting the Univeisity of
King's College,that may reciive the sanction ol the Crown
and give general satisfaction in the Colony.
The Municipal Institutions of the i rovince, the pro
visions for which have, in Lower Canada pioved, to a
great extent, nugatory, will, no doubt, engage your at
tention ss well as the state of the Prisons uud the want of
Lunatic Asylums: The amelioration of the means of
communication throughout the Province, on whish its
prosperity mainly depends, for production is unavailing,
U means do not exist, of reaching a market, also deserves
consideration. The Kustern Townships ol Lower Cana
da are peculiarly destitute in this particular ; and the
Town of Kingston, in tpper Canada which has unavoid
ably suffered much by the removal of the Seat ot Govern
meut, is devoid of a Road through the Inland Territory,
towards the Ottawa, which is essential for the prosperity
of tb'at neighborhood.
Tite Militia Law of Lower Canada having expired, the
^ibsutution of another s^ems toibe requisite, and it may
'tie desirable at the same time to revise the existing Militia
Law of Upper Cantida, and ta lrame a General Law for
both sectious of the Province.
It afford* me great pleasure to be able to inlorm you
that the flourishing state of the Revenue taran a ti* tub
ject for congratulation. There is rei.sou to believe that it
msy be further improved by wise legislation ; and that
judicious economy may contribute to the same result.
Her Majesty bas most graciously received the Address
from the Legislative Assembly of the last Parliament, en
the subject uf the Civil List.
Although tie only objects sought by the Imperial
Legislature in making provision for a Civil List were to
give stability and securltyto the great Civil Institutions
ol the Province : to provide for the adequate retnuneio
tion of able anu efficient Officers in the various Public
Departments ; and to enable Her Majesty to make mode
rate provision lor the declining years of those whose best
days have been devoted to a faithful discharge of public
duties, or who by eminent services, might have merited
the favor of the Crown ; Her .Majesty is nevertheless ful
ly persuaJed of the concurrence of Her faithful subjects
in Canada in effecting these objects ; and would gladly
owe the means of attamiug them to the spontaneous liber
ality of her Canadian People. Whenever therefore due
and adequate provision shall have been made for them by
the Legislature of Canada, Her Majesty will be prepared
to recommend to the Imperial Parliament the Repeal of
so much of the Act of Union ss relates to this subject.?
Until the Imperial Parliament shall bave assented to such
a recommendation. Her Majesty equally with all Her
Subjects, is bound by the provisions of an Enactment to
which Her Sanction has been given.
Gentlemen uf the House of Jlssembly: ?
The financial accounts of the Province for 1843, wil be
immediately laid beiore you, and tbose for 1644 as soon as
fiey can be prepared alter the completion of the year.?
The Estimates likewise will be submitted to you at an
early period.
Notwithstanding the unavoidable expenses attendant
on the removal of the Seat of Government from Kingston
to Montveal, and other claims tp be submitted for your
consideration, a considerable surplus Reveuue will re*
main., affording the mesne of making some provision to
wa'.ds the liquidation of the public debt.
i entertain no doubt of your willingness to provide for
t\ie exigencies of the public service, and you may lely on
my exertions to diminish expenditure by all practicable
economy. I have availed myself of several opportunities
for retrenchment that have presented themselves, and
shall continue to pursue the seme course whenever re
duction may appear to be consistent with efficiency.
Honorable Gentlemen, and Gentlemen of Ike House of
Jlsstmhly:?
You will, lam sure, concur with me in desiriug that
the weiiare ol United Canada may be promoted by our
joint labors. To that great end 1 invite your earnest ef
forts, and you may be assured of my hearty co-operation
in every measure that may be calculated to secure peace
and prosperity, justice and happiness to this (Province.
The chargta entrusted to me by our sovereign, I shall
continue to administer according to the acknowledged
principles of our Provincial Constitution, and with a view
to the want* and wishes of the community. On theoc
olticesuf administration;-! WuiiS&T/ i,ha most important
?wum by the appoiutm...! v< gvnueffiAstfpposea to pOr*
sess thu confi'ience of the people. Extraordinary obsta
cles produced a delay in the accomplishment ol that put
jk)3o, notwithstanding my incessant exertions to ettect it
Con'idently believing, that the sevcial branches of the
Legislature, in the full exercise of their constitutional
po/Wers, will maintain the harmony essential to the well
'??king oi the people, for whose benefit alone these powers
are conferred. I will not detain you from the important
duties which await you, further than to express my hum
bit: hope, that the Almighty may bless our endeavors,and
render them efficacious Tor the public good.
Ofeninu or the Canadian Parliament, Nov. 38.?At 11
O'clock the Commissioners for administering tGe eaths to
members appeared, according to previous notice, in the
Chamber ol the Assembly, attended by the Clerk of the
House, the Clerk ol the Crown in Chmceiy, and otht r
officers. The oaths were then admir>iitcred to the 76
members present, who then took their seats but the Cleik
having intimated an adjournment until one o'clock, (it be
ing now twelve,) some of them retired.
Exactly at one o'clock the Governor General, attended
by a bri'.iiant suite drove fiom Government House to the
L^ghjative buildings, where a guard of honor, from the
Regiment, was in attendance to receive him, and
having entered the Legislative Council Chamber, took
his seat upon the throne. The most of the members of
Council were present, aud the space allotted to the public
was filled to overflowing, the seats |behind the members'
chairs being occupied by the ladies. The gentleman usher
of Uie black rod was then ordered to command the at
tendance of the members of Assembly, who soon after ap
peared rn mats* at the bar. The Clerk then read from a
paper, the intimation, that His Excellency the Governor
General would declare the reasons for his assembling the
present Parliament, as soon as the House of Assembly
should elect a Speaker, for which purpose they again re
tired ; after a few minutes His Excellency rose, descended
from the throne, and having bowed to the Council, with
drew. The mace was then laid on the tab!?, and the Hon.
Mr. Draper moved an adjournment until this dsy at one
o'clock, which was agreed to
The Governor General wore the uniform of his office,
and appeared in good health.
On the election of McNab for Speaker, the following
was the vote, showing the division of parties :
Ykas?Boulton, Brooks, Chalmers,Colville Cnmmings,
Daly, DeBieury, Dickson, Duggan, Dun lop, Ermatinger,
Foster, Gowan, Grieve, Hale, Hall, Jessup, Johnston,
Lawrason, MacDonald (Cornwall) MacDonald (Kicgs
ston,) MacDonnell (Dundaa.) McConnell, Meyers, Moffatt,
Murney, Panineau, Petrie, Riddell, Scott, Seymour, Sher
wood (Brockville ) Sherwood (Toronto,) Sn.ith (Fronte
nac,) Smith (Missisnuoi,) Stewart (Bytown,) Stewart
(Prewott,) Webster, Williams ?39
Nats? Armstrong, Aylwin. Baldwin, Berthelot, Ber
trand, Boutillier, Cauchon, Chabot, Chauveau, Christie,
Desaulniers, DeWitt, Drummond, Franchere, Guillet, Jo
bin, Lacoste, Lafontaine, Lantier, Laurin, LeMoine, Les
lie, MacDenald (Glengarry,) MacDonald (Stormont,) Me
thot, Nelson, Powell, Price, Prince. Roblin, Rousseau,
Small, 8mi;h (Wentworth,) Tacbe, Taschereau, Thomp
son? 86.
Legislative Council.?Friday, Nov. 29, 1844. -The
Council met according to adjournment. Soon alter it as
sembled, his Excellency the Governor General, having
been received on dismounting from his carrisge by a guard
of honor and a salute of twenty guns, which the cheers of
thu multitude artund made almost inaudible, airived in
the Council Chamber, dressed in uniform, and surro un
ded by a splendid suite, and having ascended the throne,
the Gentleman Usher of the Black Red was directed to
command the attendance of the House oi Assembly. The
House appeared with Sir Allan McNab, the Speaker, at
their head. Sir Allan iddress his Excellency to the il
fect, that the House ol Assembly had made choice ol hint
as its Speaker, an! he asked, by respectful petition, that
the usual privileges be accorded to tne members, paiticu
larly fre? dom of speech in donate, free sccess to his Ex
cellency 's person, at all reasonable times, and that bis Ex
cellency would put the most favorable interpretation upon
all their seta
House or Assr.MeLV?November i9 1944.?The House
met to-dsy nt hall past two o'clock At three o'clock, the
Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod entered and delivered
the Governor General's command ftrthe attendance of
the nouse in the Chamber of the Legislative Council.
Soon alter the members returned, and the Spesker hav
, ing resumed the Chair, reported to the House the Speech
ol His Excellency, and read It in English ; upon which
there were loud cries from the op|ioaition of " in French,'
" iu French." The Speech was then tead by the Clerk
in that language. During the whole of ihn time occupied
in reading the speech, Mr Aylwin continued seated, with
his hands crossed upon his breast, the rest of the members
standing. Mr. Johnston wss to csll to order the hon.
??ember he saw opposite, (pointing to Mr Aylwin )?
Loud cries of " order !" upon which .Mr. Johnston forbore
bis in'erruption until the speech was read.
[From the Montresl Herald, Nov. 30 ]
Yesterday morning, between the hours of twelve snd
one. the shock of an earthquake was felt over the whole
ot the city of Montreal It was severe enough to causn
the houses to shake, and pieces oi furniture to rattle and
was attended with a loud rolling noise, as of the rapid pas
sage of h*avy artillery in the streets Many persons were
awoke with the noise snd the rocking of their bedsteads
from side to side. We bsve hesrd of no accident* from it
although the ares of its psssage seems to have been large.
(From the Montreal Courier of Nov. 59 ]
On Saturday night, a young, man going to his resi
dance in that psrt ol the city called Griffintown, wai
knocked down by several men ; he drew a pistol and
fired, killing one of the assailants, named Fmnall. The
others fled, and the young man sought rsfuge in the
house of agentleman nearny, which was soon assailed
by a mob He escaped from the bouse and fled lo another,
which was in turn attacked, and he whs obliged to leave
It. The dllturbir.ee was family qnieted by the military
A placard of an inflammatory nahue, calling n meeting ol
Irishmen and Canadians in reference lo this mutter, wss
posted the noxt tlsyi but the place designated for the

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