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THE NEW YORK HERALD.
Vol. X., No. 3AW ?Wbola Ma. W6W. NEW YORK. SATURDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 28, 1844. Prlf* Twu C?ntf. L?tt?ra tram Mm Oregon Territory. [Correspondence ol the Herald. J Lin?taj?, Oregon, 1844. The nsMiifi ofthia country are immense. Fore moat among all tbe fish of this, or auy other coun try, is ihe salmon. Of the numbers of thia fob taken annually, in the Columbia river and ita tributaries, it would be impossible to atate. They have been estimated at ten thouaand barrels annually, which I think is not too large. The salmon is a beautiful fiah, long, round and plump, weighing generally about twenty pounda, very fat, and yet no food of any kind ia ever found in the stomach. What tkey eat uo one can tell. Sir Humphrey Davy auppoaed that the gastric juice of tbe salmon waa ao power ful as instantly to diaaolve all aubatancea entering the atomach. Tbe aalmon in thia country ia never caught with the hook j but they are sometimes ta ken by the Indians with small scoop nets, and gen erally with a sort of spear, of very peculiar con ?fruction, and which I will describe. They lake a pole, made of some hard wood, aay ten feet long and one iach in diameter, gradually sharpened to a point at one end. They then cut off a piece from the sharp prong (if a buck's horn, about four inches long, and hollow out the large end ol thia piece to that it fits on the end of the pole. About the mid dle of the buckthorn they make a hole, through which they put a small cord or leather string, which they fasten to the pole about two feet from the lower end. When they spear a fish, the spear passes through the body, the buck-horn comes off the pole, and the pole pulls out of the hole made by the spear, but the buck-horn remains on the oppo sue side ot the fiih, and be is held fast by the string* from which it is impossible to escape. All the s*Upon caught here are taken by the Indians, and sold to the whues at about ten cents each, and fre quently for less One Indian will take about twen ty pit day upon an average. The salmon taken at different points vary greatly in kind and quality, . "u -n xI! y4R Pfrllc"'?r Places that they can be taken. The latest and best salmon are cauuht At the month of the Columbia; the next best are those taken in the Columbia, a few mi. below Vanc^ vers, at the Cascades, and at Mm Dalles. Those tak^n at the Wajlameite Falls >ir? smaller and in ferior, and are siid to be of a different kind. What ia singular, this fish cannot be taken in any consid erable numbers., with large seines. This fish is too shy and too active to be thus taken. I believe no while mau has yet succeeded in taking ihem with the gig. The aalmon make their appearance in the vicinity of Vancouver, firat in the Klackamaa .1 he best aalmon are taken in June. Ths sturgeon is a very large fish, caught with a hook and line, and .agood eating They are taken in the Walla mette, below the Falls, and in the Columbia at all Points, and in Snakeriver aahigh up aa Fort Buise. iWiGATioN. As 1 have before stated, the uavi ?5"?" J?? Columbia 18 K??d 10 'he Ialles, with the exception of the Cascades. The river near the ?f;han!'i:ry ?ld.e. forming bays, and is subject ta ?mill rr-ff' TK?V? ir-lhe navigation unsafe for Iihjd,fficu'ue8 at the mouth of the river will rapidly diminish as the business increases, and they have regular pilois and steam tow boats SSoE. Pr7nn,U n k Willamette some five miles 18 .? bar; but small sh |)sgoup higher, and to within seven or eight miles of the Falls. Above the Falls, the WaTU "aT1?ab!esteamboatsabout fifty miles h !'?- ? L .'i!errlBLnaVLg"b> ,or Cknot,s and keel boats up to the forka, the distance I cannot say - The navigation ot this, the first section, is much beiter than that of the second section Watir Powib.?The water power of this coun ^"?unequalled, ?,d '* f?nnd distributed threugh 2" T^T' e wLater Power at the Falls ot the Wallamette cannot be surpassed in the world. machinery can be put in motion. Bat lie good water power is not confined to tbe \vfI,n,Te e^v where on the Columbia and Wallamette rivers there are mill sites as good, but not so large as the Falla. Most of the mill sites in this country are overahota. But we have not only ihe finest water power, but we have the 1 umber The timber of this section of Oregon constiiutea one main source ot irs wealth. It is I?H ?? nn*tlble *????????? on 'be Columbia and on the Wallamette, ju?t where the water pow ft xSUt " up-' a?d wher' "hiP* can take !? fh.fi, u-The P"DcipaI timber of thia section is the fir, white cedar, white oak and black ash redT HHreo/,Jhe fi ?' L*the whi,e? yellow and red, H't of them fine umber for plank, shingles, Jhiwes anTh^fir i e Whi,e ffir1_make? ^e best sniug.es. I he fir is a species of the nine, grows thl.r . V ?''?,<ht, and stands very thick upon the ground. Thick as they atand upon the ground, wnm jrou cut one it never lodges, for the reason ; frh!ever forkVnd 'he limbs are too small ?TuPnf ft"".' Irre' Y,,u CaQ find 'hem in the vi m !,? i k* oiJ? elght feet d?ameter toamall ?bootVSi f U,[e#t ?f lhfn* wil1 measure about 225 leet. Ia the Cascade mountains and near the inouih of the Columbia river thev rise to tfc.hwM of SOOI,? The fir apUta we I, aud makes the finest bosrds of any timber 1 o?Z,iVZr T?- 1-cut ?oe 'ree Ifom Which I sawed 84 cuts of three foot boards, and there are plenty of such trees all around me, yet untouched. The while cedar is a very fine timber, nearly if not quite equal to the red cedar in the States The wild animals of this the first section ot Oregon, ar.* the black bear, black tailed deer, rac coon, panther, polecat, rabbit, wolf, beaver, and a lew oih-r*. Deer and wolves aie plenty. We ' an'e'?pes, or prairie chickens nf/r.\ a" . lec?nd "ec,lon Prairie chickens are fh ? Th A*'?r birds, we have,the bluejay, larger than the jay of the States, and deep blue We have a so the nut brown wren,a most beautiful and n^iV.rliV' Ve/y llUle ld,gfr ,han ihe hum mi"!* bird. A lso, sfp. cies of bird which resem pies Hi* robin in form, color and size. Also, a bird that sings ihe livelong night; but slthough I have heard them often. I have never seen one The bald eagle, so well described by Wilson, is here found all along the riven, but he has here to catch his own game, as ihere are no fishhawks to do it for l.im The eagle here feeds principally upon the dead salmon that float down the riven, for you ar?j aware, perhaps, that out of the myriads of sal mon that ascend the rivers of O/egon, not one ever ". .. i w.i-Dack to the ocean. They are never found swimming down stream, but their last effort is to useeiid. The eagle also feeds upon wild diir-ke, which he catches as follows >- He darts at the dm k while in the water, and the duck dives bat as soon at he rises to the surface, the eagle having turned himself, atrikea at the duck again, and the du. k again dives. This manoeuvre the eagle continues until the duck becomes tired Z fh - "ab8,him JMt as he rises to the top of the Water The duck seems to be afraid lo at tempt escape upon the wing We have alsr. phea sants very abundant, and they are most exc? llent eating. Like old Ireland itself, there are no po? ?"i,r*',,ll!L,?.r lOFects in this rection of Oregon i i.! is the small harmbm garter snake, and thare are no flirs to annoy the cattle. rv,S^H-Wc haVue ,he n,0Bt beautiful scene ry in North America?the largest ocean, the purest I',,""'11 The "everal peaks of ihe Cascade [H"*e VLT,'v ar' *rand ar;n ""posing ob vi lltS T" y,,u hre R fair and fall viewot Mount Hood, perhaps the tallest peak of t - t/ iscifdes, und which rises nearly Bixteen thou aanu leetabove the level of ihe pacific Rnd " sand above ihe surrounding mountnius. Thia loftv Pile rises up by itself, and is in the form of 1 r, J i Ur cone, covered wiih p-rpeiual snow. Thwis the only peak you can see from Vancouver as the view is obscured by the tall fir timber At'the mouih of the Wallamette. as you enter the Colum bia, yon have a view of both Mount Hood??ll Mou?.t St. Helens. From Liontan you have ? v, K1-'r?,ld,f!,,l vie7 * Mount St Helena! about rearh, r^l*tan,2 bul 11 ,ockB 88 ,f " wa" within tench This peak ia very smooth, and in the form m . u CO?e' *,ail neatly, if not quite, as tall l! TV 'ftn al"? uovered with perpetual l"0W-Th,a mountain is now a burning volcano. It co nmeaced about a year sine*. The crater is on t k- side of the mountain, about two-thirds the Thl8lw*ak,like Mount Hood, n i d-< 'ar i/ff and alone, in its soli.arv cramirur abo\a a" anrrounding objects. On Ifav ,il ^?l?1,1,ry,,8t4, bein? a beautiful and clear dav, the mountain burned most msgnificently The dense masses of smoke rose up in one rn? ph' column, covering the whole cr^at of fh* msuutain iuclouds Like otksr volcanoes itburns ai MueMr?m Tins mouniain is secoiSTo 'btt. on * volcanic mountain in Ihe world, Cotaoaxi in i> Am^iioa. 0;i the side of themoX'n. S^ top, is a lar/e a ack object, amidst the white nnro ?now around it. This is suppo^d to be the mouiti of a Uige cvein. From Indian account th, mountain emitted a volume of burning lava Hbom the urre it first commenced burning, An'Indian canie to Van couver with his foot iad leg KdlJ burnt, who staled that he waa on tbe aide of the Map of Oregon Territory, Accompanying; Dr. Dnncan's Bill of Occupation. ' deer' Jand he came lo a arream of.something running down the mountain; and when he attemptell to jump across it, he fell with ?ne ??V|. ?? t'lat Was the way in which he got hia foot and leg burned. Thia Indian came reman Jtn* ?r8etiPr" P*rc,av to administer some remedy to cure his foot. From a point on the mountain immediately back of Linntan, you can tee five peaka of the Cascade range?aa we passed from the Attlla to Dr. WhitmsrshV, we could dis tinctly Bee Mount Hood at the distance of about 160 miles. Climate. The climate of thia, the lower sec tion of Oregon, in, indeed, most mild. The winter may be said to cuinmeuce iu about the middle of December, and end in February, about th* lOih. I saw strawberries in bloom about the first ol De l!J8lln,he Fallatry Plains, and as early as ^jbru,lr?Ii l^e ^ower> were blooming on the bill sides. The _grata has now been growing since about the 10 h February, and towards the end of that month the trees were budding and the , shrubbery in bloom. About the 26ih ol Novem [ ber, we had a spall ot cold weather and a slight suow, which was gone in a day or two. In the month of Drcember we hdd very lit tle snow, and it melted as it fell. In January we had a great deal of snow, which all melted as it tell, except one, which melted m three days. The gruund has not been frozen more than one inch deep the whole winter, and ploughing has been done throughout the winter ancMall. The ink with which 1 now write, has stood in a glass inkstand, on a shelf, far from the fire, in a house with only boards nulled on the cracks, during ihe whole month of January, and has not been frozen, as you i.-ay see Irom its good color. As regaids rains in the winter, I have found them much lets troublesome than I anticipated. I had supposed that no work could be done here in the rainy sea son; but a great deal more out-door work can be done in the winter season than in the western States. The rains tall in very gentie showers, and are generally what you term drizzling rains, so light that a man can work all day without getting wet through a blanket coat. The rains are not the cold, chil|y raina that you have in the tall and spring seasons in the east, but are warm as well as gentle. Since i have been here, I have witnessed less wind than in any country I have ever been in# wd I have heard no thunder, and only seen one tree that had been struck with lightning. If the tall timber we have here were in the States, it would be riven and blown down, until there would not be many treea left. The rains are never hard enough here to wash the roadaor the fields. You can find no gullies washed in the roads or fields in this region. Commercial Advantages ?I consider the com mercial advantages of this couotryaiT vervVreat h the Sandwich Islands is daiTyin The trade with Uic cmmwicn islands is daily creasing We are here surrounded with a half civilizes race of men, and our manufacturing liower will afford us the means ot creating a home market besides South America, the Sandwich Islands, and California, must depend upon us for their lumber. Already large quanti I':* ?f *"???? and plank are sent to the Islands. We si all always have a fine mar ket for all our surplus ; but, until thia coun try is settled, we shall have a demand at home. Meat of the veaaels viaiting the Pacific, touch at the Sandwich Islanda, and they will be glad to ob tain fresh supplies of provisions there. Tne Rus sian settlements must also obtain their supplies f iaVnCh,cna w"*?ln our '"ch.and all the Islands ot the Pacific* There can be no competi tion with us in the way of proviaions. as we have no neighbors in that line. I consiJer Oregonaa superior to California. The climate of that coun try la too warm for men to have any commercial enterppw. Beaidea, in California, pork TnTbeet cannot be put up; and consequently, the rrazer looses h*lf his profits. For a commercial and manufacturing |*-op|e, the climate ol Oregon is warm enougi We can here preaerve our pork and beef, and we have more fine timber than thev U*T??.,a ? and better water power, and not the droutha they have there. I do not wmh a warmer climate than thia. Avery warm climate enervates mankind too much' Tow?.-Thi. is a new item in the geography ot this country and one that I have never seen before i i? .k . town" .ha*e become quite common. A* all the towns yet laid out in the country are upon the water, I ahall begin at the mouth of the Colum ^"'au.d came ?PW?da. F.rsr, there Isold Astoria revtvjd. Capt. Applegate and others are now lay ing off* town at old Astoria, to be called Astoria. Thty have not yet sold any lots Next is Linntan aid off by Burnett and McOown. This place is on the west bank ot the W.illarnette river, four miles above us month, and ia the nearest point on the nvei to the t allatry Plains, and the nearest eligible , point to the head ai ship navigation for large ves sels on the WallameHe. Next in order is Oregon | city, laid out by Dr. McLaughlin, at the Falls At this place thereare four stores, two saw mills, one grist mill, and there will soon be another built bir Uje Donor to contain about three ran of stones There is quite a village here. The lost town I shall mention is Miampoe, on the Wallameite, at the head ol navigation. I do not know that any lots have at; yet beeu sold at that place. Bu -inent) ?i all kinds done in the Territory is verv , active, and times are flourishing. Lizv men have become iiiduatnous, as there ia no drinking or *a"'b',nKher? among the whitea; and labor meets with such ready employment and such ample re waid, that men have more inducements 10 labor here than elsewhere This is, as yet, no country for lawyers, and we have the most peaceable and quiet community in the world. Mechanics find ready employment, as well as ordinary laboring handa. Farmina is considered the best business in this aountry. Tma may be seen at once from the prices ot produce, and n? easy production The business of making and putting up butter, which is Here never worth lea than twenty cents nl/TIynProfi,Bble u9?"d fr"h butter, I am ihl nn.5VNr WOrth l'"8a than fir,V c">ts, arid Th?? ?? '*r Pound ??> the Pacific Islands, mere are now m operation, or will be this wi7h"florur m Thern0"8 10 b,!p,'ly. ,h<f l,0^uldli"'' 7r\mt I L, , "e *versl nulls, both saw and falls Therp i??n?Up lhr ^slUmette, abovs the n.. i i, . . . j acarcity ot provisions at the pri . ame nJi ? Bnd f fil,d ,h'4, ""emigrants who I Ka^L mh ypar' Lve <,uue comfortably, and Wn^n i "?,,r?vufd "'uch in their appearance. nlkAhtiili k' here ha. any idle time hs can Tud fijfinfc Hre ^0rlh l,,ur dollars lor fir Ml? r?f <h? m ?ft. .!i,"d Lnr "dar. Ar.v qnan 'ity ?.| them can be aold at those rates W* hav* veaaehToft^^taki"bff' p<,,ha'* ln the world, and nrzystti! vssstfnsrsz res wr "hundred P r** Wh,Ch lheV" at Wo dollara per hundred. Carpenter* and other mechanics obtain three dollars per day and found, and ordi nary hands one dollar per d*y and found. The fir timber of this country makes excellent coal f?r blacksmiths; and what ia singular, neither the fir nor cedar, when burned, make ai.y ashes. It has been supposed that the timbered land of this country will be hard to clear up, but I have come to a very difterent conclusion, from the fact that the fir tim ber haa verv little top, and is easily killed, and buraa np readily It nlso becomes seasoned very soon, it is the opinion of good farmers, that the timbered land will be the beat wheat land in this country. P. H. B. Opinions of the French Press on th? Elec tion of Mr. Polk. [From the "Conatitutiennel"] In America, when a political idea which has been the watchword of a party, his met with a clear op position from the majority, its partisans do not hesitate to sacrifice it, and seek a new one to serve them as a standard, as well as a man to act as the Apostle and defender of this new idea When Mr. Adams had been defeated by General Jackson, ihe whig* left aside both their old Chief and the Na tional Bank, in whose defence he had fallen; it was then that Mr. Clay took his place tn the front rank, bringing with him the bill for the distribu tion of the public lands, and the Tariff bill. Now the whigs are travelling in search ol a man to re present them in 1848, and as to the fundamental principle of the partv,they will borrow it from their defeat. Those who have just overthrown Mr Clay, are the foreign population, and the whiga de mand the reform ot the naturalization laws in or ?ier to expel the foreigners from the ballot box ? Thus the whigs will become the National Ameri can party, and already claim the title; not that they repudiate their ancient doctrine?, and old pro jects?they only place them in the second rank ; and the principle upon which they will attempt to overcome the majority, is a reform in ihe laws ot naturalization. We must not found over sanguine hopes on the election of Mr. PoIk. Apparently his accession to office is to be followed by n complete change in the commercial polity of the Union One man has no such power in the Unued States. The President is powerless without the Congress; and 48 long as the Congress remains as it i<, we are not to look fot any modification in American policy. The whigs have, in tact, a considerable minority in the Senate, and the Senate being sovereign in such case?, th?*y will reject every alteration of the tariff, as they rejected the treaty recently enacted ?villi the Zoll Verein. Perhaps, however, as there is a surplus in the treasury, Mr. Polk may be able to procure an abatement of the duty upon some articles; but he will take care not to demand any important modifications, as the States of New York and Pennsylvania, which have just given liim his majority, are the most interested in the maintenance of the tariff as it is, and the most ar dent to step forth in its defence. Whatever other modifications in the tariff Mr. Polk may succeed iu obtaining, as their object will be to appease the demands of the south,whose policy is to rear and clothe their slaves cheaply? they will operate upon the productions of English industry much more strongly than upon the arti cles of luxury and costly fabrics exported from France into the United States. Eng and, there fore, will be far a greater gainer thereby than we. It is hardly more probable that the fsreign policy of the Union will undergo a change. The southern Statea, which are ihe most violent for the destruction of the tsriff, demand from ivery quarter considerable reduction in the land >ind naval forces, in order to reduce expenses as inuch as possible, and to expose by facts the inu 'ility of the tariff; and it is not by a reduction in irmaments, that evidence is given of contemplat ing a war with England. The nomination, there fore, of Mr. Polk can no farther modify the pre sent state ot affairs, than in proportion as the whigs at the next election, lose their majority in the Senate. Until then, affairs will remain very much in itatu quo. Mr. Polk is but the nominal <thief of the government, the Congress is the real governor. [From the " Pre*se."j It is of little interest to us, that a certain party appears to have some ideas similar 10 those we de fend in France, if its conduct tends to jeopardize the interests of France. Every other party, even *hould its opinions be opposed to ours, shall have by preference, our sympathy, provided its foreign policy tends by some mysterious complication of politics, to serve the cause whose inumph we tbove all thing* desire. Liberals, absolutists, ??vhig* and radicals, are terms to which we attach bat a very secondary interest. What are those whose tendencies would prove useful to usl What ire those whose operation would be injurious 1 These are the questions which touch us far more strongly. In this view, then?the only rational view to take of 'oreign relations?we will say, that the failure of Mr. Clay, the whig, causes us no regret. Whig as he was he did not |or that the less ardently work, to cause the American Union to adopt a tariff system, Irorn whose operation many great interests in France have suffrred pro foundly. Had he succeeded to the Presidency, there is no doubt thai thissystem wou'd have been maintained, and pel haps aggravated. Now, frank ly speaking, we are very c'ad that Mr. Cl?y and his school have met with disaster, since from that disaster there may spring at no distant period, a modification of their economy advantageous for our country. Mr. Polk, the President elect, ap pears disposed to curtail the tariff, of which we have to compUin. He has even given pledges to that effect to his own party. Mr. Polk, although he is a radical, is, iheretore, the most welcome for us. [From the '? Siscle") That which gives to the election of Mr. Polk "a great gravity, is its being the most energetic ex* pression ot that party who desire the annexation of Texas and th? colonization of Oregon, even at the risk of a war with England We do not think that the struggle will commence immediately or inevi tably. Both nations have motives to adjourn it, it not avoid it, whose strength will be felt in propor tion to th>- approach of the ciisis. Besides, the new President of Texas, without being absolutely opposed to annexation, prefers the inde| endence ot his country, it he can obtain the countenance of France and England. Now the last name d power could not h* aitate between a rupture with Mexico and one with the United Stales An annexation war, then, may be avoided by granting to Texas that security, the absence ol which has eng?n dered a desire tor incorporation wnh the United States. The Oregon question will, it is tiue, re main, but its solution is susceptible of delsy. Jona than and John Bull may threaten each otner a long time, yet without coming to stroke*. Neverthelets, by the election of Mr. Polk the chances of a war have considerably augmented, and France must take that contingency into prompt aud very serious consideration. As it regard* the Tariff", we must guard against illusions. We believe that the U Stales have pre maturely entered into the protective system. The federal revenue has augmented beyond the ex penditure, therefore that Btate of things appear to us the most favorable for a return to more moder ate duties; and the interest of England, according with ours in this particular, we h-tve no diplomatic difficulty to fear. However, we dont'ezpect much more from Mr. Polk than Mr. Clay?from the de mocrat than the whig*. The (Juited Stales lore ore that one day or other England will seek her supply of cotton in India ; "then what will we do with ours," say they, "if we have not in the North manufactories capable of consuming ihe product* ot the South We rf quire a great internal market ?and this market we c.in create only under the rejnme of protection. This theory, like all the theories in the world, may etr in enumeration,and a< all natinns begin precisely by puvhtng principles to extremes, it ii not p>o >aMe ihat th'j American* will consent, 'Virbout tl long ex|>eriei>c>-, lo reform H1' ,'ari^ w''hin just limits. Wt- have to ask it from them, and that With despatch, but not counting too much on immediate succef? Mere there is a great political fault in avoid In a naval Wtr tile superiority im on our iide, it we have the United States with us That i-t a thought that should ever b<- present with us, when we iiegociate ?>>i any waiter whatever wnh the Uaiou Let u? ilelend our commercial interest with tirmiiesH, bu> u.ionthe Texas question, and that of the T?iifl, !?' us not mix our affairs up with those of Great nritain. The English, in every struggle, Naval or t/ontinentnl, are our enemies, the Americans oui tnend?-letu? never forget that. This leads us to state our opinion on the proba ble consequences of the flection ol Mr Polk We believe the greater portion of French journals have attached an interest to it it does not posses-t It was the democrats who administered the govern ment under Mr. Tyler: it is the democrats who are to do so with Mr. Polk ; there will not, there lore, beany sudden revulsion in politics. We do not think any decisive measure has been taken either in relation to Texas, nor Oregon, nor in re lation to the tariff. The itatu quo will be imposed upon the new administration. The real power re. sides in the hands of Congress, and as long as that remains as it is? that is two years from this?ihe efforts of Mr. Polk will be paralyzed. In the House ot Representatives there has always Keen a strong majority m favor ot the actual tariff, whilst the whig influence, which prevai s in the Senate, will repel Mr Polk ?rff>rta in favor of annexation with double energy?first, for the purpose of satisfying their resentment; and again, becauae in the pre. neat composition of the Senate resides the only power that remains in their party. The opposition of the whigs to annexation and to the rep-al of the tariff, will not be the only *ninRs tn* new nam in iteration will rncoi'nter. It his re-muted a majority only by a sort of compro mise between divers factions of the democratic party, and the discord will not fail to burst forth over the division of the spoils Mr. Polk, whose character is very honorable, who has been Gover ;ior of Tennessee and President of the Senate, 1 "Speaker of the House] and who, consequently, is possessed of business habits, la a mau ol great good sense, and true firmness; but perhaps he is not entirely equal to hia poa.tmn Every thing, then, leads to the belief that Mr Calhoun, whos reSi .Vm* contributed powerfully to the election ol Mr. Polk, will remain as Secretary of State s'? i,^1" want all his ability to emerge from the difficulties which encompass him. 1 he election ef Mr. Polk shows above all, how much superior are the doctrines of a party to the influence of men Mr Van Buren and Mr Cass were, personally, far more cherished by the demo cratic party than Mr Polk ; they would have brought to it a greater oignity.and greater talems ; l?ut they were both immolated on the altar ol the common cause. But, if th?- democrats have not hesitated to sacrifice to Mr. Polk, the most emi nent of their party, the States-even those which ?nf?i ? . him?will never aacrifioe tehim their general interests. . [From the ?' Commerce."] illui..,? n0,!'PfkP'e in<,ulging in the strangest illusions upon the opinions expressed by, and the political parties o" A Vk 2 Most frequently they are judg ihVi-Mi "h'T thry beur then! at.d hr?i^kThtch eitist amongst us an imaginary brotherhood is established. It ia in that way that Sir1j J^naldu Ikb.itt have, for a long dMtrines "*11126 *?the champion of their On the other hand, the National says yesterday - the election ot Mr. Polk is the trmmph of t|,e I principles we delend." It may be affirmed ihat such language would astonish the wh.g.i of Ameri ca as much as the democrats The whig pirty has, wuhout doubt, a certain tendency to restrain the action of the masses and on the contrary, the democratic party inXes to eave u unrestrained But ,t will be seen that be wh^h L?,?h0pir,,0U'th*w d,??"?ca be slight, which both admit in theory and practice, the dog. ma of the sovereignty o| the people What droll ylarV hoM movements are con Ijrmed to universal suffrage ! tiel^'fl'./'Yh'd?r ,helwo *"?? American par lh.,.h h y i from -neb other t In n point which has no analogy in our local politics. They are disputing upon the que.t.on a. io whether .he federal government shall have more power, or the individual States more independence In tracing the Ame?ieenClr"' wo""l I'ad to making the Americans one and the same people ; whilst according to the other, ,he independence of each '? li'rJ* Such is the teal field of battle upon which the?-two partie* meet Now n^IVC n" fOMbl,al " 'he Similitude between I " ' "ne 'i,he principal feaiur. s of the demo tn ili.h .h '? Francc~""ckuowledged by ithelf-ie >n#tr*aDd m"M centralized national government possible; everything which can tend to ft y is repugnant o it What it admires is the omnipotence of the a greater enemy? l"d^BdfBCf ofl""cdn.es has not er^l'.h'',r",,r",Ly,wrhe P^psl "?>t "f the demo -h . i|V 0 United Mates is iu imme?,Ure om Jh ri IT' !a 1 "r,5c,?,|'?> "?con >?>?? i. ? CUrr ,he Predominance ?f |?Ca! Jin. k OVrf central one, and its inc?s aant abs raction from the l^st ? f ?ome one of the rh:M[ZT " by ,hB constitution ; so that if it were required to compare the par'v ret.re i?n im 'he National in France, to one'of Th, two American parties, it matt be oonfesscd that m its doctrine* and governmental tendencies it much more resembles the whigs which it combats, than tne democrats, whose triumph it celebrates. That is what every American will admit. Now, what interest should France take in the respective fortunes of these two great parties It is here necessary to distinguish carelully between two lhing9; the permanent and habitual interest of the country and its momentary and incidental iMerest. In a general wsv it may be said that France is interested in the firm uniou of America in all its parts, and in its becoming one single peo ple directed by one government alone. But trom the momen' such a nation ex<t-t>d on the opposite borders of the Atlantic, it would become, as ? na tural result, for us au efficient ally, and lor Erg land a dangerous rival. It is incoute>tit>le iti.it ?uch is the tendency of the principles of ihe whigs Id consequence ofcircumstttnt.es invisible in the principles, it happens that the democratic party is disposed 10 adopt a more liberal policy than the whigs m relation to the tariff", and a firmer atti tu le towards the English, particularly in nil con nected with slavery. Now it is true that we have precisely at present, tin abateineut of the larfT to demand trom the American government, and ques tions ot treaties, and the right ot visit, to arrn with the Knglish The advent then ol the demo cratic power to office, is therefore uselul to us. [Prom the ?' National."J In present circumstances, this choice is extreme ly important. The accession ot the democratic party to oflice, may lead to new complexity in the already veiy embarrassing relations between Eng land and America ; so we are in no way surprised that at the first news of the election of Mr. Polk, the English press, particularly the Timet, have set up a cry of alarm The questions pending between the two countries assume an unfavorable shape for our neighbors. The hope of seeing a moderate tariff increasing ihe outlet for English fabrics will not counterbalance the auxiety that Texas and Oregon give Great Britain As for us, who never had any other desire than to see the United States augment, under the em pire of their institutions, their internal prosi>eriiy, and to strengthen with France the cords of an al liance, in conformity with the interests ol the two people, we hail with joy the election of Mr. Polk. In our view, his election is the triumph ot the prin ciples we deleud, and we believe that our country has everything 10 gain as they predominate on the oth?r side ot the Atlantic. However restrained the functions of the Presi dent may be by the Constitution, it has a vast ac tion and sure preponderance in their foreign policy. In a word?Mr Polk possesses all the qi^alittes es sential, all the opinions necessary, to make an ex cedent President, and worthily coutinue the hon orable traditions of those ol Ins predecessors who belonged to the democratic party So it is judged by its friends, and we are sure the future will not belie our hopes and their predic<ioiis. I From the " Revue du deux Monde*."] Mr Clay had the glory to procure the adoption, in spite of the new administration, the bill on the revenue ot public lands and protecrive tariff These two measures have had the efl'ect of a* al lowing up the dtficit?of immediately discharging the public debt,ot reviving national industry, and draw i ng it out of a dangerous crisis. Everyone in the United States is now prosperous, und the treasury contains a surplus revenue of more than fitly millions [ot francs]: but now that the circula tion is restored, and puoiic credit re-animated, the necessity of a National Bank is not so much telt as oefore; and Mr Clay, in assuming, through coin placence to his friends, the deience of alike ins'i tution, has estranged trom him all those who re gard it as datw;erou to liberty. Ole Ball, and Impartial Criticism To the Editor ofihkNkw Yohk Hkralim ? Sik :?In your paper ot Tliurrdiy my attention w,ib drawn 10 a lengthy communication, eduo rially termed *'d very unique revitw and criticism ot Oi* B'lll (ih a com >oser and an artist"?written, as you inform your readers, by a foreign gentleman ot great in ate and genius. It is not my intention to dispute his title to both nste and jrenius, or even to sound musical juitg ntent, premising only, thai if possessed of the lat ter, the sad jumble ot contradictions and missiaie inents contained lu his elaborate communication, must emanate from a smuUr spirit to that, which Irom the commencement, has actuated the French 'liqut, in atiernpinig an opposition oh (utile as ma lignant, to Ole Bull's success. To prove this, let me hope that you will allow me a briet space in your valuable columns 1 will pass over the insults offered by this foreign gentleman to the judgment ol the American peo ple, in telling them that their patronage oi Ole Bull ih a proof of their ignorance; because, says h?? "Musicians are nearly all againit him; partly out of Jrvlouay, partly from conviction." Nor will I dwell on the compliment paid by him to an orchestra, composed ol the best i>erformers, native and foreign, to be found hi New Yolk How far his unmerited attack wi I injure them in the estimation of ihe public, is not for me to judge; I will, therslore, pass lo the misstatements mor? particularly relating to Ole Bull, to which I have tielore alluded. Alter quite n poetical description ol the opposition met with by Ole Bull, from mu sicians, daring his European career, he proceedh? " Ole Bull's concert! in Europe were attended with <1 IF ri nt and indifferent succes* In Prague, Berlin, Hamburg, and England, lis wni well received; in Vienna, franca, and other place*, he compsiatirely tailed " A few words will be sufficient to show what de pe dence bhonld be placed on this veracious wri ter's assertions In Vienna, Ole Bull gave fifeen consecutive concerts, receiving nixhtly irom over flowing audiences, composed of the ilitt ot the court and capital, the moat flattering tesumoniale ol applause. This then is comparative failure! As to "the other places" alluded to where Inn suc ces was only pariial?your correspondent leaves the public to guees? which, as he is so well in formed, is raiher ungenerous. He cannot have mean' Italy, where during a sojouru ol two years, Ole Bull's success was unexampled. Neither can he have alluded to his visits to Rus-ia, Poland, Kinlaud, Hungary, Sweden, and Denmark, in all oi which places his career was one of ttiumph. Where then are " the other places!" Again, he goes on? " In Faith, he met Vieuxt?mps. Rival factions quar relled I lit re tco, but there wan no blood (bad." This last is really a piece of information new to the public, especially to thorn who are aware thai those artiitfs never met in Pesth Vieuxtemps' v s t being made when a mere lad, in 1833, while O.e Bull's vmi' did not occur until six years after, namely, hi 183H. So much for accuracy. You vill now, Mr Editor, i>erniii me to refer to a tew of th** many cnntraciciiuris contained in your correspondent's letter To do so, it will be only necessary to use the scissors: ? "Nobody will deny that Ole Bull i* one ol the greatest geniuses tvbich Sfet existed." ' A great aitist, but not entirely frea of faults?faults, viaihtH t<> the gaze ot 'he mus rian but ingeniously and arti'tlcally bid en from lae Irs* ahaip intuition ol lbs public a' large." ' Ole (Bull is, in my opinion, an original in evary re rp ct " ' But the fsct Itself cf being an irr tutor of Psganini, si thouph not a .lavish one, has provtd a strong wea| an in ihf hands of his opponents." I wou d a-k your correspondent to reconcile the above. "Ole Bull one ol the greatest genm >s which ever existed " "Ole Bull a great atiist, t>ul not free Irotn faults " Then, "t Me Bull original in rtwrjr rttped, yet an imtl'itor of Paganim.*' luthedifl rent couutnes that Ole Hull lias visited, and where P ginim has been seen and heard, the charge of imitation h-i* not b'en breathed against him In performing the pieces of ihat greu' tnas ter, he h.!S endeavored to produce Ihe efl* cts III ten.f'd by the composer. So has Vi< uxtemps, and so has Artot, hut with what relative *aec< ss, the people, despite the dictum of your arbittr rUgnnta rtum, will h" allowed lo say In one line he tells us that Butt's peiinrmaiice is remsrkable for its (Jerman simplicity, and in the next he again stamps him as an imitator of Palatum. Was not Paganini wholly and exclusively of the Italian schoolt and if so, can German simplicity be an imiiatiun ot Italian art? A to the lashing he towed on Rossini as an imiiator, it is only neces sary to siy ihat ih<* writer was unfortunate in se lecting (?uillaumt Trll as the only original piece ot 'hat con poser, it being an acknowledged imitation nt the (reimaii Had he sutisiituted >V<mtrusitf/r, or Wwi, his judgm* nt would be entitled to a little more cr< dtt In one portion ot his letter he saya that Ole Hull is defi lent in Itgato,yrt he awatd-itn him the highest praise lor ih? composition and performance ot an udugio Surely a gentleman po?s? ss?d < f so much musical l> aie, niti-l know that an aibigto can nut he p. rformed without ltgain\ but I h?v ire* M?aa H at too great a length, and h ill < uly say >hst the elaborate criticism on " Niagara" is ax just ?> the generality of Bfser'i' ns r< named hi 'he i otti inumcanon are veracious From behind the veil >t kindness, the cmven loot f>eeps out, and uimvi lemlv indicates the source from which sptsngih* friendly effusion. 1 sm, Sir, No Came Court Cal?n<l?r?This Day CiacciT Cesar?tt, 3a, M, 19, 40. 41, 4a, 43}, (374) 4), City Intelligence. Police Office.?Bi s'.lhuls -The mure at Mr J. Hunon, No 94 Hudion stm t, tn entered on Wednesday nghi and robbrd ot silk pocket htndki rchiefs and tome reivet Thedweliirgs houie or Edwin Houghton and Edward B Hobby, No 111 Henry street, was entered on Wednes lay n'g'it by the beck bwnirnt door end ribbed ol ? ]n<i iny ol silver spoons and cut glass-ware Thtwwtre uo arrt?ii mide. ? everal petit larcenies comprised the residue ol the day's pri'Cei dirgt Harlem Police?ltiroaT?i?T Arhht.? It will be recollected that th? C.nin.on Council, a l? w months ago directed Justice Drinker, ui.e ol the lewly ap.omtid Mpecial Juxticri ol Police, 'o vacate the lown Pol.ce Ol li ?? and go to the H n?e ot D tendon at Hail? m, where Ihey deteimined to establish a Police stutiou. The | uli lic, ever asle? p to their own inteieet, could not di? ever the immense udvaotsges that wou>d uiic Iiom this change, or see the iMC<ssity a Police Otttce at Haiitm. Justice Drinker was ?qually blind anl positivaly d? clim-d the honor of presiding at Harlem, and continued to All one ol the magisterial cbana at tha Tombs. lit due course of time bit quarterly bill became due, and he wee r mewhat detirou* ol having it cashed, but to hit great diacon ftture, be learned thut the Board of Bupeivisora refused to audit bis bill unless he complied with the te quiiition ol the resolution Being pet tectly awaie which vide bis bread wns but ered. and desirous of saving bia bacon, he delertninid to obev the resolution, foolish as he considered it, and ucc idirgly about a fortnight since, afVreating a hearty breakf.a'.he took the caia eaily m the morning and started on his country ?xcurnon, nc compame I by the clerk who had obeyed much better than the magistrate for he had gone out every mornirg. At night the Justice was seen returning with a sorrow - ful countenance, with the revised (statutes under hi* arm; hut he had not had a single rare he lere him. Recent events have shown that the Common Coancil whs right, and the Justice wrong ?that the iiihab.taute of Harlem are not a whit better tt an they sh aid be, and that vice "prevails to an alarming < stent in" that, as well as (kit community; and it ia fortunate lor the people in that region that they have got a wise and judicious set ol papas to guard their interests. The lollowingeaae came up before the sitting magistrate a lew daya ago, and w? trust, peril ctly convinced him of the immense responsi bilities devolving upon him A lady, about thiity yeara ol age, named Catherine Hodpman, residing on the cor ner of 137th street ar.d thud svmue. deposed as fol lows " That on the morningof the 14th inst, at about It o'chck. a niun, n.itned John Hugb?s, can e into the house of telrvsbnient, kept by her and h?rbu?bai d.wken he had lett tin' store lor a lew moments, ted di ponent saw him l?an over the counter, open the money drawer, and tske out a book aud five cents. (I lie audacity of the Har lem rogues is astonishing,) when deponent went up to him (there's female courage, for you !) and asked hint " whet he whs doings" to which be ti plied " notben," (Well ! the in pndence of th'-se Haileai rogues, and their total dim g?rrt :or ti uth is dreadful to contemplate,) and let the bo. k ami cents fall upon the counter. Justice Drinker in mediately mind bis warrant, ai <1 thenniu was soon brough' belora him and fully roonmit t"d Ho ua* yesterday pla ed at the hui if'.lie Hp.cial Sessions; hut Mrs Hudginan, the complainant no. hav ing arrived Iiom Hail. m. the court discharged him, ad enine h<m to read the hook he s'ole, if it was a goad oue, bu' said nothing about the Ave cents. Ariangemi-nts are being mide to have the intelligence of impirtant arrests made at Harlem, transmitted to the Tom>m by the electric tel? graph. Coroner's Office? Friday.?Suodsi* Dksth ? The Coroner held mi n quest on th" body ot Patrick Kearney, ii native of Ireland So > ears of bgr, who di< d suddenly in ins Inarding haute on Thursday, ol congestion ol the luaga. Circuit Couit. Bitnte Judge Kent. Die.?Froncii Onffln. tl al vs. Htnry Mill ?In this cause the jury oued lot plain'iff, that thi y wne seized in leeof the premises described in the declaration and six cents coits William CMry vs Tht Mayor, #c. -This was an ?e tion b ought to t ecover damsel lor irJuries received 'iHmngea l.iid at $10,000 It appear-d in nviience that in (lie month ot Hi p etuptr, I8U, the plaint IT was passu u hrotigh the Pdtk wh< u he accidentally fell into a ditch which had been recently rug fur the pU' pose ol romi y inj Ctoton water to the fottn'ain, hj u h eb at cident I l.g was hr< ken,and has net since been a'de to attend to his u'ual emplo)mint as formitly. D iinc iff i>dwus, that us th>r>- was a lull moon at the time.it must have b- en '?ulnir to bis own caielessntss Virdict fur jlamtiff, j 1400 a d costs. 17. B. < licttlt < ourt, B |o>e J? i ge Ben-. Di e 37?Btnka' d # Hutlon vs Edviard Cut tit ? Tbo j iry in thu ca>eLuna a vvidict lorplaiutiB $1^1 II dasit <es, w:!h co.ts. Com ifiuii PItu. Baftm- Judge Ingraham. D? c 57?Mutthfw Yatrrs* I hnnat Shphtmon? In thi* ciiM reported in > t itema)'? Heiald, ibe jury found for |>li in'jff f. 60 (*am?gea unit 0 r?nu coit?. John Jl Bioun vi. H'm McJifrt? i hi* nil an action of < plavtn, biuU||h' by a root la er manufacturer, cart) iDg it an extensive hiihine** in '.hi* < ity, to recover the Tallin <1 about 100 dozen mot baer Mrne bottle*, valued at fSA, ? hich it wh* all- ged defendant hi Id po*?i inon ci withitit in) proper title inert to. It appeared that in leaving root '"?hi ut the variout placi a of retail i.o chaige ia mar* f r I.a bottle*. which .irr generally returned In many in < inc<'8 ttii* doe* not t?.k?- | Uc?- and man) ol them air by that m> mi ln?t to the amount of *ome hunditd* of dol ura, a* plaintiff allege:), who al?o averred 'hat they wire nitight up by vviioua peraon* who in their turn ui>e tbi m 'or their own maimfuctire, wbirh undir the nan e ol the ;jlaintifl, find a readier maiket In thia mn n? r th> quan ?ity ol loule* above atatid came into the li*r.il* ol d< lend >jt, a* alleged by plaintiff", and action i* brought to re* Cover. Verdict for plaintiff', f 84 damage* and 0 centa coita. maitne Court. Belnre liw'ge *?nuth. Drc. 'n?Johnttm v*. Ororf t olt ? Tbi* wii an action lire pax lor an araauli aid l<wtter). alleged to bate been G< mmittid on the peraoii ol plaintiff"by difer<!ai t ? It appvurtd in evidence that plan tiff wa* tteuard or rook i he packet ?kip Colon bu?, on her la*t voyage In m Liverpool to thik port; and 'hit :he d> 'ondant ?ai Cup 'ainj that on <>r about the iUt ol Nov* mbei Uat, the coi k <i. /fiitt male had an altrrcntiori about the key ?f the -oil note, which wa* then miming, in which th> fottner wan alltged to have riceived iath> r harah treatment; on I'omplaimng of thia to the Captain, he (the ftp am) knocked him down with bia fl.t, and alter j liiniifl' non . war a MCond '>m" treated in 'he mine manner, with a ?late which tl.? Captain bad in hi* hand; af'er whi< h nc ndant kicked him, and otbrrwn>e violently maltiiated ! m In de encrit wa4put In that pUinuffhad ihecharge ol the k<.y ol th? coal hole, and on the morning in que* tioo no roaU having U>n mrvnl out to tha pu?Mngtr*, the first mate proctede< io niirfi quiry a* to 'because, ?\ t? told in reply that the I aptain had it;on applying to .nit upturn, he utterly dtrirtd h->ing mon tt it; ?. hil tnn? converting, the plaintiff cum ar.d rt. f r"**r t i."-ling highly indignant, attut k plaintiff in the b?.d w i b i <log ?late while ne wu gun g out ol the cabin, and 'ut in conuqurnce ol plaintiff * ?tr iking or the door pout he leil. Verlict thi? forenoon. >lr. liaakett for | lair.nff ; Mr. Na?h for defendant. P.iton \ 5/?ii'?it v* Jriur Way!.?Thi* waa an action brought a^uiint a lomter < ollecier ol ibla pott, and it I i H.ghi to rtcover $60 on a l-'rge qtiai tit) <1 woittid wirdow line*, cravat*, li*.. whuh the plaintiff. con'ind mioiiM liuve bet n ?' nniti d lire ol <luiy, according to tho i< venue law* ur.der ? hn h th?) were in ported. More Dibti:r?a>. i x i.n Canada.?We refjft to ' urn tliat the Cnuttilrrs hnviojr now teiuriied front ?i their khantiea on the ranol, have c> n met.c?d aayttem I'outrage on the Lacliine loud ch?iwc'i rhtic oi.') of Tii p>rary, and previoutiv unhiard ol in I. atixda On .'e:ttie* iy evenirg, Mr. AuguttUa McPherion, ftiercbent l.anrB.ter, C W , havirii> Juiii in to? n m-kitg hia u.ti r ptircliaaea, waa on hta way home with *ev>ralluu ' <1 tlugli*, ?ml the lnfil.t hi III* roid, he got < t|t to ? alk hen withm a mile nr ?<> of Lachine, while i i> t< an iter* ut In urd at a (low trot The te?m? having gone al.< ad, ' continued bia walk alone. Wten near a ?mail wet d . thin aidi ft the village, be waa atrut k lioin ht hum I y ttnne thrown al him , a? he tutne<l round to *?? ?t o 11* * (limit waa, he received ai o'hfr ilMi* in tie fare, li ch a tinned i.im h little, at the >ame time l ur or the chi,alb r? Jnrniml Item hi hind a fi t ce and hilid ?ii to the ground with niirU and Minn, and after beat* g h'm uui ercilully, lekhim far dead A tiuv* Her w ko me t ii,ng >aw him lyrgontlt ttoni.d, at <1 a??iate<1 tn Lactiine. Hia head and 'ace me ilttodtnlh cut and i vollen. We atip|? aethat tl.ere hh no mi iui? <1 de e<'? g the murderotir villaii *, anil tint >1 there w r>, ?i *c< wotihl not date to r> me forward The oni) ntri-. loi mchThuggum in the niean'tme ia lot until na Lachine to go well armed.- Montrnl Htrald, Ote Jl. VrrtKAiKucioi.?The Annuel* rorreeponderit ol tile Yt'llkrt Hlmll, pulllihli'd Ml Ga'l d I net, Me., ukitbnaol Ike detnoci atic el clora ol bat $t?t, who '?ernlj cor.vetied at Anguita, to InlAl the dutie* r f ' li? ir i-t: 'l'he elertorhl college w a> ct mpeai d ol g. od look g n en, a por iun ol them old, Haunch ann ?ian'i id .-mbcrcol the democratic p?rt? dutiiig th< ir democracy on the fouiii'ation olthr gov? rnment 1 heolreit m ? mil ??pt Ichatx d Joidon f Saco, a vetiero'h gin man, mm b of whoae lile, piii-r io tl e warof IM9 waa i'ed in ploughing In the land ?n in both oi CU| otiona ha> iuc? ee i d In reaping aud g r> erli g good l arvi ?n. ? commandtd the II at tr.i rrh t.'man that waa c-ti'ured 'I Cam d int Il iitlu* a* the commeocemetit <? f me ir. r apt Jordan'? father, who niuiid in 8aro. a>a miKntid tin er the *<dition law ol old J. hii Ai'tB'*, irimonul to h"?tou but waa anvid WaiBileaa Irem ti e nal'y Thei If. i ce conaiated in aome char ee ? xprta n ol diilike and connmpt toward* he thin Prtaidttit, t much nnider than an< w etipre**id. 'ndian CngN ? Tina kii g 11 vegrtublfe, being a n?e i t this country, ami glow n-g lirf? in gri at( r nc'ioii than amwh-re el r,Ce not be inipitvj^iJ b^ flirtation In m ahn ad aid, a* fatmeia giriin) aie re rarelnl hi the aelirtion il He ?ie<l nt thia 11 *tn in . li) oihi r, it la not oi ly pit ?ei vid fit mdign ttatK t imp ovid ?ariitie* ate ohm (indimJ N? p'ant ? et r> pa> * care and mti noon el ti n k nd ; ami |i may preiumed t. at the I iii it a nl pi if rtieu h*Vi not l**u reached, it'her mi the imptovi m> ut cf var.eieaor ? method of cultivation Jail to Lit ?The j?il hi this irwn tvithcui a a-nt, aclrtnmttance ? hich ha| pi i t vr y telorm Wo <,e it will belong la lota another n Oivn >.al will ba v j?p?U?d to Btka it hM homo.- Plymouth Rich