f " 1
VoL XIIL No. 147?WM? No. 4744,
HIGHLY INTERESTING INTELLIGENCE
AFFAIRS IN CALIFORNIA.
The Advance of General Scott to the
Oity of Mexico.
MILITARY AND NAVAL NEWS. *
Special Despatches to the Xffew
York Herald Office.
SPECIAL DESPATCH TO THE NEW YORK HERALD.
Jalapa, Misico, April 30, 1047.
I am well aware that you take pleaaure In placing on
record the name* of those who have, or may distinguish
themselves in the war with Mexico. Enclosed. I send
you a copy or a letter received oy i_oi. uurneu irom
Oeu. Twiggs. I need not add that we are in every way
deserving of the honor Gen. Twiggs baa done us We
took up our line of march on the morning of the 18th.
and after a forced march of about eight miles, over
mountain!) through chaparral, encountering the enemy
at various places, grape and canister shot falling
among us like rain from different batteries, we from a
side road came out on the main road, passed the Cerro
Gordo, remained about fiye minutes until Gen. Twiggs
came up, who gavo the word " three cheers boys, and at
them." when we followed them on a full run for nearly
flvo miles. F.nthusiasm was manifested by every one.
for we all knew that Santa Anna was with them. When
you consider that we numbered less than oue hundred
and fifty, and wcro three miles at least in advance of our
own army, (the enemy numbering 6000 at least.) the
pursuit was, to say the least, heroic.
When the mail arrives there is more anxiety manifested
to obtain a copy of the Herald than to receive our
pay. or the six thousand dollars which the city of Now
York presented to us, of which we have not received
the " first Continental rod." Wc have hopes that unelc
Sam will pay us, but give up all hopes of the " six thousand
'We are en route to the oity of Mexico, and may start
to-morrow, but arc not sore, as the general orders have
not as yet been read. Call on Alderman Stoneull, drink
a good julep, give him my compliments, and say I am
Jalafa, Mexico, April 28. 1847.
CoLO.fXL:?I have the pleasing duty of laying before
you the names of the gallant New Yorkers, who accompanied
me In the pursuit of Santa Anna's army from
Cerro Gordo, on the 18th of April, 1847. Theiradvanced
position, when the Mexican army broke, enabled them to
partake In all the glories of the day :?
Capt. Morton Fairchild, Co. ' I," 1st Reg't New York
1st Serg't Chas. S. Cooper, " Thomas Hackot,
2d " Marx M.Hart, " Thos. S. Halsey,
4th " Th^s. J. Rogers, " George Loomis,
1st Corp. Jacob Riley, " Ilarvey Lake,
2d " Augustus Bartett. " William McGuire,
3il ' Edward Cook. " Horace J. Meacli,
4th " Smith Harris. " James Mullin. 1st,
Privatos?Joseph Boll, " James Murphy,
" James Curran, " Thos. Normand,
" Wm. H. Bishop, " lleury Philips,
" John Coleman, " Benj. Romaine,
" Wm. D. Creig, ' Dan'l Robertson,
" Robert Doolcy, " Thos. Rowley,
' ^Samuel Duffln, " Charles Stewart,
" Joseph Duffln, " John Saunders,
" Thos. L. Decker, " George Struthers,
" William Dailey, " Stephen Streeter,
" Thos. L. Doty, " John L. Trainer,
4' Joseph Emmons, " Robert Woods,
"^Joseph Franklin, Chas. M. Tucker.
Joseph Fly, Com. Serg't.
" Jehu Hammond,
COMFANT " E."
1st Serg't Garret Fltigeruld " Martin Folan,
3d ' Francia Crawford, " William McCoppin,
4th ' George W. Blake, " James Grady,
3d Corp'1 John Tyson, " John Leech,
Privates?Thos. Martin, ' Stephen Conner.
' James Armstrong. " Christopher Dunn,
" Hugh Brnn. " Martin Duncan,
" Francis Conrojr. " Timothy Duuuovan,
" Joseph Connilf, " Michael Manseen,
" George Gueria, " John desman,
" Robert Gannon, u David Simmons,
' John Graham, " Thoo. Ziinmeruiann,
' Robert Heland, " William Hunter.
" Charles Thompson, " Philip Ew/dt,
" James Williams, " William Council,
' David Wells, '? William Miller.
< apt. l'ierson was previously wounded.
I have the honor to be. Sir,
very respectfully your ob't serv't,
D. E. TWIOU8, Brigadier General.
To Col. Burisvtt, 1st Reg't N. Volunteers.
Cai.ifornia, Ujcitko Statks, February. 1847.
Kin: The Californians in the Cludad de los Angelos.
and town of Kanta Barbara, not being delighted with the
quick process.somo ot the American commanders placed
in the-r towns had in progress, of multiplying, as if by
steam, so many petty laws, and endeavoring to change
their modes and customs, without any why or wherefore
annulled tho conquest of Commodore Stockton, and
again unfolded their three oolered flag, hold the Cludad
from October to this month, and again gavo up to the
American forces ; 300 or 400 of the latter being emigrants,
who left Independence. Missouri, in May, 1847.
During ths rise, there was among the rifleinon only a
.Mr uurrougna ana Mr. coster,lour seamen or tlio Savauuab,
tun or twelve men. and two officer* under General
Kearny, and three or four of the Congre**'* seamen.?
There were four or five alight sktrmiahea during the
time ; in eanh a few wore killed or wounded. The
native* loat leaa than the Americana, aa they ofton rode
up on a swift horse, fired, and gallopod off.
The porta of Monterey and San Francisco did not have
any trouble, the people there having other commanders,
er being more friendly. At New Helvetia, on the Sacramento.
there aro no Californiana. There the Spanish
language i? hardly apoken. Our flag again covera the
' farther west," from 3J to 40 degree* north latitude. In
September, October, and November, abont 1400 emigrant*
arrived in San Francisco, 'J00 of them by sea. the
remainder in about 180 wagon*. The Mormona, via
Cape Horn, and Governor lloggf, via the mountain*,
have had the pleaaure of again aeolng each other on
thoao shore*, where man may come, but can go no
The emigrant* have lex* trouble each year in crossing
the mountain*, a* the road become* better. The flrat
house or rancho they generally reach belong* to Mr.
Johnstone. an Kngliahman, who will this year, with other
settlers, be better prepared to have proviaiona for the
new comer*. From Johnatone'* they prooecd to Captain
Sutter'*. By next October there will be other *ettlers
established ; in 1843 very many more. Even tbi* year
the emigrant* will not find at the Sacramento much to
purchase* They should all bring moro coffee and
sugar than they do. and take great care of
their store* and oxen on the road. Iloraos
for the journey are worth bat little; mules not
much more: small light oxen prove the beat. Many of
the emigrant* la*t year brought some few good*, which
were *oon di*po*ed of. By reason of the wars, they sold
FFF powder in 3.*< lb kegs, f'ili; lead, is cent* per lb.;
caps, f>? per 1000, payable to Mexican dollar*. People
meet the wagons to buy up their article*, also their
guns, swords, pistols, and rifles. All the emigrant* who
joined Col. Fremont, obtained a sale for their horse*,
saddle*, and rifles, and per month for six month*
Their chief afflccr*, appointed gonorally among themselves,
were Messrs. Heading, .Snyder, Blackburn. Talbot.
King, Sears, Swift. Bryant, Hastings, Jacob*, Mir.
ret, Ford, Klndloy, Bid well, dodoy, and Wilson. They
are yet in arm*?the country i*. however, all peaceable
Col. Fremont, on the 13th Inet., made a treaty with the
Californium! by their requoet, they giving np their cannone,
four in number, and retiring to their hoino*.
We expect three or four thoueand emigrant* will
reach the Sacramento thla year. Very few of those who
ariired In I84A hare had time to look for land*, but
hare had a One opportunity to serve the country at $25
per month, and very few entered the rank*, because
that fum wee an ohjeot?eport and ambition to hare a
light urged on many; but they only *aw the Californlan*
at a dlitanoe?they were not to be caught. A
Californian can Vet a very good gallop out of a hor*e
that an American ha* turned loo*e, because ha cannot
pur him out of a walk; the former can carry the latter
behind him at that. The*o Californian* and their
horse* know each other, and appear to hate a private
under*tandlng together. *
A* an American 1* a pure descendant of an Knglishman.
he, therefore, know* more than any one else, and
doe* not imagine a native of California can teach him
any thing, and act* aocordlngiy, but oannot get Into
the triok of riding double In a gallop on a tired hone,
' ? carrying
a lance In one hand, carbine In the other, and
the bridle rein* between his teeth. (Jen Taylor ha*
not this class of men to combat against, and yet may
not reach the ''grand capital:'' and should he, will he
reach tlin seaboard again? The first Is probable, the
second is possible. The Mexicans will not believe they
are beaten unless done in a most thorough and substantial
manner, that will admit of no future disputo. I am
much hurried; you must make out this letter as you
aan: take this this time; have no time to copy,
nor paper, what was not made into cartridgas," was
made into cigars by the Californians, when talking of
what they were going to do when they met Fremont.
advance of general, scott and peace.
[From the Now Orleans Picayuno, May 19 ]
As we anticipated, the return of the twelve months'
volunteers, who constituted so important a portion of
General Scott's army, has embarrassed his plan of
marching immediately upon the city of Mexico Major
General Patterson was to have gone forward with tho
advance; but that officer is now in this city. Tho two
Tennessee, the 3d and 4th Illinois, the Georgia, and Alabama
regiments have all left the army, thus rendering It
below a force with which to enter the capital of a populous
State with safety Gcneial Scott will push forward
to Pueblu; but beyond this ho will scarcelv go till reinforced,
unless he be invited there by the dissensions of
the enemy?in that case he will bo prompted more by
the defenceless state of the city than by the strength of
his own column, j
It is the opinion of olllecrsjust returned from Mexico
?and we may mention the name of General Patterson in
this connection?that the probability of conquering a
peace upon the plan of warfare hitherto pursued is
slender indued. It is thought by them thnt an army of
forty thousand, rank and file, should be in the field; that
captured cities should be put under the jurisdiction of
American citizens; that the revenues of the State
should be seized to defray the expenses of the war; thut
all the resources pertaining to the government should be
held as spoils of war; and that the military authorityset
ud by the United States army should exercise all the
powers of taxation and legislation belonging to the civil
administration of the country. This plan embraces the
idea of actual conquest and absolute Jurisdiction, and is
deemed the only feasible cue of bringing the war to a
""It is the belief of General Patterson and others who
Have given the subject a large consideration, that an authority
embracing all the necessary attributes of
sovereignty, set up in Mexico, could collect revenue
equal t? Its wants; and that the people of that country
can alone be brought to their senses by the exhibition of
such an authority. To permit the alcalde to us* his functions
in a captured city, or the native civil magistracy
u> conduct puone nuairs. in Keeping an enemy in power
who will be surely contriving against the army Thin
system has been productive of hurt wherever it has
been tried in Mexico, and experience denntndi its abandonment.
A military government, administered upon civilised
principles, it is contended, would be preferable to the one
now existing in Mexico. It would be more acceptable to
the tax-payers it is supposed, than the present arbitrary
and vacillating one. It would boaable to maintain
itself without greater exactions than the country is accustomed
to hour, and might in the end leave the people
in a better condition to govern themselves than they
now are 't hese ideas seem plausible, and It might be
wise to give them an experiment in some of the captured
Slab s The opinion Is becoming more and more general
(hat the United States may conquer Mexico; but a peace
Jalapa, Mexico, May 11, 1S4T.
The 1st Pennsylvania, New York and South ' aroItna
regiments have left for I'orofw. the 3d Pennsylvania
regiment remaining in Jnlapa. for the purpose of garrisoning
the plaee A portion of Twiggs' division is still
here, the 3d and 7th Infantry and the howitzer battery
having been sent back to the National Bridge; the former
to remain there, and the two latter to return with a
train of 350 wagons, daily expected from Vera Ouz.
Two companies of iragoous, besides a large detachment
of other troops, have also been sent to escort the train,
which brings. I inn told. 1.000.000 in specie, to be appropriated
in paying olf the troops, who are badly off for
funds After tile arrival of the train. Hen Twiggs will
move forward with his division, as will also the Com
mander-ln-Ghief. Oon Scott and Staff Somo portion of
the Artillery is to remain hi garrison with the 'id (VnnsylTAiiia
regiment, a 0-guti battery having hsen planted,
commanding the whole town.
The General Hospital la tilled with the wounded and
aiek, many of whom are dying daily The South Garolina
regiment liaa the largest uuuiher?155?the New
Yorker* being next There were .'>6 discharged yesterday
a? " tit for duty." thirty of whom belonged to the
5th infantry. I append the only correct list of deaths
yet furnished any paper in the United States:
April 38th?McCano. a teauiater 2Uth ?John l.yndhart.
Go. A. 1st i'n. regiment. 30lh?l.evl Garr. 3d III;
Dunbar, Co. A. 2d I'm. May 1st?Sergeant Allen, 3d III;
Corporal Smith. Co C. 2d I'a; Hart. 3d III: li'y Creaffe,
Co. B, 3d I'a; Hoffner.Tth Infantry. 4th?Kagau. Co. II,
1st Artillery; Morris, t arrigan. Sappers and Miners. 6lh
?Mellviu, Co II. 1st Artillery; John Sheldon. Go. G. 1st
I'a. 7th?Krnl Dane, Co. B. 3d Pa. 8th?Tumgatc, t'o.
ii, Mounted Itiiles; I'rvston. do. do; Vnlaudinghum Go.
H. S G. regiment, ilth- llobt. Hopper, t'o. I. 3d I'a;
Dwyer. 7tli Infantry; MoCrowley, 1st Tenn regiment;
Saddler, do. do; Sheldon. Sappers and Miners. 10th?
Craft, Qr. Master's Department
The sick generally are kept upon the lowest diet possible.
while the wounded suffer much from the effects of
their journey from I'lan del Jtio. I fear many of the latter
will yet die.
J The market is well provided with fruit and vegetables,
which sell at reasonable prices ; but. alas ! they arc not
within the reach of the Volunteers, who have not yet received
one cent of their pay 1 Kor tny own part, 1 have
not been in possession of a picayune theso two months !
The fullest and tlnest market Is on the Sabbath. Yesterday
I noticed delicious cherries, watermelons, plums,
tomatoes, sweet potatoes, green corn. Sic.. Sic., In abundance
; while poultry was equally so. A shrewd American
has established a snug stand In the market place,
where he keeps excellent coffee, tea.Sic.which he sells at
one pic. the bowl. There are also several Aineilcan
eating-houses, but they are poor things The article of
butter is u stranger to the Jaluppians there Is none to
he had ill the town I One thing, however, they are
bleggcd with-pure, cool water ; while they, or at leant
the noor gnldlerg, are cur?cd with fleag.
The next number of the American Star will probably
be letmed from i'liet la.
[From the N. O. Pic , May 19.)
The gleamehip Mary Klngeland. t'apt. Kavlg, arrived
' yeeterday atteruoon Irom Vera C rux, having made a
j very line run. She left there the evening of Thurgdny,
' the 13th ingt., one day after the Fa?hion
!*<he brought over geven ooinpan'eg ot' the 3d Illlnnia
Volnnteera We give a Ifof the nfllrerg among the
paggongerg below The other three rompanieg of (hli
regiment galled from Vera t'rui on the Billow, the morning
of the 13th
Private Joeeph Harney, of Mount Ternon. Illinois, wae
ioat overboard from the Mary Kinggland, on the nigl t of
The new* from the army above li no later by thie a
ffflMI" njji? I W|-.r*m|ii.yiy J|NW?'I| II|I i p P yi?i. m mmiiji .11^ . .
NEW YORK, FRIDAY M
THE MAIN PLAZA IN '
~l~p- ' Y v szr
' s " - ~ *" >_
VIEW OF THE HALLS C
rival than we have already received; from Vera Crux wo
have gathered a few Items of Interest.
Major Count do Uongars. aid to Hen. Shields, came
passenger on the Mary Kingsland, and we have had the
pleasure of a conversation with him. He informs us
that the night before the vessel sailed a small party of
dragoons were surprised at Sunta Ke, a small village
about fourteen miles from Vera Crus. by a hand of Mexican
robbers or guerillas. There" were eleven dragoons
in the party, and all but the sentry asleep. The Mexlcans
rushed upon him, and his gun having missed fire,
ho was unable to (five the alarm. A scuffle cnsueu. in
which the sentinel was killed, und the Mexicans rushed
upon the rest of the party. Of these, ten in number,
but one escaped unharmed. Six of the others were
killed and three wounded. As soon as the news was
brought to Vera Cruz by tho dragoon who escaped, Capt.
Walker, of the Hifles. was ordered out with his command
in pursuit of the marauding party. It is not supposed
that it was any thing more than a band of Mexican
In this connection we may mention that the arrival of
the Mary Kingsland at Vera Cruz, with Capt. Walker's
command on board, excited great pleasure The volunteers
are leaving so rapidly that it was grateful to the
Ainericuns in Vera Cruz to see the tide turning. Capt.
Walker's horses, over one hundred in number, suffered
nothing from the voyage, and were ready for scrvico immediately
There has been a good deal of talk lu Vera Cruz about
an attack upon that city by Santa Anna. but. the apprehensions
excited thereby have been entirely dispelled,
and probably never iiad any good foundation; but the
whereabouts of Santa Anna, and his predatory designs,
still continued the main topic of conversation, and are a
principal theme of the letters we receive.
In regard to the hvalth of Vera Cruz, a trust-worthy
correspondent writes us that there is occasionally a case
of sickness which is pronounced vomito, but it does not
appear to be on the increase.
We append a list of the Mary Kingsland passengers: ?
Mpjor Count de Bengals. Aid "to (Jell. Shields; Lieut. K.
T. Tliora, Alabama llegiiuent; Mr Mains; Col korinan;
Capt. Ilackleton, Assistant Commissary Subsistence; Dr.
I). A. Ituun. Surgeon 3d Illinois Volunteers; Adj. ( has.
Kverett, Jr.; Captains Bishop, Lawler, Hicks. Hardy,
Campbell and SelleiR; 1st Lieuts. Rose, Adams Proctor,
Tliouias. Lasater. Hooper and McAdams; dd Lieuts. Dunbar,
Reardon. Livingston. Ritchie. Burke, Corlew and
Redfcron; and 340 rank aud hie.
THi: J'RKCAt'TIOXS AT VKSA CM Z.
Department of Vera Cruz. Mexico, May 6, 1347. >
ORDERS so. 'J.
Lieut. Gorgus, Ordnance Department, U. 8. A., will immediately
take measures to put the batteries designated
(in verbal orders.) in a proper state of defence. All superfluity
guns and mortars will either be removed or
dismounted, and the csrriages put In some secure place.
At each of the designated batteries a piece of artillery
will be kept loaded with blank cartridge as a signal gun.
to be discharged in case of alarm, when the troops and
all others so required, will turn out underarms, with the
required quantity of ammunition in their cartridge boxes,
to act according to instructions given them by their immediate
In the event of an alarm, the marines nml sailors from
the squadron, (by an arrangement made with the senior
navul cMtmntin.1 r 1 will on their iHnillmr. immedialclv
repair to the several butteries to which they may be assigned.
under the comniunil of a commissioned officer
from the squadron. aurl nerve the guns The others that
may be landed will act as circumHlancen may require,
under th? direction of their officers.
fcl'he Mexican inhabitants are particularly cautioned. In
case of alarm, to keep within their houses; for if discovered
in the streets, ami armed, they will most certainly
be looked upon as enemies, and treated accordingly.
All citizens who have located themselves in business,
or otherwise, since our taking possession of the city of
Vera Cruz, will be prepared at all times to assist in its defence.
In case of an attack. For this purpose, Mr. J B.
Cozzens is hereby authorized to enrol and organize them
into a company. They will be furnished with arms. ice.,
and in case of an alarm, assemble as quickly, and o.<
quietly as possible, at the armory?receive their arms,
&lc? aud be marched by ( apt. Cozzens to the main I'laza,
there to await further orders.
lu the event of an attack, which will be known by the
firing of a heavy piece of artillery, all masters of American
vessels lying in the harbor, are requested to coino
immediately ashore, with their crews, (leaving a sufficient
number onboard for the protcdion of the vessels,) and
report to Captain lletzel, who is hereby directed to arm
and organize them in as effective a manner as possible.
They will remain in the < ustom-llouse Square until they
All unauthorized persons having public urms or munition*
of war in their possession, will, in compliance with
tile first artiole of the capitulation of this city, forthwith
turn them over to Lieutenant Uorgus, of the ordnance
By order of Colonel Wu.?opr, Governor of Vera Cruz
B. H. A NTH ON,
Adjutant First Infantry and A. A. A. G.
lis I OqtA IIT Kilt OK THE A H Mr, /
J*u*ps, May 4, IU47 )
Ocnsiit Oaii?.K>?No. lib).
F.xtracts ofa recent act of congress, published in the
General Orders. No. 14. dated at the War Department.
March '47. 1K47 -provide for, and invite, the tender or
the services ufsuch of the volunteers, now in Mexico,
who may. at the termination of the present, term, voluntarily
engage t o servo during the war with Mexico."
The General Order,containing those extracts, reached
the General-in-Chief, at this place, some nine days ago,
and was immediately sent to the Headquarters of tlie
Volunteers, for prompt circulation among the regiments
present, and appealed to. viz the Tennessee i.avalry. the
.'Id and 4th Illinois Infantrv. the 1st and 'id Tennessee
Infantry, the (leorgia Infintry. ami the Alabama Infantry.
whoso several terms of servie# will, It Is understood.
expire in four, five, or nix weeks.
The Oeuuralin-chtef regrets to learn, through a ureal
number of undoubted channels. that, in ail probability,
not one man in ten, of those regiment*, will la1 Inclined
to volunteer for the war This pre-determination offers,
in his opinion, no ground for reproach -considering the
long, arduous, faithful and gallant servicea of those corps
-however deeply nil will regret the consequent and unavoidable
delay in the prosecution of this war to an
early and honorable peace; for the (iunnral-in-chief cannot,
In humanity and good faith, cause regimentsentitled,
in a few weeks, to an honorable discharge?to
advance farther from the coast, In the pursuit of the
eueniy. and thereby throw them upon the necessity of
returning to embark at Vera Crux. at the season known
to be, at that place, the must fatal to life.
Accordingly, the regimentsofold volunteers, and the independent
company ofKentucky volunteers, serving with
this army, will stand ready, on the return of the large
train from below, to march to Vera Crux, and thence to
embark for New Orleans, where they will be. severally
and honorably mustered out of the service of the United
.States, and paid off by the proper officers on duty there.
This order will be sent to those officers, and the (lovernor
and Commander ot Vera Crus, who lias been Instrueted
to have the necessary trim ports ready by the
early arrival of the returning troops
There is nothing In the foregoing Intended to Interfere
with the Invitation presented by Congress and the President,
to re-enlistments, an the part of the old volunteers.
On th# contrary, the <lencral-in-chief ardently
hopes, that many new companies will be formed out of
[ORNING, MAY 28, 1847.
THE CITY OF MEXICO.
i|f# . ... I
>F THE MONTEZUMAS.
those olil troops, and presented for continued service,
according to that'iuvltulion. llo will gladly accept them
for tho war. und cause them. if Dot embodied into
liattalions. to bo temporarily attached to tho weaker
regiments of the regular army, as indicated in the Prodi
dent's orders, No. 14. above recited.
Homes of tho Tennessee euvalry. as well us officer*'
horses. generally. It' desired by their owners, who may
decline rc-volunteering, 'will he paid lor by the Huartoruiaster's
department here, at a fair valuation. Tho
same disposition may be made of saddles and bridles, if
needed for the public service.
The four regimcntsjof now volunteers, present, will bo
formed 1 tilo a brigade, under Iirigadler (teneral Huitinan,
who will designate one of the four for Jalapa. and another
for Perote, to constitute parts of the garrisons of
those plnces. lie will receive orders, for the commencement
of his march, at (ieneral Headquarters.
Major General Patterson, rendered, for tlie moment,
supernumerary with hi* army, will accompany the returning
volunteers of his late gallant division, and
render them sucli as*istanne. on the way, as he well
knows liow to give. He will report. In person, at Washington.
or by letter, from Now Orleans, for further
orders from the War Department.
This distinguished general officer will please accept the
thanks of the General in-chief, for the gallant, able and
efficient support uniformly received from the second in
rank of this army.
By command of .Major General Scott.
11. H. SCOTT, A. A. A (J
Headquarters, VoirNTEr.ii Division,?
Jai a fa, Mexico, May 5th, IA47. )
Orders No. 17.
In accordance with orders from the Headquarters of
Iho A rmtr i hn Ti.nnnuo.o i 'ntalrv thn Iclnn* o,l Ton.
nessee. the ltd anil Itli Illinois. Hie Georgia, ami tlio
Alabama regiment* of Infuntry. and Captain Williams'
company of Kentucky Volunteers, will lie held in readiness
to march to Vera Criu. thence to embark for New
Orleans, where they will bo severally ami honorably
mustered out of the service of tli?? United States, and
paid ofT by the proper officers on duty there.
To (facilitate the march. Col. Campbell, with the
regiment of Tennessee horse, the 1st and '2d Tennesse
Infantry, and the company of Kentucky Volunteers, will
march to-morrow morning, the (ith inr.t.
The .Id and 4th Illinois regiments, under Col. Konnaii,
will march to-morrow at '2 1*. M.
The Georgia and Alabama regiments, under Colonel
Jackson, will march on the morning of the 7th Inst.
The troops will march with their arms, ten rounds
ammunition, and their personal effects, and will turn in
at this place all tents, and such other articles of camp
equipage, as uiay not be indispensable on the return
Kach man will take in his haversack hard bread for
four days, and bacon for two days The Brigade Commissaries
will obtain from the Chief Commissary, money
to purchase fresh lsccf, on the road, for two days.
The (Quartermasters of the command will make the
proper requisitions on the Acting (Quartermaster General
tor the necessary requisition.
In promulgating this order for these gallant regiments
to return to the I nited Htat.es, the Major-Gcncral. while
he regrets that the term of their service will not afford
another opportunity fur these troops to gather addit ional
fame in the future events of this already brilliant campaign,
cannot forgot that the recollections of a glorious
past will be carried to their homos. The services of the
twelve months' volunteers will always he perpetuated in
their country's history with the remembrances of Monterey,
Buena Vista. Vera ' run and < erro Gordo.
The Major General avails himself, on this occasion, to
take leave of the 1st and '2d Pennsylvania, the South Carolina-anil
tho New Vurk volunteers. and to tender his
thanks to Origadier-Geueral (now Major-Oencral) (Quitman.
and them, for their obedience to orders, attention
to duty, and their faithful, ready and cheerful support
under all emergencies, since they have been under his
command, and he assures these fine corps, and their gallant
and accomplished commander, that he will always
be happy to meet, and to serve with them
n../,rL>. ,.r \i. I..* 11..?i i'. .
[SignedJ \VM H. KBF.Nf H,
Act ing Asst Adj. (Jen.
AKPAIRH I\ T1IK CITY OK MEXICO.
We are in possession of papers from the city of Mexico
to the 1st inst.. three days later than tboac previously
Upon the most cursory perusal o'our flic*, the impression
made confirms all that we have before said vf the
wide-spread and deep-seated hostility of the Mexican
race, embittered immeasurably by the loss of the battle
of Uerro Oordo. We cau only discover that there is any
peace party whatever by the fierce denunciations of all
who talk of peace, made by the orguns of the other parties
Peace has no organ in Mexico.
The recent reverses of the Mexicans have exasperated
to a frightful extent the animosities existing between
the old parties El llrpuhhtano quote* freely from a
journal in I'uebla in the interest of the clergy Front its
language, no one would suspect that it was the organ of
a < hrlstlan sect Its denunciations of the purot, or the
party of (Jomes Farias, can only be paralleled In atrocity
by the maniac ravings of Marat during the revolutionary
horrors of France. The populace are urged to every excess
against the traitors, as tiiey are called. ' Let their
blood wash out the disgraces of the nation," cries the
representative of the church ; "then let us prepare for a
universal insurrection, which, like the lightning, will
consume and devour the Yankees." The church party
will not allow the partisans of Farias to surpass them In
denunciation* of the Yankees ; and the modrradon. who
are endeavoring to calm the resentments of these extreme
parties are equally desirous for war.
It would not be prolilahle to translate more of the
documents before us to show the spirit by which the
whole nation appears to he animated ; our columns have
already borne ample testimony on the subject, but we
cannot forbear mentioning the address of the (torernor
of the Federal District of Mexico to the inhabitants after
the battle of Cerro (Jordo Much a passage as the following
occurs : " War and war only. War to the death
War us it was wuged by the Mnrelos, the I laleanas, the
Matantoros. Let us die rather than negotiate lie is a
traitor who speaks of peace, who dares to propose the
slightest ." And ugaiti: "Mexicans' we arc ail
one. and Mexicans only Let us be unanimous; let
there he hut one cry. anil let that cry be war Perish
the Anglo Saxon! Perish the Yankees !"
We turn to other matters t ireat numbers of families
have left I'uebla. and a great number of robberies have
been committed both within and without the city It
is also said that Concral Ilravo had prohibited the admlulen
uf lilln IK. 1,.^., .1... >>..
penalties. Till* onli-r i* censured *< cruel to the help1?**
poor of th? town, milling famlnn to the other 111*
that may bo anticipated from the presence of hostile
A letter from Durango repeat* the story that M)0 Amcrlcans
had left Chihuahua with fourteen piece* of artillery
l<> march on Dumugo It say* nothing of their hiring
returned to Chihuahua upon the receipt of new*
from New Mexico
The \ inericau* hare occupied the mining town of f >uadnlupu
y I aim. upon which Klrker was said to hare a
design It I* in the southern part of chlhunhua, and
where the gorernment wa? to hare taken reluge when
drlren from I'rrral.
(In the 1st of May. President Anaya declared the city
of Mexico in a state of siege- ripiirsletit to declaring
martial law. The reason assigued in the preamble of
the decree Is the necessity of prorlding for the defence
- ? ????. V" **" *-' -
" 11 *"" mmf 1 11"" " * 1
- .. - " ?rr?-- ?
of the capital and the common defence of the nation, by !
restraining the program of the enemy
We liawe come across a decree of Anaya of an older
date giving a cross of honor to those oScWI who diKtiliguished
themselves in the actions of the -iid and Slid of ;
February, to be inscribed, ' battle of the Angoituru i
Approved valor.'1 The same deoree authorizes a decoration
to be worn upon the left arm t>y those privates |
who distinguished themselves in the same action
Letters have been received from ( alifornia announcing
that on the 1st of April the United States sloop-of-wur
Portsmouth arrived off the port of San Jose, and after
demanding the surrender of the town, landed l.'il) ' Yankees,
" who planted there the American flag The Portsmouth
then sailed to take like possession of the ports of
Han Lucas. La faz and Loreto. These are all small posts |
in the peninsula of Lower California, two in the extreme :
south of it, and two 011 the western side of the GMf of I
California. The Mexicans express the belief that it will ;
not he long before the Californians will turn upon their .
unworthy invaders, and expel them
Families are leaving the city of Mexico, and taking re- !
fuge in the large towns of the vicinity. In Toluca such
was the influx that rents appreciated enormously, and
the prefect interfered and put an end to what he called
the abuse of the landlords, by the most arbitrary measures.
The diligences continue to he r< bbed in the immediate
vicinity of the city of Mexiro. fine was robbed seven
times in one day, and yet the most respectable people
have to travel in them We think it safe to say that the
respectable cIursoh in the country and small villages,
dread the organization of guerillas much more than we
have any occasion to do.
The city of Mexico is overrun witli disorganized soldiery
They consist in pnrt of those who tied from Cer- 1
ro Gordo, hud I11 part of those who surrendered at Vera 1
C ruz. They make such reports of American prowess in I
the capital that the Government, for this avowed '
reason, luu4 ordered them all out of the city
A paper ot the 'i'.ith ult . announces the arrival of an
express from Hunta Anna, in which lie annouueeg that
his troops are daily increasing lie announces, uioreo- ,
ver Ills unshaken resolution to coutiuue the war to the
last gasp, and for this purpose lie demands means and
the efficient co-operation of all Mexicans
AMERICAN PRISONERS IN MEXICO.
[From the New Orleans Picayune, May 19.]
There was a report?but merely s report?that Majors
Gnlnes and ilorlund. and Captains lay and Heady, and
their commands, were allowed the freedom of the city of
Mexico. This wc do not believe, as we know that a short j
time before the last arrival from Mexico tln-y were in |
close confinement In the felons' castle of Santiago. We I
have heard that General Scott has given the .Mexican
authorities to understand that If a hair of their heads be
touched he will make a fearful retaliatiou upon them. ,
Sofarsogood: but it seems to us that every Mexican
officer nud soldier taken by the army should he held in
closo confinement till the Lucarnacion prisoners, together
with Midshipman Kodgers, are brought In safely to
the American camp
A1KAIKH IN CALIFORNIA.
[From tlio St. l.niiin Union, May III.)
Oknixkmk* : ?I Hand you twelve newspapers. nictirtd i
from Col. Fremont, by Messrs. Talbot ami Carson. and I
giving the progress of events in < alifornia durinK the j
inontliH of December, January and Kebruary last The i
I ant dates of those paper* contain two (ienerol Order* j
from Commodore Hhubrick. dated I at and 11 tit of Ke- !
bruary, from which will be seen his view of the President
v disposition of the aupreuiu coiiiiuaud in I alifornia.
and show* that it wan an fortunate an it wan wine, in j
Col. Krenmnt. not to accept the responsibility of deei- '
diug initiation* of supremacy lietween hi* superior*.
Respectfully, Stc ,
THOMAS II UKNTON. I
May 18th. IH47.
The papers with which Col. Benton has favored us. are
full tiles of the Colijorniiiii. printed at Monterey by Colton
it. Seniple. and the California Star, of January '2:1(1,
printed at Verba Buutia. from them we gather the following
information :?The Califnrnian of December
.1th, says, the insurgents had gone south, but that all citizens
having property, were at home cultivating their
farms and prosecution their lawful business It declares
that all men of desperate and reckless character had
joined the insurgents. It announces that the ^uniform
policy of the I nitcd States has been to protect private
property, and pay for whatever was necessary for public
uses. The inilitiry commandant of the Northern Department
forbade the sale of intoxicating liquors at Monterey.
yet some of the sailors continued to procure it.
Ou the 30th of November eight prisoners escaped from
the jail at Monterey, by the desertion of the guard, two
sailor*. The deserter* were subsequently pursued and
arrested, also, some of the prisoners Cull particulars
are given of the loss of the American whale ship Baltic,
oil the const of Kaiusehutka?the rew saved, and a part
of the cargo
The Californian of the 12th of December, says Mr
.initio imu wttvii iiteeu m nun wax wm
treated. Alan, that the Californien* at that place ililiered
an to thi- courjuto be pursued The South f alitortilans,
it is said. wished to raise an independent ling and '
deliver that province to the United States authorities, to I
Have themselves from punishment ami trouble
"It in likewise reported that several Callfomlans have I
joined Col. Fremont. Uf this, likewise, there is very j
little doubt; as it is well known that several men have I
been waiting in the vicinity of the I'ajaro river, to pre- I
sent themselves to the authorities of the I'nited Slates, .
as soon as opportunity sliould offer, and Hint iliey could '
be made aware by so doing their lives would not la> taken
or themselves otherwise materially Injure 1 "
The same number of the Star contains an apprnl by a '
native California!!, urging submission to the I niled
States government, as lite best means left for individual
security and happiness
The Calif ornian. of the I Stll, mentions the departure
from Monterey, of t apt Maddux. with Sfty men destination
not made public it adds
"Wo have no fresh Intelligence from Commodore
Stockton At our latest advices hi' was at San Diego;
there is a rumor, however, that lie has taken San Pedro,
and fortified the position. Col Fremont, when last
heard from, was below San Luis?this was more than
two weeks since lie must be at this time at Santa Barbara
He marched through all the heavy rains that have
Before Colonel Fremont, left the town of San Juan
Haiitista. on his march southward, his lienevnlent feelings
prompted him to do an act for which he has received
the hi arty thanks of many poor distressed farmers.
who had no right to expect any such favors as were con
fcrred on thein by him. but which favors have unfortunately
been of little or no benefit to those who received
tli<>m lie gave to aovural people aufttcieut horav* to
carry on their buaine**, ami to Don K I'acheco, a .Vleitran
gentleman, who ha* 'lone every thing In hi* power
to forward the American oauM, he aerit upward* <lf !K)
ltnraa* to be taken earn of, and ueed in the aerviee of
that gentleman and other*. who atood In the frrealeat
need of them, until I ol Kremont a return from the Angela*
to thla place. But here la another Instance of Ihe
injury thla rountrT la Buffering from tha liunirrcetlon In
the Angelo*. Had not thla taken place, the depredation*
which tor Huch a length of time have l>een committed
with impunity by the Indian*, would, hnforu
now. have heeti put an end to; but aueh la the blind Infatuation
of many ' alifnrnlan*. that they cannot aee
into their own intereat* The Indiana from the Tulare*,
who are alwaya on the lookout, and beitde* alwaya get
immediate information when and wbera a quantity of
KW - ****". - ?" t [Aft*** . ,
Mm Tn Own.
torses in*r be found could not resist the temptation
mowing as they do that iu this part of the country, at
present. there ia no force to follow tbem up. or otherwise
injure tbem; accordingly. In two or three day*
after Col Fremont bad left tbeae horaee. and aereral
others which be had been kind enough to distribute
imong those individuals who were most in need of
.hem. they came down and swept off every hone they
tould And. leaving the farmers entirely destitute of the
neans of carrying on their agricultural business When
will the C allfornlans come to their tenses'
- The Calif amian, of January dd. announces the arrival
>f the U 8. ship Dale, and gives an acoeunt of the oeleiratlon
of Christmas holidays at Monterey, by masquaadus.
be. The only item of intelligence in this number
s as follows
" Our latest advices from below are up to the 1st of
December, Oommodore Stockton was at that time encamped
near San Diego, and about to march with a
iretty heavy force to the town of the Angeloe. Colonel
Kremont at our last advices, was near Santa Barbara, so
that the battle has probably come off before thia. We
<h?il know the result before long. The Commodore took
with him several lino pieces of artillery, and forced his
way. wh doubt not, to the capital."
The Calif omian, of the 9th says, everything ia quiet
about Monterey, but reports that small numbers of the
enemy have been seen occasionally in that neighborhood.
It thinks it H.-t ?.. v.-i? v? ?
, ...... huu ruouij, vu imiu? w?wu Wthe
South, or,on breaking up there without a battle. will
attempt muni- demonstration on Monterey. No apprehensions
us to the result were felt. as the presence of the
Dale rendered the city safe The following paragraph
shown the view* of the editor :?
' The line of policy which the Americano should pureiie
here, in one involving us much forbearance as may
he compatible with public safety Any unnecessary restrictions
only serve to irritate There are cases which
require severity, but there are many more in which justice
ami sound policy suggest forbearance. We should
uever forget that California is no longer a territory of
Mexico; she is uow attached to the l otted States, and is
destined to become a member of that glorious confederacy.
All our plans and operations here should bare a
reference to thut important result. Insurrections must
be put down, but tliey should be suppressed with as little
iujury tu the vital energies of the country as possible
No act. wounding the individual pride, or unnecessarily
provoking private resentment, should be tolerated.
There is n pulse in every man's heart which always
throbs kindly back to kiuclness ."
The editor of the Californian sees one udvaulage in
the insurrection nt Los Angtlos : it induced the immigrants
in the uortli to take up arms, aud thus enabled
them, whilst marching through the whole country, to
learn its real value and resources.
The same paper of the llith contains the following: ?
'The war on the Bay of San Krauclsco, It
seems, has been amicably adjusted between the belligercfets.
' uptain Weber, who was in command of
llfty or sixty volunteers, was driven iulo Santa l laraby
tile ('alilbrniaus. who were some two hundred strong. A
llag of truce was passed, aud the leaders on both sides
met by appointment. The ( aiiforuinus state that their
object was not to make war l>ri the American flag, but to
protect tlx-iii i In R from depredaliooft of those who, unler
color of that Mug, were plundering tlieui of their
:attle. horses, saddles, uud menus of subsistence. All
that they desired was. that the property thus takes,
without the authority of the Governor General, should
be restored; aud they, on their part, would release their
prisoners, and retire quietly to their homes. Theaa
terms, reasonable euougli, were aooeded to. and tha parties
dispersed, uever, we trust, to meet again at belllgereuts.
No taklug private property without giving
ample receipts will be permitted by the United States
Government; aud wo entire! / mistake the principles of
tlic present Governor General if he will tolerate it for a
The paper of the name date gives some vague rumors
of tlic buttles near Los Angeles, which the editor does
not rely upon. It also describes the better portion of
the Californium! as well disposed to the American cause
The California Slav of the dSd gives the particulars of
the troubles near Santa < lara A lieutmiant of th?
navy, with six marines. whilst in the interior on business,
were surprised nnd taken prisoners by armed Mexican*.
i apt J. H. Hull. Governor of that diatrict, tent
a company of regulars under ( apt. Merstun, and a company
ul volunteers under < apt Smith, to rescue tb?
prisoner*. The euemy retired from hie fortified camp
near .Verba liui'uu. and made a aland not far from
Santa Clara. Our forces brought their caunonto bear on
the enemy, and in a few hour*, inducod them to send in
a flag?the result of which I* given above 'Nothing was
known, of a certainty, of the aliasing launch, under Midshipman
The California? of the !13d of Janunry. announces the
arrival of the Independence, (urn Shubrick, and says,
he. in virtue of hi* rank, take* command of all the naval
and laud forces there It mentions that dally reports
render it probable, that Com Stockton and Col.
Fremont are at Los Angeles. and that the latter plaee
was taken without a general engagement. Its capture
wu* succeeded by a flag of trace from the f'alifornians.
who had retired a short distance from the town The
term* of pacification, it was thought, would be carried
without lurthcr hostilities The same paper aasurel
those whose private property has been taken for public
purposes, that ample restitution will be made in due
An extra Califom!an of the '18th, gives an account of
the battles of Sun t tubriel and Mesa, which we pubilabed
a few weeks ago
A letter published in that paper and written at Loe
Angelos, by an Americnn who had been a prisoner in the
enemy's hands, during the previous battles, says ' Two
days hack, Col. Fremont and Don Audr-s entered
into a treaty, which put aa end to the war Three
days back, the Mexican officer* ijuit the camp, and Don
Andres I'lco is now in command. Kiores. Ciarciaa, Castro.
.luan and Toman Soberande*. with ten or twelve
others, bad started for Konora iu Mexico. Shoold they
hear of the treaty, they mnv return The ( all fondant
appear completely tired of the nlfair.
The Calif'omian says.no further difficulty Is appre
heuded. n* violent measure* were not used towards
those coneenied in the suppressed insurrection. It
ascribes the difficulty to u few restless spirits, as the
C&lifomtaDs generally prefer the American government,
and desire their territory to remain under the American
Hag. It says. that., however diplomatists may deoide
the matter, California will never aguin be a part of Meaiuo.
an tho nannls* nmfur t I *
_ - ,?r- ,?? Kum jMin ifurerDuiiu,
and will determine their own destiny for themselves.
The California* of the fith of February notices the arrival
of thn Lexington, Captain Tompkins,who, arrived
in her. with hie company and Held artillery, was stationed
at Fort Mervine Lieateuant Halleck. of U, 8. Lnglneers,
was to make permanent fortifications at the most
important point* along the coast; he was well provided
with all necessary implements for the purpose, and had
besides a saw and grist mill The Lexington was loaded
with batteries. -J4 pounders, mortars, Ike., Ito., for military
purposes. Three other transports, with Colonel
.Stevenson's regiment were shortly expected. ' Sufficient
witli General Kearny's column, to secure California
as a territory of ihe i uiti-d Stales.A fortification wiU
lie erected at Sail Francisco. There is abundance of
limber, and wafer-power almost inexhaustible, up the
The following is the -General Order" of Commodore
Hhubrick ; ?
"The ( ommander-ln-Chief has great satisfaction tn
announcing to the Inliabltaiits of Monterey, thnt from
information received from variau> sources,he has reason
to believe flint the disorders which have recently dUturlii-d
t lie territory of aliforniu are at an end.and that
peace and security are restored to this district certainly,
and he hopes to the whole territory
"The improved state of altalrs in the district, and the
arrival of a company of l ulted States artillery under
< aptain Tompkins, has enabled the ( ommander-ln*
liief to dispense with the services of the company of
mounted volunteers, under Lieutenant Maddux of tha
Marine corps The patriotic settlers who composed this
company, nobly stepped forward in time of dauger, and
stood between the Hag of the United States, and the
defenceless women and children of Monterey on the ons
hand, and the bauds of lawless disturbers of the peace,
on the other.
"Forsuoh disinterested conduct, the company of mounted
volunteers under Lieutenant Maddux, of the marine
corps [acting as rnptainj Is tendered the thanks of the
( oinmandor-tn-< hief. and will, without doubt, receive
commendation and due recompense from the general
"Given on board the United States ship Independence.
Harbor of Monterey. Keb. I, IH17
\V IIKANFORD 8HUBRKK,
( omuiander-in-l hief.
The same paper contains the following circular fkoa
Colonel Fremont, as < ivil Governor
The peace of the country living restored, and fntnre
tranquility vouchsafed by a treaty made and entered
into Iiv commissioners respectively appointed by the
properly authorised ( aliforuia officers on the one band,
and liy uiy*cll as military commandant of the United
States forces in the district of I aiifornia on the other,
by which a civil government is to take place of the mill
tiiry *11 exchange <>f all priaouera. Uc , fcc , forthwith an
cure to the end that order and a wholesome civil polio*
should ohlain throughout the laud a ropy of which
xaid treaty will be immediately publiahed in tho (alitornla
newspaper publiahed at .Monterey
Therefore, in virtue of the aforesaid treaty, aa well aa
the function* that in ine reat an civil governor of California,
I do hereby proclaim order and peace reatnrvd to
the country, and require the immediate releaa* of all
priaonera. the return of the civil officer* to their appropriate
dutiea. and aa atrict an obedience of the military
to the civil authority aa ia conaiatent with the aeenrity
of peace, and the maintenance of good order Whea
troop* are garrlaoned
"Done at the capital of the territory oft allfornia, temporarily
Mated at the I ludad de loe Angeloe, thta '13d
day of January, IH47.
J t FRF.MONT,
(Jovernor and Commander-in-Chief of ( allfornia
Wltnea* \V II. Kuiiki.1., Secretary of State
t olonel Fremont at the ilatc of the foregoing circular,
knew nothing ol the arrival of Commodore Hhubrlck.
The Calxfornian of the 13th. contain* the treaty negotiated
by Colonel Fremont. The following are the
l?t The com ml** inner* on the part of the Californiana
agree that their entire force ahali. on preacntation of
themanlvea to Lt. Col. Fremont, deliver up their artillery
and public arma. and that they ahall return peaceably to
their home*, conforming to the law* and regulation* of
the I'nited state*, and not again take up aim* during
the war between the I nlted State* and Mexico; but will
uaalat and aid In placing the country In aatate of peace
3d The eommlaaioner* on the part of Llent. Colonel
Fremont, agree ami bind themaelve* on the fulfilment of
the I at article by tho Californiana. that they xball be
guarantied protection of life and property, whether on
parole or otherwlee
3d That until a treaty of peaee be mad* and aifBed
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