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Ik* Pap* In Ru|1iimIi "Not corporally, indeed, on iratly present, in England, does hi> Holioes-, ?? tht? moment, live and act in every diocet* ; and the great difil cnlty of forming a caMu*'. 1 1 < ouaequence of a diversity of opiaion asm hi* nileged aggression, provea that it ii felt be is th< r- la the language of the Archbishop of CantefMry, *' It cannot be denied that many pera >us, U members and ministers c.f our churcit, din^n* the leat ten yeara, have bhown a tendency to* ard K?mish tenet* and observances, whiohfcas astonished all who adhere to the doctrines of the reformers. The present struggle ureseo's a singular anomaly in the history of religi<? i The whole country haa for many montha been in a suite of feverich ex* citement, because the P?pe, forsooth, in the exer ciae of those prerogatives which he claims an V icar of Christ, haa ventured 10 define, geographi cally, what he wishes 10 he considered the thir teen diocssees of the Catholic church in Eogland, nnd has conferred on certain o? his clergy in that Protestant lead, archu pisuopal and episcopal titles ?1 cilice, expressive of allegiance to Rome, with an unqualified recognition or the papal supremacy in things spiritual. This movement on the part of Pio Nono, it muat be admitted, is a novelty. But the prelates, priests, and people of the eatabliahed church of England, would have us believe, that it ia mere than this? that it is an innovation rife with mischief? that it is an aggression, an intolerable outrage on inalienable church rights, a violation of the laws of nations, and an iosult to the Queen's Royal Majesty. The mere toleration of Roman ists in a country where it once exhibited such fearful, bloody, fiery tragedies, is thought to be quite as much as the meek spirit of reformed Chris tianity can well be expected to grant to the repu< dialed "Mother of abominations." But the Pontiff*, as the imperson ttion of the Catholic Church, cannot admit this. No one, of all hia pre* decessors, from the daya of Henry VIII. and Elizatieth, to the present time, has admitted this. He cannot consent to renounce any of his ancient rights in his once dutiful kingdom of Anglia. The whole earth is, by a divine grant, his heriditary possession. He looks with pity upon what he be lieves to Le the vain delusion of Protestantism, by which England has been tvguiled from her Holy Mother. He laments over what he considers 0iournful manifestations of this delusion; as, ?Proteus-like, it assumes ita almost countless va riety of incongruous forms, from the sobriety of churchmanship, to the wild frenzy of some among the bewildered sects. Seated in his apostolic chair, he proclaims, " Liberty of error is death to the soul." And he points with hia admonitory finger to that humiliating picture which may pro perly awaken shame,? the polemical broils of Protestant Christendom, and the blasphemous heresies which, in the land of Luther, and the I land of Calvin and Zuingle, have distorted those cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith? the trinity and the atonement? and desjioiied religion ?of some of her benigneit attributes He invites all who would have the blessedness of peace and ' unity, to repair for them to the venerable, holy Mother of churches, from which these deluded apostates, as he honestly regards them, are wan dering into every speciea of error and of sin. And, w bile the Pontifl' puts forth his high pre. tensions ns guardian of the Christian world, many enlightened scholars of Eogland and of the con tinent, are renouncing the aati- Catholic opinions in which they have been edueated, and are avowing themselves converts to the church of Rome. That utter contempt with which Protestants have so 'cog been accustomed to look upon the whole scheme of what they call poj>ery, regarding it as numery, idolatry, blasphemy, and a vile supersti* tioa, ia found to require, at l> aet, a little moder ating. Seme men. in our day, who have adorned universities with their vist and varied learning, have proclaimed, af ? r laboriou* invesig%tion, and at the coat of great personal ?arriftjea, that they prefer the Reman to the Auglican scheme, an I that it furnishes rrsourcis to gratify their widest range of intellect, and sativfy th- prof mndest emo tions of their hearta. la England, more especially, for some years past, not a few among the educated claEies have adopted a* their motio, Antiquam oiqaliit* m%tr?ai And Tt suits by which wp have so frequently beei Marti* d, during the Use ten jears, have appeared in the memorable record* that furnish materials for the biatorjr of Puaeyiem. Just at thia crhis, (<nd uoue could be more fa. vorable for bia purpos*,) the Pope tak*a measures for the reviveacence of hia ancient power and au. tbority in Kcgland. He hia there, among miny other prominent auxiliaries, hia learned, sagacious, accomf li'hed, and able Cardiaal Wia^mi#, whom he haa created Archhiahop of Wratminater, and that learned and popular "Prie?t of the Oratory of St Philip Neri," Father Newman? once,( ml that not many montha ag\) among the mott diatin ?u;sh? d rr.rmbera of the Univer?ity of Oxford, and of the Britkh establirhrd church. Theie men, and their able associMtee, aie aeadinf forth, f<*arleaaly, in varioua forma of publication, ouch a? letter*, re views, appeala, and lecture*, a call to churchmen and to ditaentere, to weigh dispassionately the Roman claims. Other s igui fic.i nt indications are allordt d, that the movement on the Pontiff's part is full of meaning. But ao advisedly, ao cautioasly liu he proceeded in his meuaurrs, that he has, aa yrt, cot only eacaped |<ennl inflictions, l>ut muat continue to etcspe th*m, Ublena the boaated tole. ration ofProte?tant Kngland should prove to be an illusive name, and the sanctity of Koglish law be volated at tSe bidding of mcr? poplar clamor. The bruit of tbia clamor is, indeed, loudly echoing throughout Christendom; for the Bri ish lion that boa so long lain undisturbed by any sucn intrusion , as thia which now dit-queta him, hu oot only rouaed himaelf, and fix< d his eye upon the die turber of hia repose, but laahed himself into an ex citement tor a fier:e conH.ct, and nude the welkin rrnound with the roar of hia defiance. It ia discovered that, while he haa aiept, string* t hirgs have been enacted. A startling tendency t ? 'enirr Romish teneta snd obnervancea has, aa the amiable Arohbiahop confines, fitted the nation with astonishment. It ia manifest t^at the estah li-h'd church of Kngtand, as at presentconatituted, haa rgregiously fmlrd to protect ita members from the poison of Romanism, and tog lard ita diocesae * ? gainst the intrusion of "the man of sin " Th act of Uniformity has producd ao little uniformi ty, that, while only one third of :he nation ia of tha established church, the remaining two-thirds are 1'iually divided between Catholicism and Dissent. The rath of supremacy, also, has not, practically, effected a renuncia'ion of foreign |<owen : for th? P( ntiff ia felt to be in Kngland. Hia Apostolic let ter, isaued onihe 21th of September last, with the avowed purpose of promoting the Catholic faith in Creat Brit tin, has electrified the na'ton. And that syatem whi-h he represents, and which is acknow ledged to be the chief rival a, id antagonist of the established church, ia actually making advances, both in influence and power, that are contemplated with alarm. Penal enactments are proposed, to counteract thia extraordinary progreas of tha Romish cause. But both Lord Russell and Lord Stanley are puzxled by the problem which they are required to resolve. To detect the csua^a of this state of things is not, however, a ttsk of much difficulty, if we enter the jttyiinth with a proper clue. One of the chief agencies in producing a change ia favor of Rome, was the revival at Oxford, a few yeara ago, of the study of the Greek and Latin fathers ot the Church, whose long neglected writinga weie discovered to be rich mmea of thought, especially for the imaginative and tne l>hi!n?ophical. Bnt the product of these mine* waa ?]uite too indlacriminat'ly received as precioua, in stead of being regarded as mere gold duat, and that, too, of rt sy varioua df frees of purity, from the 1 blight and sparkling graias of the g^ostollc father*, to the predominating black aaad of medieval schoolmen Another cause of Romish testes and predictions is discoverable in those architectural esoteric*, which have been of late so celebrated under the name of eccletiology, and to which so many of the divines of Englaud have devoted their atten tion during the lat>t fifteen years. But yet other ingredients have been thrown in'o the wonder- working cauldron. In the contest between high-churchmen and evangelicals, on the subject of apostolical succession, priestly func tions, and sacramental grace, the weight of State patronage has so predominated in favor of low church views, that Dr. Sumner, an evangelical prelate, now fills the office of ArchbisLop of Can terbury, and, by his course of conduct, especially in the famous Gorham case, has given occasion to tn open rupture with the able Bishop of Exeter, as well as with certain other high church prelates of distinction. And while this unhappy (perhaps happy) state of things has contributed not a little te disafl'ect many, her Majesty the Queen, in her character as head of the Church, has interfered in certain mat ters purely spiritual, so that she has tempted Dr. Phillpotts, the distinguished Bishop of Exeter, to accost her in terms not often uttered by a prelate when accosting Majesty, and has added to the motives for multiplying malcontents. Another cauae of the existing state of things is fcuad in the legislative patronage of Romanism. The political disabilities of English lloman Catho lics, at the instance of the popular 1 take of Wel lington, and of Sir Robert Peel, in the year 1824, enlisted the nation's sympathies at that time; and greater and greater concessions have been made, from year to year, as reason and religion have conspired to oppose the outrages of intolerance, and make all Englishmen, whether churchmen or Ro manists, as far as the exercise of conscience is concerned, free and equal. A few more struggles and liberty will triumphs This outline of a confused and perplexing con troversy will serve to suggest at least some of the chief causes of those phenomena which are so remarkable ? learned Anglican divines, at this age of the world, renouncing Protestantism, and be coming Romanists; the amiable an>l meek Pius IX. encouraged to attempt a bold usurpation tha' might better befit the daring genius of a Hilde brand, the vigor of an Urban II., the proud am bition of an Alexander III , or the powerful grasp of the Third Innocent. The spirit of toleration, in the exercise of its legitimate influence, is gradually dissolving that union of Church and State which is the secret prolific cause of all that disquiet which now agitates the public mind in England, and of all that disaffection which is weaning, and must con tinue for some time yet to wean, churchmen from their faith and their allegiance, until the Court of Arches, ar.l all other State influences, cease their interference with spiritual things. That England, in her civil and ecclesiastical welfare, can receive any serious permanent injury from the results of the present angry strife and noisy agitation is not to be apprehended; and the violence of the storm indicates that its duration will b? brief. Were Church and State even rent a*under by it, the greatest blessing* to them both might be the consequence. The alliancc is as un necessary as it is unnatural. The same church, as represented in our own land by its Protestant Episcopal branch, with the same book of prayer* the same articles of religion, and the ^ame church prlity, is in a flourishing condition, without the help of special and exclusive State patronag?. This reformed branch of the Church of England has, in deed, msde a more judiciou i selection of iessonst'rom the Scriptures, has rejected the Athanaaian creed from its standards, and has modified and modernized some of the formularies as set forth in the English Prayer Book. But, in all else of any material con* stquecce, the same doctrine, discipline, and wer> ship, are maintained. And while disputes on doc trinal peculiarities among all other denomination* are illustrating, in a remarkable manner, the inter minable discords and divisions of Protestant sects and parties, the great secret of union and perma nence is possessed by American Episcopalians, in their having ancient written creeds, a primitive liturgy, and an apostolic polity. These they wisely retsm. By these they are protected from the evils ihst result from mere opiaion, and that distract all other denomination of Protestants. Let the Church of England follow their exaaple. Let her disdain the trammels of State inlluence and con trol. Let her learn another lesson from Amsrica, and see that the church msy be tree and flourish. An iRtrrtitlrg *i d Important point In Pollt leal Hl> tory ? One of Utr last Utbalfi In tk? Sanato. In a debate in the United States Senate, at the recent eiecutive (ration of that body, General liouaton. Senator from Tr.vas, m ide some animad versions upon South Carolina, her politicians and invitations, and her course aa a member of the confederacy of States. To Houston's remarks, Mr Rhett, one of the Senators from South Caro lina, replied, exposing the want of political know ledge of the Hero of San Jacinto, not only of the institutions and history of South Carolina, but of the constitution and hiitory of the United States, showing sn amount of ignorance, quite surprising when we consider the long time Houston has been in public life. From 1923 to 1927 Sam Houston was a member of Congress, from Tennessee, and in 1827 he was elected governor of that respectable State. He waa lor aome time Preaident of the Republic of Texas, and since the admission af that State into the Union, he haa been, for the laat five years, one of the United States Senators from ' Texas. Whatever may have been the defecta of t General Houa'on'a eurly educa'ion, we have never heard that any peculiar circumstances occurred dunrg the four jears he was a member of Con gress from Tennessee, to prevent him from obtain ing a tolerable political education, aa mmy other public men have done at Washington. There is the advantage at the Capitol of a very good and extensive Congressional library, aome of the trea sure" of which are poured forth from time to tim in elaborate and profound speeches of membera o Confers. To that aource Houston had access, at well as Denton, John A. Hix, and others, who have obtained immense credit for their speeches oa great national questions. But Mr Rhett, the Senator from South Carolina, in rebuking Houston, and expoaing his inexcusa ble ignorance, unfortunately falls in'o errors him , self, learned and profound aa he may claim to be in msttera of constitutional history. One of these errors be'ng a matter of considerable intereat, we shall take the trouble to correct. Oea. Houston, among other atatementa, had aaid ? Th? Legislators (of Sooth Carotins) else's the Sena tors ot the C nlted Statea. eleetors for Pr*ftd*nt ud Vlee Preeldent of the 1'illtd ItstN. sod can chant* or aaend th* constitution when it sets fit. Mr. Rhett repllts? Ths Legislature sleets tbs Senators of the United States. That Is certainly true, and 1 suppose l? ai novel aa It most ba alarming to ths S?nator from Tesaa. l'nfortnnat*ly tor the Senator this startling prr>*1alo0 u not at all la the constitution of Sooth Carolina It will astonish him no doubt, to learn that It la a >r#?lilfis In tha Constitution of the United Statea. They (the Legislator*) eleet electors for Pre eldent and Vlee President of the United State*. That is trna and It la also tins tnat svsry Stata In tha Union did tha eame thing at the aomssenflement ol ths constitution at the United States and that tha con struction glees by the rram*rs of the onastltatlon by this slmalUneoas and ununlaou* practice was that this waa the regular and proper nods, by wbleh the rlectota should be ?ho?en Wa are old fashioned enough (In Smith t'aroilta ) still to stsnd where tbs fatbits of our free Institution* itmd. snd where nil ths Statee stood at 'he commencement of ths opera tions of this goTsrnw*nt. Now, it ia srmewhat surprising, that a South Carolina Senator, of the h gh intellec'ual charac ter and acquirements of Mr Rhett, who, under his former tisme of Smith, and his present legisla tive one of Rhett, h?s long heen in public life, in putting n ore thnn US years tervice ia 'Jongresa? ?ad has recently been Instructing the South Caro liaiaas how they may, on constitutioaal grounds, secede from the Uaioa? it is surprising, we eay, that aucb a statesman should require our correc tion ol hia errors with regard to facta in political history We shall, however, ahow that hia asser tion that every State in the Union chose their Pre sidential electora by the Legislature, (as South Carolina alone now does,) at the commencement of the constitution, is not correct; and we aball also prove, by the early practice of various Statea, euchaa Virginia, Pennsylvania, aad Maryland, that the conatruction givea by the framers of the constitution was not the construction givea by, and since practised, by South Carolina ; and furthermore, that the choice of electora by the legislatures, was not, as Mr. Uhett states, " the simultaneous and unanimous practicc and where all the States stood et the commencement of the operationa of this government." We raav add, also, the opinion of the authors of the Fcdtrul tit, that text book of the constitution, to show what was " the construction given by the framers of the constlution," on the point in question. In the sixty eighth number of the FtdnaLitt, by Alex ander Hamilton, we haw this comxent -ry on that section of the constitution which relates to the choice of Presidential electori : ? It was desirable that the sens* of ths people should operate in the choioe of the person to whom so im portant a trust was to be confided This end wilt be answered by committing the right o( miking It, not to any pre-established body, bat to men ohoeen by the ptople lor the special purpose, and at the particular conjuncture. Nothing in modern historical literature can be more imperfect than the manner in which politics history has been written in this country; even by such distinguished authors as Marshall, Pitkin Ramsay, Sullivan, and Sparks, in national history, and the various authors and compilers of such o the histor.es of the States as have been published It is, therefore, not surprising that we are without any connected account of the details of the manner in which electors of President and Vice-President were chosen in the se veral States, at the first elec tion of President, in 1789, when the constitution went into operation. We have thought the point worthy of investigation, and the result of our labors (which, in const quence of the paucity of public documents, records, and newspapers of the period referred to, in our libraries in this city, have not been small,) is now given to the readers of the . Herald. It is, we believe, the first record yet pub lished of the manner in which Presidential electors were choBen in the several States which voted for President and Vice-President in 1789. The convention, which framed the constitution, met at Philadelphia, in May, 17*7, and adjourned in September following. The final article of the constitution, adopted by the convention, declaring that the ratification of nine of the thirteen States shou'.d ?' be sufficient for the establishment of the constitution between the States so ratifying the same this number Was completed by the ratification of New Hampshire, on the 21?t of June, 1788, (Virginia ratifying on the 26th of June, end NewYoik on the26ih July, 1788;) and this rati fication being that of the ninth State in order, was laid before the continental Congress, on the 2d of July, 1788. With the ratifications of the other States, it was referred to a committee to report an act for carrying the new system into operation. A resolution for this purpose was reported on the fourteenth of the same month; but in consequence of a division as to the place where the fitst Con gress should meet, it did not pass until the 13?h of September following. By this resolution, the Presidential electors were to be appointed on the first Wednesday of January, 1789, and to give in their votes on the first Wednesday of the succeed irg February; the first Wednesday of March, be ing the 4th day of that month, was fixed as the time, and the city of New York as the pUce for the commencement of proceedings under the new eon* stitution. During the autumn and winter of 1783, the Le gislatures of the eleven States which had adopted the constitution, (North Carolina and Rhode Island having dissented,) met at their several Capi tols, for the purpose of providing for the choice o' Senators, Representatives, and Presidential Elec tors. All of the eleven States, except New York passed the requisite laws, and chose K lectors of President, Senators and Representatives. New Voik, in consequence of a disagreement be tween the two branches of the Legislature, failed to choose Senators, and to provide for the choice of Electors : consequently, this Stale did not have the honor of voticg at the first election of President of the United States, and add her voice to that of the unanimous call of the electoral col leges of the ten other ratifying Sutes, in favor of Washington as the chief migistrate of the repub lic. And here we muet censure Mr. Hammond, for repeating the error he has fallen into, ia every edition of his Political History of New York ? namely, in stating that Presidential electors were chosen by New Yoik at this first election, when the contrary and well kno wn fact is stated in the ne ws papers of that period, and recorded in the legists. tive, State, and national journals. Suuli gross neg ligence is unjustifiable in any author, particularly in so learned and profound a political writer as Mr. Hammond. The followirg appears to hnve been the manner n which Presidential electors were chosen in the several States at the first Presidential election oa the first Wednesday in January, 1739: ? JVi) of F.ltctori Ta Virginia, by the people, by single dUtrlots. .... 11 i In Mai) land bj the people, la two distriets, vlt five tor the Westers 'bore aad three for the Kastrra shore ' la Pennsjlianla by the people, hy g?n?ral ticket 10 In Delaware, by the people. In t hree districts. . . . 3 la South Carollca. by the Legislature 7 la Oeorgta by the Legislature 6 in New Jersey by th. Lejlalnture ? In fenasetlout by the Legislature ... 7 Ia Maesesbosette by the Legislature 10 Ia New Hampshire, by the l.egislatars & Total. 73 ' Tbera were two i?b??nt??? in tha college of electors In Virginia, alto two In Maryland; 10 tb?t tba wbo'.a number ot votes, la all the iMatas van but 60 Mr. Plater, of Maryland, wai abeent In rona*<iu*n?a of b.lt * confined with tha tout, and Mr Richardson, of tha 'ana 8 lata, van prevented from attsadtcg by tha lea la tk?4lTir( aad bay. Thu* we *e* that Virginia, the " ancient domi nion," and the " ir.othrr of Pretident*," com menced hfr career aa a member of the Fe deral t'mon, by allowing the popular voice to be felt in the choice of aa electoral co lese which resjonde 1 to the national call o her o?o Washington to the Presidency; that Maryland, the cradle of religious liberty in thi? hemisphere, the lazd of the Carrolla, and other champtona cf liberty, gave her popular vote for elector*, unrestricted by Legislature!; thtt Dela ware, the home of the Kodneya, the Bayarda an 1 the Keada; and Penntjlvanis, the head-quarters of drmocracy, and the home of Franklin, Morria and Wilton, also adopted the tame popular mode of testing the will of the people. We are not quite ?ur# that New Jewry and Georgit adop'ed the Legitlative mode of choice, the recorda of those Statea within our reach being unaatiafactory. But we hare clearly eatabliahej one point? namely, that at the commencement of the government, South Carolina atood nearly, if not quite alone wi h the New England State*, in her practice and con struction of the conttitutirn, aa to the choice of Presidential electors. All the New EngUnd Statea long aince changed their course, and adopted the popular mode, leaving .South Carolina alone in the original aristocratic msnner of election. RtMiasiaoK Wiim iwo Oapt flromwsll. of fblp Cartas, arrived hera on Buaday. Informs as that nfon bis lat* voyage of twenty mr nibs duration, In tho cenrea of which ha procured a full cargo of oil, viola lug tha Aretlo neean. aad salllag round tha world, ha has not had a boat rtoven by a wbala during tha voy ? asa lest cratt, rltgng or spars to the value of a far thing, with tha siagls eieeptlon of atowllna. that ha has act parted say rigging? not even a ropayara aad tfcat the cotton rtweh ealla with which ha left this port tw<ntv months ago ware npon the yards when ha arrived, havlag beta la ooastaat as* and not nnhant during the who!* voyage Stm Hrifni Mtrna'p, Unfit 11. !%? Orrtlaaaecor ??* ?n4 Um RuH| .f fit. H??iu?. 1 When the disappointed ambition and per. T.7 ?f MuXia V" ??? fioX exploded in the Buffalo Convention, which flun* ?U^. i. ? fl,?, * ?reat dcal of noiae wj made about the ordinance of '87. The Buffalo Convention paraded before the world a platform I which, they pretended, waa founded on that ordi' nance. A more wilful outrage on truth and his- 1 torjr never waa perpetrated. The demagogue, who ! controlled Chift great abolition caucua, either had never read that ordinance, or they deliberately in tended to give it the lie. They gave out to the wcrld, that in 1787 the Congress of the Confedera tion, under the immediate guidance &ad advice of cmaa Jefferson, established an ordinance which unconditionally prohibited slavery in the North west territory. Now, it ?, hap,-ena that the Ame ncan Congress never did any such thing. They *17, IF"! 1 #Dy 8U,Ch l4W Tbey nevrr conceived anything like it. Let us now to the law and the testimony, to see how far we can sustain our poaiuon. The ordinance of *87 consists of a preamble and ?u article., the lat>r being the only one which re fers to the subject of slavery at i II, and this article is embraced within the following lines, viz luntVry mo Uu Is t t'o'rr'iJth"7.?' lBT0" In tli# pinishafBt of erimM ^ ttoiui bav. b?n dul",:Uut?.ridmpr^ person escaping Into th? tlm. tJr.l l ' ,} MT r* loo la lawfullv olaimull m wbomUboror 6tatM,6nohfngitfT, ttw K? ?aifnii0.Mi ?' v.yed to the p.rson "a&fti hU *** ??n vle?asafor?si" * hU or her ??*<* or aer Here is a proviao which the free .oil men have ov erlooked altogether; and on the bare face of this ordinance, the meaning is simply this, that slavery waa prohibited in the Northwest territory, on con dit.on that fugitive, from labor should be given up when .hey were demanded; and what i. the plain the 1 ST ? TP? that Whe"Ver ,h" ^tory or iinnM 7 might afterwarda compose it, ?hould refuse to surrender auch fugit ves so claim ed, then ,he ordinance waa violated and the com pact broken. Slavery, of necessity, ceased to be prohibited from that tima, because the only con dition on which it waa prohibited was, that the "ST ?Vhat dia,,ic, 8hould de,iver "P ?o the elaveholding States their fugitive slaves. Here is the whole question, in three paragraphs e9Cape frorn il- Op,K)sitlon to the Zl " . fugitive slaves from any portion of the Northwest territory ever after that ordinance, became treason ; or it justified and legalized tilery ,n that territory as soon a. the conditions of the ordinance failed to be complied with. Let the ,j** ? rD lrakt ehher h0rn 01 ,he di'?*nima they Ple.ee. By a fair construction of that ordinance, o7ob"rar,cr'rho8hou,d?? ,nt?th' rll f l a fUgItive 8lave? wt,uld have the selSe 11 aUih?ri,i" refu6cd !0 *ive him UP. to slaves IT .WD ,D tk* State aad hold his Vo""*> "Oder the suction and pro tection of the ordinance of '87. Again; the law of *98, on the surrender of fugi other" i,Vn",iaPPKe|d. thC 8ame pricciPle t0 a" 'he other non slaveholdmg State. ; and New York falTd' TY' a?d other Northern States, never re fused to comply with this law until slavery died ou amorg them, and tbolitionism was fomented tSZh La KUrK- the dome,tiC 'nfititut'ons of the South, and rob them of thoee rights which had W sfeoBrfr^ Vhem'' iD tbe ordwa<?* of .7, .econdly, in the constitution of '80; and third ly, in the statute of '08. th: sou,h feeiin* in,*cure ?L L J I gT and rapid 8Prpad of abolitionism, Which had ceased to be an insignificant ps,ud.v religious movement, and become a political organ nrr; phj,ucai o,'j<,ct* in v,ew' ca,,ed f?r ? n w and fresh recognition, not only of the letter but of the spirit of those three great guarantees' HV,? 0rdu,aace of *?, the constitution of so' tnd i: rr ?im ? s?u* ^^d ?nd she had a right to ask her sister States in the to0"he uZ T,'Kherthfy W?Uld Rdhere trulhfu'ly o the terms of the origin.] compact, and carry them cut in good fait),. Agitation arose. Free ?oil. under the inflammatory appeals of demu' ETgm n"' Seward- and abolition edi.crs 111, the "0"; 7r u y' Md W**d' a,ff'mt'ted to lo blx S thC free Ur?U0d thf ba| . ' a?d from certa? districts in the tailed ? r * TaU>huon Unati? were returned to Con. un.Herf aVlDf, 00 eflort "n*ttempted, no trick Ih? .7 men?f 1B",ammalor>' "Pf**' "nproclaimed, men fou?ht, .tep by ?eP, the comPromi*e ccnlr/i 1,?"" *'?ry 0t ,heae ^acc measure. Z ' J j 1' y 10 lhe fftct that 'bey were sn honest and faithful construction of the ordinance. m r. trn' " l5e "ta,ut^?f which we have ?poken. They wcort.d th, riKhu of ,he JSou(h Sin? ThTy ?ttetfd nrw Pledges to the Southern States, .nd these pledges th^y had a noth! t0 TC' ln lhat ?,ru'??l,' 'he South gained nothmg It was only by .debate effort of the Uw IhTt n' C?"ti,uUon aDd of 'be Union, and of 'a^hat ?he rights of the South were recognaed by the thirty-first Congress The smnh k v wuKress. i he South hss never a' ?d ^.f the North ?my more >han the con.titution figlfuDf ^a'ad if t'he ? ',at 'hc h*" ?0' by hard cutive^fficera h" h h'? fa.thfully xVcite he #Un'1 Will hold 4,ther-h rePut"'c at'K ii it will be invulnerable to every be confined B'0U aii? ' at the South will be ZSl !.^11 [aci,'0fl. 8"d lhat faction w.ll cmlined it t thV M aPaf,ci,!m and abolitionism are ?hculd be etern/l m nn/h'V rr,dctlr-,'Dt". which ir. Ki?n? a "fDiii in our history; and whf*n t h>- v are blotted out, the republic will go With then X Pew Publication*. The Art Journal, (or March, l*ol. Gerrge Vir tue. 26 Joi n atrert. Th?* Roman Republic of 1*19; by Theodore Dwigkt. K Van L)i?*u, No Hi Nuaau street. Twice told Talea by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Ti'knor, Reed iV Fieldr, Boa ton. The Warwick W ooduu.lt; by Frank Forreater. Stringer At Townaend, Nrw York Bertie, a bumornua aovrl ; by Gregory Sea worthy. II. Long A' Brothrr, 4:i Ann atr??-t. R< nmnce of ihe Ocean I.tndaay i' Blakiaton, Pkiladeli hia The Family Phyaician ; by Dr Hallich. T. B. Prteraon, Philadelphia. Yankee Stoma; by Judge Halliburton. Long Si Brother, and Brrford Ac (Jo , New York. The Practical Receipt Book. Lindsay Ac HlaUia ton, I'hiladeli hia. Conniflo : by Geoige Sani. String! r?V Town tend, Ni'W York. The New York Rrgiater of Medicine an-l Pha* macy. Baker, trod win At Co , Tribune Building*. United Hut* a Law Magazine, for Mar. h. John Livingatm New York Loii it e La Val lere ; by Dumaa. T. B. Peter aon. Philadt Iphia United Statra Railway Guide, for March Dexter vV Brothrr, Ann atrret. The Klcklebury'a on the Rhine. Stringer Ac Townif nd. The Higher Law tried by Reason ?nd Authority S W Benedict, Id Spruce atreet. The Pit ugh, the Uiom, ud the Anvil. J. S. Sklmtr. Philadelphia PreaMent Fillmore'a Meaaagr, and acrompinying Documents. Printed lor the Houae of Reprearn tanvea. The Probable Relation between Magnetiani and the (Circulation ol the Atmorphere. C. Alexander, Waakipgioa The Infant Drummer Polka (Muaic). 11*11 Ar Son, 2H9 Broadway. View of Cadli J Lichevallirr, ."*7 1 Broadway. Graht m'a Magazine for April I?rWitt V* Daven port. l?cdf)'? Lady 'a Book for Apnl H. Lsng Ar Brother. Yolcaao Digging?, a Tale of California Law. J. S RedfiHd Lyia Catholica, containing all the Hymna of the Rtmr.n Breviary and Miaaal. DumganAr Brother. A Paatoral letter far the I^nt of MlK!OOLl ; by Bl?hrii Walah Dunigan fc Brother. Monthly Family Circle. J. G Reed Advtniurea of Pe? Owen : by John Gait. Wm H < <rabam As do. The Philoaophy of Spiritual Tnterwwrae, being an ? *| lanatii n o( Modern Mv?'rrira; by .Vudrew Je? k' on Davie Fvwlrr? Wella I fkt *att ItWlMl Biitorir f th? Jawa. Hi second ucn it or d*. eafhaia. The aecond lecture on thw intereatio* subject was delivered on Thurtday evening. ?t the Medical College in Crosby street, by the Kev. Doctor 1U phall, late of Birmingham, England. These lec ture, uffiQ to excite considerable interest, from the large number of persons that attended. The sub ject of the Ifcture was the "Htsmonean Kings? the Sanhedrim Sects, and Civil Wars." He began by observing, that the cruel persecution of anti Kpiphane* had roused the Jews to a war which re stored the independence of Judea. Mattathias and his sons could not be considered as rebels, with ihe object of merely advancing their own fortunes, but as pious, God fearing men, who acted under pions and patriotic motives; their zeal and talents entitled them to power and rank; by their pre-emi nence in danger, they exchanged a life of ease for one of toil, and for the pott of honor which was likely to lead them to an untimely grave. They were entitlfd to the thanks of their countrymen; but their heirs appeared to the people in a far more questionable light. Their parents give to the heirs a kind of claim, but the latter endeavored to combine powers in their own persons, which aught to have been kept distinct. John Hyrcanus first declared the Jews independent of Syria; and he accomplished his object after many battles. He held the civil government by the title EHhna, or Chief of the people. During the long struggle which preceded the independence of Judex, the people had not time to inquire into the policy of all the powers of the State being held by one per son. The various cectsinto wmch the Jews were divided, increased in his reign, and their struggles finally ended in the ruin of all Judea. Daring his reign thote sects remained quiet; but politically, they iutuked him by questioning the legitimacy of his birth. They pretended that his mother was seme t;me a pnaoner among the Syro Grecians, and this was especially huitful among a people so jealous as the Jen s of purity of birth and legiti macy. Hut there could be no doubt of his legiti macy. lie saw unit wished that his son's place, ub chief magistrate, shou d be on a tinner basis than by popular election, and previous to his death, he lot'* measures to secure th'" succession for his son, Anstobuius, who, upon his death, at once pro claimed himself king and high pnett of the Jews, end it was during his name that the parties were formed? first, the priestly office or power: secondly, the ro>al office; and thirdly, the office of the admi uiptiaiiou of the law. The priestly office was limiud to the house of Auron; the kingly, or royal office, to the house of DuVid, and the third office was open to all? the person who afministered the last itlice being also chief of the Sanhedrim. Tnua there we . three di.-tmc< bodits, and a perfect divi sion of power? the spiritual, the judicial, and the executive. True attempts had been male as enrly as the time of king IJ/ea, to combine those poweie; but until the time of Nebuchaduezzur e*ch had preserved na separate balance. A'terftie Ba bylonian captivity, the fortunes of the two families ol Auron and David became altogether diflVrent, and ti t Persians were too jealous to permit the ro>al house of David to returu to Jndra. Not so wnh the f.imi!y ? f Aaron; they were permitted to assume ihe functions of high pruat, snd at the same tur.e they exercised the powers of a temporal m< narch This, u.deed, was necessary, and as the ihitfwtts otun required to address the Persian suihoriues, it was quite na'ur.il that he should be came the civil magistrate; but he ouly had the title, but not the prerogatives of royalty. The Jews were governed by their o*n laws, and the office of high piitst continued in existence while the Syrians una Macedonians exercised power iu Judea The people first invented Judah with the office of high priest, and ufier him his brother John No one re membered that the priestly office usurped the lights of ihe family of Divid; but after some time the people begen loatk, was it right that all power ? the jiower ol priest and king, of church and state? should be uni'ed under one heart! WneuJohn Hyrcanus took thote jointly upon himself, the San hedrim weie most anxious to effect a separation of the two powers. The Sanhedrim, or council of elders, had its authority from Moses, as we see by the Book of Numbers. It consisted of sev enty elders. This council continued through all changes down to the fifth century of the common "era. Objectors say that Joi-ephus no where mentions this council, but the council is I historically menticneu iu ih?* brat b>ok of Macca bees. It is objected to that ihe. Suiht drim wa not 6o sr.cient, because the word is of Greek and not t.l Hebrew origin; but we find that in the reign of I the Asrroneuns, the Council of LHders(6?nhedrim) | was in lull authority. Doctor H . observed, in reply to theee objections, that when the Greek a obtained authority in Judra, it was neceshary to adopt a Greek nin e (Jerusis) for the Sanhedrim; but that nsn:e wax subs? ifjeiitly dropped, and tha*. of Sin h<drim resumed. It was mentioned in Kzekiel, snd long befire tbe Babylonii-h captivity; and surely, said Dr liaphall, the voire of the inspired l ./? kirl ought to outweigh the silence of Jos-phus. 1 be council had teen its influence restrained, not only by the sssump'ioo of ihe Asmonvsn king!1, but elso by the ditlerent s?#ts in'.o which the Jewish people w?re split. At this time there were three diHerent sects hmongst them? namely, the Phari sees, the ?adducees, and the Spiritualist* The adduce es did not believe in a resurrection after death. Th> v endeavored to combine the bcp'.i c?m of the Greeks with the revelation of th?* lie br?ws. They neither believed in the immortality of the soul, in the judgment, or the resurrection of the deed They were, however, a very inll'iential people, owirg to their wealth anrt rank in the Jewish , oaiion. The Pharisees were the national party? i they were opposed to the introduction of foreigners, ai.d particularly to ihe Greeks They adhered to the laws and traditions ; and here it inay be proper to lemaik that we must not conf > md this s et wuh the hypocrites \\ Jiose apparent sanctity was used as a cloak for wickedneis Those hyi*>ciitrs are de nounced in ihe Talmud as much as they are in the New Testament. The Spiritualists hold that our i xistence on earth was no mora than u pr? p iration for an existence hereafter; theywereb.it a small fragment of the Jewish people, and were an hnaent, virtuous *ec', having no thought but for a future existence. Doctor liaphall ihen remarked u,?on the history of Mattathias. John Sunou.dtc , and said that the people were always ree.dy to go with the chiefs of the Pharisee; but when John llyremus I was opposed to ihe Sanhedrim, the body rallied , round it the old Pharisee party Then Hyrcanus threw himself into the opposite party- ot the .Had- . ducers. Here the lecturer drew a pars lei between the disputes r f John snd hi* party with the ?<a ihe- | dim, nnd the cruel wars between Ch tries , ihe first and the Parliament of England Thus, raid he, we find that in the rciga of J hn Hyrcanus there were two powerful par lies among the Jews, between whom political rancor continually increased. Hyrcin'is, by his , Isst will, declsred that his wife should ta ngent; but his son, Arie'obulus, dis fatoed to reign under a wrmil. He obtained the royal treasury, | ar.d imrrisored bis mother and her two sons S'?e do d if a broken heart, and it was eveu ?tid (hit the wis starved to deaih Aristobulus gave the command of the army to hia brother An'igouus, for whom the Queen had conceived a dislike, and when he returned, after being victoriou?, she pre vailed upon Aristobulus to believe that he had only returned for the purpose of d'throaini him. Aria tobulus rent a chamberlain to his brother to appear before him at a fees', un <rm> d ; and he placed guards, compoeed of foreign mereenari-e, in a r*? ni through which Aniigonus wis to pass, and gave them secr?t orders ihat if he was arm<-d the* were ro cut him cown. but if he cttne unarmed, , then they were to let him pn*s. The < hamberlain | who carried him the orders item his brother, waa one of the conspirators, and had aecret directions ! from ihe Queen to muse him come srm*d He ac cordingly told him that his brother waited to re- : etive mm with his arms Anti^nus accordingly went armed, snd as he passed, ihe guards, acting e n the ir orfers, e ut him down The govrrunv at of Arntobulus, liKeail Asiatic deFpi.tlsms, was sup ported, not by the love cf the people, l>ut hy the siras snd force of mercenaries, and accordingly, after ten years war against the enemies of Judea, a terrible tumult arose, which led to fearful results. I'nfe.rtunatety, at the Festival of the Tabernacles, libations were poured on the ground, after the iranner of the Gentile s, w hich was a custom dis liked by the Pharisees, hut sustained by the Sad duFrrs. The dissatisfaction indu e d an indignant young Pharisee to throw a citron This wss a signal for the Pharisees, and the tumult became so fie rce, that the foreign mercenaries had to be call ed in. and six thousand Jews were alain. A civil war then ensued, which lasted seven yeira, when Aristobuliis was at last succes?fiil. l>oc.or K went on to detail the evil consequences that arose frem the divisions which sorting up amongst the Jewish people, and concluded his lecture with an account of the setge of Jerusalem by Aretus. He wss listened to during ihe delivery of the lecture, and upon the conclusion of it wa< loudly cheered. Poor Ornrt Opr* Poatinaatar Oanaral MtablUhrd th# follo?lt>* arw poot offle** forth* voak '?ding March IA. 1A6I Ontro Villa**. Broom# eoaa* ty. N Y..M Northinp. llrMTiU#. Moatfonnry ooua ty, N. Y . Qtorg* Khl?, N?? fMoekholm St Lawr?ae? scanty. N Y , Bt<ph-n I/oum>; D*?r Park, Buifolk rraaty. N \ . N??h K Ramtt; Maaanrll*. Ma4t?on e'un'r N Y William K Walton. Y'i aafttrllU, Balll ?aa comity, K Y , Joha B Bp?no?r Pike Poad. fulll coaaty, R Y . <?U#oa Walaa. A r'aht abaia waa takra, eft Boathamptoa I. f , oa t b* 1 6 1 a laat. It ?u cipaottd to pr?4??? taaaty flra bairaUof ?U. TJas Narad l?mM< to ni aorroB or tu iikald. The Nitty Rtguttr give* us some intereetief data, and from it ire gather aa follows:? The number of lieutenant* allowed bf law t* three hundred and twenty-seven. Of these WW find one qaarter are on ahore duty connected wtth the navy yards, ahippiog rendezvous, 6c c-; about three- eightha on shipboard abroad, and aboat the same number on leave or waiting arders, ha vine recently returned from sea, or being rendered ??fie for active employment in consequence ?( ?rknrwe or other causes. The number of masters in the line of promotiM is but eleven by the Rtguttr ; but one-fifth the number r? quisite to afford one of that grade to eaeta vessel in commission in conse quence of the small number of lieute nants, younger officers are constantly being called upon to perform the duties of that grade. In coatee of the late war with Mexico, a midahipman per fumed te mporarily the dutiea of executive ofBoec on board a sloop-of-war in the Gulf? the numbec of lieutenants attached to the ahip being insuffi cient to answer the exigencies of a sickly climate. The number of passed midshipmen on the list is twH bundled and thirty-three ; the average nnta ber of promotions to the rank of lieutenant has been, during the last nine years, twelve and a half per year ; ihoae gentlemen, then, have rather die? coursgwg prospects, the older portion of them ha** ing entered upen their fourteenth and liiteeatla years of service, by way of illustration, let us in* quire concerning those of one who stands near th* middle of the lut, and who entered the aervice in the year 1N1. We find that this person cannot be a iieuieuaui before the expirsdou ot over nine yearn, while one at the foot lint mum renuin in nis pr??<ui tapaci y >et lor nineteen years. Toose gentlemen have already served duriug ten years, and their age ia | robabiy about tweutysix ; conse quently, unuer (he most favorable circumstances, wnich tht ir curreut experience affords, they must be, one itnriy-hve and ihe other forty five yetrs of age before they are lieutenants? during the last yser having the rank of master In the ineauursa iheir situation is a trying one ; their position, and the duties of ibetr grade, die detiued neither Of low nor regulation, subjecting them to miny vexa tious annoyances, and pUciiig ihein in a condition calcuiu ed to bring discouragement to the rnoeC sanguine temp* r?.ment, ?ud to deuroy all feelings ot >niere*t in the duties of the profession to which they hive devoted the best yours of their uvea. With habits ol life, and of mind in greit inea Bure dit |Uftlify mg them tor any other occupation* and a fund of information little serviceable except on ehipboard, they ire tied to the service, although fore* d. year otter year, to perform" the same com paratively trivial duties which were required of them at time of their entry into the navy. The avenge number of promotions, during the last nine years, to tlie rank of commander, we ga ther from the liai before ua, to have been five per V?ar. Calling the age at which they entered Um r.nvy fourteen year*, the ages of tho^e of this gn.He now in the service must be from forty live to lilty- hree yeaia At the above average, as theie lire ninety-eight on the list, the younger por tion can hardly ? X|>ect further promotion Miking the liberal deduction ot fifty per cent for casual ties, incident to advance in age among t nose on ibe lift of lieutenant*, the pissed iind.-hijfttian, alio \ e referred to, who amiots about the middle of the lib*, end who may be a lieutenant under exist ing eteWSflKM ut the age of thirty tive, may ? till expect command ol a brig or corvrtte, with the mi u ol commander, at the age of etghty-oeo years A captain's commission in courae ne can not leach The protection of our commercial interests abroad t?tmHiiiorc particularly il?e charge of the navy ; the tare oi these interests is, to a great de git e, ciiti ucti-d to i he exertion* of those who are l>l?c?d in c< tnmaud of the armed n*v?l force, tiiaint&iiitd at ihe diffi rent parts ot the globe. Aa thia navy stem* especially to merit the tostermg care of mercantile and commercial men, to theui should an appeal be made, calling attention to its prettnt uiJiesltby condition. Aa the efficiency ef a naval force depends essentially soon tne capcibi Iry oil tlie part of its officer* tor decisive actio*, mi, if thoee of our countrymen who are intimately and dnecdy interested, would have energy and vigor, decision and judgment, displayed in the course ol conjuct pursued by these representatives of the country and guttrdunx of us interests abroad, let them exert their hp at influence in remedying e xistii u evils, in m> king promotion more rapid, thuae uruiin^: to an oflicer a poaition of respunMbility calculated to exp mil hia power* before hia ener gies l<eci me relaxed by ?ge, histamines low th--i' eliM'c force, and hisspitu becomes broken by eiis appointoeit Why mould not the liw, limi nig tbe i.LOiber of iieuteii?nii<, b?- modified, and the numbe r so increased ihdt u w ill be |M>a?ihie to ke^p each eh'p cui plied with her complement 1 Tw du'les ? f matter are ihietly peiform-d by passed andaJiii rmn, pronounced outlined by a board ??f (i mieteut examiners 10 du the duty ut lieu euanl in any class vc.-e?el Why nut increase* ihe num ber ? f musters in the line ot promotion, that tne <?? mend for \> rn-e e at eea may be supplied, a?d that a midship m.r, on patsing hia ex-tmuiatioa, n ai be ot tha> gride ! its duties he miy m>? ue r< |uiied to amunie, lei h<m enjoy ihe privilege * t ihe vratie permiuenly; hia poaitioe thus well <te> tine o, he it no long, r subject to arbitrary *' u*agea ot the ier\ice," auo her appellation not uiif<e qui ntly tor the caprice ol the commanding officer. Save ibe cnatiou of higher and more uum-rons gudea in tbe navy, with a retired list lor thx* ?.|R c?is whu have honorably expended their energies in tht ir country's tervice, and for thoae from otner caubta rendered incs|>able ot duty, ? notnmg has been proposed that can obviate the evil temteucy cf the present state of at) lira Such m*aiu r?, or any oth> r* that mill produce the desired elf -ct, aeem impeiativetv called for, and will teud to en courage young officers to exertion, exciting a de sire foi | rotei-fton- 1 improve meut, and revivtngthe droopu g t,yi i du of the navy; men will he placed iu rthpmsible rations who are in posne* ?ion ol every iitulty in full vu>or, and we shall fee none ot the auoinalies of ihe present day, no grey heeded "totirg gentlemen,'* none in mure respoitlble grades w ho will say as Ihey are mow heard to do, ?? to be good for anything they should have be > n pronu ted > ears since." We shall men | lave a navy ihi.t will do credit to the coaairy I under any t ircumstances, in any exigency. The youngest In ulenants of ihe present dsy a re older ni? n than were most of those r*p( tin? i?t inn war ot IM2, whine conduct and iotrepidi'y h.s t hid a h lo of glory over thai period of oar com try's history IUcatur, when ne retook the Phila delphia. wusbui twen-y live, and when the V|a<? donien wae capturi d.hut thirty -thiee; McUon >ugh, at the time ot ihe victory ol Ltke Cham plate, oat twenty-eigh ; IVrry, at that on Lake Kne, wac al o bit i we i ty e'ght; Lawrence, wh-n he to. 4. the Keind. er, was but thirty one, ind the stuie year he fell while hi command of a f.igate, a vic tim to i hat undaunted spirit which scorned to *u> runib, the uLh subdued by an unprecedented corn binntiou of untoward oirc omittances Ol many now living, we nave evidence, by the- veuerstnxi wi h which they ?re regirrfed, of thai profession*] exce Heme which built up for them ID tlieir young?r ?lavs a rej.u a'ion of which the country iniy j'l-tiy e?l proud Can theie he a doubt th it the "boy < fticers" of the war were i|uite as e fficieot as ttM? ? Id men of the preaent day ? A uud-iiiomin ihe? ? i erve d for the five or tit yesra required by law, 1 I nd became i h? u-enunt, with the pr wpeet of fvir^. her not tow tardy pri>ino ion; and miy we not pnw>n?il?l) regard iht? fact m having fxeriH aa DnutDCt* a huh wat inain'y ioi*iriinifo!ii in pn^ c urir g tht-ir unparalMrfl ?uccf*a??Y The avriculiurist end the manufictnrer have certunly ae deep an interest in auifioiting theeffi ciency of the navy as a member il ihe cominer* ? ial community, thou 'h the advantages derived by hem miyreem less iutrin?ic, because apparently i onducing lees directly to ihnr inrne liate advan tage. It should lie unnecessary tobrinir arguments to | rove this community of interest of all cU?ea of society , qi.A that the hsiiefit renped hr one mors directly, rssenluillv ai d favorsbly infl iencea all. 1 he navv ia not fur the individual good of any one data of the (snimunity, hut belong. ug to the coun try, as a national mnitu'i'm. has heretofore contri buted to the nation's well beinff, and earned n claim to that fostering care which ia solicited nt the ham** of the public. The necessity of a nn*nl force, while such in?ti(utiona are maintained by other powerful nations, and while a Urge part ot the inhabited world ia peopled by aavage*, wiN not be questioned. At do tine in the last thirty-live years hsve its servicea been more peremptorily de ms nde I than at the present junction, when we have a vsm increase of distant seaboard; when the savage is h*o mint, by casual intercourse with en lighten' d nations, acquainted with their wealth ard covetuoue of jta poeeetaion; and when the spirit of liberal opinion, which aeems to have die. sen, ins ted itself throughout every country ol Luro( e, bids fair to produce effects that may dis turb the general pence which hna without interrup tion so long subsisted We ctnnot judge how toon we may he cnllrd upon aa n nation, to vindi* cate tfte curious principles of constitutional liberty. Military despotism but illy brooks an expreaaion ol pmpnthy to the oppreaaed, and ia excessively jealous of our aucc.*rs aa n nation, as tending to in flame that under current of popular feeling tyranae cannot eradicate, and which will some daybreak all honria asunder. Although oar policy should bn decidedly nscitic, it appears evident, that aoun4 policy would inculcate the restoration of the navy to that state of efficiency which has heretofore gamed >1 Ihe favorable opinion of other nationn. Tm r*m or thx BvtroM.