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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, March 22, 1851, MORNING EDITION, Image 3

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES.
Ik* Pap* In Ru|1iimIi
"Not corporally, indeed, on iratly present, in
England, does hi> Holioes-, ?? tht? moment, live
and act in every diocet* ; and the great difil
cnlty of forming a caMu*'. 1 1 < ouaequence of a
diversity of opiaion asm hi* nileged aggression,
provea that it ii felt be is th< r- la the language
of the Archbishop of CantefMry, *' It cannot be
denied that many pera >us, U members and
ministers c.f our churcit, din^n* the leat ten yeara,
have bhown a tendency to* ard K?mish tenet* and
observances, whiohfcas astonished all who
adhere to the doctrines of the reformers.
The present struggle ureseo's a singular anomaly
in the history of religi<? i The whole country haa
for many montha been in a suite of feverich ex*
citement, because the P?pe, forsooth, in the exer
ciae of those prerogatives which he claims an
V icar of Christ, haa ventured 10 define, geographi
cally, what he wishes 10 he considered the thir
teen diocssees of the Catholic church in Eogland,
nnd has conferred on certain o? his clergy in that
Protestant lead, archu pisuopal and episcopal titles
?1 cilice, expressive of allegiance to Rome, with
an unqualified recognition or the papal supremacy
in things spiritual. This movement on the part of
Pio Nono, it muat be admitted, is a novelty. But
the prelates, priests, and people of the eatabliahed
church of England, would have us believe, that it
ia mere than this? that it is an innovation rife with
mischief? that it is an aggression, an intolerable
outrage on inalienable church rights, a violation
of the laws of nations, and an iosult to the Queen's
Royal Majesty. The mere toleration of Roman
ists in a country where it once exhibited such
fearful, bloody, fiery tragedies, is thought to be
quite as much as the meek spirit of reformed Chris
tianity can well be expected to grant to the repu<
dialed "Mother of abominations." But the
Pontiff*, as the imperson ttion of the Catholic
Church, cannot admit this. No one, of all hia pre*
decessors, from the daya of Henry VIII. and
Elizatieth, to the present time, has admitted this.
He cannot consent to renounce any of his ancient
rights in his once dutiful kingdom of Anglia. The
whole earth is, by a divine grant, his heriditary
possession. He looks with pity upon what he be
lieves to Le the vain delusion of Protestantism, by
which England has been tvguiled from her Holy
Mother. He laments over what he considers
0iournful manifestations of this delusion; as,
?Proteus-like, it assumes ita almost countless va
riety of incongruous forms, from the sobriety of
churchmanship, to the wild frenzy of some among
the bewildered sects. Seated in his apostolic
chair, he proclaims, " Liberty of error is death to
the soul." And he points with hia admonitory
finger to that humiliating picture which may pro
perly awaken shame,? the polemical broils of
Protestant Christendom, and the blasphemous
heresies which, in the land of Luther, and the I
land of Calvin and Zuingle, have distorted those
cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith? the
trinity and the atonement? and desjioiied religion
?of some of her benigneit attributes He invites all
who would have the blessedness of peace and '
unity, to repair for them to the venerable, holy
Mother of churches, from which these deluded
apostates, as he honestly regards them, are wan
dering into every speciea of error and of sin.
And, w bile the Pontifl' puts forth his high pre.
tensions ns guardian of the Christian world, many
enlightened scholars of Eogland and of the con
tinent, are renouncing the aati- Catholic opinions in
which they have been edueated, and are avowing
themselves converts to the church of Rome. That
utter contempt with which Protestants have so
'cog been accustomed to look upon the whole
scheme of what they call poj>ery, regarding it as
numery, idolatry, blasphemy, and a vile supersti*
tioa, ia found to require, at l> aet, a little moder
ating. Seme men. in our day, who have adorned
universities with their vist and varied learning,
have proclaimed, af ? r laboriou* invesig%tion, and
at the coat of great personal ?arriftjea, that they
prefer the Reman to the Auglican scheme, an I
that it furnishes rrsourcis to gratify their widest
range of intellect, and sativfy th- prof mndest emo
tions of their hearta. la England, more especially,
for some years past, not a few among the educated
claEies have adopted a* their motio,
Antiquam oiqaliit* m%tr?ai
And Tt suits by which wp have so frequently beei
Marti* d, during the Use ten jears, have appeared
in the memorable record* that furnish materials
for the biatorjr of Puaeyiem.
Just at thia crhis, (<nd uoue could be more fa.
vorable for bia purpos*,) the Pope tak*a measures
for the reviveacence of hia ancient power and au.
tbority in Kcgland. He hia there, among miny
other prominent auxiliaries, hia learned, sagacious,
accomf li'hed, and able Cardiaal Wia^mi#, whom
he haa created Archhiahop of Wratminater, and
that learned and popular "Prie?t of the Oratory of
St Philip Neri," Father Newman? once,( ml that
not many montha ag\) among the mott diatin
?u;sh? d rr.rmbera of the Univer?ity of Oxford, and
of the Britkh establirhrd church. Theie men, and
their able associMtee, aie aeadinf forth, f<*arleaaly,
in varioua forma of publication, ouch a? letter*, re
views, appeala, and lecture*, a call to churchmen
and to ditaentere, to weigh dispassionately the
Roman claims. Other s igui fic.i nt indications are
allordt d, that the movement on the Pontiff's part is
full of meaning. But ao advisedly, ao cautioasly
liu he proceeded in his meuaurrs, that he has, aa
yrt, cot only eacaped |<ennl inflictions, l>ut muat
continue to etcspe th*m, Ublena the boaated tole.
ration ofProte?tant Kngland should prove to be an
illusive name, and the sanctity of Koglish law be
volated at tSe bidding of mcr? poplar clamor.
The bruit of tbia clamor is, indeed, loudly echoing
throughout Christendom; for the Bri ish lion that
boa so long lain undisturbed by any sucn intrusion ,
as thia which now dit-queta him, hu oot only
rouaed himaelf, and fix< d his eye upon the die
turber of hia repose, but laahed himself into an ex
citement tor a fier:e conH.ct, and nude the welkin
rrnound with the roar of hia defiance.
It ia discovered that, while he haa aiept, string*
t hirgs have been enacted. A startling tendency t ?
'enirr Romish teneta snd obnervancea has, aa the
amiable Arohbiahop confines, fitted the nation
with astonishment. It ia manifest t^at the estah
li-h'd church of Kngtand, as at presentconatituted,
haa rgregiously fmlrd to protect ita members from
the poison of Romanism, and tog lard ita diocesae *
? gainst the intrusion of "the man of sin " Th
act of Uniformity has producd ao little uniformi
ty, that, while only one third of :he nation ia of tha
established church, the remaining two-thirds are
1'iually divided between Catholicism and Dissent.
The rath of supremacy, also, has not, practically,
effected a renuncia'ion of foreign |<owen : for th?
P( ntiff ia felt to be in Kngland. Hia Apostolic let
ter, isaued onihe 21th of September last, with the
avowed purpose of promoting the Catholic faith in
Creat Brit tin, has electrified the na'ton. And that
syatem whi-h he represents, and which is acknow
ledged to be the chief rival a, id antagonist of the
established church, ia actually making advances,
both in influence and power, that are contemplated
with alarm. Penal enactments are proposed, to
counteract thia extraordinary progreas of tha
Romish cause. But both Lord Russell and Lord
Stanley are puzxled by the problem which they are
required to resolve.
To detect the csua^a of this state of things is not,
however, a ttsk of much difficulty, if we enter the
jttyiinth with a proper clue.
One of the chief agencies in producing a change
ia favor of Rome, was the revival at Oxford, a few
yeara ago, of the study of the Greek and Latin
fathers ot the Church, whose long neglected
writinga weie discovered to be rich mmea of
thought, especially for the imaginative and tne
l>hi!n?ophical. Bnt the product of these mine* waa
?]uite too indlacriminat'ly received as precioua, in
stead of being regarded as mere gold duat, and that,
too, of rt sy varioua df frees of purity, from the
1 blight and sparkling graias of the g^ostollc father*,
to the predominating black aaad of medieval
schoolmen
Another cause of Romish testes and predictions
is discoverable in those architectural esoteric*,
which have been of late so celebrated under the
name of eccletiology, and to which so many of
the divines of Englaud have devoted their atten
tion during the lat>t fifteen years.
But yet other ingredients have been thrown
in'o the wonder- working cauldron. In the contest
between high-churchmen and evangelicals, on
the subject of apostolical succession, priestly func
tions, and sacramental grace, the weight of State
patronage has so predominated in favor of low
church views, that Dr. Sumner, an evangelical
prelate, now fills the office of ArchbisLop of Can
terbury, and, by his course of conduct, especially
in the famous Gorham case, has given occasion to
tn open rupture with the able Bishop of Exeter, as
well as with certain other high church prelates of
distinction.
And while this unhappy (perhaps happy) state
of things has contributed not a little te disafl'ect
many, her Majesty the Queen, in her character as
head of the Church, has interfered in certain mat
ters purely spiritual, so that she has tempted Dr.
Phillpotts, the distinguished Bishop of Exeter, to
accost her in terms not often uttered by a prelate
when accosting Majesty, and has added to the
motives for multiplying malcontents.
Another cauae of the existing state of things is
fcuad in the legislative patronage of Romanism.
The political disabilities of English lloman Catho
lics, at the instance of the popular 1 take of Wel
lington, and of Sir Robert Peel, in the year 1824,
enlisted the nation's sympathies at that time; and
greater and greater concessions have been made,
from year to year, as reason and religion have
conspired to oppose the outrages of intolerance, and
make all Englishmen, whether churchmen or Ro
manists, as far as the exercise of conscience is
concerned, free and equal. A few more struggles
and liberty will triumphs
This outline of a confused and perplexing con
troversy will serve to suggest at least some of the
chief causes of those phenomena which are so
remarkable ? learned Anglican divines, at this age
of the world, renouncing Protestantism, and be
coming Romanists; the amiable an>l meek Pius
IX. encouraged to attempt a bold usurpation tha'
might better befit the daring genius of a Hilde
brand, the vigor of an Urban II., the proud am
bition of an Alexander III , or the powerful grasp
of the Third Innocent. The spirit of toleration, in
the exercise of its legitimate influence, is gradually
dissolving that union of Church and State which
is the secret prolific cause of all that disquiet which
now agitates the public mind in England, and of all
that disaffection which is weaning, and must con
tinue for some time yet to wean, churchmen from
their faith and their allegiance, until the Court of
Arches, ar.l all other State influences, cease their
interference with spiritual things.
That England, in her civil and ecclesiastical
welfare, can receive any serious permanent injury
from the results of the present angry strife and
noisy agitation is not to be apprehended; and the
violence of the storm indicates that its duration
will b? brief. Were Church and State even rent
a*under by it, the greatest blessing* to them both
might be the consequence. The alliancc is as un
necessary as it is unnatural. The same church,
as represented in our own land by its Protestant
Episcopal branch, with the same book of prayer*
the same articles of religion, and the ^ame church
prlity, is in a flourishing condition, without the
help of special and exclusive State patronag?. This
reformed branch of the Church of England has, in
deed, msde a more judiciou i selection of iessonst'rom
the Scriptures, has rejected the Athanaaian creed
from its standards, and has modified and modernized
some of the formularies as set forth in the English
Prayer Book. But, in all else of any material con*
stquecce, the same doctrine, discipline, and wer>
ship, are maintained. And while disputes on doc
trinal peculiarities among all other denomination*
are illustrating, in a remarkable manner, the inter
minable discords and divisions of Protestant sects
and parties, the great secret of union and perma
nence is possessed by American Episcopalians, in
their having ancient written creeds, a primitive
liturgy, and an apostolic polity. These they wisely
retsm. By these they are protected from the evils
ihst result from mere opiaion, and that distract all
other denomination of Protestants. Let the
Church of England follow their exaaple. Let her
disdain the trammels of State inlluence and con
trol. Let her learn another lesson from Amsrica,
and see that the church msy be tree and flourish.
An iRtrrtitlrg *i d Important point In Pollt
leal Hl> tory ? One of Utr last Utbalfi In
tk? Sanato.
In a debate in the United States Senate, at the
recent eiecutive (ration of that body, General
liouaton. Senator from Tr.vas, m ide some animad
versions upon South Carolina, her politicians and
invitations, and her course aa a member of the
confederacy of States. To Houston's remarks,
Mr Rhett, one of the Senators from South Caro
lina, replied, exposing the want of political know
ledge of the Hero of San Jacinto, not only of the
institutions and history of South Carolina, but of
the constitution and hiitory of the United States,
showing sn amount of ignorance, quite surprising
when we consider the long time Houston has been
in public life. From 1923 to 1927 Sam Houston
was a member of Congress, from Tennessee, and
in 1827 he was elected governor of that respectable
State. He waa lor aome time Preaident of the
Republic of Texas, and since the admission af
that State into the Union, he haa been, for the laat
five years, one of the United States Senators from
' Texas. Whatever may have been the defecta of
t General Houa'on'a eurly educa'ion, we have never
heard that any peculiar circumstances occurred
dunrg the four jears he was a member of Con
gress from Tennessee, to prevent him from obtain
ing a tolerable political education, aa mmy other
public men have done at Washington. There is
the advantage at the Capitol of a very good and
extensive Congressional library, aome of the trea
sure" of which are poured forth from time to tim
in elaborate and profound speeches of membera o
Confers. To that aource Houston had access, at
well as Denton, John A. Hix, and others, who have
obtained immense credit for their speeches oa
great national questions.
But Mr Rhett, the Senator from South Carolina,
in rebuking Houston, and expoaing his inexcusa
ble ignorance, unfortunately falls in'o errors him
, self, learned and profound aa he may claim to be
in msttera of constitutional history. One of these
errors be'ng a matter of considerable intereat, we
shall take the trouble to correct.
Oea. Houston, among other atatementa, had
aaid ?
Th? Legislators (of Sooth Carotins) else's the Sena
tors ot the C nlted Statea. eleetors for Pr*ftd*nt ud
Vlee Preeldent of the 1'illtd ItstN. sod can chant*
or aaend th* constitution when it sets fit.
Mr. Rhett repllts?
Ths Legislature sleets tbs Senators of the United
States. That Is certainly true, and 1 suppose l? ai
novel aa It most ba alarming to ths S?nator from
Tesaa. l'nfortnnat*ly tor the Senator this startling
prr>*1alo0 u not at all la the constitution of Sooth
Carolina It will astonish him no doubt, to learn
that It la a >r#?lilfis In tha Constitution of the United
Statea. They (the Legislator*) eleet electors for Pre
eldent and Vlee President of the United State*. That
is trna and It la also tins tnat svsry Stata In tha
Union did tha eame thing at the aomssenflement ol ths
constitution at the United States and that tha con
struction glees by the rram*rs of the onastltatlon by
this slmalUneoas and ununlaou* practice was that
this waa the regular and proper nods, by wbleh the
rlectota should be ?ho?en Wa are old fashioned
enough (In Smith t'aroilta ) still to stsnd where tbs
fatbits of our free Institution* itmd. snd where nil
ths Statee stood at 'he commencement of ths opera
tions of this goTsrnw*nt.
Now, it ia srmewhat surprising, that a South
Carolina Senator, of the h gh intellec'ual charac
ter and acquirements of Mr Rhett, who, under his
former tisme of Smith, and his present legisla
tive one of Rhett, h?s long heen in public life, in
putting n ore thnn US years tervice ia 'Jongresa?
?ad has recently been Instructing the South Caro
liaiaas how they may, on constitutioaal grounds,
secede from the Uaioa? it is surprising, we eay,
that aucb a statesman should require our correc
tion ol hia errors with regard to facta in political
history We shall, however, ahow that hia asser
tion that every State in the Union chose their Pre
sidential electora by the Legislature, (as South
Carolina alone now does,) at the commencement
of the constitution, is not correct; and we aball
also prove, by the early practice of various Statea,
euchaa Virginia, Pennsylvania, aad Maryland,
that the conatruction givea by the framers
of the constitution was not the construction givea
by, and since practised, by South Carolina ; and
furthermore, that the choice of electora by the
legislatures, was not, as Mr. Uhett states, " the
simultaneous and unanimous practicc and where
all the States stood et the commencement of the
operationa of this government." We raav add,
also, the opinion of the authors of the Fcdtrul
tit, that text book of the constitution, to show
what was " the construction given by the framers
of the constlution," on the point in question. In
the sixty eighth number of the FtdnaLitt, by Alex
ander Hamilton, we haw this comxent -ry on that
section of the constitution which relates to the
choice of Presidential electori : ?
It was desirable that the sens* of ths people should
operate in the choioe of the person to whom so im
portant a trust was to be confided This end wilt be
answered by committing the right o( miking It, not
to any pre-established body, bat to men ohoeen by the
ptople lor the special purpose, and at the particular
conjuncture.
Nothing in modern historical literature can be
more imperfect than the manner in which politics
history has been written in this country; even by
such distinguished authors as Marshall, Pitkin
Ramsay, Sullivan, and Sparks, in national history,
and the various authors and compilers of such o
the histor.es of the States as have been published
It is, therefore, not surprising that we are without
any connected account of the details of the manner
in which electors of President and Vice-President
were chosen in the se veral States, at the first elec
tion of President, in 1789, when the constitution
went into operation. We have thought the point
worthy of investigation, and the result of our labors
(which, in const quence of the paucity of public
documents, records, and newspapers of the period
referred to, in our libraries in this city, have not
been small,) is now given to the readers of the .
Herald. It is, we believe, the first record yet pub
lished of the manner in which Presidential electors
were choBen in the several States which voted for
President and Vice-President in 1789.
The convention, which framed the constitution,
met at Philadelphia, in May, 17*7, and adjourned
in September following. The final article of the
constitution, adopted by the convention, declaring
that the ratification of nine of the thirteen States
shou'.d ?' be sufficient for the establishment of
the constitution between the States so ratifying
the same this number Was completed by the
ratification of New Hampshire, on the 21?t of
June, 1788, (Virginia ratifying on the 26th of June,
end NewYoik on the26ih July, 1788;) and this rati
fication being that of the ninth State in order, was
laid before the continental Congress, on the 2d of
July, 1788. With the ratifications of the other
States, it was referred to a committee to report an
act for carrying the new system into operation.
A resolution for this purpose was reported on the
fourteenth of the same month; but in consequence
of a division as to the place where the fitst Con
gress should meet, it did not pass until the 13?h of
September following. By this resolution, the
Presidential electors were to be appointed on the
first Wednesday of January, 1789, and to give in
their votes on the first Wednesday of the succeed
irg February; the first Wednesday of March, be
ing the 4th day of that month, was fixed as the
time, and the city of New York as the pUce for the
commencement of proceedings under the new eon*
stitution.
During the autumn and winter of 1783, the Le
gislatures of the eleven States which had adopted
the constitution, (North Carolina and Rhode
Island having dissented,) met at their several Capi
tols, for the purpose of providing for the choice o'
Senators, Representatives, and Presidential Elec
tors. All of the eleven States, except New York
passed the requisite laws, and chose K lectors of
President, Senators and Representatives. New
Voik, in consequence of a disagreement be
tween the two branches of the Legislature,
failed to choose Senators, and to provide for the
choice of Electors : consequently, this Stale did
not have the honor of voticg at the first election of
President of the United States, and add her voice
to that of the unanimous call of the electoral col
leges of the ten other ratifying Sutes, in favor of
Washington as the chief migistrate of the repub
lic. And here we muet censure Mr. Hammond,
for repeating the error he has fallen into, ia every
edition of his Political History of New York ?
namely, in stating that Presidential electors were
chosen by New Yoik at this first election, when the
contrary and well kno wn fact is stated in the ne ws
papers of that period, and recorded in the legists.
tive, State, and national journals. Suuli gross neg
ligence is unjustifiable in any author, particularly
in so learned and profound a political writer as
Mr. Hammond.
The followirg appears to hnve been the manner
n which Presidential electors were chosen in the
several States at the first Presidential election oa
the first Wednesday in January, 1739: ?
JVi) of F.ltctori
Ta Virginia, by the people, by single dUtrlots. .... 11
i In Mai) land bj the people, la two distriets, vlt
five tor the Westers 'bore aad three for the
Kastrra shore '
la Pennsjlianla by the people, hy g?n?ral ticket 10
In Delaware, by the people. In t hree districts. . . . 3
la South Carollca. by the Legislature 7
la Oeorgta by the Legislature 6
in New Jersey by th. Lejlalnture ?
In fenasetlout by the Legislature ... 7
Ia Maesesbosette by the Legislature 10
Ia New Hampshire, by the l.egislatars &
Total.
73
' Tbera were two i?b??nt??? in tha college of electors
In Virginia, alto two In Maryland; 10 tb?t tba wbo'.a
number ot votes, la all the iMatas van but 60 Mr.
Plater, of Maryland, wai abeent In rona*<iu*n?a of
b.lt * confined with tha tout, and Mr Richardson,
of tha 'ana 8 lata, van prevented from attsadtcg by
tha lea la tk?4lTir( aad bay.
Thu* we *e* that Virginia, the " ancient domi
nion," and the " ir.othrr of Pretident*," com
menced hfr career aa a member of the Fe
deral t'mon, by allowing the popular voice
to be felt in the choice of aa electoral co
lese which resjonde 1 to the national call o
her o?o Washington to the Presidency; that
Maryland, the cradle of religious liberty in thi?
hemisphere, the lazd of the Carrolla, and other
champtona cf liberty, gave her popular vote for
elector*, unrestricted by Legislature!; thtt Dela
ware, the home of the Kodneya, the Bayarda an 1
the Keada; and Penntjlvanis, the head-quarters of
drmocracy, and the home of Franklin, Morria and
Wilton, also adopted the tame popular mode of
testing the will of the people. We are not quite
?ur# that New Jewry and Georgit adop'ed the
Legitlative mode of choice, the recorda of those
Statea within our reach being unaatiafactory. But
we hare clearly eatabliahej one point? namely,
that at the commencement of the government,
South Carolina atood nearly, if not quite alone wi h
the New England State*, in her practice and con
struction of the conttitutirn, aa to the choice of
Presidential electors. All the New EngUnd
Statea long aince changed their course, and adopted
the popular mode, leaving .South Carolina alone in
the original aristocratic msnner of election.
RtMiasiaoK Wiim iwo Oapt flromwsll. of
fblp Cartas, arrived hera on Buaday. Informs as that
nfon bis lat* voyage of twenty mr nibs duration, In tho
cenrea of which ha procured a full cargo of oil, viola
lug tha Aretlo neean. aad salllag round tha world, ha
has not had a boat rtoven by a wbala during tha voy ?
asa lest cratt, rltgng or spars to the value of a far
thing, with tha siagls eieeptlon of atowllna. that ha
has act parted say rigging? not even a ropayara aad
tfcat the cotton rtweh ealla with which ha left this port
tw<ntv months ago ware npon the yards when ha
arrived, havlag beta la ooastaat as* and not nnhant
during the who!* voyage Stm Hrifni Mtrna'p,
Unfit 11.
!%? Orrtlaaaecor ??* ?n4 Um RuH| .f
fit. H??iu?. 1
When the disappointed ambition and per.
T.7 ?f MuXia V" ??? fioX
exploded in the Buffalo Convention, which flun*
?U^. i. ? fl,?, * ?reat dcal of noiae wj
made about the ordinance of '87. The Buffalo
Convention paraded before the world a platform I
which, they pretended, waa founded on that ordi'
nance. A more wilful outrage on truth and his- 1
torjr never waa perpetrated. The demagogue, who !
controlled Chift great abolition caucua, either had
never read that ordinance, or they deliberately in
tended to give it the lie. They gave out to the
wcrld, that in 1787 the Congress of the Confedera
tion, under the immediate guidance &ad advice of
cmaa Jefferson, established an ordinance which
unconditionally prohibited slavery in the North
west territory. Now, it ?, hap,-ena that the Ame
ncan Congress never did any such thing. They
*17, IF"! 1 #Dy 8U,Ch l4W Tbey nevrr conceived
anything like it. Let us now to the law and the
testimony, to see how far we can sustain our
poaiuon.
The ordinance of *87 consists of a preamble and
?u article., the lat>r being the only one which re
fers to the subject of slavery at i II, and this article
is embraced within the following lines, viz
luntVry mo Uu Is t t'o'rr'iJth"7.?' lBT0"
In tli# pinishafBt of erimM ^ ttoiui
bav. b?n dul",:Uut?.ridmpr^
person escaping Into th? tlm. tJr.l l ' ,} MT
r* loo la lawfullv olaimull m wbomUboror
6tatM,6nohfngitfT, ttw K? ?aifnii0.Mi ?'
v.yed to the p.rson "a&fti hU *** ??n
vle?asafor?si" * hU or her ??*<* or aer
Here is a proviao which the free .oil men have
ov erlooked altogether; and on the bare face of this
ordinance, the meaning is simply this, that slavery
waa prohibited in the Northwest territory, on con
dit.on that fugitive, from labor should be given up
when .hey were demanded; and what i. the plain
the 1 ST ? TP? that Whe"Ver ,h" ^tory or
iinnM 7 might afterwarda compose it,
?hould refuse to surrender auch fugit ves so claim
ed, then ,he ordinance waa violated and the com
pact broken. Slavery, of necessity, ceased to be
prohibited from that tima, because the only con
dition on which it waa prohibited was, that the
"ST ?Vhat dia,,ic, 8hould de,iver "P ?o the
elaveholding States their fugitive slaves.
Here is the whole question, in three paragraphs
e9Cape frorn il- Op,K)sitlon to the
Zl " . fugitive slaves from any portion of the
Northwest territory ever after that ordinance,
became treason ; or it justified and legalized
tilery ,n that territory as soon a. the conditions of
the ordinance failed to be complied with. Let the
,j** ? rD lrakt ehher h0rn 01 ,he di'?*nima they
Ple.ee. By a fair construction of that ordinance,
o7ob"rar,cr'rho8hou,d?? ,nt?th'
rll f l a fUgItive 8lave? wt,uld have the
selSe 11 aUih?ri,i" refu6cd !0 *ive him UP. to
slaves IT .WD ,D tk* State aad hold his
Vo""*> "Oder the suction and pro
tection of the ordinance of '87.
Again; the law of *98, on the surrender of fugi
other" i,Vn",iaPPKe|d. thC 8ame pricciPle t0 a" 'he
other non slaveholdmg State. ; and New York
falTd' TY' a?d other Northern States, never re
fused to comply with this law until slavery died
ou amorg them, and tbolitionism was fomented
tSZh La KUrK- the dome,tiC 'nfititut'ons of the
South, and rob them of thoee rights which had
W sfeoBrfr^ Vhem'' iD tbe ordwa<?* of
.7, .econdly, in the constitution of '80; and third
ly, in the statute of '08.
th: sou,h feeiin* in,*cure
?L L J I gT and rapid 8Prpad of abolitionism,
Which had ceased to be an insignificant ps,ud.v
religious movement, and become a political organ
nrr; phj,ucai o,'j<,ct* in v,ew' ca,,ed f?r ?
n w and fresh recognition, not only of the letter
but of the spirit of those three great guarantees'
HV,? 0rdu,aace of *?, the constitution of so'
tnd i: rr ?im ? s?u* ^^d
?nd she had a right to ask her sister States in the
to0"he uZ T,'Kherthfy W?Uld Rdhere trulhfu'ly
o the terms of the origin.] compact, and carry
them cut in good fait),. Agitation arose. Free
?oil. under the inflammatory appeals of demu'
ETgm n"' Seward- and abolition edi.crs
111, the "0"; 7r u y' Md W**d' a,ff'mt'ted to
lo blx S thC free Ur?U0d thf ba|
. ' a?d from certa? districts in the tailed
? r * TaU>huon Unati? were returned to Con.
un.Herf aVlDf, 00 eflort "n*ttempted, no trick
Ih? .7 men?f 1B",ammalor>' "Pf**' "nproclaimed,
men fou?ht, .tep by ?eP, the comPromi*e
ccnlr/i 1,?"" *'?ry 0t ,heae ^acc measure.
Z ' J j 1' y 10 lhe fftct that 'bey were sn
honest and faithful construction of the ordinance.
m r. trn' " l5e "ta,ut^?f which we have
?poken. They wcort.d th, riKhu of ,he JSou(h
Sin? ThTy ?ttetfd nrw Pledges to the
Southern States, .nd these pledges th^y had a
noth! t0 TC' ln lhat ?,ru'??l,' 'he South gained
nothmg It was only by .debate effort of the
Uw IhTt n' C?"ti,uUon aDd of 'be Union, and of
'a^hat ?he rights of the South were recognaed
by the thirty-first Congress The smnh k
v wuKress. i he South hss never
a' ?d ^.f the North ?my more >han the con.titution
figlfuDf ^a'ad if t'he ? ',at 'hc h*" ?0' by hard
cutive^fficera h" h h'?
fa.thfully xVcite he #Un'1
Will hold 4,ther-h rePut"'c
at'K ii it will be invulnerable to every
be confined B'0U aii? ' at the South will
be ZSl !.^11 [aci,'0fl. 8"d lhat faction w.ll
cmlined it t thV M aPaf,ci,!m and abolitionism are
?hculd be etern/l m nn/h'V rr,dctlr-,'Dt". which
ir. Ki?n? a "fDiii in our history; and whf*n t h>- v
are blotted out, the republic will go With then X
Pew Publication*.
The Art Journal, (or March, l*ol. Gerrge Vir
tue. 26 Joi n atrert.
Th?* Roman Republic of 1*19; by Theodore
Dwigkt. K Van L)i?*u, No Hi Nuaau street.
Twice told Talea by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
Ti'knor, Reed iV Fieldr, Boa ton.
The Warwick W ooduu.lt; by Frank Forreater.
Stringer At Townaend, Nrw York
Bertie, a bumornua aovrl ; by Gregory Sea
worthy. II. Long A' Brothrr, 4:i Ann atr??-t.
R< nmnce of ihe Ocean I.tndaay i' Blakiaton,
Pkiladeli hia
The Family Phyaician ; by Dr Hallich. T. B.
Prteraon, Philadelphia.
Yankee Stoma; by Judge Halliburton. Long
Si Brother, and Brrford Ac (Jo , New York.
The Practical Receipt Book. Lindsay Ac HlaUia
ton, I'hiladeli hia.
Conniflo : by Geoige Sani. String! r?V Town
tend, Ni'W York.
The New York Rrgiater of Medicine an-l Pha*
macy. Baker, trod win At Co , Tribune Building*.
United Hut* a Law Magazine, for Mar. h. John
Livingatm New York
Loii it e La Val lere ; by Dumaa. T. B. Peter
aon. Philadt Iphia
United Statra Railway Guide, for March Dexter
vV Brothrr, Ann atrret.
The Klcklebury'a on the Rhine. Stringer Ac
Townif nd.
The Higher Law tried by Reason ?nd Authority
S W Benedict, Id Spruce atreet.
The Pit ugh, the Uiom, ud the Anvil. J. S.
Sklmtr. Philadelphia
PreaMent Fillmore'a Meaaagr, and acrompinying
Documents. Printed lor the Houae of Reprearn
tanvea.
The Probable Relation between Magnetiani and
the (Circulation ol the Atmorphere. C. Alexander,
Waakipgioa
The Infant Drummer Polka (Muaic). 11*11 Ar
Son, 2H9 Broadway.
View of Cadli J Lichevallirr, ."*7 1 Broadway.
Graht m'a Magazine for April I?rWitt V* Daven
port.
l?cdf)'? Lady 'a Book for Apnl H. Lsng Ar
Brother.
Yolcaao Digging?, a Tale of California Law. J.
S RedfiHd
Lyia Catholica, containing all the Hymna of the
Rtmr.n Breviary and Miaaal. DumganAr Brother.
A Paatoral letter far the I^nt of MlK!OOLl ;
by Bl?hrii Walah Dunigan fc Brother.
Monthly Family Circle. J. G Reed
Advtniurea of Pe? Owen : by John Gait. Wm
H < <rabam As do.
The Philoaophy of Spiritual Tnterwwrae, being
an ? *| lanatii n o( Modern Mv?'rrira; by .Vudrew
Je? k' on Davie Fvwlrr? Wella
I fkt *att ItWlMl Biitorir f th? Jawa.
Hi second ucn it or d*. eafhaia.
The aecond lecture on thw intereatio* subject
was delivered on Thurtday evening. ?t the Medical
College in Crosby street, by the Kev. Doctor 1U
phall, late of Birmingham, England. These lec
ture, uffiQ to excite considerable interest, from the
large number of persons that attended. The sub
ject of the Ifcture was the "Htsmonean Kings?
the Sanhedrim Sects, and Civil Wars." He began
by observing, that the cruel persecution of anti
Kpiphane* had roused the Jews to a war which re
stored the independence of Judea. Mattathias and
his sons could not be considered as rebels, with
ihe object of merely advancing their own fortunes,
but as pious, God fearing men, who acted under
pions and patriotic motives; their zeal and talents
entitled them to power and rank; by their pre-emi
nence in danger, they exchanged a life of ease for
one of toil, and for the pott of honor which was
likely to lead them to an untimely grave. They
were entitlfd to the thanks of their countrymen;
but their heirs appeared to the people in a far more
questionable light. Their parents give to the
heirs a kind of claim, but the latter endeavored to
combine powers in their own persons, which aught
to have been kept distinct. John Hyrcanus first
declared the Jews independent of Syria; and he
accomplished his object after many battles.
He held the civil government by the title
EHhna, or Chief of the people. During the long
struggle which preceded the independence of Judex,
the people had not time to inquire into the policy of
all the powers of the State being held by one per
son. The various cectsinto wmch the Jews were
divided, increased in his reign, and their struggles
finally ended in the ruin of all Judea. Daring his
reign thote sects remained quiet; but politically,
they iutuked him by questioning the legitimacy of
his birth. They pretended that his mother was
seme t;me a pnaoner among the Syro Grecians,
and this was especially huitful among a people so
jealous as the Jen s of purity of birth and legiti
macy. Hut there could be no doubt of his legiti
macy. lie saw unit wished that his son's place,
ub chief magistrate, shou d be on a tinner basis than
by popular election, and previous to his death, he
lot'* measures to secure th'" succession for his son,
Anstobuius, who, upon his death, at once pro
claimed himself king and high pnett of the Jews,
end it was during his name that the parties were
formed? first, the priestly office or power: secondly,
the ro>al office; and thirdly, the office of the admi
uiptiaiiou of the law. The priestly office was
limiud to the house of Auron; the kingly, or royal
office, to the house of DuVid, and the third office
was open to all? the person who afministered the
last itlice being also chief of the Sanhedrim. Tnua
there we . three di.-tmc< bodits, and a perfect divi
sion of power? the spiritual, the judicial, and
the executive. True attempts had been male
as enrly as the time of king IJ/ea, to combine those
poweie; but until the time of Nebuchaduezzur e*ch
had preserved na separate balance. A'terftie Ba
bylonian captivity, the fortunes of the two families
ol Auron and David became altogether diflVrent,
and ti t Persians were too jealous to permit the
ro>al house of David to returu to Jndra. Not so
wnh the f.imi!y ? f Aaron; they were permitted to
assume ihe functions of high pruat, snd at the
same tur.e they exercised the powers of a temporal
m< narch This, u.deed, was necessary, and as the
ihitfwtts otun required to address the Persian
suihoriues, it was quite na'ur.il that he should be
came the civil magistrate; but he ouly had the
title, but not the prerogatives of royalty. The Jews
were governed by their o*n laws, and the office of
high piitst continued in existence while the Syrians
una Macedonians exercised power iu Judea The
people first invented Judah with the office of high
priest, and ufier him his brother John No one re
membered that the priestly office usurped the lights
of ihe family of Divid; but after some time the
people begen loatk, was it right that all power ?
the jiower ol priest and king, of church and state?
should be uni'ed under one heart! WneuJohn
Hyrcanus took thote jointly upon himself, the San
hedrim weie most anxious to effect a separation of
the two powers. The Sanhedrim, or council of
elders, had its authority from Moses, as we see
by the Book of Numbers. It consisted of sev
enty elders. This council continued through
all changes down to the fifth century of the
common "era. Objectors say that Joi-ephus no
where mentions this council, but the council is I
historically menticneu iu ih?* brat b>ok of Macca
bees. It is objected to that ihe. Suiht drim wa not
6o sr.cient, because the word is of Greek and not
t.l Hebrew origin; but we find that in the reign of I
the Asrroneuns, the Council of LHders(6?nhedrim) |
was in lull authority. Doctor H . observed, in reply
to theee objections, that when the Greek a obtained
authority in Judra, it was neceshary to adopt a
Greek nin e (Jerusis) for the Sanhedrim; but that
nsn:e wax subs? ifjeiitly dropped, and tha*. of Sin
h<drim resumed. It was mentioned in Kzekiel,
snd long befire tbe Babylonii-h captivity; and
surely, said Dr liaphall, the voire of the inspired
l ./? kirl ought to outweigh the silence of Jos-phus.
1 be council had teen its influence restrained, not
only by the sssump'ioo of ihe Asmonvsn king!1, but
elso by the ditlerent s?#ts in'.o which the Jewish
people w?re split. At this time there were three
diHerent sects hmongst them? namely, the Phari
sees, the ?adducees, and the Spiritualist* The
adduce es did not believe in a resurrection after
death. Th> v endeavored to combine the bcp'.i
c?m of the Greeks with the revelation of th?* lie
br?ws. They neither believed in the immortality
of the soul, in the judgment, or the resurrection of
the deed They were, however, a very inll'iential
people, owirg to their wealth anrt rank in the Jewish ,
oaiion. The Pharisees were the national party? i
they were opposed to the introduction of foreigners,
ai.d particularly to ihe Greeks They adhered to
the laws and traditions ; and here it inay be proper
to lemaik that we must not conf > md this s et wuh
the hypocrites \\ Jiose apparent sanctity was used as
a cloak for wickedneis Those hyi*>ciitrs are de
nounced in ihe Talmud as much as they are in the
New Testament. The Spiritualists hold that our
i xistence on earth was no mora than u pr? p iration
for an existence hereafter; theywereb.it a small
fragment of the Jewish people, and were an hnaent,
virtuous *ec', having no thought but for a future
existence. Doctor liaphall ihen remarked u,?on
the history of Mattathias. John Sunou.dtc , and said
that the people were always ree.dy to go with the
chiefs of the Pharisee; but when John llyremus I
was opposed to ihe Sanhedrim, the body rallied ,
round it the old Pharisee party Then Hyrcanus
threw himself into the opposite party- ot the .Had- .
ducers. Here the lecturer drew a pars lei between
the disputes r f John snd hi* party with the ?<a ihe- |
dim, nnd the cruel wars between Ch tries ,
ihe first and the Parliament of England
Thus, raid he, we find that in the rciga of
J hn Hyrcanus there were two powerful par
lies among the Jews, between whom political
rancor continually increased. Hyrcin'is, by his ,
Isst will, declsred that his wife should ta
ngent; but his son, Arie'obulus, dis fatoed to reign
under a wrmil. He obtained the royal treasury, |
ar.d imrrisored bis mother and her two sons S'?e
do d if a broken heart, and it was eveu ?tid (hit
the wis starved to deaih Aristobulus gave the
command of the army to hia brother An'igouus, for
whom the Queen had conceived a dislike, and
when he returned, after being victoriou?, she pre
vailed upon Aristobulus to believe that he had only
returned for the purpose of d'throaini him. Aria
tobulus rent a chamberlain to his brother to appear
before him at a fees', un <rm> d ; and he placed
guards, compoeed of foreign mereenari-e, in a
r*? ni through which Aniigonus wis to pass, and
gave them secr?t orders ihat if he was arm<-d the*
were ro cut him cown. but if he cttne unarmed, ,
then they were to let him pn*s. The < hamberlain |
who carried him the orders item his brother, waa
one of the conspirators, and had aecret directions !
from ihe Queen to muse him come srm*d He ac
cordingly told him that his brother waited to re- :
etive mm with his arms Anti^nus accordingly
went armed, snd as he passed, ihe guards, acting
e n the ir orfers, e ut him down The govrrunv at
of Arntobulus, liKeail Asiatic deFpi.tlsms, was sup
ported, not by the love cf the people, l>ut hy the
siras snd force of mercenaries, and accordingly,
after ten years war against the enemies of Judea,
a terrible tumult arose, which led to fearful results.
I'nfe.rtunatety, at the Festival of the Tabernacles,
libations were poured on the ground, after the
iranner of the Gentile s, w hich was a custom dis
liked by the Pharisees, hut sustained by the Sad
duFrrs. The dissatisfaction indu e d an indignant
young Pharisee to throw a citron This wss a
signal for the Pharisees, and the tumult became so
fie rce, that the foreign mercenaries had to be call
ed in. and six thousand Jews were alain. A civil
war then ensued, which lasted seven yeira, when
Aristobuliis was at last succes?fiil. l>oc.or K
went on to detail the evil consequences that arose
frem the divisions which sorting up amongst the
Jewish people, and concluded his lecture with an
account of the setge of Jerusalem by Aretus. He
wss listened to during ihe delivery of the lecture,
and upon the conclusion of it wa< loudly cheered.
Poor Ornrt Opr* Poatinaatar Oanaral
MtablUhrd th# follo?lt>* arw poot offle** forth* voak
'?ding March IA. 1A6I Ontro Villa**. Broom# eoaa*
ty. N Y..M Northinp. llrMTiU#. Moatfonnry ooua
ty, N. Y . Qtorg* Khl?, N?? fMoekholm St Lawr?ae?
scanty. N Y , Bt<ph-n I/oum>; D*?r Park, Buifolk
rraaty. N \ . N??h K Ramtt; Maaanrll*. Ma4t?on
e'un'r N Y William K Walton. Y'i aafttrllU, Balll
?aa comity, K Y , Joha B Bp?no?r Pike Poad. fulll
coaaty, R Y . <?U#oa Walaa.
A r'aht abaia waa takra, eft Boathamptoa I. f , oa
t b* 1 6 1 a laat. It ?u cipaottd to pr?4??? taaaty flra
bairaUof ?U.
TJas Narad l?mM<
to ni aorroB or tu iikald.
The Nitty Rtguttr give* us some intereetief
data, and from it ire gather aa follows:?
The number of lieutenant* allowed bf law t*
three hundred and twenty-seven. Of these WW
find one qaarter are on ahore duty connected wtth
the navy yards, ahippiog rendezvous, 6c c-; about
three- eightha on shipboard abroad, and aboat the
same number on leave or waiting arders, ha vine
recently returned from sea, or being rendered ??fie
for active employment in consequence ?( ?rknrwe
or other causes.
The number of masters in the line of promotiM
is but eleven by the Rtguttr ; but one-fifth the
number r? quisite to afford one of that grade to eaeta
vessel in commission
in conse quence of the small number of lieute
nants, younger officers are constantly being called
upon to perform the duties of that grade. In coatee
of the late war with Mexico, a midahipman per
fumed te mporarily the dutiea of executive ofBoec
on board a sloop-of-war in the Gulf? the numbec
of lieutenants attached to the ahip being insuffi
cient to answer the exigencies of a sickly climate.
The number of passed midshipmen on the list is
twH bundled and thirty-three ; the average nnta
ber of promotions to the rank of lieutenant has
been, during the last nine years, twelve and a half
per year ; ihoae gentlemen, then, have rather die?
coursgwg prospects, the older portion of them ha**
ing entered upen their fourteenth and liiteeatla
years of service, by way of illustration, let us in*
quire concerning those of one who stands near th*
middle of the lut, and who entered the aervice in
the year 1N1. We find that this person cannot be
a iieuieuaui before the expirsdou ot over nine
yearn, while one at the foot lint mum renuin in nis
pr??<ui tapaci y >et lor nineteen years. Toose
gentlemen have already served duriug ten years,
and their age ia | robabiy about tweutysix ; conse
quently, unuer (he most favorable circumstances,
wnich tht ir curreut experience affords, they must
be, one itnriy-hve and ihe other forty five yetrs of
age before they are lieutenants? during the last
yser having the rank of master In the ineauursa
iheir situation is a trying one ; their position, and
the duties of ibetr grade, die detiued neither Of
low nor regulation, subjecting them to miny vexa
tious annoyances, and pUciiig ihein in a condition
calcuiu ed to bring discouragement to the rnoeC
sanguine temp* r?.ment, ?ud to deuroy all feelings
ot >niere*t in the duties of the profession to which
they hive devoted the best yours of their uvea.
With habits ol life, and of mind in greit inea
Bure dit |Uftlify mg them tor any other occupation*
and a fund of information little serviceable except
on ehipboard, they ire tied to the service, although
fore* d. year otter year, to perform" the same com
paratively trivial duties which were required of
them at time of their entry into the navy.
The avenge number of promotions, during the
last nine years, to tlie rank of commander, we ga
ther from the liai before ua, to have been five per
V?ar. Calling the age at which they entered Um
r.nvy fourteen year*, the ages of tho^e of this
gn.He now in the service must be from forty live
to lilty- hree yeaia At the above average, as
theie lire ninety-eight on the list, the younger por
tion can hardly ? X|>ect further promotion Miking
the liberal deduction ot fifty per cent for casual
ties, incident to advance in age among t nose on
ibe lift of lieutenant*, the pissed iind.-hijfttian,
alio \ e referred to, who amiots about the middle of
the lib*, end who may be a lieutenant under exist
ing eteWSflKM ut the age of thirty tive, may
? till expect command ol a brig or corvrtte, with the
mi u ol commander, at the age of etghty-oeo
years A captain's commission in courae ne can
not leach
The protection of our commercial interests
abroad t?tmHiiiorc particularly il?e charge of the
navy ; the tare oi these interests is, to a great de
git e, ciiti ucti-d to i he exertion* of those who are
l>l?c?d in c< tnmaud of the armed n*v?l force,
tiiaint&iiitd at ihe diffi rent parts ot the globe. Aa
thia navy stem* especially to merit the tostermg
care of mercantile and commercial men, to theui
should an appeal be made, calling attention to its
prettnt uiJiesltby condition. Aa the efficiency ef
a naval force depends essentially soon tne capcibi
Iry oil tlie part of its officer* tor decisive actio*,
mi, if thoee of our countrymen who are intimately
and dnecdy interested, would have energy and
vigor, decision and judgment, displayed in the
course ol conjuct pursued by these representatives
of the country and guttrdunx of us interests abroad,
let them exert their hp at influence in remedying
e xistii u evils, in m> king promotion more rapid,
thuae uruiin^: to an oflicer a poaition of respunMbility
calculated to exp mil hia power* before hia ener
gies l<eci me relaxed by ?ge, histamines low th--i'
eliM'c force, and hisspitu becomes broken by eiis
appointoeit Why mould not the liw, limi nig
tbe i.LOiber of iieuteii?nii<, b?- modified, and the
numbe r so increased ihdt u w ill be |M>a?ihie to ke^p
each eh'p cui plied with her complement 1 Tw
du'les ? f matter are ihietly peiform-d by passed
andaJiii rmn, pronounced outlined by a board ??f
(i mieteut examiners 10 du the duty ut lieu euanl
in any class vc.-e?el Why nut increase* ihe num
ber ? f musters in the line ot promotion, that tne
<?? mend for \> rn-e e at eea may be supplied, a?d
that a midship m.r, on patsing hia ex-tmuiatioa,
n ai be ot tha> gride ! its duties he miy m>? ue
r< |uiied to amunie, lei h<m enjoy ihe privilege * t
ihe vratie permiuenly; hia poaitioe thus well <te>
tine o, he it no long, r subject to arbitrary *' u*agea
ot the ier\ice," auo her appellation not uiif<e
qui ntly tor the caprice ol the commanding officer.
Save ibe cnatiou of higher and more uum-rons
gudea in tbe navy, with a retired list lor thx* ?.|R
c?is whu have honorably expended their energies
in tht ir country's tervice, and for thoae from otner
caubta rendered incs|>able ot duty, ? notnmg has
been proposed that can obviate the evil temteucy
cf the present state of at) lira Such m*aiu r?, or
any oth> r* that mill produce the desired elf -ct,
aeem impeiativetv called for, and will teud to en
courage young officers to exertion, exciting a de
sire foi | rotei-fton- 1 improve meut, and revivtngthe
droopu g t,yi i du of the navy; men will he
placed iu rthpmsible rations who are in posne*
?ion ol every iitulty in full vu>or, and we shall
fee none ot the auoinalies of ihe present day, no
grey heeded "totirg gentlemen,'* none in mure
respoitlble grades w ho will say as Ihey are mow
heard to do, ?? to be good for anything they should
have be > n pronu ted > ears since." We shall men
| lave a navy ihi.t will do credit to the coaairy
I under any t ircumstances, in any exigency.
The youngest In ulenants of ihe present dsy a re
older ni? n than were most of those r*p( tin? i?t inn
war ot IM2, whine conduct and iotrepidi'y h.s
t hid a h lo of glory over thai period of oar com
try's history IUcatur, when ne retook the Phila
delphia. wusbui twen-y live, and when the V|a<?
donien wae capturi d.hut thirty -thiee; McUon >ugh,
at the time ot ihe victory ol Ltke Cham plate, oat
twenty-eigh ; IVrry, at that on Lake Kne, wac
al o bit i we i ty e'ght; Lawrence, wh-n he to. 4.
the Keind. er, was but thirty one, ind the stuie
year he fell while hi command of a f.igate, a vic
tim to i hat undaunted spirit which scorned to *u>
runib, the uLh subdued by an unprecedented corn
binntiou of untoward oirc omittances Ol many
now living, we nave evidence, by the- veuerstnxi
wi h which they ?re regirrfed, of thai profession*]
exce Heme which built up for them ID tlieir young?r
?lavs a rej.u a'ion of which the country iniy j'l-tiy
e?l proud Can theie he a doubt th it the "boy
< fticers" of the war were i|uite as e fficieot as ttM?
? Id men of the preaent day ? A uud-iiiomin ihe?
? i erve d for the five or tit yesra required by law,
1 I nd became i h? u-enunt, with the pr wpeet of fvir^.
her not tow tardy pri>ino ion; and miy we not
pnw>n?il?l) regard iht? fact m having fxeriH aa
DnutDCt* a huh wat inain'y ioi*iriinifo!ii in pn^
c urir g tht-ir unparalMrfl ?uccf*a??Y
The avriculiurist end the manufictnrer have
certunly ae deep an interest in auifioiting theeffi
ciency of the navy as a member il ihe cominer*
? ial community, thou 'h the advantages derived by
hem miyreem less iutrin?ic, because apparently
i onducing lees directly to ihnr inrne liate advan
tage. It should lie unnecessary tobrinir arguments
to | rove this community of interest of all cU?ea of
society , qi.A that the hsiiefit renped hr one mors
directly, rssenluillv ai d favorsbly infl iencea all.
1 he navv ia not fur the individual good of any one
data of the (snimunity, hut belong. ug to the coun
try, as a national mnitu'i'm. has heretofore contri
buted to the nation's well beinff, and earned n
claim to that fostering care which ia solicited nt
the ham** of the public. The necessity of a nn*nl
force, while such in?ti(utiona are maintained by
other powerful nations, and while a Urge part ot
the inhabited world ia peopled by aavage*, wiN not
be questioned. At do tine in the last thirty-live
years hsve its servicea been more peremptorily de
ms nde I than at the present junction, when we
have a vsm increase of distant seaboard; when the
savage is h*o mint, by casual intercourse with en
lighten' d nations, acquainted with their wealth
ard covetuoue of jta poeeetaion; and when the
spirit of liberal opinion, which aeems to have die.
sen, ins ted itself throughout every country ol
Luro( e, bids fair to produce effects that may dis
turb the general pence which hna without interrup
tion so long subsisted We ctnnot judge how
toon we may he cnllrd upon aa n nation, to vindi*
cate tfte curious principles of constitutional liberty.
Military despotism but illy brooks an expreaaion ol
pmpnthy to the oppreaaed, and ia excessively
jealous of our aucc.*rs aa n nation, as tending to in
flame that under current of popular feeling tyranae
cannot eradicate, and which will some daybreak
all honria asunder. Although oar policy should bn
decidedly nscitic, it appears evident, that aoun4
policy would inculcate the restoration of the navy
to that state of efficiency which has heretofore
gamed >1 Ihe favorable opinion of other nationn.
Tm r*m or thx BvtroM.

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