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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, March 05, 1853, MORNING EDITION, Image 1

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Address to the Feople.
The Policy of the New Administration.
Splendid Programme for the Future.
Ac., Ac., Ac.
Washington, March 4?9 A. M.
Thin being the last day for the transaction of public
toubinoHs, both houses of Congress were in session all
last night, and will probably not adjourn until a few
minutes of 1*2 to day. Drums hare been beating since
daylight, and lirenien and military moving about in every
direction. Stiow is falling fast.
JC, There has been an immense crowd of visiters sinco day
break to the Jackson statue, the admiration of which is
The Capitol is swarming to overflowing with ladies and
Strangers. Hundreds slept in the rotunda, and the warm
passages of Cthe apitol, lying down on theii cloaks,
whilst thousands were walking the streets all night.
The first train this morning from Baltimore arrived at
eight o'clock, and the second at nine, bringing about
2,000 passengers, Pedestrians and horses from the sur
rounding country are arriving in immense numbers, and
the Alexandria boats are arriving every half hour,
Captain Uynders, with a delegation of the New York
Empire Club, with the Baltimore Empires, are marching
through the streets. Hundreds of marshals, fiuely
mounted, and equipped with badges and sashes, and the
military and flromen, are moving to and fro, like an in
vading army, preparatory to forming.
The military and firemen make a grand display.
Presidents l'illmore and Pierce were serenaded during
the night by the New York Continentals' Band.
The snow ceased at 11 >? A. M. ; the weather is clearing
tip, and the sun peeping out.
President Fillmore will vacate the executive mansion
vliilethe inauguiation is progressing, and Gen. Pierce
will be escorted to the mansion.
The procession is now moving from the City Hall. Ther
will march around past Willard's and take up the Presi
The open space at the east front of the Capitol is filling
lip, thousands of ladies being present.
Both houses of Congress are still in session. The win
dows of the bouses along the avenuo are filled with ladies
and flags are displayed acrossAhe avenue.
The flsg pole in front of the Union office is decorated
with the names of all the democratic States, eagles, and
American flags.
The Manhattan Fire Company of New York arrived
here this mot nlng, and were assigned a prominent po
sition in the inauguration ceremonies. They appeared
to much advantage, and attracted universal attention.
They have their splendid banner displayed across the
avenue near Willard's.
Cong! ess adjourned at 12 o'clock. The flag of the Senate
was run down, but immediately hoisted again, on the
assembling of the new Senate.
The following is the programme of the arrangement at
the Capitol, which was prepared by Senators Bright,
Fearce, and Hamlin, who constituted tbecommitte : ?
The doors of the Senate chamber will be opened at 11
o'clock, or as early thereafter hs the closing of the pre
sent session of Congress will permit, for the admission of
Senators, and others who, by the arrangement of the
committee, are entitled to admission, as follows:?
fx-1'resideiit* and Vice Proiidents.
The Chief J ustice amd Associate JastieM at the Supreme
The Diplomatic Corps, Heads of Departments, and ex
members of ei'her branch of Congress, and members of
Congress elect.
Offioers of the Army and Wavy who by name have re
ceived the thanks of Congress.
Governors of States and Territories of the Union, and
ex Governors of States; the Comptrollers, Auditors. Regis
ters, and Solicitor ef the Treasury, Treaiurer, Commis
sioners, Judges, and
The Majors of Washington and Georgetown:
All of whom will be admitted at the north door of tho
Seats will he placed in front of the Secretary's table for
the President ej^rt the ox President, and on their
anfl left for the Committee of Arrangements.
The Chief Justice and Associate Judges of the Supreme
Ceurt will have seats on the right and left, in front of the
eastern lobby.
The Diplomatic Corps will occupy placcs without the
bar, or the left of the principal entrance; Heads of De
partments. Gavernors *f Slates and Territories, and other
entlemrn entitled to admission, will occupy those on
be right.
Mem Iters elect and ex members of Congioss will occupy
the eastern lobby.
The eastern gallery will be occupied by other citizens,
who will be admitted by the outside northeastorn door
lhe circular gallery will be ro served entirely for ladios,
who will enter the Capitol from the terrace, by the prin
cipal WWtem door, an. I lie conducted to the rotunda and
The oilier door* and entrances to the Capitol, except
.those to be opened under thin arrangement, will be kept
Tlte Senate will assemble at 12 o'clock.
7he Diplomatic Corps and tho Justices or the Supreme
Court will enter the Senate chamber a few minutes before
the Pre-ident elect.
Tho President elect, accompanied by the Committee of
Arrangements of the Senate, will proceed in a carriage
from his lodgings to the northern gate of the Capitol
pquare and enter the Capitol by the northern door: and
the Senate being then duly organized, the President
elect will be conducted to the seat prepared for him in
the Senate.
After a fhort pause, those assembled in tho Senate
oknmber will proceed to the eastern portico of the Capi
tol. in the following order: ?
The Mai . lial of the District of Columbia.
7 he Supreme Court of tho United
The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate.
The Committee of Arrangements.
The President elect and the ex President.
The Pre-ident pro tempore and tho Secretary of the
Ibe Mi rubers of the Senate.
The Dipb inatic Corps.
Heads of Departments, Governors of States and Terri
tories, the Mayors of Washington and Georgetown, and
other persons who shall hive been admitted into tho
Senate chamber.
<Jn icaching the front of the portico, the President
clect wdl take the seat provided for him on the Trent of
the platfo! m.
The ex-Prasidettt and the Committee of Arrangements
will occupy a position in the rear of the President eloct. '
Next. In the rear of these, the Chief Justice and tha
Associate Judges of the Supreme Court will occupy the
feats on thp left, and tho President pro tempore, Sec
lets ry, and numbers of the Senate, tho?o on tho right.
The Diplomatic Corns will occupy the seats next in the
rear of thoSupiemc Court; Heeds of Departments, Gover
nors of States and Territories, and ox members of the
Senate, ex members and members olect of the Home of
Representatives, in the rear of the meinliossof theSnnetO.
Such other persons as aro included In tho preceding
arrangement* will occupy the stops and tho residue oi
the portico.
All being in readiness, the oath of oOlco will bo admin
istered to the President elect bv tho 'Chief Justice; an. I,
on the conclusion of the President's address, the inern
hers ?if the . mate, preceded by the President jffo temjion',
Secretary, and Sergeant at Arms, will return to the
Senate chamber; and the President, accompanied by tho
I'oiundtte* of Arrangements, will proceed to the Presi
dent's lmii' c.
The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate Is charged with the
?xecution of them; arrangements; and, with the Marshal
?f the Di-trict of Columbia, aided by the police of the
Capitol, will preserve order.
All carnages and horses will be excluded from the ('a pi
Tol square, whether in the u>e of the military or other
These arrangements have been made with the desire
that the greatest possible accommodation be given to the
people to witness the ammOnlM. The arrangements
within the Capitol wore, from necessity, formed with re
ference to the limited capacity of the Senate chamber;
and tho?e for the exterior were deemed most appropriate,
with a view of affording the assembled multitude ail op
portunity of witnessing the inauguration.
The procession is now countermarching on the avenue,
in front of Willard's.
General Pierce has taken his seat in the carriage.
Hells are ringing, cannon tiring, and the excitement
The pr cession moved at IS o'clock, in the following
order ?
Chief Marshal, with corps of alls.
Marshals, with blue scarfs white rosettes, white satin
collar- trimmed with blue au J pink, with batons.
Assistants, with pink scarf*.
Judiciarv? Supreme Court.
the Clergy.
Military, under command of Col. Illckejr.
Brigs*' Buttery, four cannon.
Mechanical Artillery, from Alexandria, two cannon.
Col. Frank Taylor's Flying Artillery, from Fojt Molleary,
four cannon.
Portsmouth. Va , Artillery.
A large detachment of U. S Murines," with bauds,
law Greys of Baltimore. and band.
Young Guard, from Richmond, Ya.
Rifles, Richmond.
National Guaid of Harrhburg, the only company from
New York Continentals, with Adkin's Rind.
German Yagers, with Baltimore Baud.
Jack?on Guard, Baltimore.
Washington Guard, Raltimore. k
Sharp Shooters Baltimore.
Washington Continental*.
Washington Light Infantry,
National Orayi, Washington.
Montgomery Guard, Washington.
German Yrgers, Baltimore.
Mount Vernon Guard, Alexandria.
Walker's Sharp Shooters, Washington.
President of the United Stites,
With the
And suite, with citizens.
Marshals on left, and United States Marshal for District o
Columbia, and Deputies, on right.
Committee of Arrangements.
Senate of the Dnited States.
Foreign Ministers.
Corps Diplomatic.
Members tlect, Members, and
Ex-Members of Congress, and ex Members of the Cabinet.
Governors and ex Governors of States and Territories,
and members of Legislatures of the same.
Officers of the Army and Navy, Marine Corps and
Officers and soldiers of the Revolution \nd the war of 1312,
and all other wars.
Tho corporate authorities of Washington and Georgetown.
'the Jackson Democratic Association.
The Georgetown Democratic Association.
The Manhattan Fire Company, of New York.
The Baltimore Democratic Association.
Tho New York Empire ('lub.
The Baltimore Empire Club (in an immense omnibus,
diawn by ten horses, and decorated with tla^j).
Democratic Pioneers, of Baltimore, with Marshall and a
Band .
The Democratic Association, of Alexandria, Virginia. ?
The Columbia Hose Company, of Baltimore.
The Washington firemen did not parade.
The President elect stood erect in the carriage with
President Fillmore by his side, surroundod by Marshals,
and bowed to cons ant cheers, and waving handkerchiefs
from the windows.
The foreign ministers made a fine appearance, in spUn
did carriages, with full court dresses.
The procession commenced passing the National Hote'
twenty minutes before 1, at a brisk pace, and the end
had passed at 1, being about a mile long. It commencod
snowing again, which curtailed the civic portion of the
The procession reached the Capitol at one o'clock, 'and
the Presidents, with officials, passed into the Senate cham
The President and President elect took seats in front of
the Secretary's table, with the Committee of Arrange
ments on their right and left.
The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Su
preme Court were seated in front of the oastern lobby.
The diplomatic corps were outside the bar, on the right
of tho principal entrance, and the heads of departments
and Governors on the left. At a quarter past one o'clock,
the Marshal of the District, with the Judges of the Su
preme Court, followed by the President and President
clect, and the entire.assemblage in the Senate, started in
procession to tho eastern front of the Capitol, where an
immense staging was erected sufficiently large to accom
modate all.
At half past one o'clock, all being arranged, the oath of
office v\'M administered to General I'iercc by the Chief
Justice, as follows: ?
I do solemnly affirm that I will faithfully execute the
office of 1'rcsident of the United States, and will, to the
best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend tho con
stitution of the United States.
It will be remarked that General Pierce, in taking the
oath, did not, as has been ordinarily the custum, say "I
solemnly swear,'' but I solemnly affirm; and instead of
kissing the book in Southern fashion, ho raised his right
hand and held it aloft until the pledge was read. The
wholo of the ceremony was admirably carried out. Pass
ing through the Senate chamber, Mr. Fillmore, turning
off towards a side door, wa? momentarily separated from
Gen. Pierce, when tho latter said, "this way ? let us work
right in;'" aad in they went. The Inaugural was not pub
lished until near dark. Tho Union takes its time.
Immediately before tho address, when General Pierce
took the oath, with head uncovered, and raising one
hand to bearen, while he laid the other on the Iloly
Pook, the spectators also uncovered, even in the snoir
that was falling at th?t time, and many of them litted
up their hands as if in an act of the most fervent devotion.
It was a solemn scene. The address, which the President
delivered unfalteringly from memory, and without a sin
gle note, was received with great enthusiasm by the vast
multitude, particularly those portions of it that asserted
the Monroe doctrine, the protection of American citizens
abroad, the firm adherence of the President to the Com
promise measures, and hi* determination to carry' out
the Fugitive Slave law. Cries of good, good, and other
warm expressions of admiration, were elicited from the
crowd. The sentiments ? the tone of the address ? the
earnest manner in which it was spoken ? his beautiful
action ? his manly, erect appearnncc ? his palo cast of
countenance, in which intellect and courage we re the pre
dominating features ? and his clear, loud voice, distinctly
beard by the remotest of his audience, all combined to
make a deep impression in favor of General Pierce; and
many asserted that this was the best inaugural address
ever delivered from that spot. lie is undoubtedly a very
effective speaker. He remained with his hat off until tho
close of the proceedings. The ladies were in ecstactes,
and so anxious were some who happened to be in the rear
to see and hear him, that they climbed upon the pedi
ments of the columns of the Capitol, to their no small
clanger. Altogether, it was a glorious spectacle of sublime
majesty, casting into the shade the idle pomp and un
meaning pageantry of the coronation of kings and em
After this ceremony had been completed, the President
stepped to the front of the platform, was jreeted with
enthusiastic cheers, and pr6o6s<3ed to read tho
It is a relief to feel that no heart but my own can know
the personal regret and bitter sorrow over which I have
been borne to a position so suitable for others, rather
than desirablo for myself.
The circumstances under which I have been called, for
a limited period, to pre?ide over the destinios of tho re
public, till me with a profound sense of responsibility,
but with nothing like shrinking apprehension. I repair
to the post assigned me, not to one sought, but in obedi
ence to the unsolicited expression of your will, answer
able only for a fearless, faithful, and diligent exercise of
xcy best powers.
I ought to be, and am, truly grateful for the rare mani
festation of the nation's confidence; but this, so far from
lightening my obligations, only adds to their weight.
You have summoned me in my weakness : you must sus
tain me by your strength. When looking for the fulfil
ment of reasonable requirements, you will not be un
mindful of the great changes which have occurred, even
within the last quarter of a century, ami the con'eqtient
augmentation and complexity of duties Imposed, in tho
administration both of your home and foreign affairs.
Whether the elements of inherent fore in the reptib
lie have kept pace with Its unparalleled progression In
territory, population, and wealth, has been the subject
of earnest thought and discussion, on both sides of the
ocean I^sss than sixty-three years ago, the Father of
his conntry made ''the" then 4 recent accession of the
imjiortant State of North Carolina to the constitution of
the I'niteil States" one of the subjects of his special
congratulation. At that moment, however, when the
agitation consequent upon tho Revolutionary struggle had
hardly subsided, when we were just emerging from the
weakness and embarrassments of the confederation, there
was an evident consciousness of vigor equal to tho
grrat mission so wisely and bravely fulfilled by our
fathers. It was not a presumptuous assurance,
but a calm faith, springing from a clear view of the
sources of power In a government constituted like ours.
It is no paradox to say that, although comparatively
vseak, the new born nation was intrinsically strong In
considerable in population and apparent resources, it
wns upheld by a bioad and intelligent comprehension of
rights, and an all pervading purpose to maintain them,
stronger than armaments. It came from the
furnace of the Revolution, tempered to the ne
cessities of the tiices. The thoughts of the men
of that day were as practical as their senti
ments were patriotic. They wasted no portion of their
energies upon idle and delusive speculations; but, with a
firm and fearless step, advanced beyond the governmental
landmarks which had hitherto circumscribed the limits
of human freedom, and planted their standard whtre it
has stood, afaiust dangers which have threatened from
abroad, and internal agitation, which has at
times fearfully mcnaced at home. Tliey approved
themselves equal to tho solution of the great problan,
to understand which their minds liad been illuminatod
by the dawning lights of the revolution. Thoobjtct
sought waH not a thing dreamed of? it wn3 a thing io
alized. Tliey had exhibited, not only tho power to
achieve, but what all history affirms to be so much more
unusual, the capacity to maintain. Tho opprossud
throughout tho v. oild, from that day to the present, have
turned thelrcyes hitherward, not to find those light* c.-;
tingnifhed, or to fear lest they should wane, but to bo
constantly chcered by their steady and increasing radi
In this our country has, In my judgment, thus far, ful
filled its highest duty to suffering humanity It has
spoken, and will coutinuo to .spoak, not only by its wordi
but by its acts, tho Wnguage of sympathy, encourage
ment, and hope, to those who earnestly listen to tones
which pronounce for the largest rational liberty. But,
after all, the most animating encouragement and potent
appeal for freedom will be its own history, its trials, and
it? triumphs. Pre-eminently, tho power of our
ad vccaey reposes in our example; but no example, be it
remembered, can be powerful for lasting good, whatever
apparent advantages may be gained, which is not based
upon eternal principles of right and justice. Our fa
thers decided for themselves, both upon tho hour to de
clare and the hour to strike. They woro their own
judges of tho circumstances under which it becamo
them to plodgo to each other "their lives, their for
tunes, and their sacred honor," for the acquisition of tho
priceless inheritanse transmitted to us. The energy with
which that great conflict was opened, and, under tho
guidance or a manirest and beneficent Providence, tho un
complaining endurance with which it was prosecuted to
its consummation, were only surpassed by the wisdom
and patriotic spirit of concession which characterized
all the counsels of the oarly fathers.
One of tho most impressive evidences of that wisdom
is to be found in the fact, that the actual working ot
our system has dispelled a degree of solicitude which
at the outset disturbed bold hearts and far-reaching in
tellects. The apprehension of dangers from extended
territory, multiplied States, accumulated wealth,
and augmented population, has proved to be
unfounded. The stars upon your banner have be
oorne nearly threefold their original number, your dense
ly populated possessions skirt the shores of tho two
great oceans, and yet this vast increase of people and
territory has not only shown itself compatible with the
harmonious action the States and the federal government
in their respective constitutional spheros, but has af
forded an additional guarantee of the strength and in
tegrity of both.
With an experience thus suggestive and cheering, the
policy of my administration will not be controlled by any
timid forebodings of evil from expansion. Indeed, it is
not to be disguised that our attitude as a nation, and our
position on the globe, render the acquisition of certain
possessions, not within our jurisdiction, eminently im
portant for our protection, if not, in the future, essen
tial for the preservation of the rights of commerce
and the peace of the world. Should they be obtainedi
it will be through no grasping spirit, but with a'vieiv to
obvious national inter - 1 and security, and in a manner
entirely consistent with ihe strictest observance of na
tional faith. We have nothing in our history or position
to invite aggression; wo have everything to beckon as to
tho cultivation of relations of peace and amity with all
nations. Purposes, tiu refnre, at once just and pacifio,
will be signify,- utiy marked in the conduct of our
foreign affairs. 1 int nd that my administration shall
leave no >> t opo ? r fair record, and trust I may
safely give e ? . uict :hat no act within the legiti
mate scope oi u re natitu . >p?i control will be tolerated,
on the part c, ? . j rt , >ur citisens, which cannot
challenge a ready justification before the tribunal of the
civilized world. An administration would be unworthy
of confidence at homo or respect abroad, should it
cease to be influenced by the conviction, that no apparent
advantage can be purchased at a price so dear as that
of national wrong or dishonor. It is not your privlloge, as
a nation, to speak of a distant past. The striking
incidents of your history replete with instruction, and
furniihing abundant grounds for hopeful confldencc, are
comprised In a period comparatively brief. But if your
past is limited, your future is boundlesa. Its obligations
throng the unexplored pathway of advancement, and will
be limitless as duration. Hence, a sound and compre
hensive policy should embrace, not less the distant future,
than the urgent pretent.
The great objects of our pursuit, as a people, are best
to be attained by peace, and are entirely consistent with
the tranquility and interests of the rest of mankind.
With the neighboring nations upon our continent we
should cultivate kindly and fraternal relations. We can
desiie nothing in regard to them so much as ta see them
consolidate their strength and pursue the paths of pros
perity and happiness. If, in the course of their growth,
we should open new channels of trade, and creato ad
ditional facilities for friendly intercourse, the benetlts
realized will be equal and mutual. Of tho com
plicated European systems of national polity we
have heretofore been independent. From their wars,
their tumults and anxieties, we have been, happily,
almo?t entirely exempt. Whilst these are con
fined te the nations which gave them existence, Land
within their legitimate jurisdiction, they cannot affect
us, except as they appeal to our sympathies In the cause
of human freedom and universal advancement But tho
vast interests of commerce are common to ail mankind,
and the advantages of trade and international intercour.o
must always present a noble field for the moral lnflucnco
of a great'ptople.
With these view* firmly anil honestly carried out, we
have a right to expect, and shall under all circumstance)
require, prompt reciprocity. Tlie rights which belong t?
us an a nation, are not alone to be regarded, but those
which JiMtftln to every citizen in his Individual
capacity, at home and abroad, must bo saoredly
maintained. So long an he can discern every
star in its place upon that ensign, without
wraith to purchase for him proferment, or title to secure
for him place, it will lie his privilege, and must be bis
acknowledged right, to stand unabashed even in the pri*
sence of princes, with a proud consciousness that he i I
himself oive of a nation of sovereigns, and that lie can
not, in legitimate pursuit, wander so far from homo
that the agent whom he shall leave behind in the placo
which I now occupy will not see that no rudn hand of
power or tyrannical passion is laid upon him with
impunity. He must realize that upon every sea, and on
every soil, where our enterprise mar rightfully seek the
protection of our Hag. American citizenship is an invio
lable panoply for the security of American rights. And,
in this connexion, it can hardly bo necessary to re aflinn
a principle which should now be regarded as fundamen
tal. The rights, security, and repose of this Confederacy
reject the idea of interference or colonization on this
side of the ocean by any foroign power, beyond present
jurisdiction, as utterly inadmissible.
The opportunities of observation furnished by my
brief experience as a soldier, confirmed in my own mind
the opinion entertained and acted upon by others from
the formation of the government, that the maintenance
of large standing armies in our country would be not
only dangerous, but unnecessary. They aUo illustrated
the importance ? I might well say the absolute
necessity? of the military science and practical skill
furnished in such an eminont degree by the
institution which ha* made your army what it
is, under tho discipline and instruction of officers
not more distinguished for their solid attainments,
gallantry, and devotion to the public service, than^
for unobtrusive liearlng and high moral tone. The .
army, as organited, must be the nucleus around which
in everj tlmo of need the strength of your military
power, the sure bulwark of your defetce? a national mi
litia? may be readily formed into a well disciplined and
efficient organization. And the skill and self devotion of the
navy assure yon that you may t ke the performance Of
the pnst as a pled ge for the future, and may confidently
expect that the flaj which has waved its uaUrnUked
fold* over every sea will still float in undiminished honor.
Rut tlieiw, like man/ other subject*, will be appropriate
ly brought at a future time ti the attent on of the co
ordinate branches of the government, to wliick I shall
always look with profound respect, and with trustful con
fidence that they will accord to me the aid and support
which I shall so much need, and which their experience
and wisdom will readily suggest.
In the administration of domestic affairs you expect
a devoted integrity in the public service, and an obser
vance of rigid economy in all departments, so marked as
never justly to be questioned. If this reasonable
expectation be not realized, I frankly confoss that one
of your Uading hopes is doomed to disappointment,
1 and that my efforts, in a very important par
ticular, muBt result in a humiliating failure. Offices
can be properly regarded only in the light of aids for the
?CC< ?n,j'H*hiuent of these objects; and as occupancy can
cont'd' no prerogative, nor importunate dosire for prefer
ment any claim, tho public interest imperatively demands
that they be considered with sole reference to
the duties to be performed. Good citizens may
well c'aim the protection of good laws and tho
benign influence cf good government ; hut a claim
for office is what the people of a republic ihould never
recognise. No reasonable man of any party will expect
the administration to bo so regardless of its responsibility.
ar.d of the obvious elements of success, as to
retain persons known to be unds r the influence
of political hostility and partisan prejudice, in positions
which will require not only severe labor, hut cordial
co operation. Having no implied engagements to
ratify, no rewards to bestow, no resentments to remem
ber. and no personal wishes to consult, in selections for
official station ? I shall fulfil this difficult and delicato
trust, admitting no motive as worthy either of my cha
racter or position whioh does not contoinplato an effi
cient discharge of duty and the best Interests of my
country. I acknowledge my obligations to the was
tes of my countrymen, and to them aloue. Higher
object* than personal aggrandizement gave direction
?nd energy to th?ir esertions in the late canvass, and
they shall not be disappointed. They require at my
hands diligence, integrity, and capacity, wherever there
are duties to be performed. Without these qualities in
their public servants, more stringent laws for tho in
vention or punishment of fraud, negligence, and pecula
tion. will be vain. With them, they will bo unnooeV
'lBut these are not the only points to which you look for
vigilant watchfulness. The dangers of a concentration of
all power in the general government of a confederacy like
ours|are too obvious to be disregarded. You have a right,
therefore, to oxpect your agents, in every department, to
regard strictly the limits imposed upon them by the con
stitutlon of the United States.
The great scheme of our constitutional liberty rests
upon a proper distribution of power betwoen tho State
and Federal authorities; and experience has shown that
tho harmony and happiness of our people must depend
upon a just discrimination between tho separate rightsand
responsibilities of the States, and j our common rights and
obligations under the Goneral Government. And here, in
mv opinion, are the considerations which should form the
true basis of future concerd In regard to the questions
which have most seriously disturbed public tranquillity.
If the federal government will conflne itself to the exer
cise of rowers clearly granted by the constitution, it can
hardly happen i\ at its action upon any question should
endanger the institutions of tho States, or interfere with
their right to manage matters strictly domestic accord
ing to the will ol their own people. y
In expressing briefly my views upon an important sub
ject which has recently agitated the nation to almost a
fearful degree, I am moved by no other iropula? than
a most earnest desire for the perpetuation of that Union
which has made us what we are? showering upon us
blessings and conferring a power and influence which our
fathers could hardly have anticipated even with their most
sanguine hopes directed to a far-off future. The senti
ments I now announce were not unknown before the expres
blon of tho voice which called me here. My own position
upon this subject was clear and unequivocal, upon the re
cord of my words and my acts, and it Is only recurred
to at this time because silence might, perhaps, bo
mlrco/istrued. With the Union my best and dearest
earthl ? hofta are entwined. Without it, what are
we IntiMtnally or cellMtivoly hat incomes of the
noblest field ever opened for the advancement ol our
race in religion, in government, in the arts, and In
all that dignifies and adornj mankind? From that
radiant constellation, which both illumines our
own way and points out to struggling nation* their
course, let but a single star be lost, and, if there be not
utter darkness, tho lustre of the whole Is dimmed.
Lo my countrymen need any assurance that such a catas
trophe is not to overtake them while I possess the power
to stay it? It is with me an earnest and vital bclier, that
as the Union has been the source, under Providence, of
our prosperity to this time, so it is the surest pledge
of a continuance of the blessings we l.a*e enjoyed,
and which we are sacredly bound to transmit un
diminished to our children. The field of calm and free
discussion In our country is open, and will always
bo so; but It never has been and never can be traversed
for tiood in a spirit of sectionalism and uncharitableness.
The founders of the republic dealt with things as tlicy
were presented to them, in a spirit of self sacrilicing pa
triotism, and, as time lias proved, with a comprehensive
wisdom which it will, always bo safe for us to consult.
Every measure, teudlng to strengthen tho fraternal feel
ings of all the members of our Union has had my hoart
felt approbation. To every theory of society or govern
ment whether the offspring of feverish ambition or of
morbid enthusiasm, calculated to dissolve the bonds of
law and nffec ion which unite us, I shall interpose a
ready and stern resistance. I believe that Involuntary
servitude, as it exists in different States of this confedera
cy, is recognised by the constitution I believe that it
stands like any other admitted right, and that the
States wherein it exists are entitled to efficient
remedies to enforce tho constitutional Provisions,
hold! that tho laws of I860, commonly called the com
promise measures," arc strictly constitutional, and to
be unhesitatingly carried into effect. I believe that the
constituted authorities of this republic are bound to re
gard the rights of the South in this respect, as they
v.tiuid view Any Other legal and constitutional right, and
that the laws to enforce them should be respected anl
obeyed, not with a reluctance encouraged by abstract
opinion* as to their propriety in a different
state of roclety, but cheerfully, and according to the da
cision* of the tribunal to which their exposition belongs.
Such ki ave been .and are ' my convictions, and upon
them 1 shall act. 1 fervently hope that the question is at
refit, and that no sectional, or ambitious or tAiiatical ex
citement may again threaten the durability of our insti
tutions. or obscure the light of our prosperity.
Hut let not the foundation of our hope rent upon man's
wisdom I', will not be Kuflicient that sectional prejudice
find no place in the public deliberation?. It will not bo
sufliclent that the rash counsels of human passion are re
jected. It oust be felt that there i< no national security
but in the nation's humble, acknowledged dependence
upon God ami his overruling providence.
We have been carried in safety through a perilous
crisis, Wi. e counsel*, like those wnich gave us the con
stitution prevailed to uphold it. I<et the period be re
membered att an a lmonition, and not as an encourage
ment, in any section of the Union, to make experiment*
where experiment* are iraught with such fearful hazard,
l et It be Impressed upon all heart*, that, beautiful as our
fabric is, no earthly power or wisdom could ever re unite
it* brokeh fragment*
Handing a* I do, ahno*t within view of the gr"en slopes
of Monticello. and, a* it were, within reach of the tomb
of Washington, with all the cherished memories of the
I ast gathering around me. like so many eloquent voices
f f exhortation from He%ven, I can express no bettor hoj>e
for my country, than that the kind 1'rovidence which
smiled upon our father* may enable their children to
preserve the blessing* they have inherited.
The leading of the address was followed by loud cheer
ing and the firing of cannon, and enthusiasm prevailed
to the greatest extent.
General I'ierce delivered his Inaugural address, after
taking off his overcoat, amid Immense cheering, just ex
actly as if he were delivering an extempore speech lie had
n? paper or any notes, but delivered the address beauti
fully and gracefully, without a blemish, to the end. It
will be remembered that Presidents Taylor, Polk, and
others, read their addresses from the manuscript. When
he came to that part of his address which related to tho
protection of American citizens abroad, he turned face to
face with Mr. Fillmore and the diplomatic oorps, and laid
down the law with thrilling emphasis, and when he again
turned to the mas* of the people In front, occupying the
vast square below, they shouted with delight, and overy
maa of the fifty thousand in the streeta declared that
Pierce is tho man for the time*.
On the completion of the address, tho procession again
formed, and p'occc 'el >lonj the avcuue, escort aj Pre
sident I'iercc to tlio executive mansion, ana leaving Mr.
Fillmore at Willard's.
The immense area on tiie eastern front of the Capitol
was one compact mas* of people, not one third of whom
could bear.
President I'ierce i? a graceful anl striking speaker,
and hi* voice, although not e<iunl to reach to the extent
of the enormous multitude that surrounded him, was
clear and distinct, and hi* style of delivery was excellent.
Oe has appeared remarkably elastic, cool, and self pos
sessed for the last few days, but fsjiecially to day. He
rose at daylight and liarf beta busy the entire day, and he
evidently feels that ft has the game in hand and intends
to hold it.
Mr. Fillmore's cabinet made tlio best of their time to
the last moment. For weeks past they have beon filling
cflloes with bogus democrats, appointed at the solicita
tion of whigs who resigned. Kven as late as yesterday a
postmaster iu th? SUte of New York was appointed in
this way. The whole matter will bo thoroughly investi
A company of fantasticals, drer.-cd in rags and tatters,
marched along the avenue whilst the procession was
passing, who received some rough usage.
The pageant is ovtr and the multitudo is dispersing.
This is n revolution of the government in a carnival.
I .urge masses followed the l*resldent to the Whito
House, and waited upon him in the usual reception room.
Mr. Fillmore took immediate possession of the anart
ments at Willanl's, just vacated by General Fierce, in
tending to occupy tliein for a few days prior to the com
mencement of his Southern tour
Snow continued falling slightly during the day, molting
as it fell, and not particularly interfering with the in
augural ceremonies.
This evening several balls and other entertainments
are given to the military and other guests.
The hotels and boarding houses, though somewhat re
lieved, are still thronged.
Washington, March 1 ? 10 F. M.
It is reported that after tho inaugural General Scott
thanked the President for his remarks on West Point and
the army.
After having received a host of people at the White
House, Gcneial Pierce retired, and the doors closed. Kx
l*resident Fillmore took up his quarters at three o'clock
In the rooms at Willard's, vacated by his successor two
hours previously. A few friends dined with General
Pierce at the White House, but Mr. Fillmore, consulting
the Geneial's repcao, declined. Thoy will dine together'
perhaps to morrow.
The While House is closed to night to all visiters. Its
new occupant has made a mighty sensation to-day.
At eight o'clock the storm continued, and the army of
incursion was leaving by thousands. Viivla KepMique !
HUtoilcnl Notice* or tlie Inauguration oftlie
The occasion of the inauguration of a new Presi
dent renders appropriate the following sketch which
v e have prepared of the various inaugurations since
the organization of the government. We omit the
second inaugurations of the five Presidents who
were re-elected, as they were but matters of form
of little interest. We precede the notices by a list of
the Presidents and Vice Presidents who have been
eleeted :?
''presidents and vice m ekipknts of tub united
frtsitlcnif ?'i>< Pmiienls. Ix-aan
1. George Washington Jolin Adams 178g.
? T , d? .. .1798.
John Adams Thomas Jefferson 1797.
J. lhomfts Jefferson Aaron Burr 1801.
. T George Clinton 1806.
4. Janie.i Madison do. .... ]80fl
, ?. FJbridge Gerry I8I3!
5. James Monroe Daniel I), lomnkins .. 1817.
Do. jo.
?. Jolin Quincy Adams Join. C. Calhoun. ..'.'.i! 18-26'
7. Andrew Jackson do.
a \f ? Martin Van Bureii 18.13!
0 *m J?"re" Richard M. Johnson .. .1837.
0. ? Will lam 1J. Harri>on.. ..John Tyler 1841.
John Tj' lor
}},? KJ'olk George M. Pallas 184f?!
Fillmore 1849.
1J. Millard F illmors I,'?
141 Wm- King isox
Hied in olllce and auececded by the Vice President.
. Inaugural**. Age.
1. George Washington April 30, 178J .57
?? ?? Adam.- March 4, 1797 tj4i
o. Thomas .JHTcrson ...March 4 1S01 58
4. James Madison March 4' 1809 "s8
o. James Monroe Maic'u 4, 1817..,. 58
0. John (julncy Adams March 4, 18C5 "57
'? Andrew Ja cl. son March 4, 18?
in \*n B,,r(,n March 4, 1S37 54
0 William Henry Harrison.. March 4, 1841 .... ' fiH
10. James Knox Polk March 1, 1845 . " ' ' "49
"? iach*77 ^ylor March 5, 1849 r4
12. Franklin Pierce March 4, 1853 ' "49
Averago ?ge of the Presidents. when elected, 58 "
riUn, Tko'06 1'resi,d,'nt John Ti'ler was 51, and Millard
1 lln ore 50 yeais of age, at the period of succeodin? tD
and TaUor n?^' the death of the Presidents, Harrison
There have been nineteen presidential elections, of
which five were re-elections of the President; and
fourteen persons have held the office of President, in
cluding Gen. Pierce. Thirteen persons have been |
elected Vice President, of whom two, Clinton and
| Gerry, died in office. Three of the persons who
have been elected Vice President have been elevated
(by election) to the Presidency, viz. : John Adams,
Jefferson, and Van Buren.
1 lie inauguration of George Washington, as the
first President of the United States, took place in
Now ^ ork, in the City Hall, then callcd Federal
liall, situated where the Custom Honse now stands
on Thursday, the 30th of April. 1789. The votes
were counted by Congress on the Cth of April, and
the official announcement was made to Washington,
at Mount Vernon, on the 14th of April, by Charles
Thompson, the special messenger despatched for the
purpose. The President arrived in New York on the
'-'3d of April, and was received with acclamations and
military honors. One week afterwards, the arrange
ments for the purpose being completed, the inaugu
ration took place. To gratify the public curiosity, an
open gallery, adjoining the Senate chamber, had
been Eckcted by Congress as the place in which the
ceremony should take place. The oath was adminis
tered by Chancellor Livingston, after which the Pre
sident returned to the Senate chamber, and delivered
his inaugural address, which was at the same time
his opening speech to both houses of Congre?.
The inauguration of John Adams, as the second
1 President of the United States, took place in Inde
pendence, or Congress Hall, Philadelphia, on the
?Ith of March, 17H7, in the presence of a large con
course of people, among whom were the ex -President,
Washington, Mr. Jefferson, the Vice President elect,
the heads of departments, many members of Congress,
foreign ministers, and other distinguished persons.
Mr. Adams, who na.< then in his sixty second year,
was dressed in a full suit of pearl-colored broadcloth,
and wore his hair powdered, a< was then the fashion.
Before the oath of office was administered to the new
President by the Chief Justice, he delivered his inau
gural address. It was different from that of his pre
decessor, which had been address*, I to Congress
while in iession, while this of Mr. Adams was a
declaration of his sentiments, without being ad
dressed in the form afterwards adopted by Jeflerson :
" Friends and fellow-citizens.'' The sentiments
and style of Mr. Adams' inaugural produced a favor
able impression upon the people.
The inaugural address of Mr. Jefferson was de
livered on the 4th of March, 1801 , in the new Capitol,
at Washington, in presence of the Vice President,
( Burr,) the Senators, many members of the House of
Representatives, the foreign ministers, and a large
concourse of citiicns. The site of Washington city
was then a comparative wilderness, and difficult of
approach from the imperfect state of Uu romlq
The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice
Marshall , after the address was delivered. The Vioa
President, Colonel Burr, took his seat in the Senate
tlie same day. It was a day of gloom to the defeated
federalists, and, of course, of joy to the successful
mapison? 1S09.
The inauguration of James Madison took place in
the ( apitol, at Washington, on the 4th of March t
1H09. 1 ho oath of office was administered to the
President by Chief Justice Marshall, in the presence
of ex-President Jefferson? who Hat at the right hand
of Madison? the members of the late cabinet, many
members of Congress, foreign ministers, and a large
concourse of citizens. The President was dressed in
a plain suit of black, and delivered the address in a
modest and dignified manner.
MONROE ? 1817.
Tlic inauguration of James Monroe, on the 4th of
March, 1817, was preceded by a proccssion from the
resilience of the President elect to Congress Hall, ia
Washington city, where the usual ceremonies were
performed. The President and Vice President elec
were attended by a great number of citizens, a i
an escort, and all entered the chamber of the Senate,
which body was then is session; the Vice-President,
Tompkins, took the chair, and the oath of office being
administered to him, he delivered a short address. Ox
President Madison and the Judges of the Supreme
Court were present.
After the ceremony, the Senate adjourned, and the
President, with his attendants, proceeded to an ele
vatcd portico temporarily erected for the occasion,
where, in the presence of a large concourse of citi
zens and strangers, lie delivered his inaugural ad
dress, after which the oath of office was administered
by Chief Justice Marshall. The number of persona
present was estimated at over five thousand. The
day was mild and pleasant.
The inaugural address of Mr. Adams was delivered
in the Capitol, on the 4th ol March, 1825. The Pre"
sident elect, in a plain suit of black, ascended the
steps to the Speaker's chair in the House of Repre
sentatives, and took his seat. He was attended by
the ex-President, Monroe, by the Judges of the Su
preme Court, the Vice President, Calhoun, the Sen
ators, and a number of members of the House. After
silcnce was proclaimed, Mr. Adams rose and deliver
ed his address, which was listened to with great at
tention and interest. After the address, the Presi
dent descended from tlie chair, and placing himself
at the Judge's table, the oath of office was adminis
tered to him by Chief Justicc Marshall, in presenoe
of the immense audience of citizens and strangers
who had assembled in the Capitol.
JACK80N? 1829.
On the 4th of March, 1820, the President elect was
escorted from Gadsby's Hotel to the Capitol. There
was a large assemblage of people at Washington to
witness the ceremonies of the occasion. The
President elect and other dignitaries first en
tered the Senate chamber, and remained untfl
the Senate adjourned, about noon, when a proces
sion was formed to the eastern portico of the Capi
tol, where, in the presence of the large assembly of
spectators, General Jackson delivered his inaugural
address. Having concluded it, the oath to support
the constitution was administered to him by Chief
Justicc Marshall. The day waa serene and mild,
and every way favorable to the wishes of thoee who
had come from a distance to witness the inaugura
tion. General Jackson did not call upon President
Adams, and the latter was not present at the ccre
moDy of the 4th at the Capitol.
VAN BIBEN? 1837.
There was nothing peculiarly remarkable in the
inauguration of Mr. Van liuren, on the 4th of March,
1837. General Jackson accompanied the President
elect in a carriage to the Capitol, a procession having
been formed, and the address was delivered from the
eastern portico of the Capitol. The oath of offloe
was administered, at the close, by Chief Justice
Taney. The weather was remarkably pleasant, and,
as tfeual, there was a large concourse of people
HA11BI80N? 1841.
Washington city was more thronged with people,
at tlie inauguration of Harrison, on the 4th March,
1841 , than on any former occasion. The procession
was large, and General Harrison was mounted on a
white charger. As on former occasions, the in
augural address was delivered from a platform on the
cast portico of the Capitol. Previous to delivering
the closing sentences, the oath of office was ad
ministered by Chief Jnsticc Taney, after which the
President pronounced the concluding passages of the
polk? 1845.
The ceremonies on the 4th of March, 1845, at the
inauguration of Mr. Polk, were performed in the
midst of a heavy raiu, which marred the enjoyments
and defeated the expectations of many, and pre
vented much of the intended exhibition and display*
The procession moved from the headquarters of the
President elect, at Coleman's Hotel, to the Capitol.
The Senate being in session, the oath was adminis
tered to Mr. Dallas, Vice Presidentelect, who deliver
cd a brief address. The President elect, attended by
ex President Tyler and Senator Woodbury, entered
the Senate chamber, when a proccssion was formed
to a platform on the cast front of the Capital, from
which President Polk delivered his inaugural ad
dress. Chief Justicc Taney then administered the
oath of office, after which the President, quitting the
Capitol, drove rapidly, by an indirect route, to the
President's House, where he received, during the
afternoon, the congratulations of his fellow-citizens. ]
taylok? 1849.
On Monday, March 5, 1849, the inaugnration of
Gen. Taylor, as President of the United States, took
place at the Capitol. The multitude of people as
sembled on the occasion is snpposed to have been
much larger than was ever before collected in Wash
ington. The weather, although the sky was
clouded, was as pleasant as usual at this season of
the vcar.
The procession moved from Willard's Hotel to the
Capitol, the President elect being accompanied in
the carriage by Ac ex-President, Mr. Speaker Win
throp, and Mr. Scaton, the Mayor of Washington.
The Senate being in session, Mr. Fillmore, the Vice
President, after the oath was administered to him
by the President two trm. ? Mr. Atchison? delivered
an address, and took his seat as President of the Se
nate. The President elect and attendants liaving en
tered the Senate chamber, the usual procession was
formed to the cast portico of the Capitol, where aa
extensive platform had been ere a ted. At about one
o'clock, General Taylor, in full view of at least twen
ty thousand people, from all parts of the Union, de
livered his inaugural address. It was read in a re
markably distinct voice, and was enthusiastically
responded to by the cheers of the people. As soon
as the applause had subsided, the oath of office was
administered to the President by Chief Justice
Taney. The President then received congratulations
from numerous persons present, Chief Justice Taney
and ex-President Polk taking the lead. The Presi
dent and the procession then retired down Penn
sylvania avenue from the Capitol to the President's
Houw, where General Taylor received, with his ac
customed courtesy, the congratulations of thousands
of his fellow citizens. #
pikbce? 1853.
The particulars of the inauguration of General
Pierce, the fourteenth President of the United States,
(or the twelfth elected to that office,) will be found
in our columns of today, mder the appropriate

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