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NEW YORK HERALD.
LIKI eOROOl BENNETT. PROPRIETOR AND EDITOR. w. W. 00 UN EH ?r PULTON AND HA88AC 8T9. ?> DJO.P HERALD 2 centt per oopy-9t per annum. TBE WEEKLY HERALD. nwr, SaJwrda*. al 6\ unit per topy. or VI per annum ; tA* European Edition. 94 mt ?????I, to MM part ?/ Great Britain, and 16 to Mt part V tt# Continent, both to mcUule thepoetaoe. rOLUNTAM. V COKR?SPONVKSCE, containinf impor tant new, toliciud from m? i/uarter ?/ lAe world , </ nwd, will be liberally paid lor. f^-Ovu Fobbiub CoianNl ?UTI ABB MBTICVUBIT bbol'bbtbs TO IBAL ILL LmT RBI ill) Piouau (but re. MO NOTICE of ummymoue communication*. Wt 4* not rtBn Uom reteeted. JOB PMINTEVQ executed with neatmett, thtapnott, and ft^atcA. JDfEE TISEMESTS renewed ivory day. Jfe iio AMUSEMENTS THIS BYBNINQ. NviRT THIAT1I, Bowery?Emit eat Milt?Ati?? 1iu.it D.t>utiibbb.it La Sylphiiib. BROADWAY THEATRE Broadway-DAMO.* awb P* ? Boiai Dbauqimi. JJIBLO'9?Tub Chi>b*b Taovrc. BWBTON'9 THEATRE. CkAmber# ?ir44?-Ir n TBI CVBTOM or thb COVWTBV?IBIIH LlW?llAVBTID CHAM NATIONAL THEATRE, Chatham atrMt-Roa Roy ? IgrM Ms, Lorm mr Doe?Okarc Outaiui. VAUACI'9 THEATRE, Broadway?Don Ciiai ob 1-TtVKIi Scab p. ST, CHARLES THBATRB. Bowery-Irish Job lh? I)"?' Right*?J a jk Shbppard. AMBB1CAN MUSEUM?Dob Cuai db Bazar?Faint ?bart Nkvbr Wok Fair Lai t?No Sobs No Suppbr. CJttlSTT'S OPERA HOUSE, 473 Broadway-Inwius ??Msna bt euun'a Opera Troupe. WOOD'S H1N9TBBL8. Wuod'a Mosioal HaU. *44 Broad way? Itbiopiab VuirtBUT, MABXSON AVENUE? Afternoon Bad Evening?Piai ?OWl'a fOLOHAl lllPPOBROHB. CIBCC8, 37 Bow?f?B*rHBTmiA* Bittbbtahviibwt?. OBOKAHA. DM Broadway? Baitiid'i Panorama or mm Bblt Ubd. BIVUKn SOIREES MYSTERIBUSES, US Breadway OWEN'S ALPINE RAMBLES, 539 Broadway. rROPOLITAN HALL?Prop. Anderso*. Mew York, Saturday, Slay 41, ISM, Mulls for Enrol*. TBI NSW rOKK WEEKLY H ERA I. D. The U.S. mail ateamuhip Hermann, Capt. Kitfgina, ?D lette this port this morning, at 12 o'eloek, for BMtbampton and Bremen. Subscription* and advertisements for any edition of the Hkw York Hcrald will be received at the following places ki Emrope LimcrooL?John Hunter, No. 2 Paradise street. Lokdos? Bdward Sandford & Co., Cornhill. " Vm. Thomas k Co., No. 19 Catharine street Fa KB? Livingston, Wells & Co., Rue de la Bourse. " B. H. Revoil, No. 17 Rue de la Banque. B>? European mails will close at half-past ten o'eloek tfcie morning. Ike W?bi.t rtKRAi n will be published at half past nine ?'?Mi this morning. Single copies, in wrappers, The News. Political news teems to be a remarkable scar<? commodity in the vicinity of Washington at the present time. At all events, our correspondents have not to-day furnished a syllable with regard to appointments, removals, or anything else of a politi cal nature. We have, however, ascertained from good authority that the selections for foreign mis sions of every description have been perfected, and will probably be promulgated to-day, in which event we shall be able to spread the list before our readers to-morrow. Keep cool, we shall soon know who are to be our representative# abroad. Everybody will doubtless be pleased to learn that -eansel yesterday finished summing up in the Gard ner case. The jury retired at two o'clock in the af ternoon and had not agreed at nine in the evening. Lake Erie was visited by another very destructive -Je last Thursday. The telegraph reports that a knre number of vessels were capsized, sunk, and feiven ashore. Many lives are already known to have been loet. . The anti-renters are again at their oldtneks, as will be seen by a despatch from Schoharie. They test Tuesday seized an officer, named Lawrence, who attempted to serve a writ on one of their s umber, and mutilated and maltreated him in the most bar Uroufl manner. It is to be hoped, now that the ex citement consequent upon Presidential and State elections and inaugurations has entirely subsided, that these people, who have hitherto in a great mea sure set our laws at utter defiance, will be brought to justice and punished to the utmost extent. Let them no longer escape behind the shield of political tefluence. The members of the Boundary Commission are re ported to have left New Orleans, for the Rio Grande, on the 12th inst. Benjamin T. Williams was yesterday awarded seven thousand dollars by the Circuit Court in 809 ton for injuries received by an accident on the Portsmouth, Saco and Portland Railroad. The rendi tion of a few more such verdicts would probiblj have (he effect of making railroad companies far more careful than they have been of late. The suit for a large tract of land in New Orleans, brought by the heirs of Gen. Lafayette against Ma dame Pontalba and others, has been decided in favor of the defendants. By an arrival at New Bedford we learn that the Jteamship West Wind, which left this port with a large number of passengers for Australia, some Booths ago. succeeded in obtaining funds on bot tomry at the Cape of Good Hope, and would be en. abled to resume her journey early in March. The telegraphic synopsis of the proceeding* of the Presbyterian General Assembly, in session at Buffalo, ia qi its interesting. It will be seen that the first Monday in January, notwithstanding it will be New Year's Day, is to be observed as a day of general testing and prayer for the conversion of all the world. The assembly closed its labors till Monday by debating the slavery question. By reference to our telegraphic market reports, it will be seen that cotton was very quiet at New Or leans last Wednesday. The stock at that port had dwindled down to one hundred and twenty-three thousand bales, and the excess of receipt* amounted to two hundred and forty one thousand bales over those of the previous year at the same time. The excess at all the Southern ports reached two hun dred and fifty-nine thousand bales, notwithstanding which fact the last advices from Texas state that there was a considerable amount of cotton still in that State awaiting shipment. Now that the canals are open, immense quantities of breadstuff^ and pro visions are beginning to find an outlet from the We.st, as learn from our Buffalo and Albany despatches. The conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church concluded its sittings, yesterday morning, at the Allen street shureh, after adopting a variety of reso lutions and performing other business. The sixteenth anniversary of the Youth's Mission ary Society was .celebrated last evening at the above named church, when the yearly report was read, allowing the prosperous state of the association, and oaveral addresses delivered. See reports elsewhere. For accounts of railroad and other fatal accidentst aoicideofa Methodist clergyman in Ohio, Ac., the leader is referred to the telegraphic head. The abolitionists are again in full play, and little Jane Trainer, the free colored <hild.whom wo had hoped was alleged to depart in peace, is again on the tains. Fred Douglass having passed away for awhile from the Anti-slavery stage, black Jinney has become "the bright particular star' of abolition iat attraction. When shall we be done with thin humbug, cant and mock philanthropy * Several criminals were aatfenced In the Court of General Sessions yesterday. Among them were tbaun<'y Larkte. CfftXJNKl J? Prj^* Sett DUbqq, | and Junes Hazard. The Tammany, Hall rioters would have been sentenced had it not keen for the non-attendance of Aldermen Brialey and Francis, wbo were the members of the court that sat during their trial. The policemen, Kennedy and 8 with, will probably be brought up to receive the sentence of the court this morning. Our inaide pages to-day contain an unusual variety of entertaining information, as will be seen by the following list of contents:?Political and Gossipping Letters from onr Quebec, Halifax, Texas and Con stantinople Correspondents; Account of the Condi tion of Sonora; The Chinese Laws, Customs and Commerce; Further News from Mexico; Abstract of the Annual Report of the American Baptist Mis sionary Union; The Norwalk Calamity aud the Railroad Law of New York; Miscellaneous Railroad Intelligence; Speech of Captain llill at the recent Cuban Anniversary Meeting; Court Proceedings; Poetical Effusions; Financial and Commercial Re views; Generul News Paragraphs, Ac. The Frtt Blorkn-OToi tliern PhlluntKropy vi, \orthrrn Lr^lalalloii?Thti Colonization Question. The future destiny of the free colored popu lation of the United States in one of the most perplexing, although one of the most important questions ot this age. It is abundantly mani fest that in this country their position must un changeably be that of a distinct and inferior caste, with which it is impossible that the white race can ever amalgamate. It is equally evi dent that the amelioration of the degraded con dition of the free blacks ot the North within the limits of this Uuion, always impracticable, has at length become almost utterly hopeless. The pressure of our European immigration is fast filling up even the more menial employments heretofore the conceded prerogatives of the co lored man. If there were nothing else arrayed against him than the overwhelming competition of the European laborer his prospects in the North would be bad enough ; but this compe tition is only one of the incidental disadvan tages of his marked and proscribed race. The black man's first and unconquerable dif ficulty is the stamp of inferiority and servitude with which his Creator has marked him in his physical and mental organization. All the laws of society from which he suffers are but the in evitable contingencies of this first inflexible law of nature. From time immemorial he has been the slave of 6ome higher type of the human family or but a naked barbarian in a state of social and political independence. The very highest ad vances in the scale of intelligence which he has made have resulted from the Southern insti tution of slavery. The only promising attempt at Bell-government with which the black man stands credited in history is the republic of Liberia, established and conducted by liberated slaves from our Southern States. And it has been doubted whether Liberia would continue to prosper as an independent State beyond the present generation were all supplies of regene ration cut off from this country. If we are not mistaken, it was the opinion of Mr. Calhoun that the success of Liberia was entirely arti ficial and delusive, for that the decease of the existing colonists from the South, and the failure to supply the vacuum for even a few years, would result in the rapid blending of the people of the said republic with the wild African savages by whom they are surrounded. But. whether the experiment might result thus or otherwise experience ha<* satisfactorily proved the marked inferiority of the African race, and that the only advances above bar barism which they have ever achieved have been under the servitude or subjection of the white races. Now. from this view of the subject, we would conclude that the most eligible, appropriate, and humane disposition of the black man which has yet been made, is that of "the peculiar in stitution of the South,'' under which he is the unconditional servant and dependent of his master. And herein, to some extent, the Afri can has solved the problem of '-manifest desti ny ' for himself. Contrast the comparatively enviable condition of the slaves even of the rice plantations of South Carolina with that of the free black barbarians of the black despot of Hayti, or even with that of her Britannic Ma jesty s lately emacipatcd free colored subjects of Jamaica, and the testimony of all history will be affirmed in the practical illustration of the decree of servitude which attaches to the children of Ham. Our Northern philanthropists, however, have hit upon an expedient which must be success ful in lifting the African to all the benefits of white society, or which can only fail in the bloody extermination of the African race from this continent. It is the immediate emancipa tion of all th<f slaves of the South, the imme diate concession to them of equal rights and privileges with the whites, and the blending of whites and blacks together upon the platform of the French jacobins of " Liberty, equality and fraternity." To this end the agitation of the slavery question is to be re vived; to this end the free-floilers are co-ope rating with the more virulent abolitionists in the reorganization of their forces for resisting any further extensions of the area of Southern slavery; and to this end the underground rail roads to Canada, for the benefit of fugitive slaves arc kept open, with their connecting stations from Mason and Dixon's line to the St, Lawrence and Lake Erie. To this end. also! Mrs. Harriet Bcecher Stowe, Fred. Douglass, the Black Swan, the Duchess of Sutherland, the ladies of the Stafford House petition, $nd George Thompson and Company are zealously working in the common cause night and day. And when the occasion shall arrive for practical political action we may expect to find all these piebald elements of abolitionism banded toge ther in yet another crusade against the infidels of the South. In the meantime, the condition of our free colored population is a more fitting subject for Northern philanthropy than Southern slavery; and before the aggregate of our free blacks is enlarge*! by the addition of three millions of slaves something should first be done in the way of philanthropy for that unfortunate class who. under the garb of freedom, are far worse off than Southern slaves. Illinois, Ohio, Penn sylvania. Delaware, and other Northern States. have all their black laws, more or less strin gent. for the expulsion of free negroes from their borders, or to shut out that species of im migration. We believe that all the Southern States have their retaliatory laws of this kind. In a word, the " free negro " lives only by suf ferance in most of the States of this Union. If in philanthropic New York and N?w England he is not directly declared by law a vagrant, subject U) expulsion, the schedule of his employ ments is so limited that he can find but lfttle to do. Placed between two fires?between the South and the North?what if to be the future destiny of the free blacks of these United States ? Thuilow Weed suggests the establishment of a string of free colored eoloniee among the Car ribbcan inlands; but whether he proposes to make Hay ti or Jamaica the basis of their govern ment and confederation he has not informed us. Fred. Douglas*, George K. Downing, the oyster man, and others of the more intelligent free colored reformers, are dead against Liberia This is their country, and here they intend to stay. And yet it is evident that the time will soon arrive for something more definite, in the way of legislation upon free persons of color, than the retaliatory anti-free black laws among the several States. Canada itself has ceased to be attractive to the free colored man, for the whites even there, are beginning to rebel against any further increase of his brethren. We know of nothing better, for the present, than Liberia for the relief of the free colored exile of this country. Liberia is the place for him. There the caste of color is in his favor. There he may rise to the highest official positions and there he may increase and multiply, and extend the area of freedom indefinitely. The Caribbean islands are not the thing. They are appropri ated. Liberia is the place. Cannot something be done?in the language of Mr. Clay, cannot something, and a great deal, be done to make Liberia attractive to the free colored man? Has Young America given him up and his cause ? Why, now, should that great commercial and philanthropic project of the Ebony line of steamers be abandoned ? Is not Liberia, and the African coast northward, rich in palm oil, coffee, sugar, cotton, tobacco, tpices. dyewoods. gold dust, ivory, and many other articles of trade ? It is to be hoped, for ;he sake of the free colored people of this coun ry. and for their relief, that the administration will recommend some plan to Congress. This is the age of progress. And there iB plenty of money in the Treasury. The Vote on the New Charter, on 7th Jane next. The citizens of New York have now seven teen days left to make up their minds on the proposed City Charter. On the 7th Jane, they will be required to adopt or reject it; to decide whether the present state of things shall con tinue for another year, or shall at once make place for a new, and. we sincerely believe, a sounder system. We have indulged the hope that no advice from us would be required to aid the public in a judicious exercise of the suf frage; nor do we at this moment entertain se rious apprehensions that it will be mis-used. Still, in view of the apathy which prevails among a large class of the well intentioned, and the formidable resistance which the defenders of the existing charter are preparing, we are induced once more to set before our readers a few practical reasons in favor of the adoption of the new act. We will preface our advocacy of the reformed charter with the f^xnk admission that we jlo not consider it perfect. Against more than one of its provisions grave objections may be urged; and many points which demanded reform have been left untouched. It is useless at this time to allude to these matters in detail; and we pass them over the more readily, as neither errors nor omissions can possibly be productive of serious injury. They relate, without ex ception, to matters of detail, and cannot at the worst give rise to much complaint. It will be. moreover, a very easy matter, if the charter is adopted, to remedy them by a brief act of the Legislature. On the other hand the new act is replete with wholesome reforms. Under its provisions, the stigma of corruption will be wholly effaced from our city annals. This argument alone ought to ensure for the act the vote of every right-minded citizen. Whether those who have labored with such cffect to cover our civic au thorities with infamy, have or have not exag gerated the state of the case, it is now a para mount duty for us all to preclude the possibili ty of such imputations being again brought for ward. The government of the city of New York must be without reproach. Not even the most reckless party-scribbler must have a pre text for" assailing the character of our civic rulers. This is, as we understand it. the unani mous cry of the people; and no legislative enactment can answer the purpose more fully than the act we have now before us. Precau tion can do more. We need hardly remind our readers of the heavy penalties it imposes on parties convicted of offering or receiving a bribe ; of the facilities it provides for the adduc tion of evidence; of the safeguard contained in the increase of the number of councilmen. After it has become a law, an applfcant for city favors, who relies on corruption for suc cess, will be compelled to bribe sixty council men, elected from sixty different districts, and probably strangers to each other, and some twenty aldermen. All these persons will be well aware that, by accepting the bribe ten dered. they are exposing themselves to a fine of $5,000. and an imprisonment for ten years; and that the very party who corrupts them may, at any future period, through reckless ness. revenge, or malice, turn State's evidence against them. If New York contains eighty men, or even twenty, so bold as to risk these penalties for the sake of the small sum which the most liberal tempter would be enabled to offer wc doubt whether it contains one who would risk a similar punishment by offering a bribe to parties who would be just as likely to betray him as to become his partners in iniquity. Wc are desirous of placing the future dangers of corruption in the strong est light at once, and, therefore, say nothing of the civil and civic degradation which rie jure will flow from a sentence for bribery: though perhaps some who would risk a prison and a fine would be deterrod from crime by the fear of public inOamy. For the general mass of mankind, the dread of the former will be suffi cient. Widespread as we are told corruption is in our midst, we cannot think that the rich will jeopardise their liberty or the poor their bread for the sake of a very modest gratification of their avarice. In a word, we do not think that human in genuity can frame a more comprehensive or more practical enactment against bribery than that contained in the new act. Nothing but the sheerest insanity would induce a council man or a contractor to incur the penalties it pro nounces. Whatever other offences may be laid to the charge of the officers who may l>e elected under it, wc may be sure that no one with the slightest pretentions to veracity, will accuse them of corruption. Nor are it? provisions less wholesome on the subject of the public expenditure. A vote of three-fourths of the members of both boards will be required to sanction the expenditure of public money for feasts, processions, or enter tainments. Here we have at a single blow a monstrous abuse corrected?an Inexhaustible tearco of KMidal mm! calumny dried up. No "extra allowances" will be allowed to con tractors. This, again, will save thousand a a year to the city, and for ever ruin the knavish schemes of a set of rogues who have fed on the public plunder for many a day. Leases and grants will be made pub licly to the highest responsible bidder. Wc shall thus cease to hear that Mr. B. has obtain ed such and such a property or privilege, through the corrupt influence of Mr. A., his brother or cousin, an Alderman, or by bribing the leading members ot the board; and the real estate belonging to the city will produce a reve nue in just proportion to its value. Contrac tors may save themselves the trouble of ten dering for a contract, unless they can furnish '?adequte security;" and thus the streets will cease to be blocked up. and other workB aban doned, by parties who have contracted to repair the one or perform the other at rates tar below their legitimate cost. We might enumerate many other sensible changes which the new act will effect, but we have said enough, we are sure, to secure for it the vote of every patriotic citizen. To put a few of these in the clearest light, we will once more repeat that? 1. The new act will forever prevent corrup tion. and rumors thereof. 2. It will prevent wasteful expenditure, and ensure economy in the disposal of the public moneys. 3. It will enable the city to derive a just income from the public property. 4. It will insure the punctual performance of public works by contractors with the city. 5. It will forever preclude favoritism in the disposal of leases, ferries. &c. And to these we may add, C. It will deprive the aldermen of most of the judicial powers they have abused. 7. It will ensure to the city the services of a police force during elections. Here, it would seem, are reasons so weighty and so clear in favor of adopting the act, that the people might well be left to the exercise of their ownjudgment in the matter. But there are so many men in New York who are inter ested in the preservation of past abuses?so many who have plundered the public in post times, and hope to do so again?so many who, blinded by political prejudice, are striving to make a party question of the bill, and enlist the whigs on the side of corruption and mis chievous opposition to reform, that we cannot refrain from warning the public what counsel they seek on the subject. Danger, ok Driving Cattle Through the Streets.?We had yesterday again another exhibition of the dangerous consequences of driving cattle through the streets of the me tropolis. A bull became furiously enraged in his progress through the town, and taking the fashionable thoroughfare of Broadway for the display of his violent temper, he proceeded along and up that street, until near Grace Church; there he encountered obstruction or opposition from some street pavers, one of whom approached him with a heavy implement in his hands to stay his progress; in an instant the maddened animal rushed against the man, goring him with his horns, and leaving him senseless on the ground. Another workman stationed himself with a pick, or shovel, before the advancing bull, who prepared to attack his adversary, seeing which, the man dropped his weapon, and precipitately lied. On went the bull. How and where his career ended, we did not learn. We would, again earnestly urge upon the Corporation to do something to prevent cattle being driven through the streets in the day time; as not a day passes that large droves of cattle arc not driven through the most fre quented streets up tow*. In London, with two millions of people, and with a large cattle market held at Smithfleld, near St. Paul's Church, in the very heart of the city, no accidents from stray cattle are ever heard of. The reason is. that drovers are com pelled to drive their cattle through the streets at night, between the hours of 12 and 4 A. M. When at Smithfleld they are kept in pens?from whence they can only be removed at night. Let the same rule be adopted in New ^ ork and we will hear of no more accidents from mad cat tle. General Canedo'h Tour Through Cuba.? Notwithstanding the glowing accounts given by the Havana papers, of the demonstrations of loyalty, devotion and respect, which greeted Cuptain-General Canedo at every point which he visited, on his recent tour through .the Island, we have good reason to believe that there was little sincerity in such exhibitions. The wealthy Catalans, indeed, might have been sincere in their vivas and expressions of grati tude for the honor conferred on them; but the oppressed and suffering Cubans had very little sympathy with these rejoicings, and manifested no great regard for the representative of Her Most Catholic Majesty. In Trinidad, some of the wealthy inhabitants entertained Senor Cane do in great style, pledging the fidelity of the district towards the crown of Castile; but the patriotic portion of the citizens held aloof from the demonstrations, and showed their sentiments in the publication of a sort of manifesto, having for text the following sentence" The ruinous condition of Cuba, and the humilating degrada tion of her sons, procced from Spanish despot ism, or from the selfishness of those Cubans in whose hands are deposited tbc wealth of the country." The paper is written in a tone of great bitter ness and hostility against tbe oppressor and his adulators, and shows the public sentiment as anything but favorable to the Spanish domi nion. It is a sign of the times, and may prog nosticate more revolutionary troubles a little ahead. We shall see. Talk on 'Change. Cotton was more active yesterday, with sales of 2,300 bales, without change in quotations Breadrtuffs were dull. I'ork wan firm, with small sale*. Sugar* were in fair demand, w'thout change of mom*nt in price*. There wa* home annoyance manifested among ahip agenti and owners on account of a strike among the rig gers. They had now demanded S2 12 per day, and had refuted to work unless their term* were acceded to. A merchant who had a vesael of 1,000 tons ready for sea was unable to have her sail on her Toyage on ac count of the riggers' ftrike. Her detention was both in convenient and expensive. He had offered to acoede Is ti eir new demands as far as this vessel was coicerned , but th*y declined to work unless be would bind himself to a general agreement for the future, or until others could be brought into the arrangement The shipping interest has always shown a spirit of liberality towards their employes, and have generally conceded all reas onable demands made both by sailors and riggers; but they consider that such large wages as those demanded by the latter oome with a bad grace at the present moment, when their freighting knsineee wasso dnll and so mueh depressed. It wa* stated by a gentleman that there must be some mtitake about the time*. Everybody said they were very fcC&i, aed evaryUuaf ?i Jti to Jn4/* l/om the Dumber of Ken seeking office in Washington tad in New Yeik an outsider would think they were never wone. It iu stated that the appHcanto seeking situa tions in the Custom House amounted to eome aix or seven thousand; and, unfortunately, thoee most persevering, and in many eases most likely to sueceed, wen least qua lified to fill them. Some men were said to be seeking the appointment of appraisers, (which should be filled by merchants,) who had scarcely ever seen an invoice, or any other bills than their tailors, grocers, or bakers accounts. If timeti were so prosperous, business eo good, and wages constantly on the advance, why was it that whole regiments of men were approaching pnblic officers, from the President down, with their hats in one hand and large bundles of papers in the other (called recommendations) for offices, which they may have to vacate in four years ? It any scene was calculated to lower the manhood of man, or " nnmnn the man," it was one like this. What man, however well qualified, who valued his love of honest independence, would thus bow down for office ? Office dispensers might rest satis fied ef one fact, that the boot qualified men, and those who in every sense were best entitled to fill offices, were in most cates not seekers, but if wanted would have to be sought after, and appointed to fill them. The trial of the conspirators in the Martha Washington case at Cincinnati was one of much interest to under write! s in Wall street, whose offices were imposed upon to the large sum of $40,000 or 950.000. Hence the pro gress of the trial when it comes on will be watched by them with a greal deal of interest United State* Senators from Louisiana. A few days since we chronicled tbe election, by the Legislature of Louisiana, of John Slidell, to succeed Pitrre Soule as one of the Senators in Congress from Louisiana. We now give a table of the Senators who hare represented that State since its admission into the Union, with notices of the most conspicuous Senators. The following is a list of the gentlemen who have been chosen Senators from Louisiana since its ad mission as a State, in 1812 Com.'nt. of Term Expiration, of Term,. Sept. 1812....Allan B. Magruder March, 1813. Bo John N. Destrehan Resigned Oct. 1812 Oet. 1812.... Thomas l'osey App'd by Governor. Dee. 1812..., James Brown March, 1817. Meh. 1813....Elijius Fromentin March, 1810. Mcb. 1817.... Wm. C C. Claiborne....IHed, 1817. Jan. 1818....Henry Johnson March, 1823. Mch. 1819 ...James Brown Resigned, 1823. Meh. 1823.... Henry Johnson Resigned, 1824. Nov. 1824....Dominique Bouligny . ..Marcb, 1829. Jan. 1824.... Josiah S. Johnston .... March, 1825. Mch.1826.... Bo. March, 18S1. Meh. 1831.... Bo. Died May, 1833. Mob. 1829....Edward Livingston Resigned, 1821. Nov. 1831....George A. Waggaman..March, 1836. Dee. 1833..., Alexander Porter Resigned, 1836. Mcb. 1836....Charles A. Gayarre....Resigned. 1835. Jan. 1830....Robert C. Nicholas March, 1841. Jan. 1837.... Alexander Mouton March, 1837. Mch. 1837 ... Do Resigued. 1842. Mch. 1841 Alexander Barrow Died, 1K48. ApL 1842 Charles M Conrad March, 1843. Feb. 1844....Henry Johnson March, 1849. Feb. 1847.... Pierre Soule March, 1847. Mcb. 1847... .Solomon W. Downs .... March 1863. Mch. 1849....Pierre Soule Resigned. 1863. Mch. 1863....J. P. Benjamin March, 1859. Apl. 1853....John Slidell March, 1856. The State of Louisiana, it is well known, com prises the southern part of the extensive country which was purchased by the United States of France, I in 1803, for the sum of fifteen millions of dollars. That part of the country now forming the State of Louisiana was separated from the rest in 1804, and called the Territory of Orleans, and by act of Con gress of April 8,1812, was admitted into the Union as a State. The State constitution was framed by a convention composed of delegates, a majority of whom were French Creoles or natives of Louisiana, at New Orleans, January 22, 1812. In 1810 the population of Orleans Territory was 76,55G, of whom 34,311 were whites, and 34,G60 were slaves. Free blacks, the remainder, 7,585. There was considerable opposition to fhe admis sion of Louisiana as a State, both in Congress and in some of the Northern States, principally on the ground of the unconstitutionality of the admission. The federal party were generally opposed to the measure. In the United States Senate, however, there were but five or six negatives, and in the House of Representatives the act of admission passed 79 to 23. In the Legislature of Massachusetts, im mediately afterwards, the act was condemned as un constitutional, and in June, 1812, a committee of that body, of which Josiah Quincy (who is still liv ing) was chairman, made a report on the subject, concluding with sundry resolutions, two of which are as follows, and are interesting, as showing the views entertained by the old federal party on the question of annexation:? Resolved, As the sense of this Legislature, that the ad mission Into the Union of States not comprehended with in the original limits of the United States, is not author lied by the letter or spirit of the federal constitution. Resolved. That the act of Congress passed the 8th day of April, 1812, entitled "An act for the admission of the State of Louisiana into the Union," itc., is a violation of the constitution of the United States. The report of this committee declares "that the power assumed by Congress in passing this act for the admission of Louisiana, if acquiesced in, is plain ly a power to admit new States into this Union at their discretion, without limit of place or country. Not only new States may be carved at will out of the boundless regions of Louisiana, but the whole extent of South America, indeed of the globe, is a sphere within which it may operate, without check or control, and with no other limit than such as Congress may choose to impose, in its own dis cretion." The senators and representatives from Massachu setts were instructed and requested to use their ut most endeavors to obtain a repeal of the act of Con gress admitting Louisiana into the Union ; but the measure soon became to be considered as a wise one, and indeed an act of political necessity, and was finally acquiesced in by men of all parties. The political character of the new State was deci. dedly democratic, or republican, there being no or ganization of a federal party. On the first elejtion for Governor, in 1812, William C. C. Claiborne, who was Governor of the territory by appointment of the President from 1804 to that time, was now elected by the people. The votes stood thus : Claiborne, 2,750; Jacques Villere, 045 ; which election was confirmed by the Legislature, as then required by the State constitution, 33 to 6. The Creole population, al though iu a majority, it seems did not rally on Mr. Villere, one or their own number, but preferred Gov. Claiborne. Thomas B. Robertson was chosen to the House of Representatives in Congress. At the first election by the Legislature of Uni ted States Senators Allan B. Magruder and John Noel Destrehan were chosen. Mr. Magrnder had been a leading member of the State Con vention which framed the constitution. As he drew the short term, he was only in the Se nate one session, and was not re-elected. Mr. Destrehan was also a member of the State Conven tion, and declined the appointment of Senator Thereupon the Governor appointed Thomas Posey; but the Legislature refused to continue him in the Senate. In December, 1812, they elected James Drown, by 2G votes against 16 for Posey. The same body elected prudential electors in favor of James Madison, by 25 to 10, the latter haviife probably been In favor of DeWitt Clir.ton, who was at that time a candidate, against Mr. Madison,for President. James Brown was born in Virginia, in October, 1766. After studying law he settled first in Tennes see, then in Natchez, and was appointed by Presi dent Jefferson Secretary of the Territory of Louisi ana. This led him to New Orleans, which subse quently become his home. He was appointed U. S. District Attorney for Louisiana, and rose to a high rank. He was elected to represent Louisiana in the U. S. Senate, as we have mentioned, in Decoinbar, 1812, and waa again chos?n Senator in 1819. Being appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to France by President Monroe, in 1823, he resigned his seat in the Senate. At the French court he was highly es teemed as the diplomatic representative of the United States; and his wealth and hospitality during his five years residence in Paris rendered him extremely popular with his coun trymen who visited that capital. After an ab sence of five years he requested leave to return to the United States, and subsequently selected Phlla delphia as his place of residence, where he died, of apoplexy, in his seventy-third year, April 7, 1M34. lie was brother-in-law of Henry Clay. Java'! Fbquwtdi wm of French origin, u resided in New Orleans. He ni Secretary ef th* Btate Cenrention which framed the constitution* As a member of the United States Senate, he took an independent coutse, supporting the war measure*, hot voting against some of the reoommendations ef the administration. In 1816 he voted with his col leagues, and a majority of the democratic senators for the charter of the United States Bank. In Kay, 1821, he was appointed by President Monroe United States Judge for West Florida. While Gen. Jack ton was Governor of Florida he had a dispute with Judge Fromentin, respecting the judicial conduct of the latter, but the resalt of the difficulty was unim* portant. William Charles Cole Claiborne, who was elected to succeed James Brown, on the expiration of hii first term, in March, 1817, died withoat taking hii seat. Hs was for many years a conspicuous public character in the Valley of the Mississippi. He re presented the State of Tennessee in Congress fof four years, vis., from 1797 to 1801, and gave the vet# of the State to Jefferson, in the contest for the Presi dency in 1801. It was expected by some that ha would have changed his vote to Burr; but he remained firm, with the other democrats of the House, in sup porting Jefferson, and received from that President the appointment of Governor of Orleans Territory, in 1804, which office he held until elected the first Governor of the State by the people, in 1812. HA was active in exposing the conspiracy of Bunr, iq 1807. Henry Johnson is, we believe, a native of Vir ginia. He has held various important trusts in Louisiana. In 1824 he was elected Governor of th(| State for a term of four years, having been previ ously United States Senator from 1818 to 1824. Ha was chosen for another term in the United State* Senate in 1843. He was also a member of the House of Representatives in Congress from 1835 to 1839. Although elected by the whig party, he voted in the Senate, in 1845, for the annexation of Texas, in con formity to what he believed were the wishes of the people of Louisiana. Dominique Bouligny was a native of Louisiana, of French origin. In the Senate he supported the administration of John Qulncy Adams, and wai particularly attached to Henry Clay as a political leader. JoBiah B. Johnston was a native of Connectient, but was taken by his father, in his infancy, to Ken tucky, emigrated about the year 1805 to Louisiana, where he was appointed a judge, and elected one of the representatives in Congress in 1821. He was transferred to the United States Senate in 1R24, and continued a member of that body until his death, Moy 19,1833. He was killed by the explosion or the steamboat Lioness by gunpowder, on Red River, fortj miles above Alexandria,(Lou.,) fourteen others being killed at the same time, and many other passengers wounded. Mr. Johnston was a man of fine talents, and highly esteemed by hia numerous circle of ac quaintance. He was a decided whig in his politic*, and ardent in his support of Mr. Clay. Edward Livingston is a name conspicuous in American annals. He was of an old New York fam ily of Scottish origin, and was born at Clermont, Co lumbia county, N.Y., in 1764. He graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1781, was admitted to the bat in New York, in 1785, and was in active prac tice until he was elected to Congress, in 1794, by the democratic party of this city. When the admimstra tion of Washington was formed, in 1789, the Living ston family were considered as federalists ; but the Chancellor, Robert R. Livingston, Brockholst and Edward Livingston, and other prominent members of the family, soon united with the republicans, and co-operated with the Clintons and Burr in opposing the federal party in power. Chancellor Livingston was a zealous advocate forthe adoption of the United States constitution, in opposition to the views of George Clinton and his republican friends generally. The Chancellor, it will be recollected, was in the Continental Congress, and was on the committee of five, with Jefferson, Adams, Sherman and Franklin, who reported the Declaration of Independence, Robert R. Livingston's name does not appear among the signers, for reasons not stated by hia biographers. We have the authority of Mr. Jeffer son for saying that Livingston entertained similar views with Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, who., although in favor of independence, did not think the time appropriate. Mr. Edward Livingston,being con siderably younger than his brother the Chancellor,was not known in the early political questions which divi ded the people immediately after the Revolution. H< first appears in political history as a xealous re publican. and was one of the leaders of that party in Congress. On retiring from Congress he was ap pointed by Mr. Jeffereon United States District Attorney for New York, having also received the appointment of Mayor of New York, in 1801. The latter office he held but one year. In 1804 he re moved to New Orleans, and tliete pursued his pro fession as a lawyer with great success. kWhen Louisiana waB invaded by the British, in 1814,Mr. Livingston offered his services to General Jackson, and acted as his aid, and at the close of the war, also, at a later period, he received flattering testimonials of the friendship of the General. In 1823 Mr. Livingston was elected to Congress, and served as a member of the House until 1829, when he was transferred to the Senate. In 1831 he was appointed Secretary ?f| State, to Jackson's second cabinet; and In 1833 he was ap pointed Minister to France. In the spring of 1835 he returned to the United States, and retired to hia estate at Rbinebeck, on the North river, where ho died, May 23,1836, in his seventy-third year. Mr. Livingston's talents as a statesman and lawyer are too well known to require detail in this article. Hia most prominent law work is the Code he prepared for the State of Louisiana. George A. Waggaman, who succeeded Mr. Living ston as U. 8. Senator, had been a prominent member of the State Legislature. He was a aealous whig, and took part in debates in the Senate. He died March 23,1843, of a wound received in a duel a few days previous. Besides other distinguished trusts, he was Secretary of State for Louisiana under three administrations. Alexander Porter was born in Ireland, and his fa ther having fallen a victim to the political disturb ances of 1798, the son emigrated to America, and settled in Nashville, Tennessee. He at first engaged in commerce, then studied law, and, removing to Lou isiana in 1809, soon acquired distinction. He assist ed In forming the constitution of the State, be came a judge of the Supreme Court, and was chosen a Senator ia Congress in 1833. He resigned in 1836. He acted with the whig party, and was a man of cultivated taste and popular manners. Endowed with great natural abilities, a thoroughbred lawyer, and versed in political knowledge, he was long con sidered one of the most eminent public men of the State. He died at Attakapas, January, 1844, aged fifty-three. Charles A. Gayarre, a Creole gentleman, who haa figured as a literary man and a democrat, held the appointment of Senator a short time, but resigned and was succeeded br Robert Carter Nicholas, who, we believe, was of a Virginia family. He supported the administration of Van Buren. Alexander Mouton, of French origin, waa also elected by the democrats to the Senate, and, on retiring from the Senate, was chosen Governor of Louisiana. He married a daughter of Col. Charlea K. Gardner. Alexander Barrow, elected by the whigs. in 1841, was a native of Nashville, Tennessee, where he waa admitted to the bar, and soon afterwards removed to Louisiana. Retiring from a successful practice at ?he b?r he became a wealthy planter. He served several years in the legislature of the State, and held other distinguished trusts, besides that of United States Senator. He died at Baltimore, De cember 29, lMfi, aged forty-five years. He waa highly esteemed for his personal qualities and pub lic ufefulness Charles M. Conrad we have noticed on former oc < asions in the Hf.bal?. He was one of the late cabinet of President Fillmore, where he acted aa