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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, April 17, 1854, MORNING EDITION, Image 1

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Defeat of the Turks in the
eportcd Important Movements of the
Russian Fleet in the Black Sea.
liglily luterestiug Debate in the British
^naly>is of the Secret Aa^lo-Russian
Cuban Slave Trade and the Blark War
rior AQali*.
&c., * Ac, &C.
I Hie Collins mail steamship Arctic, Capt. Luce, arrived
L Mix o'clock yesterday morning. She left Liverpool at
ilf-paat two o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, the 5th
ist. Her news is four days later. She brings one hun
ted and twenty-seven paasenft rs and a full freight.
I Among the passengers we uotico the names of the
o^ Humphrey Marshall, our late Commissioner to
ha; James T. Brady, Loq., Col. Colt, and Capt. Co.n
ck. of the Baltic.
I The news from the Lowor Danube is highly interesting.
lieRussiaus had seized neatly the whole of the i?o
udscha. and about forty-five thousand of the Czar's
x>ps occupied the territory between the Trajan Wall
Ld the Danube. Oiner l'aclia, with u large force, was
ncentruting for an attack on Karasu and Silistria.
? next advices from that quarter will be of the highest
IThe mission of Prince f'.corge of Mecklenburg Strclitz
I Berlin, is for the purpose of conveying a letter from
le Emperor of Russia to the King of Prus <ia. said to con
fin a proposition of the willingness of the Czar to
lacuatc the Principalities simultaneously with the ovu
lation of the Euxine by the combined ileets, provided
le Western Powers succeed in securing by treaty the
poncipation of the Christians in Turkey.
Consols, in consequence of this mission, improved, and
kton became steady. 1 lour has again advanced.
JThe return from tho Bunk of England for the week
?ding the 25th of March gives the following results,
lien compared with tlie previous week:?
Jblic deposits ?1,423,827 Increase.... ?475.010
her deposits 11,"02,220 Decrease.... 213.157
it 3,744,205 Increase.... 13,323
hi the other side of the account:?
fvernment securities. ?11.7y2,l 10 Decrease... ?52,581
uer securities 16,757,004 increase....1,244,709
itos unemployed.... o,033,535 Decrease... 045,130
the amount of notes in circulation is ?21,240,776, be
rau increase of ?450,025, and the stock of bullion in
h departments is ?14,( 29,282, showing a decrease of
_3,557, when compared with the preceding return.
According to the Trieste Gazette, the Schah of Persia
g determined upon observing a strict neutrality,
kdvices from Odessa, March 25, mention that the en
e Russian fleet have left Sebastopol, and it was boliev
would attack Varna. Sir James Graham stated in
jrliament on the 3d inst., the allied fleet had left the
lophorus for Varna.
It was positively asserted that 4,000 Russtami, from Sc
.topol. had been lauded and had taken possession of
island of Dunavcz, below Tnltscha !
here were the usual rumors of treachery on the part
fthe Turkish commanders or tho dillercnt fortresses
it have fallen into the hands of the Russians.
)mer Pacha marched 20,000 men from Silistria to
engthen a position between the Russians and the Bal
The Russians are razing all tho fortresses in the
Austria had demanded from Russia that Austrian Bub
i in the Principalities shall not be compelled to take
j Rossi, u paper money.
Diplomat ic relations have -censed between Greece and
Irkey. Gen. Motaxa, Greek Minister, has demanded his
Tisports. Nesset Boy, the Turkish Minister, had
fitted Athens, and returned to Constantinople.
new levy of 80,000 mon is about to be made in
Jrhe ship Klavio Giovia, from Antwerp, ostensibly for
Jratreal, lias been captured und brought to the Downs,
|th arms on board for the Greek insurgent*.
A council of Austriuu generals is summoned to meet at
Jenna. Among others invited ate the Ban Jellalich
Id Count Giolai.
Professor Wilson, so well known as Christopher North,
td on the 3d inst., aged 00 ^ears. Our obituary notice
I him is crowded out.
In reply to Mr. Htltchlnfi, Who detailed the cireum
Lncee connected with the seizure of the Black Warrior
J the Cuban authorities. 1-ord John Russell stated that
communication had been sent to the Unite 1 States on
le subject, but no information had yot been received
lorn Mr. Crampton.
he Asia arrived out at three o'clock on the morning of
Inuday. the 3d inst.
Jon Tuesday, 4th inst., the Niagara sailed from Liver
lot with tho 88th regiment of infantry, for the Ea.t.
fThc Golden Age reached King George's Sound, Au.-tra
L, in sixty-one days, including fourtocn days detention
1st. Vincent and the Cape. Her actual running time
Is, therefore, only forty-seven days. It may be re
embere 1 that tho British government refused to send a
-ail by the Golden Age. preferring to pay ?1,000 to the
Idling ship Matilda Wattenback, whose arrival out wo
|ay look for for some weeks to come.
ItUc Bteamsliip Glasgow, from New York, arrived at
Yeenock at 2 o'clock on Saturday, 1st inst.
leapt. Duryec, of the packet ship Coustanline. fell over
Lard and was drowned on the morning of the i t inst.,
Ihile the ship was off Port Lynas, outward bound. In
Tnsequenco of this unfortunate accident the ship put
Lck to Liverpool.
J Fifteen packet Rliips, amounting to 16,000 tons, were
|tting up at Liverpool to convey troops to the East.
1 The influx of emigrants into LHerpool at present
urpassed anything of the sort ever before known. The
Majority Were from Ireland, and are bound either for
te United States or Canada. The price of steerage pas
age ranged as high as ?5 10s., owing to tho scarcity of
hipping and the number of passengers offering.
Our London Correspondence.
Loxpon, Tuesday, April 4, 1864.
ium i) ruan in ni ulack n*?xurrcsi BE
Ah anticipated iu my last communication, lb* address
n reply to the royal mesragc announcing war wiiii Kus
in was unanimously adopted in both houses of Parlia
nent ou Friday night. The opportunity wan thought,
lowever. too good to 1>? neglected, and one of the longest
ehgte- of the session en*ued. Lord Aberdeen was the
Mirk at which all the orators of the opposition tired
way without mercy, and personal allusions and accusa
iona were given and taken on both sides. I'nlmewton
nd Bright had a private mill of their own. iu which the
a/mber for Manchester (Bright) suffered considerably
In ;he Imrds the Earl of Derby, and in the Common!
I>i.~iiieli and UjmiJ, ?fr? the chief B|H-uh9rs ll would be
wasting jour space to enter into a recapitulation of this
long Ka-tcm que tion, all tho pha cs of which are fami
liar to your readers. A few point* are impor
taut and new. Lord Clarendon distinctly denied that
any stipulation wns made in the treaty recently concluded
by the Western Powers wiMi the Porte, which gave them
a protectorate over the Christians of Turkey. "We en
ter," he said, "upon the war for a definite object. It is
to check and repel the unjust aggressions of Russia. It
is the battle of civilisation ugain:.t%arbarism tor the in
dependence of Europe." As regards the position of the
(?rrinan Powers, Lord Clarendon spoko very plainly, and
expressed what I have repeatedly stated in my corres
pondence?"Neutrality, with such a war as is about to be
waged on the confines of both countries, is impossible."
He then added :-"If Germany prooeeds in accordance with
public opinion, which is rising more and more against
Russian influence, the result, it cannot be doubted, will
be in favor of Herman independence. Hut that Power
which leans to Russia will transfer all the popular sym
pathies to tho Tower which docs not do so, and to the
hands of that power will be committed the future desti
nies of Germany."
Lord Derby said that the war, however lamentable, was
in his belief, and in the belief of the country, n just and
a necessary war; but he believed it never would have
taken place?Russia would never have dared to put for
ward her pretensions, if at tho particular moment of
these particular differences arising tho Earl of Aberdeen
had not been the minister at the head of the govern
ment! Tho Emperor of Russia had, in his opinion,
spoken his mind plainly (in the secret confidential des
patches,) to the ministry, and was led to believe that
Lord Aberdeen aharod all his views. To say the least,
with the knowledge of these documents, it was very great
political blindness?he would not say, political conni
Lord Aberdeen's reply was not satisfactory, nor did
it make an impression. When he sat down, Lord Malmos
bury rose and said that wheu he was in office the Kus -
sian government never attempted to force its views as
regards Turkey, but that directly Lord Aberdeen came
in the question was again immediately mooted.
Lords Grey, Brougham, Lyndhurst, and Granville then
spoke, but threw no light on the subject.
It may nut be out of place here to mention that the
rumor is again curient in political circles and in the
clubs, that Lord Aberdeen will go out and Lord Palmer
ston be Prime Minister.
In the House of Commons Lord John Russell made a very
able speech. He recapitulated the whole question, and
pointed out tho necessity of war to maintain the balance
of power. He declared that it was impossible at the pre
sent stage of the war to state the basis upon which peace
would be ultimately negotiated; he tru.ted the German
Powers would come to a sense of thoir own interests;
the convention between France, England, aud Turkey
was a purely military convention, and had nothing to do
with the internal administration of Turkey.
Mr. Layard attacked the government in unmeasured
terms, accusing them of all the mischief that had been
done. Bright followed, and, as already said, was severely
chastised by Palmerston. The honorable member for
Manchester, (said l'almerston,) reduces everything to the
question of pounds, shillings and pence; and I verily be
lieve that if this country was threatened with an imme
diate invasion likely to end in its conquest, the honor
able member would sit down, take a piece of paper, and
would put on one side of tho account the contributiona
which his government would require from hqg for the
defence of tho liberty and the independence of the coun
try, and he would put on tbo other the probable contri
butions which the general of the invading army might
levy upon Manchester, and if he found that, on balancing
the account, it would be cheaper, he would counsel sub
mission rather than pay his share in contributing to the
defence of his country !
The question to he considered was, whether one Power
is to bestride the globe from the north to the south, from
the Baltic to the Mediterranean, to dictate to Germany,
to domineer in the Mediterranean, to have the whole of
the rest of Europe at its mercy, to deal with it as it
pleases; or whether that power shall be taught that
there aro limits even to the ambition of a Czar i
Palmerston sat down amidst loud cheering.
Disraeli made a brilliant speech, full of wit and sarcasm.
He deemed it tho duty of all men to rally around the sove
reign when she declared she found it necessary to make
war, but Uc vindicated tbo right of the opposition to criti
cise the policy which had rendered that war necessary.
He acquitted the Emperor of Russia of any duplicity. A
remarkable frankness was the characteristic of the secret
correspondence. Ho concluding by saying, (as Lord Der
by said in the Lords) that war hud been produced by one
man?the man who occupiod tfie most important post in
the country?and ere long that would be the opinion of
all England.
The debute lasted nearly eight hours.
To turn to events.
The echo of the first shot has not yet resounded or at
least reached the English shores. The Baltic fleet, ac
cording to the last accounts received, was at anchor in
the hay of Kjoege. On the 30th March it ci\st anchor at
the island of Mocn; this island belongs to Denmark; it is
situated to the northeast of Falster and reckons about
7,000 inhabitants. The bay of Kjoege is situated iu Zea
land, ten leagues southwest of Coponhagen.
From Constantinople we learn that the combi nod fleets
entered the Black Sea ou the 24th March, taking the di
rection of Varna.
From the Danube tho news is not of a satisfactory
nature. The Russianthave, as you arc already aware,
crossed the Danube at t'.tree different plae.es, and since
then we learu (by telegraph,) that the Turkish fortresses
of Matscliin, Hcrsova, Isuktscha, Tultscha and Bala
dagh, have been taken by the Russians. Of the move
ments of the main body of the Turkish army under
Orner Pacha, and of the Ottoman forces in the Dobriuls*
cha under Muatapha Pacha, wo have no intelligence.
The retrograde movement of the Turks may have been
calculated upon to mislead the enemy ; but until we
bnvo precise details it is impossible to say wliat the
exact facts are. It Is au object of Russia to make tho
world believe that her arms aro successful, hut Russian
bulletius are not to be ovcrtrusted. All these telegraphic
despatches como from Vienna?and Austria is certainly
not the enemy of Russia. The Vienna Oazeile of the 28th
nit. publishes the following telegraphic despatches from
Prince GortschakolT, addressed to Bnron Meyendorff, the
Russian Ambassador at Vienna. It is dated tbraila. tho
24th ult.
The troops concentrated opposite Matschin yesterday
effected In two columns the pnssitgoof the Danube ; tho
principal column under the orders of Genoral Ludvrs at
Gulatz, without resistance, for the enemy did not expect
us on that point : the second column, under my com
mand at Ihra.la itself, where the postage vfas forced, and
happily accomplished. Our loss was insignificant. v
The Prussian Coi retpondtm of Berlin givos the follow
ing detail*
The Italian force was 4A,W>n strong. On the 22d. at
The ilussian torce was 40,000 aironj un me z?i. at
four o'clock in the morning, the Russian batteries below
Ibrn'la, in the isle of the Danube, opened a sharp lire on
the iurkieh entronchinents above and below the little
fortress of Matschin. The cannonade lasted all day.
On the 23?1, at seven o'clock in the morning, the Rus
sians recommenced their fire, but the Turks did not
respond very vigorously. At four o'clock in the after
noon six Russian battalions with four guns, passed the
river in fourteen largo boats, under the protection of the
flotilla of the Panube, to attain Gidseh, which is situated
below Matschin. They there took up their position,
whilst the engineers' were occupied in throwing a
bridge ovog the I'nnube. The bridge was terminated is
tl e evening. The Turks maintained a tire until nightfall,
principally against the steamer, the froth. the bridge in
construction, and the six boats employed in forming the
bridge; but tbey uid not obtain a great result. In the
night they evacuated their entrenchments, leaving 20
dead. The Russians admit that they had 20 killed, and
Sat wounded. Amongst tho latter Is (i-noral Dalbroski, of
H.e engineers?he h-.s lost a leg. The eonstruetion of
the bridge was directed by General Bohilders and the
pas-ape I'th" river by General Kot/.ebuo. At about the
tinii at which tlie pnrange near Ibrailn was effected, G?m
I odors cp sod tlie | anube with si\ battalions near Ga
lals. and Gea. t'schakoir with thirteen battalions, near
Ismail, both in boatr. (Jen. Ludcrs met with no rc-iat
ance m bis passsgo. He advanced a distance r,f oi:ht
werstcs inio the interior of the country (a werstc is
about Hi i ce fourths of an Kngltah mile.) The bridge
constructed near Gatats being terminated, <W batta
lions will pass over It with cavalry and artillery
Gci crnl Usshakoff had to compier an obstinate re
sistriisc. Mi crossed tho river which is very wide
in that part, l ctwecn Gatats and the mouth of the Suli
nil. 'Ihe redoubts raised by the. Turks for the defence of
the passage wwe taken by assail'.! The Russians took
11 guns and ISO prisoners?amongst the latter are, it is
el and PO'officers. Tne Ttirkshad.it is as
H?id. a coloni 1
sorted, a good niac.y killed and wounded. The Russians
admit having fetid ;;00 killed and wounded. As at Ihrsita
and (lalatSj U",e Rnsstans have established a bridge
TulUcba This plac? bos, it i> said, already fallen into
the power of tin- ltu-sian* They mads an assault ut
Main bin, anil as tliey arc in force, it is probable that
tney will, without grc.it difficult/, poi.>e?? themselves of
1 ohiudncha.
The three places at winch the passage was effected are
at the opposite extremity of the line of the Danube to
that at which ail the recent operations have taken place,
aud at w huh the passage was expected Ismail is not far
from the uiouth of the Dauutio, Glials is above It, and
Ihiaila is above (.slate
Wo learn from Malta that the Kngli-.li troops were
daily leafing that island for Constantinople. By this
time there can be no less than 20,000 English and 1 reach
troops assembled in the Dardanelles.
A naval engagement in the Black Sea is expected
The Austrian government lias drawn up a manifesto of
the policy it intends to follow. A copy of this document
has boon received in l'uris, though the separate articles
have not been published. The Emperor addresses to the
I tropic a brief t peri of the causes which have led to war;
he blames Russia in strong terms for her conduct, and de
clares in a formal manner that in no case will ho join
that power. The conclusion Is not so clear. It states in an
ambiguous manner that Austria will maintain in the in
terests of Germany a strict neutrality. It does not men
tion that an offensive and defensive treaty has been en
tered into with Prussia, but of a good understanding ex
isting between tlicm. It expresses u hope that this
course of conduct will be approved of by tho Gornlhn
it appears that the English and French ambassadors at
Vienna have called upon Count Bind and demanded an
e planatiou of the conduct of Austria, aud her futuro in
tuitions. Tho reply of the Austriau minister is said to
hnve beeu -'satisfactory." This state of things cannot last
much longer. Those who are not for us are against us,
anil Lord Clarendon lias informed.l'arliamont that a neu
trality of tho two German Powers is impossible. If we
add tliat tlie population of both countries are almost
unanimous in favor of the Western Powers, there still re
mains a hope that they will declure themselves against
A revolution in Prussia is not among the least itnprob.
able events of the next few months.
Italy remains- quiet. An attempt at a rising in Parma
followed the death of tho Duke, but was immediately
Italy is waiting in an expectant attitude. Ho is Hun
gary; so il Polaud.
You will see by the resolution of the Prussian Cham
bers, respecting the loan, that the Prussian Chambers
are opposed to a union with Russia. The I/>an Commit
tee has unanimously, minus one vote, come to the fol
lowing decision, which will bo laid before the plenum and
discussed on Wednesday or Thursday next;?
1. In consideration of the necessity of accordance to
the king's government of the necessary credits to support
the honor and independence of our fatherland, and to
defend the interests of the country under existing me
nacing dangers of war:
2- As also in consideration thai his Majesty'sgorernment
has do tared that it itrill aha continue to adhere to the policy
hitherto purtued, and consequently labor, in accordance
with the Cabinets of Vienna, l'arit and London, and es
pecially in intimate union with Austria and all other
Gerninn States, for the speedy restoration of peace, on
the basis of equity as proclaimed in the Vienna Confe
rence protocols, under reservation of full freedom of de
cision as to active interference;
The Chamber will be pleased to determine that consti
tutional assent shall be given to the two projocts of law;
the one concerning extraordinary credits required for mi
litary administration during 1854, and the other the rais
ing of sums required for covering tho same by a sinking
A rupture lias taken place formally between Turkey
and Greece. The respective ambussadors have been re
A telegraphic despatch from Constantinople states tiiat
the Sheik-ul-Islam, or head of the faith, has been diqiosed
by tlie Sultan. This is a bold stop. The Sheik was,
doubtless, opposed to the granting any privileges to the
Christians. It proves at tho same time that the Sultan
is determined to act for himself and to throw off tho con
straint which the Ulemans have usually exercised over
Turkish monarchs. Backed by foreign troops, the Sultan
feels his power.
Our Parts Correspondence.
Paiim, April 3. 1 A!U.
Embarkation qf 20,000 Men for the East?Disorders in the
Administration of the Army and Navy? Violent Sent
Between the Emperor and Marshal St. Arnaud?Opinions
on the War?The New Map of Eurojx?Pritw jSttrrft
Otn * ci>i*ontienee with *h* </*ai?Ajf air of M. de Monta
The Frenoh government has at length succeeded, though
with great difficulty, in embarking twenty thousand men
for the East. A terrible storm of indignation was raised
against Marshal St. Arnaud, who was accused of negli
gence, incapacity, and even of what is scarcely probable
when we consider his antecedents?of wasteful expendi
ture. Prince Napoleon, on seeing that nothing was ready,
went to the Emperor and told him that lie was betrayed.
The moil incredible facis were cited as proofs of the state
of disorder into which the administration of the army
had fallen: and it was even asserted that at a review held
by the Emperor, a Colonel, to complete the two thousand
men of his regiment, was obliged to borrow five hundred
from another. However this may lie, it is certain that j
Marshal St. Arnaud, menaced with disgrace and the loss j
of his command, waited upon the Emperor, in company i
with Marshal Vaillant, who had examined into the defi
ciencies in the materiel, and reminded his 41ajesty that
for the last six months he had been waiting for ordors?
"that for the same period tho sovereign had refused Hu m
that an enormous economy had been effected even
on tbc most necessary supplies?and that now ihey I
felt the effects of this cutting down system at the
commencement of the campaign. All tlic anger of the
Emperor was then turned against M. Duoos, who, in
a sort of ministerial gasconade, (although another nnrfle
might be given to it,) had paraded in the columns of the :
Monilevr a third squadron of tho floot, which existed
only in his ci binet. It is said that the Emperor so fur
lost his usual self-control as to break in his fury one of i
the articles of furniture in the apartment. To appoaso
his Majesty, and to show at least, something like good '
will, M. Duces immediately trnnsmiUqd, by telegraph, to '
the Maritime Prel'et of Toulon, orders U> send otf the
vessels route qni covte. The Prefet, thus urged, imme
diately sent to sea two vessels, without armament, with
out proper clothing for tho men, and oven without pro- ,
visions, giving, however, orders to the captains to finish
their equipment at Brest. Now, a lotter which arrived
this morning from the latter )M)rt. and which I have just ,
seen, states that the squadron Is in no condition to go to
sea, and cannot for some time to conic afl'ord aid to the
fleet under Admiral Napier.
This war is severely oensured even by men who arc ad- ,
herenta of the government. Marshul Vaillant, it is said,
told the Emperor nnd M. Drouyn de l'Huys that the
country was about to put herself to a vast expenditure,
without any possible chance of -compensation, and that |
merely to support the influence of England, menaced in
Asia. This should have been foreseen in the commence
ment of the crisis; but now Erance is too far involved to
recede, nnd the situation lias been rendered the more ;
perilous from the ambiguous attitude of Austria and
Prussia, who conacnt to blame the conduct of Russia, ,
but not to make common cause with the Western Powers.
I may add that the pamphlet entitled the "Re- j
vision of the Map of Europe,'' which has ob
tained a very general circulation in Europe from the
fact of it* being suppressed in Prance has produce'! the
worst possible elTect in Austria, to whom it is proposed |
to give the Danublan provinces, (a gift for which she lias j
no fancy,) in exchange for Lombard)-, which she wishes I
to l.eep.
It is said that tl.e Czar, pushed to extremes by the pub
lication of the confidential aorreppondeure with England,
will nubltsh In his turn a large mass of correspondence
on the ssmo subject, ami, amdng other documents, let
vru t iic miuu runjt xi, nuuj auivyii^ uiuti uu^uiucumi. io v
tors which compromize both Prince \lbort and the King
of the Petglans, by the proof which they afford of their
complicity in tlie design-* of Ruseia.
The report of tho committee of the legislative Carps to
which the affair of M. de Montalembert was referred has
just been printed and distributed. Whilst it expresses
its regret at the pobC.; tif-n of -1 t le.ter, it declares that
M. de Montalembi t ; i r.d all participation in th j
publication of hia 1? ? i to be believed on bis wor *,
and concludes for u ilusal of the authorization tie
mantled-. It is rumored that. M. de Montalembert ha- de
cided on adopting a elevei-line ot tactics in this nffu r.
After the .ending of tlie report in the sean * of to-day he |
will hand in his io-ignaliou as lieputy, c,nd will deUvet |
hiuiFell up for proseeution, which in uny case V coukl
not avoid, seeing that the legislative Carps will not pro
tect him liy its vole. He therefore pacv before tho tri
bnnal willi this report of the commit?.'* in bis favor, the
effect ol which even a contrary vote, on the part of the
Legislative Corps will not destroy,
1'itncc Napoleon positively lea oas for the East the day
after to-morrow It is feared,, however, from the delay
that hns taken place, that thfy expeifftiou wilt not arrive
in time at the Danube; this apprehension is, however,
sought to bo balanced by -,be suggestion which has oh
tained currency?that, n^tor gaining :i victory and satis
tying the honor of Ids agmy, the Czar Will propose terms
of pence. Be this as it may, the wai will be of service to
the I'rinqe, by enablhag to pain a popularity of which lie
standg In need, In consoqm nee ol Ills former co operation
with the Montiiffnard party.
?. P.?The rumor respecting M. de Montalembert was
not exact. He lias not given in his resignation. (5re.it
excitement prevails ou the subject, and the avenuw ol
the hall of the legislative Corps are fhron,J?d by mi
anxious crowd. M de F'laviguy spoke ii. favor'of M de
Montaleuibert. 1! Reuaud, member of the minority of
the commission, au I an old legitimist was extremely vio
lent against M. do Monlalciubeit, declaring that the ^or
son of the Emperor wan in question M. I^omenier, iuw?i
bor of the majority of the commission, is speak ?ig in lit*
favor while 1 am cloning my letter
In tbwllouse of Lords on the 31at of March,
The Karl of Cisbsndo.n rose and said?My lords, in
rising to m.ve your lordships to agree to the address
which I have the honor to propose in answer to the gra
cious uifcsage of her Majesty which has just been read,
But. my lords, with reference to that, undue confidence
which we hsve bceu accused of exhibiting in the Emperor
of Russia, I do desire to say a few words, and they will
be with reference to that correspondence which has just
been laid on your lordships'table, (llear.) My l irds,
it is uuiieoemary for me to say that that correspondence
would have remained buried in the archives of the
Foreign OfiUe, if we had not been challenged, and
consequently compelled, by the Emperor of Russia to
produce it. (Hear, hear.) We neither desired nor
souplit thesi communications, but, having received
theiu as confidential, we have behaved with scrupu
lous honor to the Emperor of Russia, and I can give
your lordships no better proof than this fact?that, in
ii despatch thai 1 wrote at the end of April, in which I
recapitulated the various assurances given iih by the Em
peror, 1 inserted one short extract, not from the despatch
sent by Sir H. Seymour entwining nn account of hia con
versations with the Emperor, but Iroin the memorandum
which the Emperor had esesed to be drawn up. Count
Kesselrode. observing this extract, protested against this
as s breach of confidence, and requested that it might not
be inserted in that despatch when it was laid before Par
liament. We replied that nil communications of this kind
were exceedingly Inconvenient 1o a constitutional govern
ment, (cheers.) but that if the Emperor thought he had
just cause to complain, we would prnngsc him that that
passage should be withdrawn from the 4cspiitc.li when it
was laid before Parliament. (Hear.) And I can with
confidence apppal to your lorilshiis whether, in the
course of the various discussions which have taken place,
there has been any, the slightest allusion, on th ? part of
the government, to the communications made by the Em
peror. (Hoar, hear.) But, my lords, as that correspon
dence has been produced, 1 can only express my satisfac
tion that it has seen the light, bocause I think I may say,
without presnmntion, it proves that we have been honest
to the Sultan, honest to our allies, and honest to tho
Emperor himself. (Cheers.) The Emperor voluntarily de
veloped bis ideas, or rattier expressed hie conviction that
tho dissolution of the Ottoman empire was inevitable; and
we must remember tbut this was no singular idea on the
part of the Fimj eror?that he had no monopoly of it?
and that it was shared by thousands of persons in this
country, who, at this time last year, had no idea of the
vital energy and national spirit which the Turks have
since exhibited. (Hear, hear.) It was proved by books,
by pamphlets, by newspapers, and by a variety of statis
tical data, that the Ottoman empire could not last. The
Fmperor of Russia desired to discuss this mutter with
us, and to arrange with us what would he suitable, or
rather what wonid not be suitable, to the two countries
in the event of these prophecies being realized. There
was in this nothing more to excite suspicion or create
alarm in 1653 than there was in 1644, or in 1829,
when these ideas were first broached. Hut if this coun
try had participated in these ideas of tho Emperor?if wo
bnd shown that we believed the dissolution of Turkey to
be at hand?we had been ready to admit its dismom
berment, or shown a readiness to accept Egypt or Candia,
which were proposed to us? then, i think, the Emperor
mighthavo looked to tho realization of his prophecy.
But it was because we wished to avert that danger, and
to bring tho Emperor to our view of tho question,
that we did not shriuk from his wish that we
should di.-cuss the whole question with liiin. (Hear.)
We fully discussed his arguments; we gave our reasons
for thinking that the dissolution of the Ottoman empire
was not at hand; we declared that we would not bo a
party to any underhand dealings, and that v.-e would
nave no secrets from our allies; we dismissed with some
thing like silent contempt the oiler of a territorial bribe
(cl.eers); and we pointed out to the Emperor the course
he ought to pursue. Well, my lords, tho Emperor in re
turn said that Russia was too great in territorial extent
already; thut he desiied no increnRo of territory; that
the maintenance of the Ottoman empire was a European
necessity, and that its downfall would be a European ca
lamity. and, though he said lie should insist upon just ice
being done him by the Sultan upon the question of the
Holy l'laces, yet he positively asserted that he hail not
moved a man or a ship at that time towards Turkey.
(Hear.) And, my lords, these assurances were given to
us, not only upon the word of the Kinperor, but on the
word of a gentleman. (Cheers.) His imperial majesty
seems to draw some distinction between the two. (A
laugh.) And these assurances wore addressed, not alone
to the government, but to the Queen herself, fllear,
hear.) In a memorandum written by the Emperor's own
band, and from his owu pen, we received tlie.ro assur
Tbe Emperor has, with lively satisfaction, niniio bimsuli'
acquainted with Lord Clarendon ? despatch of the 23d of
M.reh. Ills Majesty congratulates himself on perceiving
iluit his views aud those of the English Cabinet entirely
cciuelito on the subject of th i polilicnl conil insi ion* vviiioh
it wonld be chiefly necessary to avoid in tho cxtremo ease
of the contingency oconriing in the Ecu wklph Run-in and
Knglui.d hnvo equally at heart to prevent, nr. at all events,
to delay ae long as poasihlo. Sharing generally the opinion*
expressed by l.ord Clarendon on the necessity of the pro
longed maintenance of the exlstiag.atate of things in Tar
key, the Emperor, nevertheless, cannot ubstain from ad
verting to a special point which leads him to cappo?o that
tho Information received liy tbo British government
is not altogether in accordance with ours, it re
fers to tie humanity and tho toleration to he
shown hy Turkey in licr manner of treating her Christian
subjects. Cutting aside many other examples to tho con
trary of an old date, it is, for all that, noto
rious that recently the cruelties committed by tho
'forks iu Bosnia forced hundreds of Christian families
to seek rcfn-io in Austria. In other respects, with
out wishing on this occasion to enter upon a discussion as
to tho symptoms of decay, more or less evident, presented
by the Ottoman Powor, or the greater or lest degree of vi
tality which its internal constitution may rotaiu, the Em
peror will readily agree that tho teat means of upholding
t l.o duration of the Turkish government is not to harass it
by overhearing demands, supported in a manner humiliat
ing to its independence and its dignity. (Lend cries of
" bear, hoar.") IIis Majesty is disposed, as he lias ever
licen, to act upon this system, with tho clear understanding,
however, that the tame rule of conduct shall be obsorvciT,
w;tl,ont dif tinctlon and unanimously, by each of the great
Cowers, and II at none of them shall take advantage oi the
weakness of the I'orte, to obtain from it concession! which t
r ight tnrn '.o the prejudice of the others.
This principle being lata down, the Emperor declares that
ho is ready to labor, in concert with England, at tho com
mon work ol'prolonging the existence of tho Turkish om
plro, si tting ..aide till cause of alarm on tho snhjoot of its
dissolution, lie readily accepts the cvideuce ottered liy tho
British Cat inet of entire eontttlenoe in tho uprightness of
his sentiment-, and the hope that, on this basis, his alliance
with England cannot fail to become stronger, (lloar, hear.)
Now. my lords, this was on the 16th of April, and is tho
reiult und conclusion of a corresjion leneo begun, appa
rently. w ith very different feelings on the part of the Km
1 eror of Russia fr--m those which he now entertains; and,
unless wenio (o proceed upon a general system of disbe
lief and suspicion in the honor and rpctitude of persons
In high quarters?if at the end qf April last, and before
the real nature of Princo Menschikoll's mission was
known, i had been enabled to lay this memorandum on
your lordships' table, I think your lordships would have
ti lt, as her Majesty's government felt at llrnt time, that
Turkey was safe from the dangers in which she was soon
nfler inv< bed. fllear, hear.) Those dangers are of a
very clear and substantial nature. The Emperor of Rus
sia endeavored by treaties, or by engagements which
should have ihe force of treaties, to obtain that right of
interference between the Sultan and many millions of his
subjects which would hnvo extended not only to a virtual
protectorate, hut have conferred actual government upon
hint. Had the Sultan entered into the engagements which
were required from him. no question, however small and.
how ever trifling, connected wi.ththc control of the affairs
of the Greek subjects of the Sultan could have arisen wbi.it
would not have had to be determined by the Russian
ambassador at Oon-tantinople. (Heir, hear.) We should
then have seen tho enlightenment, tho intelligence,
and the prog rose of the Greek subjects of Turkey, as well
as the free exorcise of their religion, brought down tathe
same low level as those of the subjectsof tho Emperor of
Russia, and any demur upon tho part of the Sultan to
sabmitto tho government of the Russian ambassador,
would have hi on uu infraction of treaty and ft legitinente
cause ot quarrel. (Hear, henv.) Under these eireura
Mnnces, my lords, Russia would have been enabled at any
moment, and upon any pretext, witli her powerful fleet
in the Black re*.to render herself mistress of Constantino
ple. I need not wa?te your lordship's time by aay com
ment- upon the effect of such sn event as that occurring.
Wo should have found in such a case, to our cost and to
our disjrnce; that the maintenance of the Ottnman em
piic. which is a matter of European necesaity was noth
Ine more thou a vague and unmeaning to.vn. And f
roust any, no; lords, that it wa? unworthy of tbo dignity
of tin-Emperor of Russia, porsevaringly to attribute the
failure < f rue scheme, not to the nature of the scheme
itself, but to^he perseverance and me'jnlty of Lord
Stratford do RedcHfto. (Cheers.) 'Ihe Siltan was per
<ectlj a' ve to liis own intere-,tn, nnd, nv-ler any eirco-J
sfn"i" vovild have refused the toru s sought to be im
pi, iponkimhy the Emperor of Fus-iu. (Cheers.)
111: ? it Is Lord htratfonl. on being consulted, did not.
adv ioe Ibe Porte to commit political suicide, but thosame
advice wsj given at the same time by tho '.Tench
Ami-ftdor. the ku trian Internuncio, and the Pros inn
Milliliter (Cheers.) When the outrage of occupying
the i'ritii ipaUtia* was committed, it ciunfiittcd a-; a
guarantee fur the fulfilment of ft treaty which had not
lie* n violated. Although thin part of the subject has
been more than OMI alluded i? before, youT lordships
must bear in mind that the whole quesVtr.n, a regards
tho Emperor of Russia, turns upon tho Interpretation of
the ssventB article of tho treaty of KataardJI. by which
tin i'orte engaged to protect the Christian religion and
all i's churchea throughout thiwott/msn dominion*; but
so carefully did the Porte guard Huelf against any right
of in?< rferetire on the part of R.nnsin. that, by a s ibse
qm nt | oition of the ai tide, th at interference *a? limited
to the i igiit el making reprementations with re-pe< t to a
ehureli at that time bulldir.g at Constantinopl". and to an
engagement on tho part The i'orte 1<? take those ro
presentations into consideration. (Hear, hear.) That Is
not the unlimited int, r| rotation of the treaty widch lias
been throughout itisNtoil upon by Rus-iu, aiid for whldh
j she i- now prepared to enter into wsr. I leave vout lord
- ships to Judge what would have been the erfect as re
' gards Russia If this scheme had succeeded, and if the
- Emperor had lieen entitled in demand all that was con
i foccedcd to bim. with the additional iutfrpistation pu
tit on thin treaty Wo hare a treaty with the Kin*" r*
Nnj le? Suppose we had suddenly rhotteii to give an iif
terprelatluu 10 that treaty that it waa an undertaking to
admit British cnimaiodiliea free of duty, for the purpose
of lefijertug them rlieapor to hi* Majesty's subducts,
arid suppose the King- of" Nitple*, aa be waa jually
entitled, had resisted tlua, and wo had seised on Sicily a*
material pledge?not of any right of claim, hut of our
interpretation of Die treaty?in that eaae, 1 ask whether
the indignation of Europe would not Lave been moused,
and whether the King of Naples woUld not hare been
warranted in calling in the aid of allien" (Hoar, hear)
Jual auch an assumption of right aa thia, and audi an
unwarranted uae of power lraa taken place on the part
of Russia Hut, notwithstanding all that bad occurred,
the mediation of Austria for the nettlouient of the dilfer
encea between Russia and the Porte waa cal.ed in, and
Austria invited the aid of the oilier three Power* in thia
work, 'though the four Toweri fett that the Km per or of
Russia hud committed a great wrong, they thought it ad
visable to flud for him a means of rwtreat without loas of
dignity, and if the Knipcror hud accepted the modified
Vienna note he would have lost nothing of dignity, but
in reality would hare gained more. (Iieur, hoar.) lie re
jected the terma promised, and Count Neaselrode then,
in a note, explained what i waa that Ruaaia really re
quired. Still, however, the Kmperor of Ruaaia having
aaid, after the confcrencea at Glmuta, that if aiy frean
terms were LHOpueod to him ho de iied that til-y sliould
be first aeltlnd with the Porto, the four Powers again
renewed their endeavor*. aud tlieir representatives at
Constanticople obtained from the Porto fresh tortus,
giving the Kmperor much more than Ire had a right to
demand. And it ia worthy of rema-.k that.after the Sultan
hud been compelled, in his own defence, to declare war,
and after the massacre at Sinope, which aroused nation
al indignation, a fresh negotiation was begun. The terras
of this negotiation were sent to Vienna, an I unanimous
ly approved by the reprcacntativea of the Four Powers,
who declared llnm to be just and honorable, and auch a<
the Kmperor might noccpt without any loss of that
hourr and dignity which It waa thought ao desirable to
maintain. And,"my lords, how were those negotiations
received ? (Hear, beur.) The Emperor of Hub -ia
did not even notice the terms offered him by
the Porte. He disregarded the advice and recom
Herniation of the four Powers, and lie dis
regarded the highest and greatest interests of
Europe and the universal expression of public opinion.
(Cheers.) He however, subsequently sent proposals of
liia own, in which his original demands, far from being
abated, were increaacd. and put in a form to render
them more injurious anil offensive to the Porto. (Hear,
hear.) Could we, under auch circumstances, allow the
virtual supremacy over millions of the subjects of the
Sultan to be handed over to the Emperor of Russia?
Could France and England aubmtt to the degradation of
allowing Russia to take up a position in Turkey which
would be the means of iuflicting death upon that coun
try, either by slow poison or by sudden death? An an
swer has already been given by the generous and high
minded people of this country, (chocrs,) who detest
aggression in whatever form it may ussume, and who are
always ready to protect the weak against the strong,
(l oud cheers.) And, my lords, it was a sense of nu
tional honor, a sense of duty, and a desire to maintain
the respect in which this country is held among
the nations of the earth, that made her Majesty's
government, in conjunction with the government of
the Emperor of the French, feel it their hounden duty
to bring this question to u final decision, and require
within a given period an understanding from the
Emperor of Russia, giving liim notice at the same time
that his refusal to comply with the terms proposed
would be received as a declaration of war. (Cheers.)
late on Saturday evening last a messenger arrived with
tlie information that the Kmperor did not consider it
consistent with his dignity to give any answer to the
communication of the allied Powers, ami on Monday her
Majesty's royal message was read in this House. I think
your lordships will admit that wo have been actuated by
no selfish considerations?that we have sought for no
territorial aggrandizement una no extension ul lnlluence
om-7. u n? K {o.T ?''r tmdo> ??'' wo*fear nothing for
our Indian poflppsftifin*. (Cheer*.) For nnm. nr ?? J I
buUbrth make tb0 f.acrifice" w0 new about to make*
but for Dip preservation of ourhonnr ami our sell' rentier!-'
we are prepared to make any sacrifice; and H l. to n.aln
tain them that her Majoaty uppeula to the loyal devotion
I n hl/ r1'''., che,'rB ) ?n -Monday evening
a noble Earl opposite expressed a wish thai the agree
ments between England and France, and England, Franco
and Turkey, should be laid upon the table. Certain papers
altea,1y been delivered, but at the prcsentm"
ment we are not ablo to lay our agreement with
an m 1.?" r ,ulllp- At rresent it consists simply of
?nret^?*,nn0!? n?tf8, c?n,aininB arrangements with re
spect to military operations, and which have been drawn
U|? lor the purpose of facilitating: arrangements tine
si w^'tt"! o' hope may have been concluded before
? <?? L11'" l ' urr*ngementa are concluded the notes
between Fiance and England will take a more decisive
andde iuiteiorm. and will then be laid upon your lord
ships'Ublo With respect to the convention entered
ttato, I explained to my noble friend opposite (the Earl of !
Jiiilmcsbury), last night, that in Consequence of a mis
t ndcrslamting at the French Foreign oflice, the ambussa
rot ?t wrflK f n French at Constantinople had
trcafv bl?t ell I powers, and consequently the
tn.ul\ bad only been provisionally signed. It cannot
?n^I01?' 'I1 p.r,cst,nt be Iui(l uIl0n tbe table; but 1 mnvat
once reply to the inquiries made by my noble friend
evening, W?th Lp?ectto some
l,?d r?Li J. T" r,i regard to cerlain rumors which
titer t rfltj . the trra'y contain* no s'ipula
'Tlu/heT (ChcJ^\ ['"? Chilian n$gc?
/.i,' i f (Cluer*.) A question has boon asked br mv
noble friend opposite as to the terms and manner^
nnl l r*ie "?e *.l?Ut to carr.v on the war, but I think my
be awaroTlia t the Pre8" t*mt 1"?ation. when he must
X of We^"8t ;lupen,d ?P? * vast tari
check and repel the un^ SU.r ?Wect ** t0
what manner that will be carSK~ ?nd to
nt'overTf1! I1"** mUSt doPen<1 entirely upou the
Proverbial chances of war, upon the suceej that may I
attend our arm? and upon the activity of our allies^
When the British army went to Spain we went to assist
e country to defend themselves from '
aggn-Bsion; but in 1808, or 1800, or 1810, or 1811 we !
f.'r^On"'1' I8ay *? wnuld InBkp no peace except upon the
territorial arrangements which were ultimately fixed at
Vienna. In entering on war now wo do so to repel ug '
"le',e U n"\ a ,n dominion*
,2, ' .rs crpc'lthat -nitontinr?>lt Wlu
timut-iy Monti In Jin mo. /twill he mce duty, a* far a,
ue pom II y can, to prevent the realign!iten of that exnerta
htm, and to take care that a Kunian occupation mac nceee
bcn.n there. Were it to succeed, and were ltu.shTto UHn
,lTA?!o U? ni ut'lntir,',i)1.e' c<"""landing, as she would
do then, the lilack >ea and its shores, being enabled us
vert*.0! ' ??C"PT Circassia ami Georgia, and con
crt the population of those frontier countries
into one mighty army, having access to the Medi
terranean and u vast naval fleet in the ilaltic, and deter
mined, as she now is, to incren-o her naval power, with !
all those .acilities which steam and modern invention 1
hats nHorded for (he transport of troops?with all thexe
advantap,,. wm; Hunia pomnion of C,m*la,uin?u \
Uwould nolle loo much to tat/ that more than one WeTra I
?t\TT ' h'u ar [? undergo '/" fate of Poland (Cheers.)
1 he wealth and the intelligence and the civilization of
Europe would be no more a burrier against encroach
metals upon the jart of Russia than were the intelligence I
and civilization of ancient Rome against tlio encroach- i
mints of the Iluns and Vandals. (Cheers.) If I may
explain this question, it is not merely tlm protecliou of t
Turkey against .he oggrcs,eons ef Russia that ii con
cerm'd in the Eastern question, as it is commonly c ille i I
but it is the battle of civilization against barbarism i
(cheers), and the maintenance of the independence ,,t I
Europe. (Continued cheers.) Already, even without ter- i
Ntor.al aggrandizement, the |s>licy pursued bv Russia has
in a great measure, placed the nations of Germany in a
s.ate of dependence, tscyersl foreign governments, but i
nine particularly thoseoi Germany, have he< n acted upon
y Rnssia with a strength and intluence which hare been
and always will bo exercised to check education, the free
expression or opinion, nod tliat progress which is essen- i
to civilization. (Cheers.) The object of the Em
peror of Russia has been to render other countries de- ?
pendent upon him. From the papers which have alroadv
Ik en laid upon tl.o table of the House your lordships
?1nUfi,i"ae8r*D*tr"?u?Vut t,"! "ubmission of Austria
lo the desgns of the Emperor of Russia upon Turkey
was tak.n for granted, nnd tlmt, with resiKtct to
ill !ii i.Wa" not tll0uK1,t worthy of mention at
(Hear, hear.) Ar J even nftor all UrJ. had passed?
even in the courre of this very year, altar Austria and
I rue. ir 1 ad sirrnod the protocols condymning the con
duct of the Emperor il Russia, the Kirp. ror of Russia
pent a convention for tlie German lowers to sign for I
bis advantage, nnd did not authorize his agent to g ve
an amwer to the E-upcrer of Austria aimnllj wl.en "he I
asked what the policy of Die F.mperoi of Russia would be
in the event of hit signing that convention. Nor mould
the Emperor of Russia even say whither he would cro-s J
, Fanube or not. (Hear, hear.) But the convortlous
ariu propoBitiftDj of tho Emperoi' cf ntia^ia were rejected !
in ft mannev wvll calculated to maintain the dignity and
IniVependence of Austria and Prussia, (l-oud cheers.)
And here, my lords, let me repent what I have seal before, I
t ant thiirountry has every reafcn to be la'iilirt', with t ie I
conductor Anuria. (Cheers) She has Iwlmved in in
honorable and straightforward manner throughout tho
negotiations with Russia, red she has done, In her own
way, aid at hpr own time, everything that she could for
tbc preservation Of peace, and to malntaio the integrity |
of lurkcy. (Israel cheers.) I b'dieve sits has now plaeod
her irmy upon a war tooling, and only this evening Irs j
reived a communication stating tho p<*dtion of her ilif |
fcjent forces, which now amount to one hundred and I
thirty thousand men. Independently of her troops up-m
the frontier There is a difference, however, in the mode
, of action between Austria and Prussia. The Latter I'ower
i i de-drops of exercising n perfect neutr.'Iity; hot / mail
my that, with inch a war at it now about to w waned unia
tht frt wiermj balhovntrui. M not! be. impmiU ' l?reiL e
ft tier In w*nre a neutrality. At all evens, nothing could
iv won injurious or fatal to the b??<t iiitorcaiR r.
iHdh these countries tban a |.ro!?uc;ed w?r and
nothing could he hcttrr for thcui thun u short and de
eishe CMifisi li t if the two groat f.trman for e,
le the rctvlt mil tic ,'ohly tn /a,,.,r ,r
rntlutiand, therefore, favorable to the 11 <out
interests of Russia. (Hctvr, hear.) If tbe-o I'ower'
lifiwevci. proceed in accordance with popuh.r opinlou,
wbkh IS every day more snd mere against Russia it c m
oot lie for onei moment doubted that tho ultimate rev. 1'.
will be favorable to German indejendem e (Umd cheer..)
iUl J ower uhi h refutet. to Utul it,elf U, the deo, -M ,'f
hunt" mil tranefcr lo ilielf all the lojmtar nrmwj.hv of
J und ,M"' bande qf that Power will Ununwd
ha the futuredtttimin of tht. (i rmnn nation. Ijh ur o
1 d<> sincerely hoje that those two great
lowers?taking an accurate estimate both of the!- .>?>,
interests r.n<l the interests of Europe ?nivv lieeomn n. t
?h^tdM?th!iirrI,c-v w,,hlbpbnut
et wnf ,Wi U,n r *';'<i011 with ,hl>m It rust
the) will tske the parts which bedt them ia this grew,
struggle, the : et>ult of which concern* thsro even mor#
than Western Europe. I trust thai, at the ctose of this
struggle, we shall tind theiu by our side. reestablishing
peace uj a solid and secure foil relation ; but that peaoe,
in* Ionia, ?ill he neither solid nor secure, unless the
territmial extension and the immodcrrte influonoe of
)>iiee? lie effectually restrained. (ilear, hear) flutfl
peace v\ii! net hi* a glorious peace, id) lords, ii so*
do not s?cnrc ei|ual lights an<l immunities for the ' hris
tian subjects of Turkey, not securing tli. in by treaties
?'or bj a | vntectorate, nor by acquiring right*; fatal to the
very independence which we intend to uphold, but sa
curing tlu ift as the spontaneous act of ike SnlUu, au-t
not lesa binding on hiin on that aoeourn i"hear.) by
which be will best consult his own iutei*?,'h, ,ind by
which he will ntitle himself to the gratitu V of Huron**,
and afford to Kranee and Knglnnd the only return they
di aitn for the exertions wluoh they arc now waking on
his beluilf. With these objects in view, and if the frown
meets, as I trust it will, with the unanimous support of
the Parliament uud people of this country, we may hum
bly hope thut the protection of Heaven may bo vouch
safed to the cause which wc believe to he a right one
and we may look forward boldly and fearlessly to the re
sult of this struggle in which wo are about to oinbark.
(Cheer*.) Tlio noble Earl concluded by moving that an
nnnihlo address tie presented to her Majesty to return
her Majesty the thanks of this House for her most gra
cious message, and for the communication of the several
pa|toiH which hare been laid before it in ohedienou to
her Majesty's command; to assure her Majesty of the
just seiiso we entertain of her Majesty's anaious and uni
form endeavor! to preserve to her people the blessings ?C
pcuco, and dCour perfect confidence in her Majesty's dis
position to terminate the calamities of war whenever
that object can be accomplished consistently with thn
honor of her Majesty'a crown and the interests of her
1 eople, that we have observed with iloep concern that
her Mujestv's endeavor* htve been frustrated by tlM
of Bu
vpirit of aggression displayed by the Emperor <
in his invasion sad continued occupation of tha provinasn
of Wnllschia and Moldavia, in the rejection of cqiiitablt
teimsof peace proposed under the sanction of four of thn
principal Powers of p.urope. and in the preparation of iaa
mense force* to support his unjust pretensions; that
these pretensions appear to us subversive of the Inde
pendence of the Turkish empire; that we feel that thn
trust reposed in us demands, on our part, a tlrm deter
mination to co-opiate with her Majesty in a vigorous
resistance to the projects of a sovereign whose farther
aggrandizement would he dangerous to the independence
of Europe.
The Pari of Drkbt?I rise, my lords, not for the pur
pose of offering any opposition to the adoption of the
address which has just been moved by the noble earl op
posite. because I concur with hiin in thinking that thin
is an occnsion upon which it is of the utmost impor
tance that, whatever may lie our difference of opinion
as to the manner in which the negotiations which have
preceded this issue have bccu carried on, this is a mo
ment, I say?an occasion iijioii which it is of importanoe
?of the utmost and most vital importance?that there
should he no difference in the expression of opinion bgr
this and the other House of Parliament?an expression
of opinion which 1 believe, with the noble earl, will carry
with it the general ami almost universal feeling of the
country?with regard to the necessity of giving effective
support to her Majesty's government in the prosecution
of that war which, however lamentable, and however
much to he deprecated as ail war must he, is in it.iolf, in
my belief, and In the belief of the country, a just war, nnl
which, in the prosenl state of things, howerer different
it may have been originally, in also ? necessary war.
(CheerB.) I am only apprchensivo, my lords, that an
tier Majesty's government, up to the latest moment,have
continued to hope aguiist hope?that as. up to the last
moment, they have spoken of peace when all around
them breathed of war?so that, even at the present nse
meut, they imperfectly appreciate, or, to use an Ameri
can expression, they fail to ' realize" the magnitude, thn
importance, and the probable duration of that arduoun
struggle upon winch no arc now about to enter. I fear,
too, that the country ha* set its hopes and expectations
too high with regard to the immediate and direct sucoeen
of the war which weare about to undertake. I fern that
it underrate*the resouro**?man especially for the pur
poses of defensive warfare?of the great antagonist whom
wc liavo to meet; thut it underrates the difficulties vrhioh
must he thrown in the way of even the beat combined
operations of the moat gallant armies and of the moat
powerful fleets, from circumstances against which
neither bravory nor conduct can secure thoae
fleets and armies. If I venture, my lords,
at tills moment, when we are entering upon a great war,
to call your attention and the attention of the country
to its importance, to its magnitude, and to its possible
duration, it is not with a vie?v of discouraging that enthu
siasm which the noble earl describes to be felt by the
nation on this question?it is with 110 wish to damp thw
ardor and eagerness of the people of this country to sup
port, at whatever Ancrilicu to themselves, that whieh
they believe to boa just and sacred cause; but 1 do it,
well knowing the character and nature of my country
men, believing that their energies, their eagerness, ami
their enthusiasm would rather be increased and excited
than diminished hv having placed before them plainly
and distinctly the magnitude of the struggle and tho
greatness of the sacrifices for which they must be pre
pared. I think nothing could be so unfortunate a* that
we should enter upnu this great struggle with an idea en
tertained on the part of a great portion of the country
still less with an idea entertained and encouraged on the
port of Jler Majesty*! government?that this war is like
ly to bean affair of trifling duration. (Hear, hear.) I
cannot conceive n greater mortification, I cannot con
ceive a greater discouragement than that this country
should trel after two or three campaigns that they had
made hut little progress towards the attainment of the
object which they had been led to believe would be in
stantaneous of execute n. It is infinitely bettor to know
iteforehand the actual extent of that which we are about
to undertake, thoji lightly to contract hopes and expep
Inlious which may he baffled by the result. It Is net,
however, henuiw j think this war is likely to be one of
long duration; it is not because I rear that wado not en
ter upon it in so full a state of preparation as eould bw
wished; it is not bora use I fear that, for tho defensive,
the Fnipcror of Russia, even If lie receives neither oo
operatlon nor neutrality, is a formidable antagonist; if it
not on that account that 1 join in deprecating a war
which, however easily it might have been avoided
in Uh origin, lias now, I think, become neoes
sarv for the protection of the liberties of Europe. I con
cur fully with the noble earl opposite in thinking that
the jmtettunif Cotirlanliniple would, in puinl of Jott,
pive Kuuia on overwhelming pou er, which would render h*r
mittreu and arbitrator of jturnpe. and a prrat part if
Aria. 1 concur with him, also, in thinking?although i
think he did not express that opinion, yot it is one which
he must cnterluin?that tho assumption of that amount
of influence, of that protectorate whieh Russia claim*
over Turkey, will eventually, If allowed by the rest of
Europe, give her the same power, and place her in the
same position in Europe, ss if the forcibly occupied thit
country with her armids. (Hear, hear) It is impor
tant thai We rhouhl understand what it is for which we
arc about to contend, and what position that is which ia
demanded by Russia. 1 concur with the nohlc earl i i
thinking that from the very tirst moment ih? preten
sions of Russia to this protectorate, for which she ha*
throughout uniformly contended, were pretensions
which it was impossible to adroit, anil pri-ten-ien*
which, if admitted, would place her in a position
of sovereignty over Turkey. It is. therefore, not
mi rely for the expulsion of the Russian forces from
the provinces, but for tho purpose of placing tho
relations between Russia and Turkey, by tho
art of univi rsal Europe, upon a footing which
shall be that of two inde; endant States, not that of one
Stale nominally Independent of the other, but really
throttled and strangled under a protectorate. (Hear/
/ onrur, thm, with th i.obit rarl that thit i" a tufl
and ntc'ixary war and I fear it is now inevitable; but
in accepting the cliallenge which has been thrown out by
the coble earl opposite to inter upon a dismission of th*
revelations which have baoti msdc by the secret paper*
lately laid on the table cu the House. 1 am afraid I am
not prepared to go along with him in tho view
wl .en he lakes ?s to the deception which ho thins*
be i been practised towards this country by Russia, or
wish the conyiction, which he still entertains, that with
the confidence which thsy had id the representation*
-undo to them by the Emperor of Russia, nor Majesty's
lot ernn cut were justified in supposing thst there was no
danger to tl o prnco of Europe arising from those, preten
sions. I must go further, i must say that, meaning aw
p. rsonul disrespect, i believe this war would never hav*
taken piece, thai these pretensions never would havw
been put forward if, st the very time of Ibis particular
contest srlsieg, th* noble earl opposite bad not been
minister. (Chugs, and counter rbeers.l It Is irnpo*
-ihleto CDtei- upon the consideration or these paper*
wiilic ut referring, in the first in-t-jme, to th*t memoraa
duro?that set r e t memorandum w blch hss born produoed
and lnid on the table bv the nobl . earl. I mean thememo
randurn whieh I. erroneously, had always supposed to
have been prepared by Karon llrunow, but which is now
stated to Is- thememorandnm .<f Count Neseelrode, drams
up in i S44. The endc rsenient upon this memorandum I*
i no of a singular qjiaracter It is stated to be n memo
random framed upou enmm mirations received from the
Emperor of Russia subsequent to ins imperial Majesty'*
visit to England. Now, 1 xare soy tho memorandum was
framed subsequently to his Imjierisl Majesty's visit tw
England. hut I do not understand what sre Cause oom
onunications from the Emperor to which reference i*
made. 1 do not nndersUnd whetherthey wcrecommuiM
cat ionx to Count Neseelrode?though that can hardly bo
the meaning of the indorsement?or whether tliev were
c mmumeations to her Moj'sty's government, mu le sub
sequently to the Emperor's visit. It so, where are
these communicitions? If to, tlier .i , a diplomatic;
correspondence?there s r despatches to be pro
duccd but no despatches hsvc liesn produced on thi*
1 tart of the subject. If I am not mlst*krn, however, thie
niemomndum, at w hatever time it might have been from
ed. was framed in cor.tequenrn of communication*?per
i sot.al communicationv?which took place at the period oi
ilia Emperor's visit to this country in 1R44. It was fram
ed, IIciisve, iifiaj i ersonal?notofficial??common>rt!on?
aith two or three ministers, of whom the noble K*ri is,
; at th< | resent jnoini nt tho only survivor, and sfter a
si i' il personal oommunication w.th the noble i t U?m
| self, who at that time filled the offleo of Foreign Swore
i ti ty. lhe document Itself is of a very remarks * char
acter. It is not no official docr ment?it is no one. I
think 1 can Venture to 8k\ , which was brought ?'"W th?
I cognirance or consideration of the cabinet <? wtocn tho
! noble Earl and mvsclf were at Ibst time both members.
I It vut not an official docunn nt st nil. but il was a
t al document, binding upon tb# noble tan himself, not
binding in the slightest degree upon soy subsequent min
i inter at the Foreign ofltoe. It remained not with the ordin
ary paper" of the Foreign office, bnt In thernstndj of each
successive Secretary of State, with no copy of it whatever
in the E'orelgn office. I have reason to know the gieat
importance which Russia attaches to this document,
because, when I seceded to office, 1 had occupied the ait -
I usiion which I then had the honor to hold Msrraly a dag
I or two, when both to myself and to my noWo tpOU'i trim

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