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THE RIGHTS OF NEUTRALS.
ConUnatU (runt the of Mny V. CHAPTER VI?LAST. IL Prttrnt I far?Ihe Manifetton?Limit t'pon the .Ven tral lliyhlto Cany Enemy's Propel ty to the Be'tijerents ?iU Epoch?total Exclueion of Individual Person and Property From Attack, the Ottjec' of the A meliorative Byotem?Effect, to Abrogate War?Probable Chanye of Boiliyerent Policy Durmy the War?Search?Extent of 0tnlrabandim?Annoyance of the Betliyermt Through Neutral Iradt?Tn ublet A rainy from Blockade?Old Prtn spies not Renounced? Confidence of the_AUim?Neu tral and Belligerent Cannot Harmonist?hSreulum of Trade, Itself Multiplier the Chances <f Collision. As was to bo expected after a forty years' peace, occupied by agencies of such remarkable change in international relations, and so augmentive of that grand force of progressive public sentiment, the awe of which affords so much greater restraint upon governments than all the venerable limitations of the lextalionis, the manifestoes put forth by the belligerents, in commencing the present war, ex planatory of their intended policy towards neutrals, have a very moderate air. We should not yet, how ever, congratulate ourselves too much upon the as sumed sacrifice of old belligerent doctrine. The concession to neutral demands, respectable as it ap pears , is not complete. The British government us serts still, a portion of the old principle. Though it would seem the neutral is to be allowed a perfectly free trade with either belligerent, yet this pri vilege does not extend to the business of carrying between the belligerents themselves. Lord Clarendon's instructions to the Consul at Riga, together with a reply of the Committee of the Privy Council for Trade to a query of the Engli-h merchants, declare that neutrals will not be allowed to transport property belonging to the enemy, (limit ng the application of this restriction, of course, to goods brought to the British market.) If England means to maintain this restriction ulonc, it is by it self not merely useless of any result to her bene!it, but is directly adverse to her own interests. If the Hade of neutrals between Russia and all other ports except with the enemies of Itu-gia, is left free, tiiia restriction, in its utmost effect, will merely limit the amount of Russian products England shall purchase and the quantity of manufactures she may herself sell to that country. It injures herself, without in the least affecting Russia, as she can send the go ds refused by England to other markets, and receive from them the manufactures which England refuses to sell l'cr. The real oiHjration of this rule must bo to force England for the chief portion of ttie goods she buys from, and of tiio.se she sells to, Russia, to pay the increased expense of an indirect voyage be tween the two countries?placing her, in both ways, in unfavorable competition with other countries. A portion of thistradc might be accommodated through nentral homes established within the Russian terri tory. but wo suppose this would be regarded as too thin a cover of the direct trade between the enemies themselves. A part of the trade will, of course, still continue as direct as before, under clandestine ar rangements of the British and Russian merchants with neutrals, so subtle as to elude the vigilance of the governments. It would Bcem that England, if intending to main tain no other restriction upon uetttrals than this, would better have let this gone with the rest of the old theories. But there were considerations which, in a manner, forced the retention of this. To have sacrificed this,would be a complete revolution in all the practices and ideas combined under the name of war. (live perfect freedom to the euemy's merchan dise?placing the commerce in them upon the same footing as in jicace?there is no reason, then, why the freedom to carry them should not be accorded to the enemy's ships. If all property but ships is free, why not make the ships free also? Thus private property would be entirely excepted from the touch of war. and national hostility would leave the rela tions l)Ctween subjects unchanged. But this would atiip war of nearly all its importance. The people, quietly pursuing their usual avocations, would care httle about the hostility carried on by either govern ment against the property of the other government. War, merely as a strife of officials, would seem ridiculous, and the use of armies and navies for the Jirotection of any interests of the people, would no onger be apparent. It is to this end that what we call the improvements in, and relaxations of, the War sj irit inevitably tend. It is not to modify and humanise the system that combines masses of indi vidual hostility, hot it is to abolish it absolutely. It strikes at the very root of the system. It Htaits upon the recognition of the principle th it it is unjust to impress individual persons or property into a strife into which individual interest docs not prompt, and its ultimate object etui be nothing less ih.tu the absolute immunity of the individual from the obuee. The progress of the teform has already gone so far as to umke a declaration of war a ve y untowaul position between governments, as .-een iii The present case. And it is only the thin paitition of the regulation alluded to which saves this war, as commenced, (tout the character of being a inert cou te-t on one side, at lo.u-t, of office-holders?a fray of the representatives of the people. But wc ought not to feci too .secure that the pro gramme of the war set forth in the beginning is that which will be retained to its close. Nothing is so liable to change as the policy both of couits and oarnns in the management of a war. Cirenmst nccs liable to isrpetuul change ex-rt an overbearing in fluence upon the uctiousof all parties in war. It has been the usual policy of England to pay much de ference to the rights of neutrals in the commence ment of her ware. governments, like the pugilists whose bestiality shocks them, usually enter the ring in comparatively good humor, but grow more and more savage and reckless as the set-to proceed. Beginning with the purpose of a few fair rounds, they are ever ready for a general row. Inc opening for the resumption of old principles is, it deed, sufficiently wide, through the presc it maiiih stocs. floods contraband of war, that is, such as are comprehended tinder the term war-sup plies, arc excepted from the general privilege ac corded neutral trade with the enemy. T1 at ex ception every one st ems to consider perfectly rea sonable. But how shall the prohibition he cni treed? Will the invoice of cargo tie considered sutScient evidence of the nature of the cargo? Assuredly not. If that were the case, the exception might u? well be promulgrtrd against the transportation in the same ships of ay mpnthios adverse to the cause ?f the allies. What "ther course then remains, what other can be even now contemplated, but the practice of search? And docs any one suppose tlut (be inspection of the cargoes of neutral vessels by belligerents, can possibly bo unattended with aim- < and outrages, which shall create unavoidable diffi culty between the p? wcr at peace and the power at war? But, again, what are those which the French Em peror calls *? war supplies in contraband?" The de Itnitiuu of them fas cur been according to the ability and designs of the putty enforcing < ?%<!?:-* *>nn. Vteb. vi -sen the very ample expo-it'cii * roLtrr.lnndism in the .lay tmtv. Wl i .e., n quite contracted definitions, in other eases, li t . " neutrals are allowed their own definition, it \ ;ll certainly 1 e n very narrow one. It h r.ot to bo ex pected that parties will agree any better at present than foimeily. If warlike st res?those undeniable sin h?tiso to a high price in Russia, the neutrals will certainly t ke advantage of tin ir privilege of in trade to convey very considerable supplies there t to hor ports, which they will continue to do in spite even of search. The fact becoming known, must be retaliated. How? By a restriction upon the free trade n tired in openfng the war. Vg.iin: the American* and others will certainly, under the fr?e trade privilege, carry into Russia, and s i t o its government. large vessels, apparently men bant in ti. 1 t int. i <'c i to t>o converted Into vt? els of war. Will that lie allowed? Vet it cannot lie ?hipped o loe.r n fm trade is permitted. Our old principle the general sentiment does not sccra yet to have required belligerents to relin t i-h ? that is, exclusion by blockade?which is sufficient to nullify, practically, all the concessions made to nentral*. Napoleon has declared the determh.idic of the allies to muintain iutar't the right of pr vent ing nentra's violating any blockade, with the quali fication that it is to lie "established by means of sufficient forces," All the Bits-ian ports then, may lie put in blockade and kept iu that state durin, lie war. In the enforcement of blockade, trouble can not hot arise, regarding especially violations abe.-, ,| on one side and denied on the other. And as regards Ibo amount of force, nothing U more likely than That it will lie found convenient to maintain block ades with lOMiffit u tit f?,rrt\ especially if the whole coast he declared iu n stite of blockade, as it like'v enough may. Then we may lo tk out for a renew ;.i of the old contest as to th- merits of aper ??? an agency of siege. bet it be noticed that the btlligcmits d?not, ovi n in the owning of the war. when ?? resjiectful t award neutrals, renounce any of the old claims. Tim ire ?aid merely to be laid by "for tLc present."'" The new principle*, though standing well in the public sentiment, ?re not vet engrafted on th code of international law*. The present po sition of the belligerents is just *f?.?t ling- | land has been accustomed to diameter,'-- p -im ? lar course at other time*, "a relaxation" on.'v ot I her established poliry. At any moment in wfc'eh J it may suit her purpose to revive the old system, h.1 its full stringency, she wili not hesitate to do sc. Wc have not the slightest doubt lint to some extent, | and that as far as she dares to go, she will, in the eourre of the war. take the road backward toward j^r old pretension*. The extent of Ifcr progrr** j w?y will depend upon thy degree of exigency, | and the comparative ascendency of.her fears in other directions. It is very apparent, that in the id the idf present alliance of France, and the idea of a tirm union between them in regard to future objects, I'n^laiid feela a degree of strength, and has as sumed a boldness of tone long unusual with her. How far France will go with her, is to be seen. At present, tbe best spirit seems to prevail between tln m. France Las reason to hesitate at any revival of tbe theories so long and stubbornly resisted by her; but should tbe condition of the cause seem to require their revival, Napoleon will certainly not ob ject. Tbe air of the old enemies has rather too I strong an odor of invincibility, against all possible ; contingencies, lo assume a perfectly cautious policy on their part. Should they quarrel, and become : antagonists again, in the midst of the war, or renew the old strife at its conclusion, a partial return to the old grounds of controversy secniH inevitable. Nations at all times study their own interest, in steud of the welfare of others, and never is this prin ciple so active, of course, us with those in a belliger ent attitude. Neutral interests form very little of their concern. All the respect paid them is that ex tol ted by fear of consequences. The interest of the neutral and lielligereut?of l'cace and War?can never be rendered harmonious, as some people seem to think. They must forever clash. The nation ut war is in reality at hostility wBb the whole world. Kngland was lately, as a power at peace, on the most fair and satisfactory terms whfi the United States. Rhe professes just as much friendship now but thow is not the same feeling of confidence here. Why? Because in going to war against another j nation, she has declared a limited war upon us. Bhe ! assures us, not of the advantages guaranteed before, j but of her disposition to limit, pa much as she may, tbe Injuries -Tic will Inflict npon us. That is all. We accept the assurance, not of fuvor, but of modi fied hostility; and are suspicious for the future. The very purpose of exempting our iutcrcsta from i attack, seems rather to increase the danger. It brings peace nnd war into more intimate neighbor hood?multiplies indefinitely the Doints of contact between tin in- and very seriously augments the liabilities of collision. tfur Virginia Com*|ioiiil(iic?i Mount Vernon, ) V atrkax County, Va., May 0, 1854. j Trip to Mrunt Vernon by Steamboat?The Tomb of Washington?Its Dilapidated and Shameful Condition?The Mansion and the Grounds Walking Sticks, Plants ami flowers for Sale Some Apology for the Present Proprietor?Duty if Congress to Preserve the liana ins of Washing tea and his Consort in a Decent Vault, d-c., fi-r. A little Htramboat plying daily between Washing ton city and Mount Vernon, sixteen miles below, round trip one dollar, makes the excursion to the home and the tomb of Washington cheap and con venient; and, with a pleasant company, a line dav, and ft few leisure hours, especially on Suturduy, the trip to a stranger is almost irresistible?leaving ; V ashiugton at 9 or 10 A. M. and returning by 3 P. I M., w ilh an hour and a half for explorations at Mount I Vernon. An immense.acquisitlon to the daily pil J grin s there has been the result of the introduction i of this btcamboat communication. Before its intro duction, several years ago, the round trip was a hard day's journey over the hilla and hollows, and by a desperate country road, at an expense for a carriage of from five to eight dollars; and the visi ter w ere comparatively few and far between. But here we are. We have landed from the boat upon a substantial pier, which has been run out a hundred yards into the river. Those shad and her ring upon the dock are from the fishing landing a few hundred yards below. It is the fishing season, and almost at every point where the beach is favora ble, there is a "fishing shore," so called, where the shad and herring are hauled out by seines, some of them a mile long. The Potomac thus yields many thousands of barrels of shad and herring every season. Wc strike at once, on reaching the shore, upon hal lowed ground. Here is a plank foot-way ascending a little hollow between tie wooded hills which rise abruptly from the river's bank. These woods, you will i erccive, still comprehend a fear of the primitive oaks of Washington's day ; but a heavy growth of small, stunted timber and scrubby underbrush, with here and there a prostraic tree, disfiguring the jungle, shows, upon entering the threshold of this formerly beautiful estate, that it has been steadily running to waste and decay. hollowing the plank foot-way to a lower plateau of the summit level, some three bundled yards from the river, we iland in front of the tomb of Wa .hlng ton, and are gazing through the iron gate at the two J rcophagi which inclose, the one the ashes of the " Father of his Country," and the other the dust of Martha, consort of George Washington. Immediately behind us are two marble obelisks, the oue in me mory i f Judge Bushrod Washington, a nephew to win in the General bequeathed Mount Vernon, and the other to John Augustine Washington, u ne phew of the Judge, end his successor inoccupation of this estate,and the father of John Augustine, the present proprietor. To the right of the tomb is ano ther obelisk, to the memory of Mrs. Conrad, wife of the ex-Secretary of War of that name. She was formerly a Miss I.cwis, of the valley of Virginia, the Lewises being u branch oi the Washington family. But look at the interior of this simple brick vault put i p at an expense of a few hundred dollars! The pla-t, 1 nig has l?een falling from the walls, and lies a maw- ot rubbish, on the floor! The brickwork upon which Washington's sarcophagus rests, is ci unfiling away. That familiar lard of the South, to v. n as tlie bee-wee, lias introduced life into tins bouse ef the dead. In that recess in the back wall there an two ne ts of this inoffensive bird, and an other liiiectly against the face of the wall, above the < titer iwo, which is perhaps the home of a pair of swhiU'W! . In ft few weeks, if not disturbed there v, ill 11 tiii co fan) * lie 8 of these birds, hee-wees and svallows, in occupation of the tomb of Washington. Nun. mark you, that young Mack man, who vends In- walking .-ticks, cut from the hickory, sweet gum, citlar. saI.- alias, ash. oitk and other trees in thc-e grove sells them at twenty-five cents n piece. 5 ou pry tin pi ice readily. kou know tliey are genuine. 1 he raw mi terinl is too abundant around you to suppo-t that a darkey would go oft' this place to get no timber, when the hone t article is easier to ob tain than the spurious. Moreover,the cant s of this ''Imp at the torn) i re enhanced in value, becam e you rot them at the spot it-elf. He has them displayed a; a.I -1 the very veil of the tomb, all soits a id 1"'ln commentary ?pon human plow is ! , I j,f' piave ot Washington ieduced to a mar ? f< i f ht vending of walking sticks (in the rough,) .t tv, luy-i.vr ct nts apiece! Now, if this darkey ? i o i" i of the sl.it it'dncss ef n Yankee, when those i" t -wf j vol swallows iiavc hatched out their young, a.", 11 re they arc ready tot j, he would watch n. ? opj:< -.tunity, and when a pit pet- customer came ni' ng. I e mm lit sell a single bird for a bundled, live a nth tuiiud thlhir-. Yes, there are n t ? v. ik w. Id even give a thoi sar d dollars 101 a '??id let. hi (| in the tomb of \\ ashington. I w.sg ou from this saddening scene of dihf,id i v t : m ??lit.* to the higher plateau of ti e mansion, n ?' i;; I, j... nkrd Jo twny around the brow of the ' ,'1 .* ;! ^IC woodi next the I. ?i smllnot dt-cribe this mansion. Li I I Ti ' .'i iIr<,"t rorr;raam"ng. and exceedingly | -1 * I* i ho house, the out-hundiags, too garden, I v I** os . nd the shrubbery, are tastefully and Inn | I..U1,.cus.y t- ml .nod into a general grouping which i,n l'!l f ur of the man sift, a broad green held, level us n floor, ex !?'. 'i - o lv v aitl it r pc i!:np- a quaitor of n milt. f aukt d on eat I. side by shade tices, most of tl,em of sj outer cons growth. I here me some tall l.oin Mudy poplars among them, which first designate fri n. the distance (from their superior h, i -ht') in any direction, the precise locality ?f Mount Vernon. )<rvi ,.y of the mansions of the ancient, "first tan 'lies ' of the Old Dominion are marked hv these l. n.bin.lv poplars. For example, in descending to ? l otomac. lor upwards of a hundred miles to its U", ih y< n will frequently observe upon the Vir pu ll l: | f. n duster of I.ombardies, and tliougb von n . y iKt detect anything else from the b .at, relv "i'Vi ' """? indicate tlie presence of a once *?'? nb. coh rilal establishment, gone, or coin ' vt< -t ilt'dv . to a melancholy state of decay, in ft. 11 i.f the Mount Vernon mansion there is na V '?? several acres, sottly sloping down to the verge of the wooded declivity which atn.pi iv tlt scetuis to the river, and this lawn is ! 7. v i profusely cvitfi yellow bnttercnps and ' 1','i 'Iii' t " nglit tin it, is it small wheat ( l ei,I and bark of it an apple orchard. The woods ' ? \c. "p?tf the left a stone's throw from th. r'mr"!,tirn- *hich rovers the entire tlu central building, the view of the brood l oumar. and the fobs ,,f Maryland and Virginia, fi'v. end leiow. i- eery fine, notwithstanding ths IIi'", /'1P' rsrnn<f'of "'J Hie surrounding eountrv - that of a poor soli, irre, lalmable, except by long (" t j ue.!. earenfi and , xpft.-ivr cultivation. i t the ladies have gon. ?.*<.;? to the garden. I,et "ft join tli, i,. there W a can't go '??- But a colored "m uiis mside the gate.rea.iy io trade, and our ;*'/ arc mircliaxingbonquet, ani.' little flower I ot- "t reasonable prices There j, , ,fn>on , , J ' ???'den, planted by Hnablngton.and the le,??ns ' from ibis tier w,?v ir b,d at a dollar a n , , -T ,? I ih-y ate well worAjt to -u- i, as have Uw mumy ,0 ] spare. There would soon be no garden here If th^ public were universally admitted, and allowed to pick and choose for themselves. The expense, 0f a guard to prevent petty larcenies, on the othr^ is more than the proprietor could bear, and, we mUHt therefore excuse him in the compromise vvhich he bus adopted, of allowing plants, flower* and bou quets to be sold by the sentinel at t\,e gatc. The hall of the house and two rxmmn lire open to the public. We will not enter t^to details concern ing them, as they have bec n ^ 0ften described before. We will simply register our names in the general record ?f visiters, and leave. Sorry we have not tieer, able to meet Mr. John A. Washington; but he jH not often visible to stran gers. He could do r.othing else if he was to devote his time to them, coming, as they do, from fifty to two or three hundred per day, during eight or nine months In the y'mr. There is quKe an improvement in the general ap pearance of tAis mansion, and the whole series of buildings attached to it, contrasted with their ap pearance t en years ago. Then they appeared in the decomposition; now, they are in a pretr lust stage of < ty good state of preservation, and look smart and tuly in their new coat of whitewash. Otherwise, however, the place is still in a shabby and lamenta ble condition, especially the tomb of Washington and its immediate surroundings. You ask me, does Mr. Washington share in the proceeds of the sales of the garden articles, and in the profits of the walking-canes, at the tomb and at the binding? I suppose he does. His object is, doubtless, to prevent the indiscriminate destruction which visiters would otherwise make among the plants, shrubs, and young timber; and as two or three idle negroes upon this place, (reduced as it has been to a tithe of what it was in Washington's time), could not be spared for the accommodation of the public, the proprietor can uo no better than make tne public share witli him in the costs of their visits to this holy ground. The very fact that Mr. Washington has offered to sell the estate for $200, 000 to the government, is proof that he is not able to suppoit it. He has doubtless expended all his receipts from the public, in the pier and the plank walks for their accommodation. He would doubt las.- have done much more had be been able to do it. Iiut he is not wealthy. The lands of this Mount Vernon fnim, cut down to a few hundred acres, like all the lauds of this region, are poor. George Wash ington made them pay ; but lie had many thousand acres, and was a prince among farmers, as he was without a peer among men. It is very doubtful if a 1 etter practical faimer can now be found in the United Ftates than was Washington, notwithstand ing all the improved implements and valuable dis co vc lies of our day. Finally, while we absolve Mr. John A. Washing ton fn m all blame, while we admit that under the circumstances he is doing the best he can, it is pain ful, it is shameful that Mount Vernon, and especially the tomb of Washington, should be in such a shabby, dilapidated, poveity-stilcken and neglected condi tion as we lind it. If the government does not buy the place?if the State of Virginia will not permit the United States to purchase it?Congress, with the consent of the proprietor, has yet the power to erect a decent tomb over the remains of Washington and his consort, where they lie, without disturbing tlicm. They should not be disturbed ; but an appropriate and durable tomb of marble should he erected over the ashes of the greatest and best man of our coun try or of any country ; and over Martha, the wife of Washington, whosleepBby his side. Congress should do this, and provide appropriate walks about those grounds for the public accommodation, and relieve Mr. Washington of the onerous duty, even though the property should remain in his hands. Weiall the attention of the Committee on Revolutionary Claims of both houses of Congress, to the present shameful condition of the tomb of Washingt on. Jr TICK. Destructive Fire In ClurlMton. At a V 1Hm tl,eCbarl??ton Mercurr, Mat 4.1 kit V?U sftif If*1 four o'clock y eater, lay morning, the Ui!rir? C!!-"e 0CCUPi?d by Mr. Robert Jenny, in ^"f"" ",If, e' nPar Kl1ne "'reet, was discovered to be on fire and rapidly communicating to the surrounding buildings ;eb pL of-ood; apprehensions for a while were entertained of an extenaive conflagration. Through the active and rkilfully directed exertions of onr firemen, ift'Tfttft'tbbo contested 1the progress of the flame. inch n'r.^'n-^u.T?rVrr?',!Ld raid,r*7 in 'be confined ave nun in which the fire originated. We derive the follow ?L\l7? tZ extent of the damage from the The kitchen of the house occupied by Mr. Robert Jen for'$500 ' * 0W'""1 bj Mf Nath*n X*th?DS. Insured i? "tojT wooden house, occupied bv Mrs Ricks be longing to the estate of Ricks. Insured for $500 .oh *?0<'c1n,h"u" owed by ? Roberts, a colored man and occupied by colored people. *>? wooden buildings owned by Mrs. Beattie one occu pied by her. Insurance for $1,600 in the Augusta Insu rance eflice, and the other insured for $1 25" h bulldi"K, ft"1"5 by c W. Crouch, occupied France ^K\coDBUreU ,2'?0? CtaH",lon A two story wooden houae, owned by Mr. John Halv and occupied by Mrs Walters. Insureu for $3,000 iu the bouth Carolina Insurance Company iu me .? ri?t bBnk n Uildin,rS vt Mr Robert White, (furniture store ) Buildings insured lor as.ow in the South Caro lina Insurance office, and furniture for about $1,000 loss est.mated at alout $2,5"0. ' Beck buildings of the house occupied bv Mr L. C. H int'he 1 talfteftft! bv Mr' ''?hn G,d,ere- Insured for $500 in tIio Jiartfoid insurance i.oinpanv. 1 On the north side of Burns' lane," the following is a list I of the projertv destroyed or damaged * wocd*? ,building, owned and occupied bv Mrs. Jo 'ar"*I1y burned. Insured In the Cha'rlesto# In kit "l eft rftft.'OO Co,nHny-hou?e for *,'20d and sured'for $7,000 g ?Wn<>d <""1 <*enI,ied b7 Mr PriW- In Mr. Harbeson'a dwelling, owned bv him, partiallv burned; insured Jointly in the Columbia Insurance and the l irenieu ? Insurance companies, for $1,200. l.cgnl Intelligence. t ' 0r,RT ?r Tn" Pwr*t> Stat*., Mav 4 ?No 00 Jjl? ti *1'1 I,ain,iffi in error, vs'llenrv Stod Cew'r f?,r u"rftli tl|"!ifr?f "'is c*',!-p WM concluded by Mr. t.e> r r for ti e plaintiffs in error. No. 100. James liwin npp. llant, vs. ilie Cnited States. Thin Cause was sub! mit ed to the Court on the record and printed arguments f'r 'be appellant and bv Attorney-General tushing for the appellees No 105 MRument ofnVblIr'r<1U,lt' " I)avid et si. The f.ft.'ftft 111 c*,u'e commenced bv Mr. IJnton appellee "nd conUniieU by Ml Uwfence for ti e May 6?T x parte. In the matter of Josiah Stafford and wife, appellants, vs the I nion Bank of Louisiana >7 Kis^Sr^atSW Couft,<,f l Qited States fir Com? , McLean delivered the opinion of this tourt overruling the motion to dismiss thir st.peal ai J award anrererfmrfe Kc No 105 u... r n.?1 ^ . tie ftusft7tiid','iifft oft' *" this"" rt within th. fi? r.<C?.rd 'he'eof with the clerk of wTt of er,i7ift' t**' of the berm; and if ' ?' mor ?c appeal .ball be brought from a Ju.lg I wL'.?n1*? Ic" tha? tl,lr1y d,y" before the 1 riail.tiir I ,7;!, Jft?'""'?'"buU Lethe duty of the I tile tit re rr i ii r T.lfJ docket the cause. Rid in the tiTst (hlr/l I thP 1 lrrk of ihi? Co"r< w-fh tn t otpt, thirty da}s of the term; and, if the plaintiff Ue e%n, '.""ft "ial1 "? ,r> "?">* ""b 'K .'e kV-e " ft-Visft ftft ?r *nt"'r ma> hare the tau.o 1 lilt . I. ,k ftf 11 IT . u,.?" producing a certificate from ' wa' rent'ered staifnw ?tT n ?>"' judgment or decree i ? '?'""Off 'be cause attl certifying thut such Ptl Ard'Iftnftct' e '! " dl lj "urd out *nd bit be V ft,He, ft ft1 H" rUlt'iff in error or n; pel "H' rSl e ,sm? ftftir!' '1'';' ai"' fll' 'bereftVr.l ui tier tier le ' i",P 1 <1 n i.orketed and iismisse<l sftnf ;iV::| Iftlte , a,ft.0rder01 *be Court or the cot 1 .! V,'i, ,1! in "mr or appellee mav at ? tb 11 -? clerk . - I I"1"' ' * C0P.T of th'- record f i.-,,! - , , , .1 ft!r, il 'he case la docketed 1 ' ? 'I. " ftl y i lft" i 0,1 ,Vi" e'erb of this Court 1 ai d i en ril r!i 17!i ? " 'ime above llmite,' | nu nt sd tbo 7eim. r' '? ^bal! "?n,l for argu nr V.'n'r"ft0,0 rorolof 'hirty .lavs is "i ft ft '' r' " " b*H b- a, tended to sfxtvdiys Waal i lot , ' , w" . l""'-1" ft> ni i abf.irni.i Or>gm. i ton. . ewMexico and l't*h.-jf?y 2. iihi. T-"ft?!" rp,'Rt w"?? r.ww.' sTy.*r._r, K 1ttfUn-hfttiirft y'^-ia, nn.l J. 1 rancis Cljm. nts. *l\'cenn cilov. of this court """ *';"'iUpd R"?rneys <>l!k> Raiiroat' (Vmr ^.""ball vs the Tlal'imore nn l l ft. r."r '? .'be Circuit Court of kS fOi SSSft et nT r'la liftniVftft'TT' ft""' * "r'd- Kdward Mlntnrn. r;, ... ? ! " Iredorick <}. King This I rlnt? d trgnn cftt* "l '"the court on the record and , Mrfltajeftofttheappe 1 leef?f ,h<> ge'lrs ? t ft ' "Tb '/re*1"1"".1''(4'1: ,n*. T?- Cltark'a f.'re Mr W! or, V lbs, a,I*e was romnx need eontinu'd bj Mr I rlRflKS( K Five Pf-Orfoff it In .1-. of th? a7f ?.m ''ntf'iamton Aliiy Rr Ilewft.n J.ab Ilatl.aw* tbp f' bowing paragraph- , -t... c.-itfti aftaftr,,[ hid rft: ><*'?***? child, n r,f a>n , ?i it .1 sistera. and two grand tn P ?k'aT ifti ectcrft """ft of M'indaor, Broome Co.. i tn'be.r way to chufth a'rrft. lb! ^'r'"'P",,ed as naual I /'?a ti fieset . i <i ? . -Susquehannn river. II Stror e r.nh .1, ' *lncti overhung the bunk; ! the stern of ti /? irr -v" ' "rrent rarried nroun l ting it anft.bft,; ,,g tHft: ; l""* *<?< I If fe "t h*' ft"' " ifC b" -n sistftr ft baft l?at when ths .eftft . r* ' in ,hp "ern of the ed thHsftaft ftftift'' ft h> bate effect wf o el. WiJ^iftu * * ' bl" for "" children, efforts ofCeorcft fbft. ?r?r ""'wlUiatsyndta* the , t.Tcftl.'ft, .Tre fiat ha way and his wife and (he i\ o eniiurrn ab< re mentioned as ?.i! ? . Hatf.avrav were ,|| drewnft], asli at a eSisr of O. OsUrage mi Amcrtmuii In Uic Falkland Island*. The following extracts from a private letter will be read with Interest:? Sriwurv RiUOi, j FllttUUrD Islakds, llarch IT, 1854 IIt Hear Sir?In accordance with ray promise to write to job, I should before this hare forwarded you an epis tle ; but, sinee leaving Boston, nothing of interest oc curred to vary the usual monotony of a cruise until about the 16th of February ult., when a despatch was received by the Commodore, then lying at Montevideo, from our commercial agent at these islands, stating that the cap tain of a whaler lying at New Island, the westernmost of the group, had been charged by some deserters from his ship with killing wild hogs, and that the Governer had ordered a man-of-war brig to proceed to the island and capture the ship. This information induced the Commodore to tend this ship (the Germentown) down to inquire into the faeta ?a proceeding the more necessary as no American ship cf war had viaited the group for twenty years. On the 2d we arrived, and learned that the brig-of war F-xpresa had sailed for New Island to capture the ship. On the 3d the American schooner Washington, a tender to the whaler, came in in charge of an English lieute nant snd six men, and was at once boarded and brought to anchor under our guns?the lieutenant, to aToidthe disagreeable necessity of saying that he surrendered, falsely stating that he was not in charge, but merely put on board to see the veesal in?a despicable equivo cation. On the afternoon of the tame day. the brig ar rived, having in company the whalo ship Hudson, Cap tain Cliff, which ship was also in charge of an English lieutenant. The ship not being able to enter the inner harbor, was anchored outside, and on discovering the pennant of a ship of war, the Lieutenant landed on the nearest bench, leaving on board only a constable having a warrant for the arrest of Captain Cliff. We at once sent on boRrd, restored the captain to his command, and learned the facts of the case. Nearly a year since Captain Cliff killed some wild hogs on an uninhabited island, which hogs had been placed there by himself and others whaling in that neighbor hood, iliat they might bread. Peroral months subsequent to this the Governor and Council passed an act imposing a fine of twenty pounds sterling upon any person who should kill any cattle upon any part of these islands: an act which could not extend to these hogs; lir?t, because they did not belong to the Falkland Island Coinpanr, for whose protection the act waa passed, and secondly that it was export faeto. The desertion of a boat's crew brought the knowledge of the killing to the Governor, and a writ was issued on the oath of these deserters for the arrest of Captain Cliff. Armed with this, and accompanied by ft constable to serve the writ, the Express sailed f?r New island, where the Hudson was lying moored, with sails unbent, and seired not the captain for whom they had a warrant, but the ship and schemer, made prisoners of the crews, and took possession of the ship's papers . Captain Cliff offered to proceed to Stanley in the schooner or in the man of war, and entreated the commander of the Express not to break up his voyage by removing the ship from her pre sent secure anchorage; deaf to all representations, ho nmrely stated that bis orders were to bring the ship and schooner, and ordeicd the mate of the ship, Mr. LMd*, to bend sails and prepare the ship for sea. under the threat of putting him in irons if he refused, a most atro cious violation of personal liberty, for which Captain Hoys and other rffleors of her Britannic Majesty's brig Ex],res-, deserve to be branded as pirates. Fully determined not to interfere in any way with the judicial authority, Captain Cliff appeared before the ma gistrate, and was fined eight hundred and eighty pounds sterling upon the charge of killing twenty-two nogs in August last. No evidence was offered by the prosecution other than the depositions of the deserters before named. The captain offered to prove by his log that at the time named he was on the coast of Patagonia; bnt this petty despot, a Mr. Montag, refused to hear the defendant either by himself or oounsel, thus committing under the color of the law a direct robbery, and affording Us an opportunity of seeing a specimen of English justice. The fine was subsequently reduced to twenty-seven pounds. It appears very clearly that this outrage has been caused solely by their jealousy of our having complete possession of the whole fishery off theee islands; and, un able to cope with our hardy seamen, they endeavor by petty exactions, trumped up charges, fines and imprison ments, to drive off our whalers. In this case they went AxJvIslBi W UIITr VII UUI WUtlVIC. 1U llilB (UV VHCJ nou out full of exultation to capture the " damned Yankee.' They return to find an American man of-war in port, and cap in hand deny any intention of violating our rights. This is not an isolated case?it occurs frequently; the accounts appear in the newspapers, the public indignation is excited; but the owner submits to the indignity and loss rather than lose time and money, waiting in the anticharobera of the authorities for satisfaction daily promised, but never given. All the papers in the case will be forwarded to the Sovernment, that it may demand satisfaction for the in ignity to our and compensation for breaking up the ship's voyage. F. Our Brazilian Correspondence. Kio dv Jammto. March 24, 1854. Rio Taking a Start ta Modern Civilisation?Introduction of Oat, Railroads and an Organised System of Water Supply?Ike Fashionable Watering Plact Petropolis? Visit of their Imperial Majesties to the Theatre?The Russian Tackt Shut Up in the Harbor of Rio. Ten years age I landed in this most interesting country, and in 1849 I left it again on a trip for California, anl re turned here, about four weeks since, in the fast steam ship Yanl.ee Bla le. I wa* gratified to find that auuie of the North American manufactured go?ds that were first introduced by me, have become stAple articles of com merce. and that some of our machinery and agricultural implements arc now much used here. The progress which Brazil has made in the period which I name has been great indeed. Amongst other evidences of this fact I may mention that gas was last night introduced into this city for the first time. The whole country for miles around, and entire families, with their long train of ebony slaves, were to be seen mareh Ing through the streets, to behold the cITect of this modern wonder. Even the man who lighted the lamps was an object of their respectful admiration. Good wholesome water is now freely brought through the city in iron tubes, and at every corner of the streets can be drawn into buckets and supplied to the houses. Yesterday the railread cars were also, for the first | time, successfully set In motion, on a short trip from l'ort Estrella, at the head of the nav igation of the river of January, to the base of the mountain leading to Pe tropolis. a flourishing place about fifty miles from this city, and which was first settled about eight yearn ago. by a colony of German emigrants. The Emperor has built a palace there, where he s|>enda the Bummer months l'etropolis has also become a fashionable watering nlace. To reach it. yon take a small steamer in Rio. which conveys you about thirty miles, to Port Es trella Railroad, the length of which is ten miles: an om nibus couveys you ten more up hill, and you are then at the end of your destination. Yesterday was an imperial gala day. Ilia Imperial Majesty and the Empress, attended by the Court, came into the p alace in the city, with an escort of about 800 mounted troops, in handsome uniforms. They then at tended mass, which was celebrated in the imperial cl apel. by the Bishop of Rio. a very aged man. All the ships in the harbor were dressed with their flags. In the afternoon there was a general review of the troops, and in the e\euiDg their Majesties attended the theatre Bon Pedro II. Is beloved by all his subjects, and no country lias fairer prosp octs of long years of peace before it. There fortunately has been no yellow fever in this country this tear, and as the season for it is nearly pas-ed, wc all flatter ourselves that we will not bo vi- ] sited by it this year. 27th.?The Russian yacht did not get out of the hsrbor. as was reported, and 1 hear this morning that it belongs to a Russian prince, who is on board. Che i ss been tacking about the harbor, but has not yet succeeded in her escape, as the English steamship of war is watching her closely. Tb# coffee market is in an unsettled Btxte. There is a slight decline on former ifuoutionr?the news of the late steam packet from Europe being considered unfavorable to the coffee mnrket? say 4 millrie? per arrba of 32 lbs . having dicllred frtra last wiek two hundred rs.. alout 11c. on the arc! a. E. II 3. The Por*? cf Cn'soifijo ami Msyagurr, In Porto Rico?Their llesjiectlvc Capo'riilt lea, Nkw York. May 9, 1S54. J.AMRe CoSPOS rS'MTT Fsq. :? Sir?But recently returned from the port of Caborojo, on the we?i side of the island of Perto Rico. 1 would res l?ctfully request of you to insert the t, Rowing remarl in your valuable and widely circulating journal, for the b< ntfli of auch fbi| owners and masters of ve els as may le trading to that part. 7hc port of Caborojo is lo ato 1 s'.mctt at the extreme we.-t by south side of Porto ilioo. l td l.as but recently been opened as a port cf ea'ry. 'be nnehoreg is excellent, and the harbor affords the 1 est protection to all vessels that visit it. The depth of water within from two hundred to two hundred and fifty yards frtm the shore .vi-rages about twenty feet. Vessels iHrrlari e and leceite cargo by nienns o llglrers. and the distance from shore where vessels generally an el.or is so trifling that the expense of lighterage is* ma teiiallv diminished, and is much lower tl U n u I ports in the island of Porto Rico. Vessels drawing from twene to twelve and a half feet of water can anchor within a few hundred yards of the shore in |ierfect safety, and the means of irgre?s and egress to the hartsor are such that a master of a vessel ran enter with | orfeet safety, by aid of a pilot, who can always le procured outside the bar. The port In question is stout (ire and a half miles distant from the better kr.cwn and larger port of Mayagurr, which is the principal port of export in the west side of the island, flo-rcvcr, the l-ar of Mayi goer being more open, cannot afford that protection in case of a gale which would be afforded by the harbor of Caborojo, where the water is generally ralia and un disturbed. The i xports from Caborojo arealmr st exclusively sugar and molasses r.nd the estates lelng located within but a few rods from the sea shore the facilities for loading vessels are great i As this jwirt is but little known, I think it Important. to the interests of comon-ree that attention aliculd be , railed to its cap abilities. Your obedient servant. G W STROUT. s Master of sehoi ner J. Pritble of Harrington A K'I>e Pckkw PRorKM.rjt.?The propeller Baltic, with t at't. Whittaker's new side screwa. went out on a l trial tup * few milea up the lakejyoa terday afternoon. As it was vnponsihle to get suflh-it-ait steam up. in conse I ouene? of si,me temporay difficulty Willi the boilers, the trial was not e'- nsiilsred any test of the speed which can he accomplishes.' with the new principle, but siifliiceut was done to satisfy every person of the entire butcss of the aide screw, snt to prrrve that the invention ia the opening of a new er4 in the navigation of the lakes by prorel'ers 1 he persona interested are no rfectly satisfied with their progress, and confident in the achievement of a great triumph ?Buffalo Ccxwterp'd'; May 0. ?e41ral Intelligence. The corporation of Harvard College hove recently con ferred the degree of I>octor of Medicine upon some twenty-elx students of that institution. At the reeent annual commencement at Philadelphia of the Pennevlvanla Female Medical College the regular medical degree was conferred upon Mrs. Lueimla R. brown of Galveston. Texan; Mine F.. O. Bhattuck, of Philadelphia Miss Kltxabeth H. Hate., of Morris Otsego V V and Miss Fiieger, of Germany, all of whom have exhibited a very conalferable degree of adapUtlon to the duties of the profession. The l/>ndon Lancet state, that in 1848-'9 it wis d scor .red that the epidemic cholera in that eltywa. SS s svasss s toe^te. oTmortality at different elovatlons was ob, served to characterize It. The mortality in the districts at an average elevation of twent^and Udow was Id in 100,000; at forty and below sixty feet 1l 100,000; at sixty and below eighty, only 4. at eighty an below one hundred, only 3; while at an elevatiii than twenty feet above Trinity high water mark, the mortality was 31 in 100,000 of the inhabitants. Dr. Lather ReiUy died at Harrisburg on the 2?th ult., aged fifty-nine years. He hsd been identified with the various public interests of the community in which he lived, for a third of a century, fulfilling the trusts con ferred upon him with unvarying fidelity, and died much respected and esteemed by his fellow-citizens. Dr. John Bradley died at Williamsburg, on the 10th ult. at Ihe age of 49. Dr. Morris, a well known phy sician and citizen, died In Brooklyn on the 8th inst., at the age of 66. Dr. Stephen Cummlngs died at Richmond Island, Me , on the 2d inst., at the age of 82. The case of Dr. Thomas H. Pinkerton, to reoorer fees for medico-mesmeric attendance on one of his patients, a Mr Kinsley, of Somerville, Mass., was recently tried in the Court of Common Pleas, in Boston, and resulted In a veidict for the plaintiff's claim of $83 83. Dr. Charles F. Haffeniahl, of Boston, also recovered In a suit brought befors the same term for homeopathic ser vices rendered Mr LewiB Hanson. The doctor claimed $24. but the jury increased the amount to one hundred ?-cents. l)r. IHckson, of London, says that the sudden grasping of a ieg or arm, on the application of ft ligature, has ar rested tits of inauia and epflepsy, and lie attributes many of the good effects of bleeding to the ligatures used in the operation, arising from the sense ot touch, which, it is well known, is spread over the whole surfaceof the bodv, and may he affected in many ways. The lightest touch to the white of the eye often causes protracted pain; some persons may be thrown into fits by putting a bristle into the nose or ear; touching the fauces, or back part of the mouth, causes vomiting; touching the inter nal bui face of the bladder has produced vomiting, Taint ing. chills, rheumatism, and epilepsy. Vaccine matter, says the Medical Inreitigattr. consists of at least two substances?tho infectious substance, which developes itself in the malpighi.m mucus, beneath the epidermis, and causes the reproduction of the vaccine disease, the cow pox; and second, the liquid or dried pus of the pustule, or crust to which the infectious substance, or vaccine, adheres. It is all Important that the vaccine matter should be placed in the rete muco sum, immediately beneath the epidermis, and never so deep as to resch "the cuti* vera. An opium eater?accustomed to using a quarter of an ouDce of morphine per week-narrates some of the effects which lie experienced by the Jkjibit, "viz. citv for bodily exertion or locomotion; obstruction of the lures, torpidity of the liver constipation, palpi tation of the heart, mental debility, reverie, misan thropby. Madame Baivin, of France, a noted midwife, delivered 20,517 women, and of this number only s xtecn were de livertd by embryotomy (cutting |tho child by initru menu,) in all oT which the mother reef vered. Madame La Cbapelle, it is also stated, attended 15,652 cases, four teen being delivered by embryotomy, and all the mo thers recovered safely. On the other hand, It Is asserted that in the cases of embryotomy coming under the care of the most celebrated and experienced male acoouchers of Europe, one mother died out of every five thus de livered. Toothache, which i* the result of eimple exposure and irritation of the dental pulp inay eccording to Dr/Tegg. a well informed writer on the subject of odontalgia, be treated by the application of narcotics and anesthetics, to deaden sensation, or vehement stimulation of the ox posed nerve, to exhau.t its sensibility, or?^th."'en tial oils of cloves, cinnamon, cajeput; kreosote com bined with morphia. In a thin paste, acta well. A thick solution of gutta pereba in chlerofonn allays the pain, and forms a coating which shields the nerve for a time. Permanent relief is only afforded by extraction of the tooth, or destroying its nerve. For the latter ??en?ui acid is the most efficient, combined with four parts of morphia, to abate the pain. Apply directly to the nerve, on a small pellet moistened with kreosote, and covered with a cap of wax, so as to avoid pressure. The nie of calomel in diseaAsof children was the topic of discussion at a recent meeting of the Philadelphia County Medical Socioty. The Journal says that the va rious medical gentlemen who spoke on the subject coin cidcd in the opinion that calomel is a valuable, or uther an invaluable, remedial agent in dysentery, cholera infantum, croup, fevers, inflammatory and brain tlis eases. The editor of the Connecticut Courant has some judl clous observations In a recent number of that paper, on the injurious effects of exposing the limbs of young fe male children to the cold, according to the present mode of juvenile dress. It may In time harden the constitution, hut. in nine cases ont of ten, tho little sufferer falls a victim, in some way or other, of the process, on sooonnt of the effect upon the circulation of the bWl lnducal bv the sudden changes of temperature. There is no easier method of bringing on croup or lung fever than allowing the legs to become so intensely cold as they must, frequently, by this injudicious fashion of dressing. The New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal nhich wns owned and edited by the late lamented Dr. Hcter, has been sold since his decease. Dr. Dowler will proba bly be his successor iu the editorial conduct of the Jour nal. Dr. F. II. Ellis has been elected President of the Madl son and Indianapolis Railroad eompany. The rlima'e of Australia is far less genial and health ful than that of California. During the six month* violent inlluenzas are prevalent. Sudden deaths are terribly frequent; and deaths by disease of tho heart are very frequent; dvsenteryc so common in summer, is rapidly followed by "mortification. Scarlet fever, liver complaints, and scarlatina prevail very generally. Considerable excitement has been created among the medical profesaion in London?so says the Morning A(l cert iter of that citv?on account of the hands of a young ladv having become so firmly clenched together na to re quire great force to separate the fingers, and then only for a moment, from the palm of her hands. Tho phe nomenon occurred while .-he was trying the table moving experiments, and since then she lias lost the ukc of liar hands. Calignani't Meuenger says that tl.cmnn,Pansales, who was attacked by a tiger, so that lbs nose was bitten off? hangingWly by the skin of the upper lip?besides receiv ing several" wounds on the head and elsewhere, was placed in the lianda of medical men. who replaced the skin on the skull, readjusted the ear. refitted the nose, after removing tho bones and cartilages, ahich could not be cemeclcatrized. and then dressed tho other wounds To prevent inflammation, tliey Wept bladders filled with ice around the head ol tho patient for five days. Hie nose novr adheres entirely; tho skin of the skull has alio ad hcved but the iar is'sti 1 not quite solid. In proof of the influence of vaccination in England, it is stated that out of every one thousand deaths ir the half centurv from 1760 to 1600, there wore nim-ty-six of smallpox; out of a like number from 1600 to 1860, thir ls.live were of smallpox. In the various German Mates sufficient evidence, it is said, can be obtained to show that, before vaccination wa* used, out of every one thousand deaths there occurred from smallpox GO.a, after vaccination 7 26. Tn an article on female physicians, by Mrs. Fowler communicated to Dr. Cook's new medical journal, tho wiiter says she knows of a lady, not much more than twenty years old, who already has a good medical business. The Rhode Island Medical Society, in its cod? of rtli ?? , vayn-?"The use of quack medicines should bo discou raged by the faculty as disgraceful to the profess.on. Injuriou-to health, and often destructive of i .e. No pbv'ician or surgeon, therefore, >lv?ula ditptnic'ft Be cret roitraro. eve n If it he bii invention or exclu de proiertr. for if it is of real efficacy tho concealment o, it fo inconsistent with lieiiencence an 1 professional lihe rnliiv, and if rovstety alone give it v.lue and import ni.ee, such craft implies disgraceful ignorauce or fraudu lent avarice." The Bo-ton Medical and Str, irnl Jo? rn?' gives rather a scrrv account of the.fctmf of Dr. E. IT .Bavin ta that city "ih" doctor, who is a I'rof sor of Materia Medio* it "the Xf w V- k Medical College, cow: need a eour** of four lector- on the "Mounds and Ancient I nr.h Wriksif the i)lsid?'!pi! Valley," at the Boston 1 n*?-j ?r-t tutc. On the evening of the fir-t b ture the nail v . - den-clv filled w th ladies and gentlemen, bat tan ,!o?;c r's imbnria r-?.nt* were so grist as to detract vry much Ircin the good effect of his p Tfnrman c. 11 ril l'scon save that on a certain occasion he saw the In art of a mar who wns di-cmbowtll ? I, (a* a trallor,) which, i dug thrown Into the fir? a^rdingto the run t. m. 1?. ped ? "t a' a fn"' * I'alfhiKh. and t-co 1. ss bv d. grees, lor tbe apace ..f some seven or eight ml nule?: It is a!-o related of another man who Was dsenv bowi lied in the same manner, that after his b*nrt ** er.tirely t.*n out of his body, and In the hard, of he ex ecutioner. he was heard to say three or four words of prayer. The report of tho Vermont Asylum for the Inmne or tic last year, shows that there were S.k pailonta In that instil tion . n the 1st of August last. Dr. Rockwell, the skilful and humane superintendent, sa.vs that of those l laced In the asylum within six month* from the attack nearly nine tenths have recovered?a very cousiderabie proportion. Mrs Lyi la J- Tlerson. the well known writer, is to be a regular contributor to the new Journal of Medioal lie form, published tn this city. The City Registrar of Boston, in his recent rep rt, holds the f< Rowing language iu respect to the mortality returns ?' It is bcl.oved that from ten to twenty pior cent too many ere reported, and recorded, as dying of consumption." It is not to he denied that phthisis is the great life destroyer of our climate, but it is believed by manv intelligent and professional observers that too much is charged to 'his malady, while scrofula, maras mn<?a genera", wasting without pulm nary affection? and disesses induced by vicious indulgences, do not boar their true proportion. Two surgeons in Paris were recently condemned to pay a nominal line for allowing a patient to die under the effects of chloroform. The Court sustained the follow ing allecaticns. and hence its decision 1st, that chloro totin til unnecessarily administered, as the operation t<? he performed was not of sufficient magnitude to juati.'y its emplovment; 2d, that the room waa not suffi ciently ventilated; 3d, that no provision had been made against accident. I<r. Abrahams haa successfully employed the Inhala tion of pnrff oxygen gaa In the caae of a young man aa phynateri by the vapora of chlorofnrmandapparcntly near death Dr. A. suggests the employment of this agent m stsjensicB el '?? lion of tb? fumes of charcoal, from the fixed aix Of pits mines, he. If Blondlot has given it as his opinion, before tb Academy of Sciences, of ]*aris, that the bile exerciae no chemical action on the chyme, and that digestlo would proceed just as well without the interference o bile. He considers the latter fluid as a kind of detrltai of which the economy frees itself by means of the inter tines. A medical correspondent of the New Hampshire Joumc of Mtdicine states that for three years he has used alui in croup, and in all that time has not seen a fatal ca.* which was treated with it from the beginning. He usij ally gives about ten grains, onee in ten minutes, nntJ vomiting is induced, using st the same time tartar-em A or the hire syrup freely?tiie latter subduing the infilu,? mation, while the alum lias more of a repulsive action. I)r. Kirkbride, the physician of the Pennsylvania Hoi pitai for the Insane, gives a tabular statement in hislai annual report, of the age, sex, occupation, condition an cause of the insanity of all the cases which have bee admitted into that institution aince 1841. Of the 1,2(1 msles, the farmers take the lead, numbering 188, air there were also 27 physicians. The number of femah treated was 1,000. A work on rheumatism and gout haa been published b Dr. Wiss, Berlin. The hot air bath ia very strongly ri commended in both affections. In England, treatises o the cholera have appeared, severally from the pens c Mrs. Scott, Alison, Cilkrest, and Hearne?the last name writer commending in strong terms the utility of a> ministering acetate oi lead, (three grains.) and opine (cue grain.) every fifteen minutes in the diarrheal stag The excellent memoirs of the celebrated Dr. Aberne* p which have recently attracted so much attention on tl part of the public, and which have been ;erused wit equal interest by the professional and general reader, s having a large sale in Europe and this country. Kespec ing I'r A.'s well known eccentricity and roughnes which, in these volumes are dwelt upon with somewh.' of emphasis, a writer in the Medica Chimrgical Rcvi> very jnstly remarks :?"Nature Led gifted the heart . Abernethy with a rare tenderness and generosity; sli had placed on the surface only, the ruggedness whn? springs from mental disquietude and from fbilii' health." Dr. Noble, in his lately issued work on insanity, defln it as consisting in chronic disorder of the brain, indu ing perversion of ideas prejudicial to, or destructive c the freedom of the will. He maintains, with gre acuteness, bis position as to the essential connection b twten lliis disease and cerebral disorders. It is a fact statistically proved, and more general thij any other that has been ascertained in regard to I It health of different portions of the human race, til among those iu want of the comforts of life there is ia greatest amount of sickness and mortality. Dr. George S. Jones has become associate! with Pr < V. C. Mnith, the present Mayor of Boston, in the edit J ship of the Boston Medical and Surgical J mm 11. Obltnai y. Diuni or the Masque or Axgobjey.?The dee] of the Marquis of Anglesey is announced by t i telegraphic report from Halifax. Henry William 1'L get, Marquis of Anglesey, was horn in 1708. After! classical education, commenced at Westminster sch> I and completed at Oxford, he entered the army. He serv | in Danders under the Duke of York, aud subsequent* in the Peninsula, where he distinguished himself byf Beries of brillinnl achievements. At Waterloo he evinc much skill in command, and personal daring, which e< him a leg He was elected a member of Parliament, jl , subsequently succeeded, on the death of his father, t. ' seat in the House of Peers as the Earl of Uxhridg During the trial of Queen Caroline, the wife of Geor the Fourth, he took the unpopular side against t former. It is related that on one occasion, being si rounded by a crowd who insisted upon his shouting f the Queen, he, after holding out as long as possible, claimed, " The Queon, then ; may all your wives be li her!" He held ofiie? under fanning, and was made, the Wellington Cabinet, Vioeroy of Ireland, where 1" rule was judicious, conciliatory and popular. He was :i early advocate for Catholic emancipation. The Marqi \ was divorced from his first wife, who was a daughter the Earl of Jersey, aud he subsequently married t\ daughter of the Karl of Cardigan. The Marquis of Any sey always entertained, in spite of his active life, a lo ' for studious retirement, and clang fondly to the achols tie attainments of his early days at Westminster ai Oxford. Diath or Lord Cock burn.?Lord Cockbnrn is dead. ] i was one of the Scotch Judges, and is known to the lit! rsry world as the biographer of Lord Jeffrey. He was inveterate whig, and an associate of the brilliant circ < of reviewers and spirited whi^ partisans of Edinbui Although fond of literary pursuits, and of the society literary men. his only appearance as an author was the biographer of his friend. Lord Jeffrey. This wo did not ao much for his reputation. It was too local its character, and destitute of those catholic sympatbil a true man of literature would have exhibited, and su<) a subject as the great critical hierarch claimed. Lo I Cockburn was an able lawyer, an effective orator, ail possessed of such social characteristics as made him tH favorite companion of the best mtn ef Edinburg. Oapt. Thomas L. Ringgoid, of the ordinance corps, dlq at Washington on the 11th Inst. Benton Again In the Field In Mlnonrt. We obBerre by the following guah-offieial article the Mittouri Democrat, that the distinguished Missouri) has signified his willingness to becanc a candidate f>? re-election to Congress at the expiration of liis preset " term, and also a candidate to the United States Sena*, to succeed Senator Atchison :? k' We are authorized to announce Thomas II. Benton a* candidate for Congress in this district, subject to the wis cs of the democracy us expressed by a primary electi ? In making this announcement, it is due to Colonel Bent, to say, that in the j r. sent instance, as diring a long li devoted to the service of his oountry, he li ready to ubid the decision of the people, and the peopb only. If tt democrats of the Fir, t district desire that he shou again stand forth to confront the combiied whigs at uulliflers, no personal disinclination will induce him t decline doing so. War has been made upbn the repr sentatlveof tho First district in his own camp, lnsu and outrage have been oast upon all the demo :rats in tl Ptate of Missouri by mere neophytes in place, and If tl democracy wish to vindicate their ownnonor it is the right to do so, and they have a preemption of thir years upon tlie use of his name. We are also authorized to state, that Col Benton likewise a candidate before the people of the State large, for re-election to the Senate of the Unit. States. By a foul and fraudulent treachery the der ocratic party was cheated of their choice for Sen tor in 1850, and was betrayed to the whigs. The appe whieh was takin in behalf of the Union, and against tl nullitiers, was endorsed by Missouri. Yet the bribe of few paltry bank officers induced a part of those wl were trusted by the democracy to cover themselves wit everlasting ignominy, and sell the office of Senator of tl United ttati ?. Again we see the dark flag of ulterior di nnicn unfolded, and tbe?e traitors marshalling thai selves under the guise af a new slavery agitation, for tl purpose of contesting once more the loyalty of Miasm to the glorious confederation of the States. Thegauntl has been thrown down?tire leaders of the former revr lihv gotten themselves installed in office?all the ap? j unces of powerand corruption and intrigue are coal.-sen for renewed conflict, yet the democracy of our Stat strong in their own sense of duty?strong in their o faith?strong in patriotic devotion to the common be ol union?do not fear the battle. They will sweep <? t chad, from their federal entrenchment* those whom th hurkd with such withering contempt from tire Legitl ture. the b?nk?, the bench, and all the offices of t! State. They will once more crush the Incipient plot vindicate their own choice for Senator, establish tl right of the majority to rule, and make the will of t! people the only will to be respected by administration loth national and tstate. Tl ffp cannot be road out of tl ranks by subalterns in office, for refusing to swear feal to atrocious appointments; and, though defrauded ai Cheated, they will n. t submit even to be ignored by m guided councils at Washington. Tutors (ioimj to California Overland.?( Ffttuiday evening a detachment of th? third regiment V. p. Aitiller;-. rnnsi tirg of companies A and H, ? numl ering in all some one hundred au 1 eighty me v i r.t up tl.e I'nle < rr the steamer Ocean, on their way Cah'ornla. The route they are to take is that by t south pasa of the Kocky Mountain*. At Fort Leave .to, th they are to be joined by a detachment of dragooi end th> \ expect to leave that point about the 1st J; 10. 'lhenco tin t will proceed up the Platte riverto t' South Pass and to Felt 1 r kc. | rohvbljr wintering inUt t at ! cen'iuuiBjtfcelfJ" umey r. the spring. Th" officv in tl.. detachment are J b ut. t'? Innel f?tepioe, commvn tt . 1 r. Y? iit ?, surge, n Major Keynoldaand Lie iten .e (Ur.t'ler, I iv.ngftcn n.id Tyler Pr. Wirt* and Lie Chandler, with re nte twenty of the privates, v . re < board the Ban French #? at the time of fie r. ? ? I tcr, and underwent hardship*from whlob s- m ot t! are on n now but jti-t beginning to IWovm .and w it. will leave their effects i pon them furs li e tune Wet versed with one of the poor felb.w i.i li i ' pi t tl tough the e terrible It ials, and the evident ' itr,?/. ? w!,.<h he rcvcrti 1 to (he rcenes, was a pai-ri d proof tl.e fltiicgs I." It encountered. II- ? ? t. .. u"l b terly of the treatment the troopt ha?l reset ? 1, ?t id that they felt it hard that the survivor should ha no lccomjense, even in a tittle evira Indulgence. for th* horrors thoy bad lner ubjected to Whnr wo pressed a btpe that thet trowli r*celv? ?tj?r np<i titn wl <u they arrived in (aliforals. !.,? re-,lied ? i v i.en there the gm.emment would probably lo<o tli It <? curred to us that something must he wrong, wh such a spirit is shn ad among the troops. Tt Is state however, that for the present Journey every provision h been mede for the comfort and health of the men, and is t* be hoped that the gallant fellows will have a pie tint trip. Their presence will doubtless pro re a who! some check upon the Indians. Col. Stento* is said to nn excellent officer and he served with distinction in t M"xicsn war Ms i r.eyno'dswas abu in the last w and received two brevets fur gallant conduct.?BujJ Aahit iter. Mai) 8. Toe Indian BuRKAr The Commissioner of 1 dlnn Affairs is ju t now understood I* he v?ry cin e er gaged in the work of negotiating treaties with most the different Indian delegations now in Washingf Therc are delegations from eight distinct tribes now hot more of them t>eing thn? represented at this point th ever before. Tbey are the Uelawares, Shawn es Kick i^'os. Stock bridges. (hickasaws, Choctaws. and otbei ft is understood that the task of coming to a aettlemr j witli the various Nebraska tribes represented, proves be a very difficult one indeed. They are said to evin reusideiable indispi nition to the proposed method isvmentof their annuities to be agreed on. which t government conceives to he best for them That is, goede, Instruction, farming, tools, Ac. Those who a ilvilired, und are already far advanced in th" whi man's aits, habits and customs, complain against it wi I a 'bow of reason, urging that they can disburse th. funds from the gov f rnment mote judiciously, so far tl.elr own Intetest is concerned, thsn any governrae agent can. In nu st cases, however, if wears ngA in. taken, tli# proportion of uneiviliied to ritiliied ?s fn* . ten to one hundred to one It strikes us that under su ?irenmstanres, as a general thing, it will be most ilifflct , to dispense with advantage to the tribes at Urge, wi the uurpose of so pay ing Iheir annui'ies under all futu treat.'??, as to make it certain 1hat the money will not for whiskey and beads, as heretofore,? H'oiAfeotor Atn ml; Msy Q.