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MODERN NAVAL WAR ARE.
Important Report from the Sonata Committee. Setewity for a Railltdl Reform la (he Ame rican !favy, die., dir., Ac. In the Senate of the United States, on the 17th inst., Mr. Mallory, from the Committee on Naval ?Affaire, made the following report aud offered the autnexed bill, for a reform in our navy:? BECO-tT. The Committee on Naval Affaire having had un der consideration the Navy, and having carefully examined the means of improving it, reporta:? Tho naval .'crviee has neither the ships, the arma ments, nor the organization which-the condition, commerce, and resources of the country, and the expenditures for its maintenance, demand. With a commerce covering the globe, and exceeding in ton nage that of every other power, our means for pro tecting it are fur less than those of the smallest maritime State. Prance, w ith that completeness of plan and atten tion to detail which distinguish all her public insti tutions and works, has at this moment tbe best dis ciplined and most efficient ships, B<iuadrons and fleets, that have ever existed, iter equipments, her gunnery practice, her squadron and licet sailing and manoeuvring, aided by her propellers, have never bees equalled, and huve elicited the admiration of tlic naval world. France, in tbe days of her greatest pow er, bitterly wept the want of a conquering navy, and by a steadfast and consistent policy?first mark out and urged by the Prince do Joiiiville?she b nobly prepared to retrieve the na-t. I l.ocr 01 c of the last decrees of her National As sembly, made iu October, 184:1, the report of its JM! xmttcc ui fifteen members, chosen by b illot, was fcl fished in l'.ll, in two large qu irto volumes of Jl.iiteen bundled i ges, an 1 embraces seuching in J iries into every branch of the material aud per l unci of the naval scivice. Great Britain, with 1. re aud heavier ships, is as yet uneein >1 to l-'ri ice, lucrmia yet essential details ) tho-c numerous ye t c --att.-l details, Vuiou cam I': e F e mind and matte r of n .v il irviee, in t.ic 3, t t fde lent oigni.ii.ati u. Yet both navies pus- j se .< in ci i: mon, those elements of offensive and do | fei ive ) (weti which may be regarded as changing ! the rl.nreoter of naval warfare, and ns destined to m .kt its contest the forlorn hope s of the seas. '1 he auxiliary screw, protected from the effect of shot, while it enables I elligerent ships to approach *md engage, with equal control over wind and sea, a:idremoves all cxcust ffflKavckliug a contest.gives to neither the advantage in the fight; nnd this, with the introdafltion of the eight and ten Inch I'nix fcan el.i II, is tkc salient improv- sient in naval war fare. The round elu.t, pat.-lng entirely through the bull of the ship, does it c >m,i irAively little injury. Its course through tho oak phiuking can hardly be traced by a qui 11, at d a r.irj: iter's plug repair's the dumugc. Still les.tinj .ry i-done if the shit does not pass through. In Terry's engagement on Lake liiie, his ship received one hundred and twelve round shot in Iter hull, and came gallantly and vic toriously into poi't. But the days of stuff contest1 are pa t: and we may now regard them as the amicable iud gallant jousts of ocean's courtly knights, in comparison to the future battles of the great deep, if th 'cry, teste d by experiments and sustained by the results of tho Ir.te action at Sbirpe, may be relied on. It mayb' considered as a fact pretty well established, that two or three explosive nine or ten inch shells, well nimed and properly planted, are enoa rh to tear oat the side of the largest ship, and completely to disa ble. if not wholly destroy her. We quote from the experiments made with nine inch explosive shot in the harbor of Bre.-t, upon the Parillcontour, an eighty gun ship. The piece to be fired was in Hint ed on n small pontoon, and planted off upon the wa ter to the distance of about six hundred and forty yards from the eighty gun ship, which was to be the target. The experiments were made In the presence ot' u ?Mm ot the most ciuincnt officers in the French navy. The first shot sufficed to determine opinions; but to complete the evidence twelve shot were tired. The following is a summary from the official report on the occasion:? The first shot struck low, and as soon as the explosion was heard the Commission re paired on board. A thick smoke filled the between decks, where the bomb had burst. | The fire engine was worked, and the smoke lasted *|ui or twelve minutes: the l>onib had made a ??cucli of eight and a half inches diameter iu the flip's side, which there was twenty-nine inches piick ; it had torn off two feet of the inner plunk tnd then exploded, made a hole iu the orlop | }, i k of two to three feet square, nuit knocked away |u id shattered to atoms more than one hundred Ami sixty square feet of timber. The second bomb traversed the quarterdeck, car Tying with it two pieces of plunk, one of which was Bvc and a quarter feet long; then, striking the mainmast obliquely, it knocked off a splinter from three to four feet long and nine and a U.df inches thick, and bursting, tore away a mast band ten and a lialf feet in circumference, weighing one hundred and thirty pounds. This mass of iron wa-> driven with such force that one of its halves struck the op C*ite bulwark, seventeen feet distant, where it flat ned and adhered. The splinters of the bomb shat tered the bits, cut some of the braces, and would have injured many men and articles of rigging if the ?Mp had been equipped. The explosion also set fire to a coil of rope. The third bomb entered the side, between two Sorts, struck and tore ofl'an oaken knee seven feet ve inches long, nnd six and a half to thirteen aud three quarter inches thick, which with its iron fast enings weighed more than two hundred ami six pounds; then bursting, its splinters knocked down forty of the wooden figures nailed around the guns to represent men. The explosion also shattered one of the beams supporting the decks above, starting Heveral plunks, one of which was ten and a balf feet long, ami another five aud a quarter feet, Ac. To abridge t las detail, we will only refer to the 1 two most remarkable shots of the remaining nine. Perceiving that the bombs always passed through tbe side of the vessel, the charge of the gun was di minisht d each time. With four and a half pounds of powder, and always at six hundred and forty yards, a bomb struck in the wood between two ports and burst, tearing away the frame aud plank ing and making a breach of several feet iu height and width, so shattered, that all present thought that the shot would have endangered the vessel hail it taken effect near the water line. Besides this, two pieces of the iron work, weighing sixteen f ounds, were driven inlxjard, by the force of lie explosion, and nineteen figures knocked ?]iwn. Finally, the twelfth and last bomb, with the same small charge, and nt the same dis tance, struck the corner of a port, knocked away ' heavy piece of iron work, and lodged on the other hie of tbe s-ide ol the ship, against an iron knee five and a quarter inches in size, and firmly supported: the Blow made three fissures in the iron, two of which -wore four and a quarter inches thick: aud the bomb, ?till unbroken, buried it-elf further in the side, Burst, and knocked down twenty figures. As to the havoc made upon a ship by the ~e projec tiles, the French commissioner was of opinion that 1t was "ao terrible and so great that it is thought one or two bombs of this k:nd, bursting in a battery, would make such confusion as to cause the surrender of the vessel, or at lca-t conduce materially to it," and "to produce, by the power of the bomb and its splinters, such damage in the frame that if tiie ex plosion Mould take place near the water line the ve?el would probably sink. There is no doubt on this subject,'' it was qdded, "an may evidently b< perceived from the r< cult of bomb No. 4, which, had it strut k a few feet lower, would certainly have dose irreparable mischief. Buch ate the naval ornaments of England, France, and llu-sis, and while we acknowledge their mighty V?n?er, v e may well doubt, In the al cnee of all ex jHTienee, the policy of placing upou n ship a numer ous liMltery of such guns, ear it or which u, of itself, fmffieieiit to destroy an adversary, iusWad of divid ing them among several ship*. Perhaps the full..wine comparative view nny l*?*t illustrate the relative force of our navy. lu IMS, <*ce Hen. th-o. 187. 20 Cong. 1 seta.,) before the three great 1 owirs of Europe bad put in commU-ion many of their shl|>s which have -incc Wen *e:it to aeo. Urcat Britain, for every 100,000 tuns ol com merce liad afloat and efficient 6*s gnus. Frame 1,003 " HussIh 2, I'd! " United State* bad bat 07 " The British navy has at no peri<>d been so fonnida hle as at this moment, a- will appear from a glance lit Steel's List of the Royal Navy for Wit. It is ntntcd at 545 effective ships, mounting 13,754 gain, many of them of the heaviest character. tue list of m-iew steamers gives:? (?nn.?. Two of ' 130 One of 101 Five of 00 Two of 80 Eight of 50 to 70 fslx of 21 to 40 The screw steamer* in course of completion were Three of .100 to 130 Mix of 90 Three of 80 One of .50 1 be application of tire screw to the ordinary snip ??f the line, giving bor an auxiliary speed of from lour to seven knot*, is the salient improvement r here the British have excelled the French. Even tj hite we art writing, we learn that the Cre^y, a 90 gun ship of the Baltic fleet, wm driven from her moorings, anil only saved from going ashore on the Hwrditl. coast by ncr screw. Your committee baa thus briefly reverted to the navies of the great commercial powers of fiurope, the letter to illustrate the condition of our own. We have no suchHliips aa the R >yal Albert, the Duke of Wellington, the .lames Watt, or the Aga memnon. Our most efficient steamship, judging fioni her success, is the side-wheel Mississippi; and the British Beard of Engineers appointed to inspect the side-wheel ships of the royal navy, during the past year, pronounced them all totally unfit for fighting naval actions. The Mississippi consumes but about twenty-three tons of coal per day, and can cross the Atlantic under steam or sail. While, in reviewing the condition of our own naval establishment, we cannot ln t express the coufident opinion that, with unequalled mechanical skill, abun dant material and resouroes.we have within ourselves the means of excelling all nations in naval power, we cannot but acknowledge, at the same time, that no bianch of the public service his exhibited, with in the last twenty years, a more fruitless expemliture of these resources." Forgetful that the purpose, and the only purno e, of a navy Is.to protect commerce oin Uie f and sustain the interests and honor of the country upon the great deep, and thut all expenditures not immediately conducing to the.-o important objects, should not be charged to the navy, we have wasted millions upon shins which have never made a cruise, upon navy yaras and stations and naval docks, absolutely useless, and upon chi merical discoveries involving hypothetical improve ments, and that after all, w"c have not a ship of the line in commission. The exigencies of naval warfare, now seem to de mand, as the perfection of naval superiority, the gicatest known speed with the greatest known ar mament. The British screw ship Himalaya, of nearly 4,000 tens, has isade fourteen knots, and the battery of the Pennsylvania is 140 guns. A union then of these requisites would produce the most formidable naval structure?and tneir combination should bo governed by the character of their destined service. The steamships-of a home squadron, witli harbors, workshops and coal yards ever under their lea, ' should sacrifice power for speed. TUB PERSONNEL OF THE NAVY. It is net a little remarkable that the American ; e.ui.en who, during the war of 1812, tired more ra ! idly, accurately and destructively than those of (I. cut Britain or France, are now far behind them in this respect. We liave not retrogaded. But we seam j to assume that every sailor is born a cannoneer, that artillery practice on a wave-tossed deck, at an equally unsteady target, comes by nature; and we i.iill pcin.it c very man to "sight"' his gun as his un ii .-tnutc!! judgment dictates, or at least, as the 1 orci r iii command may fancy. While (Jreat Britain and France have, by tlic establi .hraont of schools of gum.cry practice, and by the most as-idaous atten tion to'the theoretical and practical teaching of the art, created thousands of thoroughly instructed and practical naval artillerists for their service, wo I avc paid littlo or no attention to this matter. We have no tucb schooL-?no such practice?no such skiil. We may build and equip the finest ^ldps in the world, and officer and man them with the bed saa Eirn of our country; but if we do not instruct thcra in the skilful use of their guns, the day may come when their utmost efforts in naval contests will but ccnre to salute triumphs of their enemies. I.oug practice only enables the raarksweu to bring down a bird on the wii ; lion much more practice would L? necessary were bird and marksman both on the wing? And yet there arc n t wanting mca in our navy uho deride the teachings or science in practical gunnery, and who, if they do not believe that sailors arc predestined cannon ccis, seem to regard the art of rapid and accurate delivery of shot and shell as of very little importance, or very readily ac quired. Instances have occurred in which our na val vessels have sailed from the United Sttte3 and rctun ed, after a two ycais cmisc, without having once handled n shot or tired a gun. Can seamen under such ciicuni.'tnnces, their very first artillery practice Icing, perhaps, in the midst of an engage ment, hope for success against well instructed, skil ful, and practised artillerists, equally brave, and far more cool, bocuusc doing only that with which they . arc familiar? Wc think not; and we deem a school for the edu cation of naval gunners as essential to the service. It cannot be concealed that some most culpable negligence and heedless extravagance and wasteful expenditme, to say the least, have characterized the service of late years ; and that attempts to place the parties responsible for it before the coun try have failed. It is needless to call attention to special instances. The Secretary of the Navy should, in all such cases, be held responsible in the first instance. He possesses ample power to protect the public in terests confided to him?power to compel every officer promptly to do his duty, or to suffer disreputable furlough?power to en- ; force gunnery practice, at sea or in port? 1 c wcr to prescribe relative rank?power to preserve a hist and fair distribution of the toil.-? ami the in uuigerces of the service?power, in short, to breathe into bis noble profession, life, activity, and zeal, by teaching the officer whose cruise is In the tropics, 1 or en the African coast, that bis chances for just and honorable employment and advancement arc e |i:al to those whose cruise ia within the precints of Washington. One instance of snd neglect of duty your commit tee will srecifv, to illustrate how much the naval service, to be effective, must depend upon strict at tention to details. A sloop of war sailed from the United States for the West Iudies, not long since, and not until slic was near Jamaica was it .fisco vend that there was not a shot on board to fit a fjun. Her guns were thirty-two's, and her shot forty-two's; and she was compelled to put into Ja maica to obtain shot. Surely we do not need an other Chesapeake affair to teach us the perils of such neglect. It is not the purpose of your committee, in this report, to do more than advert to some of the pro minent defects of the naval sen ice?those most ur gently demanding and most susceptible of reform; and discarding the consideration of minor evils, it comes at once to the ItANK, PAY AND PKOMOTION OF Tilt NAVY. It is evident to all conversant with the subject, that we have more commissioned and non-commis sioned officers of the several grades than are neces sary or useful to the present naval service: and that a jost regard for the public interests nqnires not only that many should be retired or furlottghed, but thnt the present manner of appointment to the ser vice for obvious reasons shotfld be changed. We have endeavored to find employment for su pernumeraries in the coast survey, and as assistants to the Lighthouse Hoard: but sucb employments, which are properly those of civilians, we cannot but regard as calculated to impair the geneial usefulness 01 an officer in his legitimate vocation. Mis noblest aim should be to protect the honor and the interests ol the country, bv his ships and guns, upon his pe culiar theatre?the sea. Some of the most accom plished young officers in the service are at this mo ment engaged unon what is termed the '? hydro graphical" brnncii of the service, whose most fre quent duty is mating those soundings with a line or poie with which all boatmen are lainiliar, and re ducing the same upon maps. Others are appointed to do the duty which our coi led-re of the custom-1 always performed, and per formed well, until the Lighthouse Hoard was de vist d. What can be more foreign to the tastes and pursuits?what more destructive to the professional ambition of a young < fflcer, tlion travelling about in rail cars, stages or lighters, from 'ightbouse to light house, inspecting the cleanliness i the towers and tl c keeper's premises, the kind and quality of lamp oil, wicks and bi.fi skins used, and reporting upon their keeper's special qualifications. The sea is a jealous mistress, wbose honors arc yielded only to the assiduous; and we cannot but regard the labors of her votaries upon these services as calculated to wean them from and unfit them for their tint love, A retired and furlough lift will relieve the service for n while: but the supply of officers being greater than the demand, wc should begin by n.-tricting the appointment-, to the Kaval Academy to about one half the number now made. Promotion in the service Is regulated exclusively by seniority ol commission?a system, iu the judg ment of your committee, preferable to every other, if all officers be qualified to perform their duties in the bent manner. But without some provision for the disqualifications of age and Its frequent mental and physical imbcclHty, and for other disqualiflea tioi.c, an exclusive regard to soni-.ritv, constituting the date of commission the controlling element of t i motion, la "a mockery, a delusion, and a snare."' It reveals the experience and the daily practice of prudent e, which entrusts not the ordinary afloiri of Iife^o agents whore powers are on the decline. If there Ic any pr feasion which, more than another, demands from it- votaries oil the energy, power, dariiand will ofosnr race, it is that of trie seam't. It demands all the powers of man. and no great sea man within the lint century lias ever excelled in any other pr< ftssiou. The rale should evidently be, lhat, u* the magnitude and importance of any naval operation inert a ed. the ihuucef of consigning it to the hands of ability, energy and daring should lu cre tire; bat the my rtve -e is our practiced The older a man is, the more is he entitled to command. li Kelson bimsolf were alive, and Wi re to enter on v scrvi .< regularly t - morrow. l.< would find himself without rank, ot command, and comparatively without ? iv. Whit would be thought of this bund regrrd wr ? ? i nity in other departmei t*ef the country? Su] po.-< V - -hould declare by law that members of the i n ;. J .tes Senate she Id he the elih t repre entatlv -from a H lie, w ho in their turn, aho'Id he the oMe*t lttcui 1 ? ts of iu I.-pnlut.iio?i-r that the uUuict judges shot-Id lie taken from tlie oldest lawyers?the circuit fiom tac oldest district Judges and the sunreme bedch le atppUe d fre-m tho oldest droit judges. Hwch i projioalttesi wo.il i shoe k the com mon sense of the country -and yet this principle governs naval promo"' -u. Apart from all other considerations, the nresent I amhiS'ft r tK? tbe ardor and to deJten the ; ambition of the whole corps, by sustaining and ncr petusting injustice. A seaman's abUUy to pWs SZTwo P*,t" dept?nd,, much- very Zych, upon bis sen service; and had we a naval eon test to-morrow, the common sense of the country I Would not tolet ate the appointment of any man to , active Hi vice who war not femiliar.and thoroughly ju liandliiig of abjpi u?d?r 1 l et we find from the returns before us, that out arc waiting orders lMr ?;r' k\Z>Z^r &E aeverallv la*t at sea in ? Llfc' 5il an(1 149 ?) "laktng an aggre Svpn ,r t Of ninety-eight commanders 1mI%o ?oH?? J?" 1x184 respectively at sea in i i . a ' 36 ami 38,) there arc waiting Ofii'.f/'v J ' at ^1'S00' an aggregate of $7(5,000. Ui iib lieutenants, there are waiting orders flfiv nine.at $1,200, making an aggregate of $70,H00. ur 108 past-cii-midsb ipmen, there are but eight waiting orders, at $'.;00-$4,800; and that, while there are revon captains and commanders who have been each forty one yeajg in the Navy, and who are now receiving respectively $2,500 and $1,800 per annum, nnd yet have seen less than ten years sea service, there are forty-three passed-midshipmeu who have seen over ten years sea service, and who arc receiving but $700 iter annum. !?"* Tnaval will illustrate what the history of all naval service proves. Paul Jones captured the Seraph, in one of1"the mo/dZCE and memorable combats on record, at thiriv-two years of age. Hull conquered the GueS at tSv g Decatur burnt the Phtladelhnia, at twenty-seven. Perry conquered on Lake Erie at g ' ?Sd j4cDon,u|gh on Lake Champlaiu v??t It b4cwart captured the Cyane and he- I vont, at thirty nine, and Cambridge the Java, at ttdrty-one. The youngest victor was twenty-seven and the oldest but thirty-nine?and thirty-three was their aveiage age?less than that of many of our passcdnndshipnicn. The Naval Academy has given, and is giving, o the country, officers not only thoroughly ed ucated for the duties of the service, hutwhoe (haunter and ab.lity would adorn any profession, ihere are the men who will he called upon in the command ot our fleets and ships, not onlv to o > i und with the ability uud advancement of Enron >an but ns protectors of the rights of American citizens and property in foreign seas and countries. A Knowledge ol the institutions, government and c mmcrciol systems of maritime powers, and a genual acquaintance with the laws of nations and of the rights, duties, and obligations under them v .11 be demanded of them. They act sometimes? n<, otiatcis of treaties, as warriors, as judges, as pa ttrtr* I -K 1,'is 8h,p W('.ll is an essential tut far from being the most Important duty of an ?aa? / bed seaman, and his country's interest and honor depend fully as much upon hi* services in i 1 ence as m war. I alike the army, which in pe re sorvesbut as a stationary nucleus lor future Organiza tion, our frigates are the eyes of onr government nnd penetrating every sea, and watchful of passing events, the navy Is i,t once the messenger of our peace and of our ability for war. Such men, edu cated at the country's expense, should be employed In responsible positions at the period of their great est usefulness, und to attain thin object your com mstec recommend ? nnd provides for a retired and a permanent furlough li t. A just dhtinetion should be made between the gallant old seaman whoso soul is still in bis pro'o-* sion, w here knit boats but for his country, but who is dis-iucliflca by long, faithful, and honorable Borvice, or disease acquired in the active discharge ol h^ duty, und the man who has uniformly and In geideusly continved to evade his sea duties and de t'P?" Others?who lies succeeded hy political influence, or other resorts to which his beetof'n C^10D Le a BtriU?e1'.passing the Lest ol 1 is days upon slioic-the man, in abort, who wniTofmIuh own course, or from original want of merit. To meet this distinction, your cn m.ttce lias provided two li.-ts, varying in pay and privilege. At this lime we have sixty-eight captains the youngest ol whom is lifty--ii years of aire ninety-seven commanders, seventv-four of whom are between fifty and fifty-five, and the youngeVof whom is forty-six; three hundred and twent/seven nfr.fv A- f;,rom t lirti.',t? My; one hundred and ninety-eight passed midshipmen, from twenty-one to thirty-seven years of age. ?> e carefully examining the ir.tes of promotion in the several grades and aver age age of officers, find that under the present sys wfll ' ,a I,romott'd tj commanders, will be fifty-three, and commanders, when promoted to captains, seventy-four years of age. What a commentary upon our present system. i our committee recommends, and has provided obiuiiiiaeasc of the wages of the naval seamen. Tins measure Is absolutely necessary. Great difli Slr ?i?l CA/)?I,!C/Kcd ,in "btniuing seamen. This eiii xulty, which has also embarrassed the British tn, 40 80m? extent the result of the r.i i T? ?f our coastwise, and particularly our laliloinia,trace, acd the consequent demand for saTois at largely-increased wages, with the addi tbn.al stimula ot short voyages and the chances ol i',aw i I'.0'"48of niatesmid masters,while he wages and condition of the naval seaman remain " - ? l e,v tAllon wil1 8,'ip tor the navy li I. i ? ])Cr month, when any man who can ?mice. CaU g6t ei*hu?cn in the merchant rA?-!?rP'011 is- fl.ls0 lnnde for Ascertaining and Naval by e*4ra^ay and a medal, and the NavalI Acndemv and the highest honors of the pro tfr r'lT I* ?nt to 8a?^or boy, whose cliarac ter, conduct nnd capacity may entitle him to the lostenng hand of the government. Attempts are frequently made, by polling the com An',?* "iUr I>H' 40 determine the proportion of them nnA ^7? 0r Dat,.iralizcd citizens composing Th? t? i Proportion Is less than one-third. The rest are seamen from all the maritime Stales of the euitb, and all the principal languages of Europe, and even the dialect of the islands of the Pacific, are indiscriminately spoken amongst them A BILL TO IMPROVE THE NAVAL SERVICE. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre sentatives of the United States of America, in Con gicss assembled, That the active commissioned offi cers of the navy of the United States may be, but shall not exceed, the number and the grades follow ing, to wit Twenty commodore*. Forty-eight captains. Ninety-eight commanders. Three hundred and twenty five lieutenants. Sixty-nine surgeons. Thirty-seven passed assistant surgeons. Forty-two assistant surgeons. Rixty-fonr pursers. Or.e"hundred and ninety-eight masters. The l umber of chief engineers, and of first. second, and third assistant engineers, and of chaplains now in the service. The professors of mathematics now in service mry hold their commissions, but no professors of mathematics shall hereafter be commissioned or appointed in the naval service. The number and grades of warrant officers, nnd the number of midshipmen and acting midshipmen, shall be as now established by law : Provided, That no appointments of masters, not in the line.of pro motion, shail hereafter be made ; and provided that the grade of passed midahi] men be aDoliafaed, and that the masters in the line of promotion, and passed midshipmen, be commissioned as masters. Sec. S. And be it further enacted, That before any change of the grades aforesaid ihall take effect, the Secretary of the Navy shall cau-c each naval captain, commander, lieutenant, medical officer, and purser to report, under such regulations as he may prescribe, the > filar- of their respective grades who are qualified to perform efficiently all tluir duties ashore and afloat; and from his scrutiny of such ra poite, the Pccretaiy, with the approval of the Pre sident. -hal) retire or permanently furlough ail offi cers hot so qualified; and of the officers so fur h-rgbed or retired, those on the retired list only shall be entitled to wear the naval uniform. Re tired nnd permanently furloughed officers shall, fhm the date of their retirement and furlough.be rut of the navy, and their places shall i>e supplied by regular promotion by senioiity of rank, fhe Secretary of the Navy may, upon the application of nnv officer of the navy, place him upon the retired or'permanent fui lough list. PAT. See. 11. And bo it fnrthei enaetc d. That fhe pay of the navy shall he as now determined by law. with the if Rowing exceptionsMasters <hali receive on son eeivioe fourteen hundred dollars; othirduty, twelve hundred dollars: leav< or waiting orders, one thoi>and di liars: ns-i tai.t pursers, on sea or Other duty, nine bandit*! dollars; leave or waiting orders, m vcu hundred doll.rs : b 'atwains, gunners, earj enters and sai'm L rs b 11 receive, on sea duty, one thousand dollars; on other duty, nine hundred dollars : on have or wait;,tg orders, six hundred dol lars ; ott > en on Um retired list >ball re < ive three flftbs, ami th< re i n the permanent furlough list two fifths of tlie en send-1- pay to which thoy were en titled when retired or nirlougl ed; able seamen shall receive, per month, eighteen dollars; or dinal) seamen, fifteen dollar-; landsmen, twelve dollars : boys, fi I t d filer*. H<c. 4. And be it forthei eni ted. That n> officer el the line of the n vy shell I < r pared . discharge toe duties of puurr, o r i-t nt purser, unle.- the ?1!c?- of pun i r and a .-i t ant pu- er shall bowac.;ut, b\ deatl' or otberwl <-.?<n sl.lps at ??? a, or on for .ngn stations; tben, in that cas?-, ti.e dn*ir* -if par-',or B ay Lc peribimp'! by a comctis-iSMd officer, until another purser or n? t u t pit or ahuit report for (l ty ; but the ire i cUryo; i : Navy, and to* o.iiB n ai ders of single shlpa, m i of aqaadrotu. may . ou t? i acting appointment* as the oxigoneie* of the n iv'ce may ntrite : and < fllars, while performing the duties of a higher grade under such appoint ment*, shall, if ruch appointment be approved by il f Secretary of the Navy, h:.vo the pay of such 1 hpr gr dc its Reu of the pay of their grade proper. Sec. 6. And be it farther enacted, That twenty as Sh^hSlI aPP?inted b7 PnwJent, wno snail be detailed for service as the Secretary of ISp?SXWpsf^X5?i3S: &,.ts iaj",*',w b> 'JmJS jXribe!^ BDch rcKulatio^ ?? he may m ^,c"4C" And h? '* farther enacted, That it shall be I , r ihn y 'TV? ?ffic?rin command or any ves-el Son of hi? U"itetl ?P?* the tormina SecreSrv of the^r make a special report to the he .? S v m Navy upon thc ?eneral conduct of ,,iL ? fitame"i ordinary seamen, iamls U) ?!e.I]? ftyH'iUIider btscommand on said cruise, and tl.eir ? i 7 Ijumc th"*? who are entitled, from n n rL?h?fiB ?' to special uotice; and, upon such t* u o?l!t.i ?ry of llie Navymay ennuaJlyselect in' J_^d|*7?.who??yappear toliim most deserv ISm Im u m ,0 the naval academy for educa mSS ord/narJPmen- An,d to cttch I>etty ????. sea man, ordinary seaman, landsman, and bov so ro V2??ys*r*?x (p^vided a t?ntl?/r "J?1 64 8"'P *ha11 act exceed one tobj issued?ri0f,)/he SecrctarJ shall cause ULv ?? a certificate of conduct and chara ter SffASSTJK? mf/ pr^cribc' which certificate ta IV I n?' pe"y- ?fflcer t0 three montiis ex ? fXe^rv c aPPropriate medal, to be devised by lin.lKmin 07'i ^ etve7 ?*"???>, ordinary seaman, landsmiin, pud boy, to three months' extra pay. C? ? . , , MARINE CORPS. crew'Jf tee k ^ H farther enacted, That an in rbmcolji hundrcd men ?h:ill be made to the ma Q? ? . *QPIPMKNT and detail. tirm #'? ti. ? " funbcr enacted, That, in addi tion to the bureaus now attached to the Navv Do ^fnt. there shaii be a bureau to be ?led the lluteau o. Equipment, Orders, and Detail, to which shall be assigned the duties of equipping the ve tbe8'<nw "1iervisin^,iregi8terin^' and detailing the i face is acd men oi the navul service, and such the service as the Secre h???,i iivy may dlrect' und the orders of such c" ?11 6boP be considered as emanating from tli ? Secretary of the Navv, and shall have full force an 1 effect as such, and all the duties of said bureau shall be performed under his authority. dent of thh;1 "wcted ? That the Presi unnoiine united .States, by and with th? nitvw voclLC7C^ ?f tbe ,S?nate' aha11 appoint a judge S vaf officer btoai' nTViCe' wbo hba11 n?t he a na 1) 111 til,1 I ohull be learned in thc law, and who shall be attached to the Bureau of EqnipmQnt Or ders, and Detail, and who shall receive? ?hu ser vices three thousand dollars per annnm and his ? travelling expenses; it shall be hisiuty to prepare under the direction of the Secretary of the Navv' al charges and specifications of charges to be pre-' U.red Ltloie navul courts martiul and court ) o/ in ssrrss&e direction of tlie jWtarfoFlht* liS?;to^'fy courts cf the United States, touching courts niarti J and courts of inqnirv; and to compifa and?ubmU to the Secretary of the Navy gen ami instructions farms and principles applicable to them, aud the' manner oi conducting them, and to preserve perfect recoids of all inch courts, and of the cu ts hei d or : !b,?ii.^ei ' Provided. That nothing herein st' 't ic?i rC U con.maiiders of squadrons on foreign stations from orotring such courts, when in their tLe cxi?encicsofthe public service may de majd them, under such rules and regulaS as rfthiftP, f'dvoc?tc, general, With the approbation of the Secretary of the Navy, may prescribe. And be 14 father emo ted, That the chief of the burean, established by this act, bo allowed i ?- 7, /i ?!rg, 1'iivilege as that conferred by b?.chtC'S of the other bureaus: aud the Pre sident of the United States, by aud with the advice and consent of the Senate, may hereafter appoint rVnt/xrai,y bur?j'u ajtaihedi tho Navy Depart^ "J: e-*cepting the Bureaus of Provisions and tr?nH^' Un1 ?f -'dcdicille a?d Surgery, any officer Later from Brazil. Or? RIO JANEIRO CORRKsrONDRVCE. B?o pb Janeiro, April 4,18.54. The Amazon Navigation?Chances of American 1 Colonization?Mercantile Exertion. Inasmuch as you are generally posted better than any other journal in the world, I deem it proper to lend my might for the edification of yourself and your numerous readers, respecting this country In i connection with the United States, relative to" the I Amazon river, Ac. | There is a leading merchant here, (American,) who, rumor says, is in connection with some Brazil ian authorities, by which the long desired result will be accomplished, viz.: for the Americans to get a foothold in Brazil, Ac., and on the most honorable terms. Tins entire affair is involved in great secrecy and is only spoken of among the knowing ones. This gentleman visits the United States with his ' family, and no doubt will arrive at your port in the month of June next. This gentleman, although quite young is well known here to be a sterling aI;dt.b?rou*h business man, and well acquainted as wellasforhflwl mo,de-0.f doin? business here, a ^ . ! intimate friendship with leading d,mft if W* rumor correct, there is no doubt, if he is the party, but that entire success must crown thc undertaking; for everything lie tenches always succeeds. I know the party? but I am not on intimate terms with him; and, notwith standing he has got the best of me on several occa norIJLhilD n b,uslue8s view- yrt he did it all quite ho ?"4blyufd deserves great credit as a business man. His entire integrity and honor are well known, r.nd if he undertakes to carry out this scheme, be assured he will be succeaful-Lof course !n?in, IS8 J0Ur co"?Pm'ation- This gentleman xriu' no doubt, see you. I cannot say. ] give to vou a iu?trp,or!-rl youmnyp,,b'i8b'?forwent is worth: but I am confident the rumor is well founded, and no doubt true. nfthe NWvJlthe cfe'ofcoQrsc a? the obstacles there will bp b'nercbants w-ill be overcome, and ion But n,n^r,r M?lca8ion. for fiJfauitering ac norebip flrJ? ,TlU h?8ot,nto on the inoit bo fr e? bv North a mi!-1 ? 7 -Vl'a"' no doubt colon izod Dy Noith Americans In part. It is a heantifnl scheme, and promises well; and, if successful 'this \onng gentleman win he entitled to all the praise v4mnt?mmCr WOrld bis ?????rclal abilities Trarrnnt- Lvforrer. Interesting IVom Montevideo* Montevikko, April 1,1854. Serious Difficvlty between the American* and Bri tish?Grrat Pig War?Wild Hog* a Casus Belli ?Action of Various War Shij>s?Ca]Kurt and Release of Tuo American Vessels. You may publish the following full particulars of the great and moat bloodless pig war at the Falk land Islands, between her Britannic Majesty's brig Express, assisted by her Britannic Majesty's most valiant Governor Ronnie, and Brother Jonathan's rlcop of war Germantown, C'ommnrder Lynch, It appears that some fifteen or twenty years ago Capt. Wm. II. Smiley, (now United States Commer cial Agent at Stanley, Falkland Island*,) placed nj on an Island rust of Stanley a few pigs for the benefit of whalers and others calling for water, And t has been the practice for year* of English, French and American whalers to call and kill what I ey inquired; but for a fi w month pa t Govern >r Rtnnie has made some complaint, and earned an ordinance to he passed fining any one killing a greater ?20 sterling. Some three weeks since two American wh tiers called In and killed a few pigs, which coming to the knowledge of the Governor, he requested ('apt. Waltenger. ot the royal mail packet Amelia, to arm himself and take the offenders: hut knowing Irs duty, he refused, upon which the Governor wrote to t.'ie English Admiral to send him a vessel of war; and the urif Express was rent down. At the tame time t i,plain Smiley wrote for protection, and our Com modore sent down the Gernuintown. Commander Lynch. When Lynch arrived et Stanley, he found two American v? > eIs in po ? ession of t >e Express, and lined i'00. Learning that after the pigs had iictn killed and eaten, his Excellency and Hon orable Coir,cil I ail parsed an ordinance that any vessel killing pigs should pay ?800?learning aEo that tl c snips were taken upon the high se.vs, he dc mai ded they should be delivered up to the captains. After sonC hard word* and double shotting gtins tlirj rut ret at lileitv by paying the ?2 ? line, the II tlnritiea acknowledging the inn- tice of the ?800 1 re. The vi - els have gout to the States, and will inakt claims for damages against tho English go vtumtiit. It he - math- quit! astir; but all that I 1; ve lu ard opt :<k of it?both English and Annrk.in s:e highly phased wllh the thin and tktrgelil tomtnet I f Cnj t. I ynch. Woe totally lest, OA the English Rank, on the i i lit of t< c -2d of March, the American schooner j i<,i, till t. Bi.ikiuiniAcr. No lives ioet. We hau ..11 lecn mncli afllicl.d, owing to the d rgi roue Ulncf* of ourmoit worthy Consul, R-M. linr ilton, K q.; but danger is now pawed, and in a day or two he will he out again. HI* place as Con i ui can ney** ^ Old Osthoo. Omr Boi<m Oerreepei Boston, May M, 1864. Mr. Everett's Resignation?Its Effect?His Probable Successor?Mr. Bank's Vote on the Railroad Post ponement?Frothingham vs. Banks?The Govern ment Steamer?Charles town Matters?Casey, the Murderer?The Attorney Generalship?The Free Soil Convention?Sales of Real Estate?Editorial Changes?New Publications?A Piece of Plate? Rriurn of the "Angel Gabriel." The rumor that Mr. Everett ia to leave the Senate on the 1st of June la now something more than a rumor. His health, or something else, will not per mit of Mr. Everett remaining in the Senate. Mr. Choate ia spoken of aa his probable successor, bo far aa executive appointment ia concerned; but the western part of the State, which saw Mr. Everett's election with great chagrin, will probably demand the place at the hands of the next Legislature. At any rate, the question of the succession will go into the next election in Massachusetts, and add much to its interest. Such a question was all that was wanting to complete the fight this year. It will cause the mass of the free Boilers and democrats to desire "a more perfect union," so that they make such a division of tilings as they did in 1861; and it will cause the hunkers to oppose any such union all the more vehemently. It will make the whigs more anxious to have a renewal of their power; and the know-nothings will have an additional incentive to action. The whigs are very angry with Mr. Everett for not having resigned his place before the adjournment of the Legislature; but they dase not call that body together for the purpose of electing a successor. They are much frightened at the a <pect of things, and have no great belief in their doing anything next fall. Gov. Washburn told an emi nent legal functionary, the other day, that he did not think that he should be a candidate for re-elec tion. Ho went to the Irish supper on St. Patrick's festival, and openly denounced the know-nothings, for which they will openly punish him in Novem ber, should he be a candidate. The know-nothings are vastly on the increase, and in Lowell they have 1,310 members who are voters. One of their prin cipal leaders in Salem, who was until recently as strong a whig as any man in Massachusetts, said to a coalitionist, this week, "We shall beat the whigs next fall. We Bhall carry our legislative candidates in Salem by four hundred majority." I ought to mention, that though Mr. Choate ap pears most prominent for the succession, thore are those who confidently assert that Gov. Washburn will appoint Mr. Winthrop to succeed Mr. Everett. Mr. Banks's vote in favor of Mr. Richardson's mo* tion to postpone the Pacific Railroad bill, has kicked up U very pretty fuss. Ho is belabored by the New Bedford Mercury for his "pro-slavery" action, on the very same day that the Boston Post accuses him of free soilitm for his opposition to the Nobraslca bill. The Post says that he voted for Mr. Palfrey for Congress. This is no more than was done by some of President Pierce's appointees to office, men who went about electioneering for Mr. Palfrey in the old Fourth district. Mr. Frothingham, who writes against Mr. Banks in the Post, did himself vole for free soilcrs for the Legislature, who voted for Mr. Buinner for United States Senator; and that gentleman never could have been sent to the na tional Senate if this same Mr. Frothingham had not been a supporter ol the free soil nominations for the Legislature, running on the same ticket with them. He voted for six State Senators, and at least four Representatives, who voted for Mr. Sumuer; and as Mr. Sumner was elected by only one majority in the House, he may be considered as having done his full part toward the election of a five soil national Senator for six years. The case stands thns : Mr. Banks (so says the Post) voted for Mr. Polfery, to go to Washington for two years, and Mr. Palfrey was beaten; Mr. Frothingham voted for and supported the men who voted for Mr. Snmner, to go to Wash ington for six years, and Mr. Snmner was chosen. On the whole, it seems to me that there is a balance n Mr. Banks's favor, even admitting that he did vote or Mr. Palfrey, which has never been proved, though most people believe that he did so vote. Beside, Mr. Fiothlngham did nothing towards the defeat of Mr. Palfrey, except that, being very unpopular, he run against him, and so compelled domacrats, who found that a plurality would elect somebody, to vote for Mr. Thompson. Had Mr. Frothingham been a po pular man, he would have secured the greater par of the democratic vote, and so Mr. Palfrey would have been chosen, whereas he got only 700 votes out of about 4,000, and thereby secured the election of a whig, an object peculiarly dear to him. Due credit, therefore, should be given to him for the use to which he turned his unpopularity, and thns saved the Union. It is not every man who is capable of such sacrifice as that which he made. To return to Mr. Banks's vote. I think he has damaged himself by giving it. If he should fail of a re-election,it will be owing to that vote, of which the bunkers will make a full use, though they ap prove of the act itself. They opposed him before, anil would again, no matter how he should act on any question?their difficulties with him being rather personal than political; bat the free Boilers, to a man, and the coalition democrats, who arc a ma jority in the district, would have supported him, and would have been joined by hundreds of whigs, but for his vote on Monday last. That vote, thongh given honestly, is offensive to all bis anti-Nebraska constituents?that is to say, to ninetecn-twenticths of all the voters in the district. They look upon it as a sort of compromise of his position, and just now all compromises are odious to them?save and except the Missouri compromise of 1820. The hunk ers are glad to see Mr. Banks place himself in ? po Bittou fo offensive to almost all tbe men who voted for him in 1862, and are confident that, though they could not defeat him, he has been kind enough to take a great step towards defeating himself. It is raid that tbe cause of'Mr. Prothlngham's present maiice towards Mr. Banks, is the fact that (lie ad ministration has paid more regard to Mr. Banks's recommendation in the matter of appointments at Churlestown, than to those of the junior editor of the Pest. Government seems about to reconsider its deter mination to have one of the nix steam frigates built at Charleston-n Navy Yard. The necessity oflength euing one of the ship houses for the purpose of con structing the frigate, lias caused the Secretary of tbe Navy to call for estimates as to the cost of snch lengthening, and most people believe that the object Is to find an excuse for building the vc3sel at Nor folk or Washington. This would be unkind, for Boston end Charlotown not only did the handsome thing lor Gen. Pierce, in 1852, bnt they " crushed out'' the coalition at the command of the Attorney - General, who was himself under command of the President. If such clear proofs of flagrant flnnkcy i m are not enough to entitle the two cities to a share of the plunder, of what use will it be for men to make flunkies of themselves 7 Where is Frothing hem that he docs not make use of his influence with the powers on the banks of Goose creek, to have justice done to the town which he once ruled from the sublime pest of Mayor V Of what avail will it 1c that he saved the place from the ferocious paws of the Protestants, in 1863, if he shall allow its people to 1 c starved to death in 1>54 ? Can he not do some thing in the way of preservation as well as of destruc tion.' It concerns his fame to bring Mr. Dobbin to lessen, and to a sense of the error of hH conduct. The Choilestown people do say that if the Navy Yard Itself were removed, they would bo most grate ful to the removing power. That and the State l prison (they always couple the two Institution- to gether) are looked upon by them as b? lng emphati cally the nni-:;nces of the age, so far as they are I concerned. '1 hey are, as it were, blockaded and bc ' sieged by them, and have no room inj which to spread themselves. WTere a fair share of work < nt < to the yard, its pre encc might lie made to partially atone for itself: bnt as it is, with now ana then an ! old hulk to repair, and occasionally a small vessel to ! build, it takes up a vast amo.rnt ol space that might ' be profitably need under other circumstances, and 1 sflords no compensation for the loss. It might its I well he remove J, as for any particular good that is ! accomplished in it. Carey, the Irish youth who killed Mr. Taylor and his wi e, at Natick. has In en seivingout hi ? prcliuii ' nary roar at the State pi is-m, which expired on Mon | day last. It is uncertain what will be bis fata. M:? uld Gov. Wa hlmrn take tbe same view of the case as Gov. Clifford did in dough's, the mure I deter will be hanged; nor do I think that there would be much regret expressed if the executive were to ri'olve tlmt Casey must swing. The mnrckr that he perpctiated a as of a peculiarly atro cious character-, much more deserving of ex treme punishment than that of Clough?as the quarrel that lad to it was about the sum of fifty coats. There have, too, been so many murders per petrated in and around Natick, during the last few years?not one of which, however, was the work of a native of the place?that it is thought that an ex ample is specially needed for the safety of the peo Sle of that locality. Milliard, who lulled Warren, at atick, is said to be a model prisoner,and his friends confidently expect that he will not be found guilty ?f ?iy higher crime than m&nslanghter. The Attorney Generalship?Mr. Choate having now really resigned, so "they say"?has been as signed, by report, to Mr. Ixrrd, of Salem, who so well performed the duties of Speaker at the last see won of our llouse of Representatives. This selec tion, supposing it to have been made, will do credit to the government. Mr. Lord la a sound lawyer, an acute and a forcible reasoner, and a man of great energy and industry. He will have frequent oppor tunities of meeting his old antagonist, Mr. Bailer, who is fast rising to the place of our first criminal lawyer, and who, the whigs say, would have been Attorney General if the coalition had sncceeded* so that Mr. Lord will owe his promotion to Gen. Gush ing, though I doubt of his entertaining any strong sentiment of gratitude for the favor done him. The whig papers of this morning gay that Mr. Cliflbrd to to be Attorney General again. The free soilers are to have a mass convention at Worcester on the 31st of May. It will be simply an item in the work of " agitation " that they have en tered upon, and have no special reference to Massa chusetts politics. The free soilers see with regret the inroads that have been made on their ranks by the whigs, who have stolen their thnnder in a moat unscrupulous style. I verily believe that they like the administration at Washington mnch better than they do the whigs, or any portion of them; and some of their number consider it a great additional evil to the Nebraska bill that its passage would do much towards giving to General Pierce a whig suc cessor. There have been quite a number of sales of real estate here this week, thongh not any that will corn pure with those made last week. The largest ia that of the estate on the corner of Green and Pitta sticets, occupied until recently by the Eye and Ear Infirmary. The land amounts to 10,534 leet, being 1113 on Pitts and 60 on Green street, and there aro on it a large three story house and other buildings. Mr. Nathaniel Whiting purchased the estate at $2 62& a square foot, paying, in round numbers, $110,010 for it. The terms were, one-fourth cash, and the riniainder any time within ten years, as the purchaser may think lest. The property is good, and J should say that Mr. Whiting had made a judi cious investment. It lies almost opposite to the Re vere House, and is in a quarter of the town where prii cs of real estate must rapidly and steadily rise. The Line estate, on Lcverctt street, was sold on Wednesday for $4,600. There were sales of houses at good prices, yesterday, by Col. Thompson, the crack auctioneer, or George Robbins, of Boston. Mr. Sleeper, who has edited the B is ton Journal, one of our best papers, for more than twenty ycArs, rctiied from that post yc.rterday, and has been suc ceeded by Mr. Pix, foiracrly one of his assistants, and a gentleman of talents. Mr. Sleeper had been a sailor for twenty-two years before ne wont into the editorial clinir, and he now leaves his socond profession on account of impaired health. Mayor Smith has written a book on "Turkey and the Turks," which was published this morning, lie travelled extensively in the East a few years since, and this work is the result of his obser vations in one portion of that interesting quar ter of the globe. It is a well written volume. Messrs. Little, Brown & Co. have published a work entitled "Junius Discovered." It is from the pen of Mr. Frederick Grifliu, ot' Montreal. Mr. Griffin attributes the writings of Junius to Governor Pownall, who was for some time at the head of this Stat , or Province, as it then was. I think that he should have called his book "Junius Invented." Not thnt Governor Pownall was not possessed of suffi cient talent to have written the "Letters," for he was a man of singular ability, anl in some respeoto his ideas were far ahead of all his contemporaries, so far as there are means of ascertaining what were the opinions of the men of his time; but 1 think it could be shown that he was not Junius, or near to him. However, Mr. Griffin has given us a very clever book, bo he right or wrong. Of all the Junian reading that I have had?not much, to he sure?1 know of but two things that are as good as Mr. Griffin's. The first is the London Quarterly'* paper in support of the wild hypothesis that the younger Lord Lyttleton was Junius; and the other is the essay on the subject attached to the tost number of tne Grenville Papers, and which ought to be printed separately from the work of which it now forms a part, or rather an a dition. Mr. Macdonald, a Catholic, has been turned out of an nshership in the Charleston High School, by the committee, a majority of whom are know nothings. He is a nephew of Father Macdonald, who, in 1852, certified to General Pierce's Catholic ism, to his having been born at Cork, and educated at Maynooth, and to his readiness to kiss the Pope's great toe; "in short," to his being just "the man for Galway:" and, therefore, he can be easily pro vided for by a grateful executive. A looms. P. 8*?The "Angel Gabriel" has returned from Worcester, and is "blowing his horn" up and down Washington street. He threatens to preach on Fort Hill to-morrow, and as the people in that qnar er are about all Irish Catholics, a row is antici pated. The Worcester people were nnkind not to shut him np until Monday, which they might have done without any violation of the rights of the ci tizen. Mob Law In irlunsu. CITIZENS ORDERED TO LEAVE?ONE MAN SHOT. [From the Memphis Eagle, M>j IS.] Our citv was filled, yesterday evening, with all manner of rumors, in regard to a dreadful state of excitement in Crittenden Connty, in the neighbor hood of Marion. Day before yesterday, Mr. Sweet, of this city, was over at a place he has, near Abels' residence, a few miles beyond Marion. Abels at tacked him with a stick, bnt was felled by a blow. Abels' brother then knocked Sweet down, when a gentleman who was with Sweet drew a bowie knife and prevented any other interference, and the fight ended by Sweet getting the best of it. This occurrence becoming generally known, yes terday some thirty or forty of the citizens?to whom, it Kcems, Abels had rendered himself very obnoxious ?by the shelter given to fugitives from justice, as sembled, armed,and repaired to Abels' house witha rope, designing to hang him. Dr. Dewitt, his son in-law, being at the house, resisted the entrance of the crowd, and defied them. A gun or pistol was fired, whether by accident or design is not clearly stated, and poor Dewitt was killed. Since writing the above, we learn the following particulars from one who witnessed the whole affair. Our informant states that after the difficulty be tween Abels and Sweet, about one hundred of the citizens of the county assembled at Sweetville, for the purpose of taking some steps as to the expulsion of Abels und others from the country. It appears that Mr. R. P. Talley was standing upon a cart or wagon, in the act of addressing the I crowd, when Dr. Dewitt came op and addressed the | speaker. Harsh words and hostile demonstrations ensued, when Dewitt was shot dead by Mr. R. P. i Talley, with a double barrelled shot-gun. The crowd immediately or very soon after re paired to the house of A he Is, and being met by the ladies of the house who begged in a great state of excitement for the mob to desist and allow them e short time to make preparations to leave, a notice was sent in to the effect that the house would be cannonaded on to-day at 9 o'clock A. M., and that ; they must be out before or by that time. The crowd then went back to Marion, where in e regularly organized meeting, the following preamble and resolutions were passed, and haumd us for publication :? We, the citizen* of the county of Crittenden, recogniz ing ?* superior to all statutory enactments the laws of nature and of natnre's God, believe that those laws giva to each individual, and to the community at large, the right nf tell' preservation; and whereas, there has bean foi many years past a cta-s of men in our midst wha, with the most reckless audacity, have coir mil tod spolia tions upon our property, stolen and secreted our elavas. slandered the characters of our citizens, (the purest aaa the t est,) villilled the fair name of our m ithors our sla te re, our wives and our children?have aidad to e eape from jnatice thieves and murderers?have threatened end even attempted the lives of ourselves an J our friend*? have waylaid and abated our citizens when passing on 1 the general highway, and have even prosnred the slaughter of a worthy eittMB; and inasmnrh ai we have found the law Impotent to check the disorders which have made the name of our county but another name for infamy; and believing It to be a duty which we oww ? like to t ur-elvti and our county to redress these evils, do therefore Msclve, That .loseph Abel, tho lea'er of -aM class, leave the county before f" o'clock of the 13th tnst.; that George I cwllt, < nrtol llempeey, James Raker, Nick Dyson lioliert L- Murphy, Frees Withy, Reuben Abel, Vnt. P Farmer, and Eoler Cteka, jetsona composing ? such class, leave the county hy the 15th inet. Refelved, That if any of tbc persons heretofore man tle nrd are found la this county after t he time herein *1 edfliHi for their departure, therefore, they must a bid* fcy the constqueneca solved, i Itat we, the citizens aforesaid, hereby pledge ourst Ives, each to the other, to iDtiat upon and carry out the above resolutions. Emiokanth for Liberia.?Ob Thursday, 18th | in taut, the rg< nt of the Virginia Colonization So 1 cictv, embarked on board the ship Sophia Walker, in ltcmpto! Roads, 110 colored emigrants for LJ 111 in. i be v were ft urn Bottetourt couutv, Va., 14; Manchester, Va., 3; l'eteraburg, Va., 2; Norfolk (ity, 1; Elizabeth City. N. C., 15; Henricocounty, Va., 3D; Richmond City, 1: Nanamood county, Va 16: King Weorge county,V.u, 7; A mhorwt e van ty, \ a., lb?Total 116. The Bophta Walker brought down 97 from Baltimore, and is expected to tike on , beard others at Savannah. Quite a large number of ? emigrants ere expected to go out in the. next fall I t hip, fr< m Petersburg) Ilicnmotd, 1'ort month, Nor ! folk City and the Wc stern branch. Tho spirit of emigration to lJtuiln is incrwrning. Several applt I cants for passage in the Sophia Walker were rcfua | ed a paK-sge for want of room.?Norfolk Herol4t I Jtfoy,l?.