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AFFAIRS IN EUROPE.
TBS WAR. &DnO!ML PACTS AID SPECULATIONS. Ac Ac. ?*?. Our Sbangbae l'?rrMpond<nc?. Shamjhab, China, Oct. 10, 18(1. Dtpariurt of the America* and English Muusttrs Jtrr Ptktn ? Wunl of a Smaller Clots of Anuri mm Steamers for tkt Chinese Station ? Accident to the Powhatan ? Skirmishes between the Rebels mmd Imperialists, etc., etc. I acribhie you * few lines, simply to inform you Ikit we are op and do'.zut in this part of the world; ?too, that oar Minister, Hon. R. M. McLane, is going to aee what this country i? made of. He left this afternoon in the noble ateam frigate Powhatan, far the waters of Pekin,the capital of the Celestial Em fire, accompanied by the English Minister, Sir John Bo wring, in H. B. M. steamer Rattler? the Powha tan taking in tow the steamer John Haneock and ??teener Fennimore Cooper, for the purpose of pro eeeding as far as possible by water. The Powhatan ?entirely too large for the China station and draws too much water. Hence the necessity for taking ?sailer vessels along (or shallow water navigation. It is a pity that onr government do not send out a suitable steamer fur this station. The Susquehanna, MIssitsippi and Powhatan are all too large for thaae waters. This place and Amoy are the only two port* on tb? coast accessible to either of them. They can ntt get within twelve miles of Canton, Niug Po or Poo-caowfoo, and as for suppressing piracies tn the rivers aid on the coast, wby they are perfectly use less. owing to their great draught of water. The Powhatan, a tew days sin >e, ii attempting to shift her anchorage, got into wuat is called chow cht.w water, by which site became almost unmanage able, and ran afoul of the English clipper ship Cairn stair, carrying away both port yardarms and the fwretopeail yard or the former. The Susquehanna, wktnthewas up here, met with a similar miabap, ?whig to her unmanageable size, la a narrow river, tall of shipping, with a htrong current running. Everything in qui?t here at present. Occasionally the rebel ana imperialist forces have a small skir mish, but it aoes not amount to anvtoing, sxctpt to injure trade and impoverish the coantry. The Tripartite Treaty? Financial Resources of France and Kngland?The foreign En* IIMmcnt Bill? Speeen of the King of Oreece, DOA1TS OF THE WAR ON THUS FINANCIAL KBSOl'P.CES OF FRANCE AND KNULAND. Speaking of the new Frecch loan, the London Chromic!* saj s: It may be added that the financial possibilities of the two countries differ as wi iely aa their fiscal arrangements? the revenues of JTrtnoe, although practically unlimited, being less imtneai stely available than our own. A large portion of the required funds will be subscribed by small capi talists, who Wiinld be almost unable, as tax-payers, to bes-r any additional burdens. In a more commer oal ecuntry, unemployed saviDgs are less frequent, while the sources of revenue ave far more various and amjle. In England, any deli iency of revenue for tte purposes of tee war may perhaps be supplied without tbe nec*<*ity of raising the national income to tfte h v?l of 1815 ; and even if a loan saouldevexu ?Dy be found Mctsa-y, a pradent minister would certainly provide a real, instead of an illusory t eounfcy to tlie creditor, by the imposition of fresh .is *. II is a matter of calmlation whether the entre de mand racnot be defiayed out of tbe resource* of tbe year. For those who prefer phrase-* to fact* and figuiep, the common piaoe denunsia'ions of govern m*ats whi 'h trausrer their burdens t j pos terity may b* set off against thi mmm >u-pU;e a* sertion tb?t tbe war is undertaken for th? satc-i o? a fu'ure gertratioc. Ministers and members of Par liament will bav* ocoasi m to examine tiie question moie deeply. It is nnnecessvry, bo ?ever, to antici pate a decision whl:h must by influenced by tie I events af tbe ie*t three months. In tbe m'iautime, tbe enemy may b? a?sur<?d of that which it most concern him to know. W ?-,tber by loins or by tones? whether by employing their credit ar their wealth? tbe Western allies will persevere in the war win1 t' ey save socoeedtd in conquering an honorable and permanent peace. (UTHM AN OPINION OF TBI FOKRION KNLISTMKNT BILL. Tbe promulgation. *n roost the Germaa journals of the Foreign Legion bill, will, It <s ti b* feared, ?sad to diBO.iurage many w&o nad looked f <r vari to saoie liberal angulation*. Tee total omission of as>y provision for invalided non-cotnnisiiouii officers or soldiers, even in ca?e of wounds, aid tbe fear n* h^ng turned adrift ? about mterior pro vision, ult > siritg forfeited their rig tin if native domicile cr r.i'zei ship, mono. fail to detjr ihau sanoafrom tnii-icg. fnen, agaii, the 6th causa, which bsrs half pay to officers, and places them aft tbe mercy of ubO- fined reoomp.'ose in case of " woords u luflrmltits contracted wmle dn ebargipg military duty duria? tie period of con tinuing to ?ervt>," is not snffisipntly explicit. As we'i observed by the National of Ber in. this article requires a dear, Md, what is more, a lib *ral axpiaiation ai d definition, ere men will enlist for aaiTica in a climate wBere ficknees is more V* 03 dreaded than tbe sword, and where their coihtito tUw.8, however robust, may bn utterly ruined in a law dsjs. No msntiou Is made of any gratuity t> ?en after being disltaoded, so that they run the risk of being tuned acrift, enfeebled in body, per tops, and after baviDg sacndced all rights of na tionality. Our object oogU; to be to obtain res pestabie neu, and t> convert tie leginn ir?a a ?oral and political link. But we offer insuSJcieat inducemenutorespe3table cha acters of any olass; and it is much to be fn&red that under such circum atancts tbe legion will, as far us regards offise s, bs a receptacle for tnose of secoada y quality, acd for loose obaracterB, aa relates to the ranks. It won id be useless to conoeal the fact that a bad impression toa been created, and that this lmpretsua wiJ ue fostered by ttoee wnose Interest it ia to thwart the measure in Germany. A. error, of vitic'u expi viance baa proved the detriment, would t>o the ad mixture of raaes in the same corps. If It is desired that good fellowship and rrpnt de crrp* shoakl exist, tbe race* must be held distlooi ? that is, there mnrt be no indiserimiiiftte admix'.nroof Germans, Swi^s, at other na* i malitiea U alesa tfcis point be a tea led to, tbe conaequencf* will prove moat deleterious to discipline, trustworthiocs, nud tne regular marsi af duty. Oue of the causes which led to the deterio sation of Napoleon's Polish La'icsra,even those who fought in Spain in 1H10 and 1811, was the necessity of admitting Southern Germans aniotiers. It is matter of history that the spirit of tbe cirp4t^on Manx need to fall off. and that both nationtlUtes distrusted and were i?alous of each o'h er.? German Con tspondence af the London Times. THK TRIPARTITE TREAT7? WUAT EFFECT WIl.^ lr If AVE ON Till TKUPKR OP THE CZAR? Ttere ia in the present atais of tQiogo ho e;em?at which diptomUicte and pirty m*n imo never to lake ii? to a. c:unt, and which, howjver, Is not wi'.b mi importance we mum th? pride * >d obr.iaacy ef the Kmofror of Resell. W? c*nnot thieve thut tote motar h, wbo is Ui? most powerful .n Ku'.ip?, hy the exient of hi* temtories and the anmb^r of hie subj-ets, :an a> :ept all t^ie publh nnmuvrm which flown from this treat; of the 2d (>e ;ecnb sr. What ! can the Oz*r of All tie Risaiaa ?after na7 tog been forced to raw* Mm mega of iiliatrla and to rceroea the Prnth -after suiViin'ag gr*ve clacks oq tbe Alma and at (nermann, after haviis bid the ?oat magoificcatof hi< p>rw almost blxk -duo with hit owe vessels, and the for '.id ations of t->i:>*s',op >1 deatrojed- bavtog, tx>, one ot hia moit piwerfal ?amies, at the head of whi a his a?n? siowei tbein selves, in tha saddest uoaitlon ? w'.at, I s?y, m it ke aappoced tta'. the Cz*r can abanuoa lae trait* of a ceutury's roi?y, :*a constat lo Jose bia yrtaitge, which >s hi* greataet tor.? .n tke East, can avow htmwH vuiqitHhed, wiltvoit I ??king the aio? supreme tff >rta? No ! tnat h ltn- 1 mmUin I No one who tbta*s :t c*n know tti* c>n iftnae of e*la*nee of poverfal prteatk-.es, or can ? he well acquainted with tt? ha can aen C Tin En* peror Nicholas c%ono: otasr aocept tha coadit ins ?f peace offered him by Aaairia; he caano; do it | wit boat gaining a *r*al vtofc'ry.or bsioR com .te'r.y ? defeated. We maat?xpeot, tbea.a terrtote cantli'-t, and lat as bare tne c.orage u o'epare for it. But tktra ia no fane so lone. <Ve most aamai m sab ieeted nations to liberty and Independence; if : te West remains onueclde J, It will be oo'-strippid by Ronia Bach ia tbe poil ioa in which we now are. | (treat* hare precipitated the cri*ia. T iere c*a no , longer be a question of a circam?critx>J w?, ef what 1 too?L'ed a political war; out it mmt b? a war of | eqatttorinm in Eurooe, . f a war for remedy oc all 1m injustice whiah Dan been so imprudently ram natttcd to r nearly a oentnrjr. Only a fa ? <i*y * sow ?apa'ate oa from tha period ajio?ed to Austria. It to a* that moment that light will ba m*to? it w.ll enlighten all tie world."? Pan* Sitei*. " PBOWPKcm op a numiAM invasion op india. Wa have not tha slightest intention of attempting to revive the fcrgotten panic wbloo we call " R.i-?o nkohla." We know that Kokati ia 700 mllaa fm-n 8a Kbyber, trat the pa'b is :hroc?n an ncon!*i vnted deaart, that Batxr in tbe same .oc?i ty twice laat an aimy in the now, aad that if 20.000 Ilut .*??? Kalmucks did force the passes, iliey ajtild bi annihilated In tne val'ey of I'esha vur. wl-h eve-y eflcer of atnaa in India wa regard with dr?M evn the appearance of interference in the poi'tlc* of Cantr.fAaia. It baa brongbt ?o the em jire nothing tent disaster, nnd to oir prut*** notfi.og bn* die grace. Bn t we *vuxit cotcea. frno OBmlvte Use d:8in< Bnauon to meddle wiib Birmah ma at Wast aa grta", and toot an English officer is Com miisioner of Pegne. rhee are oonttn ^enoies which may force oa to aocept an alternative aa dangerous aa undcaind. 8j long aa the State* of Central Atia remain native States, their affairs are as ua important to the empire as the quarrels of Fee jeans. It is notting to as whether tbe savage who orcupiea Bokhara, or tbe semi- barbarians who quarrel in Candahar, are victorious or de feated. If they remain at peace, we know that tbe caravans will travel undisturbed, and the reve i>oe will pit.fi*. If they remain at war, ws lunw that every stroke falls on s->me one of wbom the world is wi'ling to be rid. Bat the question becomm more rerions it we are ti believe that these States ma? bo united, that a second empire may be formed beyond the Suleiman range, and that the ooarage of mountaineers is to be organized by the suanoe of the Wert. Thit contingency ? with all deference to 'bote who hold an opp-wite opinion ? we do not deem to be absurd. It is bslievsd that tbe Hassia-n are roaeters of Kokau. It is certain that tbe petty States of that region are ala-med to a degree whici overcomes their dread of British annexation. It la allowed tbat Russian officers are not in Kokaa to botanize, or even to add a few more thousand miles of steppe to an empire whose boundaries have never jet been tracej. Their object may not be Iadia, and, even it it is, it may be unattainable. Battney have an object, and we protest against the belief tbat courage means stupidity, and that we are noi to watca events, however important, or re eive a< eerMofes however well auuientkated ? Ftitnd of China. NKITRAL POLICY OF THE NEW DANISH M1KIBTRY. The new mink try are said to nave reso:ved on maintaining the system of policy olwe-ved by tbe former cabinet as regards the Eastern question. It is believed in Copenhagen that the Kutg imposed tnis on the present ministry, on their oming into office, as a tine qv& non; and it was only on that unde -standing that M. de Scheel Pies en consented to leave bis post of envoy at Stockholm to accept tt e portfolio of tne ministry for foreign affairs at Copenhagen. Very little credit mast be given to mm' rs of pietcnded negotiations between the D<u.'itb government and the two Western Powets, or that the latter are urging on us to join the coalition. Nothing is known in tbe offi cial oir<)ea beie of any auch pressing invita ti r h. lnde* d, tbe commercial and industrial classes with ns find the system of neutrality adopted by Sweden and Denmark so much to their lnterert ihat tbe small body of ardent p)liti lacs, existing in either kingdom, are comparatively unheeded iu their clamors for a mora decided course of action. It is confidently stated, therefore, in the best quar tern, tfat tbe envoys at the different Europeai courts have been int trusted, witi tne new year, to apprise the various foieign governments to wbich they are areredited, that tbe new ministry will na rtservedly npaoid tne same system ot strict neutral ity, should a second campaign be opened in the Baltic, which was impartially observed duringr the past yf ar. ? Corte*pvndence of tlu London Chronicle . ROYAI. PROMISE*! AND GREEK FAITH ? 81'EECH OP RING OTHO. In his speech on tbe opening of tie Chambers, Kit g Otho Iliads tbe following allusions to the re cent insurrectional? movements in his kingdom, and to the position of Greece in reference to the Rasas in war:? Well known circumstances, accompanied by deplo rable acta, have, for some time past, led tath^ inter ruption or relations with a neighboring 8'.ate, and occasioned material iostea to t&e commercial inter ests of both countries. Mj government has unceas ing^ v devoted its attention to re establishing rhess relati rs. and we hope that, thanks to tbe sincere and kind cooperation of t ie great Powers, the allies of the ne'gtiboring State, and whoao noble and geierooa feutiments in favor of Greeoe have been a rontly inamte&ied, cur de-tires will be hap pily r<ai'zed. In presen e of the formidable strug gle which has broken out in the East, considiratiuns of a superior oroer, derived from tae manifest inter ests ot tbe nattor , as well aa from a feelirg of gra t.tode towards the Powers allud-d to, have dictated to us the declaration or a strict neutrality. In firmly adhering to this sys em, we will ne after permit n or tolerate aa>thug contrary to the honor and true interests of f.e country. We keep up friendly re lations ffithail the Powsrs. without for^ttiog thit tbevaramoui t interest ot Greece is to draw from the springs of Eu.opean civilization all tbe benefits whictx result from ihsm for society. Njtaing, in (tot, can be better raited to oar situation, or mire powerfully oont.ibute to tbe national glory, than & good internal organization, by tbe aid of one moral and religions euu'^ation of yr.uth, of legislative and governmental arrangements haviog for object tbe dev? lopemtnt of agriculture, of industry and of ooa mer e, ss we las of tbe observance of tbe strictest good faitu in all transactions either pubic or pri vate. RFAL CONDITION OF THK KUBHIAN AKKT. Tilt) Ru'si&u uray has Ibis advauti^e ov-jr tbosa of the ailien. that it acta in its o wn c >untry, Ha sol di* th arn accustom', d to the c'ltnate, acd its fienerals t>h<] ooiQiirma lai Are acquainted with toe grouud ai d the xeaouraea to bi denied c'rom it; hat, on t&e other baiid, tue Black s ,i tB ctotted to tba Rnaiao army tiy our lit els, and ue Sea of Azov aid tba land xoadoBlyiue open to it to procure all tbe supplies wbicb it cannot (lod on tr,e sotl itsaif. Tbe b'< ipra, which are unii'habstio c in the winter, and only prac ticable by the road wbicb leaJs from Perskop to Binjfiropol, form l?o- thirds 0/ the Crimea; the o'.her ibird is a tuoui tauious iftgio PHoc? Mor.ich'.kod h?a evabli'hfd himself from Simferopol, Kara-Bou b .z ir and B ktohi-Se ai to toe west coah?, a radian of about twenty-five ifaguee. i'oe ordinary raion of tie Husshu toldiex Is composed of b ead, groats, and brandy to whi:b, id war, ia adctd ratal, this latter ia t ie oniy thing the Crimea can Buppty. Tbe oxen and a ieeo aropty supply tbe wanin of the Ruwiaa array bat ire own, b-andy, and otber supplies are dra fa from N.koiaitf, Kherson. and Caganrog, where ltrge de pots have teen for some time formed ei oar by tbe i.avit akion of tbe Dav?. er, which iraveraes v*r? rica piovuicta, or from Odeasa. Nikolaief and Khorsoa now teivt: ai the bonis of toe tuppiiea of the ltujsiaa army, anal tnev wtre destroyed, Prinze Meus:hi keff won d find himself in a very emb?-riBset posi tion. Tbe transport of supplies id attended with grest diffi ulty in a country where no regular eatab Itahmenta tor that purpose exist. Tbe roitda am very bad, a) though not quite impracticable. rhe Russian govfinmtnt boa collected toae'-ber by reqaisltton a great number of vehicle*, ana by this means aecared Uie service, notwithstanding the season, tbe r mo. tbe tx.ld.aid those dreadful auow storms wniuh some times swtep away whole flocka and entire convoys. M&. y ctrriairra are lost and many men perm 00 tbe road, bu' the convoya succeed ea;h otber with out intenuptlon and traverae the Iithmua cf Pere kop, by which road provisions, reinforcements, anl uoiiuni ition must come. Tbe aea of Aziff bsiog free, Dumeious cargoes are aiao despatch id frooa Taganrog, Berdiam k and Htrianpol, and which, after beiug ianded at Kertch, are Rent on by tbe road wi.ic 1 lead* from tnai port to Simferopol. If our account a are. therefore, aa we btiievetnem to he, correct, tbe Raasiaoa ate not in wantof provi tiona, or, at least, it ia clear that tbe Rusaian gov en meet hi* taken every meant* for se aring a ?upf>ly for vhem. The real came of the aufferinns of their army, and ot tbe numerous deaths, la the want of ahelter and of clothing anttable for the wiater, and the deaths are numerous from the want of pro per care and remedies in illrieaa, notwithataudng the en o moos same expended by the goverom^nt for tbat parpce ? Paris Corutitutionnrl. GRATUITIES P OR THE Rl'SSIAN NAVT. Tbe active part wbicb tbe aatlors of 'ie Bla'k Sea take in the defence if Sebaatopol tea )a inevita bly to losses whicu Russia feels daeply, ani taeref >re every day tier ajmpithiea for tjete baseaaliora, and parucnUrly for tfe woondtd, ue diapliyed by numenua gifts, wMch are ^ent from all alrec: on? and through every nhanael, to the Ministry of *? rint. in otdei to secure tegu.aii'.y in the reaaption of these offerings, special arrangeraeuui have o>eu made for the daily reoeution ot tbote gifts at tb9 Commissarat Department of ;he Miuiairy of M trine, and mforrcaMon r?"<p<-ctiD? tbem ?ill be immedia'<e jy given to tbe Grand Duke Couataatme, who w J make a report up .n the subject to Hia M -j ?ty tha Em^tror. As tu gifts of pr iper .y or m-^ey, they will be transmitt'.d without a?lavti their a-stin? tioo. Independently of this m-aaure adopted at St. Petersburg* orders have been g'.veu to toe Admi ralty Comic Jtaicner at Moacow to receive g.fta of a aimilar nature, tiat ia t-> sty, for the w rant ed of tbe fleet of the Blaik Sea, and to aend :bem weekly to the Crimea by t ie poet. It) judge by the nature of the ATti:lea jai y leoetvel. It i? ev'deut tnat the doners have en'?rel iito the moe'. minute details respecting tie wan~a of the w jo.-. Jed, aud that they r. tve conaequea Jy iiapiajeu wuiiderfui uisoernment in the nuiui r lUHtfcn they nave ma .e toeir offtringa. Oa Hi patt the admin ia'jation of tke fleet employe all tbe meats iu i*.a (.owtr to succor tbe wounded and tj sss'ti the famHiea of those who nave bj?n killed. With this objec t, icdependently of tbe local mea sures adopted a losg time ago. a "npsrior funo Jon* ary, the oolieg* coo'ir.ilor, M. Kry'.off, ba? bera sent to the Crimea. lk-*ides this, tbere htva been sent to Prince MtnsoaikotT out of the suma sob s ribed by ( ovate benefactora, 8,000 silver roab ea, to be distributed among the wounded. A portion of thtae aumi, atia.mr from private benefa:tiuns, r.as beer applied to defray the eii -naa of Binding to the Crimea aix y Sjtera of Charity, who will d^ vote themaeivea to the c ire of tbe sick. VISIT OF THK MJ1.TAK TO THE DfKi OP OAM<OirPGr. On Piiday last nia Imperial Msjesty the Sutuu, aooompanied byhia ordinary auite, procatded to the Paiaoe ot tho Fao&say. to rlait hia royal Higb net*. Tf e Saltan wae received at the ectraooe of tbei'alaceby Lor3 Stra'.ford de R'dcfift nod the whole ftrwnnti of tbe B itlah '?gU on H fal cr' fo: m, and by tbe Daks r f ambr dge, who wa'te J at th? bead of the gr&nd lU'rw. nt'oluo'd r'o therbie'aa'ocr, tte ^altUB mot*. afTo* y inte ovpvenation with tbe D*k?. Lord BMford 481 IUdclifle ud M. Etien? F?an1, flr?t dmcmu of the embassy, were preaanc tf. the mteevisw, aod m the noble ambassa4or mntised BtandhBg hia M?je?iy griclouBlj reqoMttd him to be hmA. After the inteivlew, wnich luted twenty minutes, and in whioh tie Saltan expressed to the Duke hia asoti ments of friendship and sympathy Car Queen Vi ;to ria and the English people, and hia aatiaftelon at the imorovement in the Dukt'a health, hia Majeaiy visited Lady Stratford, who, with her daughters, van in tbe ball room, and conversed with tnem in the mott friendly manner. The Dnke accompanied tbe Bui tan fcalf way down the grand staircase, when the Saltan insisted he ihoald go no farther. Lord 8trat' ord and tbe other member* of the legation ac companied his M ijeaty to tbe great vestibule. <? Etienne Pisani acoomptnied his Majesty to the Pa lace gates, where the Saltan minted his horse and retained to Tchfer&gan ? Journal dt Constantino ple, Dtc 24. ADMIRAL DCNDA&'B FAREWELL TO TBI BLACK SKA fleet. Tfce following is tte address of Admirsl Dandas upon quitting the command of the Black Sea fleet:? Her Majesty's ship Britannia ) In the Bospiiorocs, Deo. 22, 1864. ( My term of nervtce as Commander in-Chief in the Mediterranean and Black Seas having dravn ton close, 1 am about to retnrn to England and give up U e command of this fleet. During the past year many trying circumstances have occurred? pestilence in its m at, aggravated form, action with the enemy against defences such as ships baidh ever encountered, and a tempest of the most awful violence. lu all t^ose events tbe good conduct and gallan try of tbe fleet have been evinced aud proved. In takiog an affectionate leave of the officers, sea men, and marines of the fleet, I can nertafter expe rience no higher gratilication than the assurance that they preserve their high character for disci pline, enterprise, and devotion to our sovereign and country. J. W. D. Duk das, Vice Admiral, Commander in-Cuief. Relations of the United States with the tilled rowcn-Oar Annexation Policy, [From the I'ariH ConHtituliunnel, D?c. !i4.] Nowhere has speculation assumed sucl propor tioLsae in Amok*; nowhere does credit play bo great a part; and it is mat circumstance which places all fortutes in that ijountry at tbe mercy of vbe slightest stock. The circulation of paper tuere is enormous. As manufacturers are altogether free from the control of the government, as banks are numerous, and railway and otber suares are so greatly iuultipbed, that the sum total of toe shares often greatly ixcctds the reai value of the enter prises which they lepresrnt, tbe financial prosperity ot the country is one of those fragile edirt ea whici a breath can overthrow. It is not lbs twenty or tbirty millions of dollars which are as a surplus at the treasury that would s.ftl e to guard sua ii Ht the danger of such as tuation, although the plans, more or less adventurous ot t'ie war paity, are pi inci pally based on that surplus. Who r oes not know that in Amerioa every one estimates his fortune snd regulates his expense, not according to his capital, but according to the combined aasnunt of his money and of tbe credit which that mcney may enable Lim ;o obtain? Bythatcal:n iafon, tbe taste fo.- luxu-y wnich has developed it ?elf in to prodigious a manner in America, has found means of satisfying itself. Within tie last few years the United States have augmented their purchases on credit in a manner altogether out of proportion to tbe amount ot money of which they can dispose. It is a most delicate eitutt.on, froa which they can only relieve themselves on the con dition of avoidicg every great crisis. In addition, tbe interests of American commerce and manufac tures aie so much mixed up with the commerce and manufactures of Fratoe and England, that cruisers of tfce Un<ted States i^onld not interrupt .oe passage of a single Vc-sael of either of tt-es9 two na 101 s, with out givmg a greater b ow perhaps to (he forton* of an Amencsu citizen than to that of the English or French mercantile man whose goods might have been seized, it is not iieccssary to insist on this fact; but let any one jutt ask himself whici of the two people would suffer most, in its navigatioo, for 10 s'snce, if tbe commercial m vem nt botween France aud the United States was interrupted a sin gle dvy. Tne most ordinary common seuae poiatf out to which sucii a mpture wou d be m ist preju dicial; ai d ttiiit consideration, joi ied to tae m irai obligations of ?nich we have sj oken above, guaran tees us c mplctply ajainst the dangers and m<sfor tuned to which some mlscaie'-ankers, fortunatelf net very numerous, and without much intlueo ie, would exr*se> tbe wor d, by an adventurous and aggressive polcy. But is toe obje t ot sucn agi'* ticn sn dekiiable? Would the aonexation of Ooha he so very useful to the federal rr^ublio? Would the p"B?tBfci"n of tbe Sandwich Islands confer such great advantages? We really caruo*. see ir. It is said in the Uni'cd Bta*?s, the island of Cuba com mauds toe Gulf of Mexico aid the mouths of the Mississippi. But t ? .?: situation caunot ever have 1 had any danger for the United States, At present, in particular, Spain cannot give even tbe shadow of a pretext 'or any apprehensions resu.ting "rom t*e posit: d of Cuba. At a J events, i t it sufficient for a foreign posp'ssiou to be piaced in an amoviDg position for auo hex p: wer to warrant its conquer? Were that ths caue. there woma never be any c< Ft at ion of war in Europe, for each power would seize in its turn, without respect for right or justice, the first occasion to enlarge it? nrri tory. Cuba, attached to tbe Ution, ce tair.lv wculd not add any esr-enMai eleov-nt to tbe political impor tacce which toe United States possesi abro .d. At heme its annexation aould thru v iutothe oaimce of tb6 varloua rowers a w< igbt which would cm-ell to iodine ccDelderhbly ?n favor of tbe V.ave States, and which would add to tie elements ol di?cord whici have alieady menaced tbe separation of the sorta and 'be south. Toe south would acqnire an inoon testable preponderance which the sole force of things wou): render tyrannical, acd which would excite in the bigheat <iegTee the jial nn>y and antipathy of the etatfb in wbicn slavery Pai been aliolished. As to tv e Sandwico Islands, it may be that America will obtain tbeir voluotary cessioa. Tbe King of Hm> inlu may re noonce the independence of nis throne in eschar ge fur s >m? ar-nual peiision. IIis ainiguom reply to the question ?d4re*sed to him by the El^ llsh consul leads to the Buppjsiti n tea . t-iere is ncmething well fcunied in ine ru acre which have been in circulation on t e sabj? ct. Bat, if we sse whet Kumehameha would gaiu by ibis reuouuoement of bis rigyit4, whic i an ancestor, really illustriooa and mpetior to all tbe other iahabitanw of Oceania, transmitted to blm, we do not perceive the advantages which the United States can look for from that cession. This archipelago 1b a station us? ful to their whalers a- d steamc s; but they enj >y u at advantage at prtB' nt, without cost or embar rassment. By their relative proximity, by the ex tent of their commsrce, by thi nnmosr of their lei low citizens established in these Inlands, by the gov ernment of tbe oountry placed in the hands of tneir ecmpatriotB, the Am-noui* are the real masters of tbe Sandwich group. Wby, then, snouid toe United States change that lucrative suzerainty tor a suze rainty in difficulty, whi>-h would require the ocgani ticn andexpeLBe of bcal admiois<ration. For all these leasone, we have full coifld?rice in tbe Ameri can people. Tee Puritans, who firBt psooled the United States, hsve b'queatbed to their children trsditions of high moraluv and a very rigid B?nti ment oi duty, which will continue to prevaM, in spite of tbe popular clam.>rs aaa tbe harangues of tne tavern p liticiauB a*, tbe present crisis. If th j Sandwich Islands and Cuba should in tbe ead form a part of the Union, their annexation will be ef fected by honorable means, aud not otherwise. As to Kassian sympathies, '.hey wou.d be so compete ly monstroue tnat the true American people cauootb* 1 capable of them. The Expressing Kystrm In the United StatM mut TFrom ttin Lonlon I'iiuch, D?fC. 28 ] JiiMt now war overrides tven rnaoiiiioa. The very tod* o' gold hftve lost their attrActUm c-mpwed with tbe sere of European strife, hud stirce ft ' tbimKht probably i* (riven to newt fr.-m Bft'.iarti | t r Haorituento ?wn despa'ohes from BOtkltva *ni I Nbsstopol are athftnd. Nor it mis sarprivng. for ; ' eves iii those Ucd? tbemstiv**? iu toom remote tad | anomalous rfgions where t?c y punUm of rn?n : stem*d abso'bed in tbe cue pirtuit of gold, the i terflb ? int create of war have asserted their a?cend at oy and thrown local prospects into the shade. 14 All the Aus r?llan >oionies," Bays oar corre<pond ett, " may be dett-ritwd as looking *lta far more ' interest V.- .he ev^nti -f Europe tiftn to their domes- , i t'.c affairs. Every arrival is anxio.My expired, ftod ' not wholiy for i:a eflVt oa tbe mirket. The En I torn a: coifl'ct is watihed with intense aoxlety, and Sonllff ft-eiin* In the colonic in thoroi?hlv wltri of land in tfce atrnrsK" Vet in lb* intelligence j which we published from the gold countries oa ; Toetday there was jne littl* paiagraph w.ich re flected with no tmall significant on affilrs in i the Crimea. and wbich will suggent, we tht'-k, *otre ctnclu'ioM not aUontitor agreeable ti British pride. Onr California corespon<eit, wilting Tom Kan Fr?n'isco, observed inat they " now bad a wwkly nuil to and from the A'Jantc Stales/' and be farther %died, tha' on tie laai oc a Mon the transit of this mail from New Y> rk vo Sai Francis** hsd been accomplished in 23 days an! 13 boms. Even this, however, w?s not enough to satisfy American notions of velocity and enterprise, for ft certain " exur?ss house'' in Saa Francisco bad betn making arrangements to carry tbe malls ex i r*??, by relays of boraes, a> rnas Uie whole Hexl -an , territory ftom Acapaloo to Vera Cruz, by whl h ! service San Francisco wold be br ight within 16 j days' poet of Sow Orleans. Now, the reader will no i doubt recoll?ct that on Monday mo nlng Uit we ' tbmubt ourselves to'arablf fortunate in being aYe 1 t? lay before the j.uh':;.". detailed r>: igenia from Mebaitopol up to tbe 7th inst:, and .n point of fa:t ' weiraysay ttat if mtUa arrive Lb I ond n I Pi'taViu !p Iwthm tbrte wyke' ;'b< :t la ? pretty aood pott Let ua eomoare, than, la their MTer?l featured, the "aerricea" between Saa Fv? Cisco and New York on on* aide, aad Balakiava and Ltndoo on the other* New York and San F/ancisco an m panted from each other by the whole breadth of the Norta Ame rican continent. By lea the communication ia volvea a long voyage from New York to Aiplnwall, a painful and nncertain paaaage across the isthmus which difidea the two oceans, and a second long voyage boa Panama to Ban Francisco. The entire tea passage, we should think, cannot be much short of 4,600 miles, betides which (hen is the trans shipment and the risk of a land journey, which, if not very long, la liable to taterraptfons of no ordi nary kind. Nevertheless New York, it appean, is within twenty four da) s of Ban Franeisoo already, aid is likely enough to be brought neenr still. To compnhena the truly American scheme of "ex preralng" across Mexico, the reader must needs turn to a ma j, for no words of ours can otherwise do 11 justice. It will there be seen that the pMata to be Drought into connection with each oiherbythis new postal service an not situated on the central isthmus, when the Atlantic and Paoifio an separated cnlv by a few miles of land, but on the shorts of the old Mexican kingdom, with come hundreds cf miles of territory between them. To get scrota from Ven Crux to Acapuleo the couriers must toil up the mountain* leading from the hot low countries on the shore to the hlgn table land on which tee city ot Mexico stands, mist tra verse this vast plateau, and then descend again to tbe Pacific Ocean on the other side. Tbis journey tbe Americana expect to accomplish in 66 hours. It is related of the Aztec mocarbs that when, in all the pride of power, and with all the resources of what, in some respects, was conside able civilisa tion, tbey reigned in Mexio, they aoc >mpJiahed the extraordinary teat of getting fish up fresh from toe st a by means of trained runners, whj in the space of 24 hoars oould bring light lotds from the ooast t i tbe capita!. Now, as Mexico stands nearly a wut midway between the two oceans, this would mtks 48 bouts tor the journey across the continent at a period when everything wat in favor of the exploit, wten roads were good, runners abundant, ana the whole eeivice tkilfully organised. Toe American projectors reckon upon 66 hours being necessary for the pasfage, but the couatry, instead of being a populous and weli ordend State, is now a prey to every kind of disorder. Civil war is raging through out toe land, and the plague itself, as we learn by the last accounts, is working havoc in the iaterior. Such, in fact, is the condition of tbe country tkat the project, though regarded as perfectly feasible in itoelt, is said to be pontpot ed f<r a seaeon Now look at tne j ourney from London to B tlakla va. Tbe wfcole sea voyage, though it m%y be some 3,000 miles or more, is perfectly easy, aid we hare static ns at Gibraltar and Malta to facilitate all our operatic na. But for pontal service there ia the cut across the continent of Europe by Calais a id Mar seille*, wi tch reduces tbe distance to 2,675 miles, and there la an additional saving of time to be efli cted by Varia and Buc bares'.. N> doubt -he Tnrkish provinces are in a disturbed a'ate, but they are at any rate tbe provinces of our own ally, and as f-nch tneir resources should he under our own command. Look, too, at the interests at stake res 1 pecuvcly in California and the Crimea. At tae for mer place tbe whole matter is a mere speculation of business or convenience? an attempt t<> bring the market news of New York mure within nana of the merchants of San Fraocitco. At the latter ppol two migh'y governments are engaged in deadly gi apple with a third, and the hop's, fears and in terests of mtiors depend upon the event. Bat what have we done to compare wit a tbe American prject? Nothing, or next to nohing. There ia no re s? on * hate: ver, an we have often shown, why we rtould not twice a week get intelligence only ten or tweive days old, bnt t;.e thing is not done, and, with ail our ateam, our enterprise and our energies, tbe Emperor of Russia beata ua hollow. Of crime, ?e bee that the Bibeme for an express aciors Mexico is but a scheme, nor do we f.vg-jt tnat a certain amount of " brag" must ha slowed for in tuub propositions. We observe, too, tiat the Pre sueit of tf e United States remarked rather unfa vorably in bis message upon the pen* r ?l a?po5: of railroad enterprise* in America; hit. far ail trim, we bave >ittle d<ubt that tbe project referred to wiuld be sucoefoi'nlly canted out, tooagti nnder tsten, rot by a wealthy aod pow-r'nl government, but by a " boure," or, in other words, by a hwdful tf r?mlu'e Yeiketa at Pan Franciac >, operating with their own meana, and upon the auggest ona of tleir o?n di<cernment. Nov, is not a l?.s*on t> b? letmt from tn b energy ? We are not for makin/ ministers alone tbe scapego ata in this matter. All of us ? tbe whole cmmnuity? merr.nauV* and ship mat-teis, tradeis ano cart era, have beta in arrear of ?.un elves and tbe <KC?aion. Wo have ponred cargo aftf r ? argo into Australian ports, till, an oor )orr*m poi d?nt rspre^ed it, the arrival of vassals with men bar dine at Pent rblliiD alarmed tbe -joioiy as much " si if they had b*en peat ahios," while our saldit a at BaUklava, with plenty ofm?ne? in their pr cbets, h ?ve been Buffering from reti famiDe. We l ave bail command of tbe tea, of caunuess trans port*, and of tbe b*at engineering science in the woild, una we tnve bad old Saxon bkod to i efp ns, and \? t Sebfs'opoi still remains nearly twice as far fie m ua aa it need be. Enp;llih Trade -with America. [From the London Shipping Gazette, Jan. 2 ] F< w persons wno have glanced over toe w*o of North America, and have noticed the great rhiin of inland seas with which it ia a* added, cave t>e?n ab!? to form any correct idea of the atat and lm neiee importance <t the trade a ad commer e earned cn upon tht se great lakes, or of tb# works of oi Function, the removal ot obstacles, and toe general improvt menta to navigation which have b**n ren den d requisite for the de.veiopement and explcra'ion, ro the tallest extent, of the inestimable r? ourcej of thete noble waters, and tbe vast produciv-i verrito ri< a surrounding tbem. These inland taken are tbe feeders of the maritime ravigation and mmeree, and the source of lta greatness. For at such a vast di-tai.ee do tbe grasariiH and Hto.-ehnason of agri cultural and mineral wealth lie from the marts aad workshops of America that, bat for the net- work of Iskes, rivers, and artificial improvements viib waich the country ia so wonderfully intersected, they could never be rtndered available for exportation or home consumption on the seaboard and ia the old and thickly-settled distri ta. Tbe commerce of these great Inland tea* ia acquiring a magnitude and im portance that attests tbe rapidity with w <i ;b tbe territory tbey drain bes been populated and render ed productive. Half a century ago, Lakes Oatarii, Erie, Union, Michigan, St. Clair and Superior were entiiely without commerce. Almost tbe only craft to be seen upon them was tbe Indian canoe. The tonnage of trie lakes in 1820 amounted to oalv 5,500 tons, lt> tbe next ten years It rose to 20,000 tves, In 1840 to 75,000 tona, and in 1850 to 215,787 tons. Tbe ratio of increase baa been much greater every succeeding decade. But tbe present trade hardly gives an idea of tbe vast oomneroe of which these lakes are destined to become tbe 8:ens ia fa tuie. It ia estimated that the American States wbicb border en the lakes are of tbemselvrs doable of sustaining a population of t went) -two million. Add to this commerce that which is growing on the Canadian stores, and one may form a faint concep tion of the ftiture commerce of this region of lakes. The total length of tnese five great fresh water tea* is nearly sixteen hundred miles, aud tbey cover an area of upwa ds of ninety thousand suoa. e m.les. We cannot but behold with wonder tbe munifi cence of the gifts which Providence has showered upon this extensive regiin, thousands of miles in tbe interior from t"e ocean. These waters drain i < re th?n three hundred thousand square miles of a reginn abounding in mineral and agriculture re source*, and wMcn have yet hard'y i*en touched, much lees apnieciated. <Khat inexha istible ele ments < t warn He around the shores of Lik? ft ape rior. Besides ito Important fisheries, Nature has de veloped lta immense rnineia' treasure* upon a scale as gland as ita waters. Its copper mine-t, the moet expensive and productive ia the world, fur nieblsg sirgle of the unparallt led weight of ttixty toes, supply half of the American cormu mo tion, from localities where ten yean ago tbe exist ence of a single vein ?*s unknown. Toe iren mi-ies near tbe shore* of tbis lake sm mm tho*? of Bwden or Russia in extent, and equal tnem intheexc-llenoe of lh? tr material. It is predicted by acute meta'.lar gists that ita silver mines, though as yet undsve foptd, will one day vie wth those of Mexiw. Oar attention has he*n m ire specltlly directed to thin lmpottant new field of ob?erv*ti jn for our mer chants and shipowners by an intelligent correspon dent at Chi ago, Illinois, on Lake Michigan, who pcint* out the de?imbltity of direct commuaicaUoa with En ope throngh t>e At. Lawrence, Instead of, as at present, by the Erie canal. That port is but l.COO miles from the Atlantic, with which there Is cmmuLlcatl'in by vesae s of 120 feet k*el and 26 l? am, drawing lOj feet water. He furniahea us with some statistic* to soowtbe rising importance of that district. Tbe population of Chicago ia 1840 was under 5,000; in 1*48 it had risen to JO, 000; 1n 1860 t> 30,000; end it tow stands at 78 000. There .tre always In the river about 70 sail of vessels, averag h g 260 tons, four paddle steamers and sot propsl kr*. TVe enrolled and licensed tonnage ia 1847 was 4,000 tons; 1848. 11,000, and In 1851 23,105. Tbe tonnage entered Inwards in 1861 was 958,600 tot s. Tbe ? x porta of beef from Chicago tbis season will exoetd 66,000 hart els, of pork 100,000 barrels, of breadsttifls 1,300,000 quarters, and of wjoI 1,600,000 pounds. The imports of English iron las4, j far were 3<> 000 tons. There are 24,000 miles of rail finished If the state*, and 1,400 constru ting. These data, relative to one Western town only, will ser^e to afcow the rising character of the trade and tie unprecedented increase in wealth and. population of these new towns of the West, of which C.ii agr> is : comparatively but a second rate representative. Tlere are at least half a donen other risug shipping Doits on Mi:h?ffsn. Df trolt Is also a tnastlranortaa*. Kt. On Lake Brie we navo Handisky, Cietsiani, sani BoflUo; <*n *ke Ontario. ?och?trr and 1 OnWf?; a;;' cfi ft! Oacac'ifci r*ie, Bw'.'toc, T* ronto, Port Hope ud Kingston? besides Montml and QotUo on the St. Lawrence. Thla is a field well deaerviim greater attention from BfiUafa merchant#; indeed; oar oirrespon lent adriaee u? that it ie already occupying the attention of Nine of the olev aighted business men on (bis side of the water. He tells us that a person has ar rived there on a mission from Llveroool to open ba sinets connections in the various lake cities, and es pecially in Chicago, and to arrange for the estab liithmtnt of a lice of propellers between that port and Monti eal. We oWne, in tbe Daily Prest of Chicago, an advertisement requiting first claeiahips for Liverpool. Glasgow and Cock, and it eeeai* quite clear that a direct communication with European ports will shortly be carried on. Chicago merchants will, ere long, import tbe bulk of tbeir European goods direct from Europe without change of bottom or the breakage of bulk? and transport to foreign markets i* the aame way such products of the ooun try as there may be a demand lor, without the ex pense and trouble of shifting cargo. It remains to be seen wbethsr our merchants aid ahlpowners cannot devote some attention to this trade, and share in the profit. Tbe first navigable outlet from Ltke Ontario, the Krie canal, was completed in 1825. N?zt came tbe Wetland canal, in Canada, connect ng Lakea Ontario and E> ie. The dimensions of the ocks upon the We Hand, canal are admirably adapted o t.^e class of vessels in >st suitable and profitable lor tbe western lake". They ?ill easily pais tbe best models of the Buffalo and Chicago traders. Caiada has followed ud her water commuoioations by ttie fit. Lawrence, Rideau, Laahine, Chambly and Burlington Bay canals, and several other important canals sie contemplated and commented. Tbe concession of the free navigation of tbe St. Lawrence was long earnestly deaired by tbe Ante team. In 182tf it was the subject of an animated diplomatic correspondence between the United Rates ai d Gr?at Britain. It is a privilege in which eight at least of the American Suites h ave a direct interest, U at river being tbe natural outlet to tbe principal portion of the great whea'.-proiucing re s ion of tne co-threat. Some few. indeed, Am?ricin aut&orhits oppoted tbe use of the 8*.. Lawrence in tbe apprehension that the existing artificial chaunek ctight not continue to be used to tbe full extent of tbeir ctpaclty. Such an apprehension any one must feel to be groundlessfwho reflects that the North western States are advancing a*, a rate which will give them, in half a century, nearly 30,000,000 of people, or who icoks at the present principal artifi cial cutlet to the western trade, and sees, on the showing of one of tbeir own commer cial authorities, how tbe "immense bade of tbe Northwestern States and Territories has been forced through the Erie Coral, making tbe procession of brats through its whole rxcert as continuous a a tha?. of carriages through the heart of a great city. While crowded to ita utmost degree, It still leavrw large aicunnU tions of goods at every principal lauding, and is Fever closed by ice without arresting a great amount ot merchandise mid way between it* termini." The large towns of Buffalo, Oswego, Cleveland, Bandctky, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago and tftlwaukie, all of which have a larger number of sailing vessels and ?- 1 earners, are rapidly taking rank imocg the leading commercial cities of the United States. The great influx of immigrants proceed mm the sea coast to tbe Western States; and railroads and rivers bring the shipping porta of the lakes into close communication with the settlements and towns cf the interior. In 1841 tbe gross amount of the American lake trade was 105 000,000, but in 1851 it amounted to more than $300,000,000? ?60,000 000 sterling- and this was exclusive of the value of tbe property oonptantly changing hands, of tbe cos) of tbe vessels, or of tne profits of tbe piasenger urade. Any diversion at a por'ion of this important trade direct to our shores, any emp!oj merit wbich ctn be given to British shipping suitable to this carrying traie, any investment wt British capital that cm ba pre fltubly ard safely made in that distant quarter, is highly deserving of attention at a tiare when freipnts are slam and shipowners are on the loox out for new fields of operation. The Month ? Cuba. [From the Charleston Mercury ] Ittaseldtm that a foreign Ambassador reto-ne to bis country under circumstances uure painful than vik h>. wnich attend t>? case of Mr. S ml. . We all remember tie prestige ard high expe taUoa wbich ma ked hit appointment, and the confident bofcbt of r if> frieids and of the party with wlilca he unfortunately permitted hi** name to be associated, tbat the acquisition of Cnba wjuid crown nu c Ipltmacy. H waa, moreover, equally hoped by many, tbat >houl) Spain refuse to fctll Cuba, Mr. Boui* wou'.d manage in pome way, no matter bow or what, to get up a quarrel between tha two cooi tries, and thua the oonquer&r'a hand rnigat su%tch Ibe prize i". could not peaceably ?in. Tai prospict o' a rup'.oin growing out ot tbe Bltck Warrior affair, was hailed with Uie liveliest eatim action, and wj en it finally appeared that, in Bp. te of xiirea's and bnily'irg, no difficulty oouia be got up, dis*p pontuv ut ard ebsgrin were ev dent :n tnaoy qui - test. For 3tir part, >e u< v r fell into this : am of hopes aid expectations, aod toer?tore n^ver re iiret *d t te peaceful :tu turns between Spain ^nd tbe UniUd States If Cuba waa to bs a<"?juir-d by fo.ee on the part of this country, we taooghi. at leatt that sueb provocation sho:ld be awaited ?s i/'gnt jastify it in the eje* of dvili&'d na tions. and in tbat form of rlgbt which nations, no lees than individuals, car tot with impunity trample upon. But, from the liret, we had little hopes of the rucc?P8 ot Mr. Sou)6'? avowed mission, aod it is d'fti oult to comprehend the e- nfidenoe woch he iviulg ed, when Mi ore him lay tbe repealed refusals of Boain to r&tt with Cuba, and tbe who.e current of her vast history. Had be lest sight of tbat stubborn ptide of pofdfseion which baa ever chara teriz^d the Baalist people? or the desperate tenacity with which Spanish dominion on this contlne it clung to its impoverished, emasculated ooionies. til after long and bitter struggles, it waa coraoehd to iet go its hold ? N jr wan tnia his only obstacle. At tbe head of the Spanish government stood a womtn, who bad so f?r forfeited tbe respect of her people as to have been hissed in her own faca're in Mid rid? whose administration was hopelessly weak and rotter , and whose crown and life were constantly me nac* d by mobs and revolutions. Was it likely thu a government thus situated, would venture npoc a measure ot so much magnitude and delicacy as tbe tale of Cuba? And when, too, to add to thes* aaxxt ties and perils the powerful <-mba?sies of England and France united to oppose it, with arguments wbloh tbe strong bold ever over t^e weak, was it not tbe vanity of presumption tbat could lead men to expect this result. ? I t e revolution brought no promise of betterthicge for Mr. Bon n's mission. Everything was In chaos and turmoil, and the victoiioua party had iheir bands too full in maintaioiog their sli. pery ascen dency, to listen to propoaals which found ne svmpa thy or response in tbe boeoms of the Spanish peo ple. It does BOt ap pear, therefore, tha* there was, at any time during tbe mission or Mr. Soul*1, the slightest i bance of purohaaing Cuba. Had he never delivered bis Cub* a Junta spoec3 in Ne* York, nor promulgated in advsnce doctrines wounding to the t ai-tilian pride ; bad he, In a word, been alt >getber acceptable to the Spanish government, we a J not beiitve that he conld have succeeded in bianego tiations for Cuba. He baa. therefore, failed to ac complish what was impossible under tbe circum stances. The recent a-tion of the Cortes, la the quietus to all hopes of tbe purchase of tbat island for tbe present Mr. Boull is about to return to America. How sbotnd we receive hm? fcba-1 weturn upon himtbe cold ulatce of indifference ond disoaia, because be has (ailed in ?u h a case ? HhtU we tb?* ieas appre ciate bis seal and eairestness because t.-ey cjoid not ac-onrplfsh impcssibUities? No! It behooves ns to he generous towards bim? to lighten to the utmoet the but den which now weighs n,?oa tbe faiti fui.if nnsncctntul, public servant; to tbrcvopen wide to him that field of public tervice, in whicb he ban before lab.!* d so bravely and nobly. least ef all should the people of tne South con tent that such a tne as Pierre Boul<* be dropped or tbrnst aside, in tbe race of farytsols and httle m*B. They can never forget his bold and vigoroui atrorsta for their interests in the United states Senate; with what cxkvinc'.ng Kgic, witbercg de i unci* '.ion and biilliant eloquence, Le tongbt .n tbtir ranks, and never gave btck until amid treach try, ccvardi e, and federal honuge, tbe good came ? ciii dn?n. While we wr.te, toe recolie. ,1on of his great rpeecb upon tbe California bill is f &ih in our nirde. A speech whioh may w?U be cla?+?d ? m. ngtie Hi est <ffoitaever made in the senate, and one of the moat unanswerable, ia oppos tieo to thtt flsgram iiiquity. There is room, ample rjom, lor Mr. Soul^, at borne. Tne South will b?ioie long, if we juf ge *ri<ht,i ?- ! ail her tales'., and courage; and sbe m?y indeed we -one with open arms tne return ot cne, who if he has failed in a project of d ubtful wiaaum bas genius and devotion again to offer in tbe inevitable crisis of her existence and honor. Weather asd E* sTiigrsiR at Tna WniT* MorH iaims ? A rorrMponilent ot the Boston rrareljcr, under <1?t? of Jan. 20, oriten si follows.?1 ''The present we?k li?s b??n r,n? of anosusl oatarsl STrntn in thin pltee. Ua i-"stuni?y erening ls?t, at 9 o'clo'-k, the tiertnom' ter was at 32 degrees shove lero. anO at tbe time a amart rain. On Sunday morning it <s< at 10 (legreen hstow ?e?o, and sa frevttcg a wind aa was erer experirncM in l bis place. Several per?ona here had th?ir ?ar* sod fa<-?w Iron n in g' ing to churoii Monday the th#rmomi>ter waa agsin up to IN shove. Tusaday evening, at 38 mloutea ps?t # o'clock, sn farthquake waa experienced, com mrnclng with a heavy rumbliny noi?? tot a few seeewds, and immediste'y followe<l by a "mart vibratory mntinn, all of whleh continurd about thirty seconds. I wa< In one of the ?te?nge?t bulldinga in the county at the time, and the vibration* were very marked. From what I can learn, tbe White Mountaiua were the point wher? it wa? mo'i violent Conld the *udden extremea of beat tori cold have aacb an expanding and contracting effect on the surface of tbe monata aa .ia to cau>e ?ueh a reeiilt' On Tburadav morning It cemmen-e*! moving, which con tm ied till Fr . lay evening u^ak ap a 'aJ of r A !? ? hio forty two s:be> tf snoa Oar Canada Correspondence. Qrnnc, Ju. 14, 1866. Trait of At Port of Quebec during the Year 1854 ? Ditatltrt to Canadian Shipping during the tamo Pit tod ? Statutict of Immigration ? Young Cana da Bteoming Patriotic ? VoiunUttmg far tho Crimea ? Storm of Indignation raited agamtt the Quebec Mercury, for Throwing a Damper on the Popular Fttling? Extraordinary Mildnets of tht State n, &C. In ft recent letter I gave you tame flgnrea relative to the timber trade at Qaebee during the part yew. I have jut seen a statement of the general trade of this port, from which I call some facta concerning the shipping inteiest and immigration. The total a amber of arrivals at this port daring the jear wa? 1663, making 600,838 tons. Of these 166 wen fo reign, as follows: ? Vault. Ton*. Norwegian - ? 63 24,884 Prussian 18 7,084 German 7 2,662 Swedish 4 1,366 Austrian 1 196 French 2 468 Spanish 1 211 Portuguese 16 2,871 American 64 41,639 Total 1C6 81,447 In addition to these there were built acd register ed at Qaebee, 43 sqaare rigged vessels, 44,165 tons; 26 schooners, 2,626 tons; and 8 steamtrs, 618 tons, ?making 76 vessels, 47,308 tons. As T have before said, tho total number of vessels to be baih here this year will probably not exceed twenty-five. Oni trale with the lower provinces has be?.n jesitban ia any previous year since 1849. This is accounted for by tbe bigb prise of flanr, the principal article of export, curtailing its consumption, and the fact that tbe clearances from Montreal to these porta have much exceeded those of former years. The clearances at this pott for Nova Scotia, New Brona wi>k, New found land, Cape Breton, Prin* Edward Island and Labrador, have been as follows, since 1849:? Vcstlt. Tent. 1849 153 8 728 1860 165 - 10,119 185 1 169 12,683 185 2 16(5 10,490 185 3 196 12,797 185 4 148 9,832 Tbe number of vesaelB clearing for e& n of tbe above provinces for tbe last two jews, is as fol" lows: ? 1*53. > 1854. , V'tti/s. Ton*. Vettele. Tmt. New Brunswick 104 6,617 76 4,179 Neva Soctia 46 2,778 27 1,989 Newfoundland 34 3,575 24 2 333 Cape Breton 6 304 10 683 Labrador 7 244 9 535 Prince Edw'd Islaid. . . 4 176 2 110 Total 200 12,694 148 9,832 It is satisfactory to observe that the disasters at sea, considering tbe great number of vessels that visited Qaebee durirg the past year, bave s)t been numerous. Forty sail are reported as Laving either foundered, or beeu abandoned at w?; and a like number has been stranded in the guM and river. Tbe loss of life has bc<n small, not ever twelve or fifteen rmens. 'the immigration Las increased nearly 50 percent ever 1863. fke number* stand thuo:? 1H53. 1854. Difference . From England. 10 442 18,423 7 971 " Ireland 13,338 J 6 376 3 038 " R:otland 4,664 6,770 2,116 " Norway 4,797 5,.V>0 202 " Germany 2,412 6,735 3,223 " S?*den ? 2oH 258 " Lowe: ports. . . 421 642 221 To'al 30,074 53,803 17,729 Mot of t ir? .uimnrrauts find their way to toe west. Tbe vol<i; of on' govrnmeiit in ?r.hi ag wild ton's ti i>'tuul wWmh ?* a mere tomioal ra;e, prt.ves veiy aitra tive; md in caoutlea wfii.b were surveyed bo'. tw> or thr?>e years wn*e, :t is found quite ia powible to obtain a *f< g)o a re, so rip>d bas b?e? tbe setUemi-bt. It at rew imanin?aat? re main In L> w>r Canada, *xcep?. in to* vicinity o' puMic work*, where they can ob'ain eo.[)>ijtn?rr.i a* labours. Tie pyet.,-m of laad tenure '.'tlitrio pre vailing in Lo a er Canada b&a prevented iteseUle m? i-t. Your b Cana 'a has besoms ired with a military &r ?or ar d volunteering for the C'imea is tbe one topio of co'nvenaMoti. Mr. lUukio, member cf Parliament for tbe comtyof Essex, tendered bUser vices to L->rd Klgin, btfee tint tob'emWs departure frcm '.be piov ne. to rai^e and eqnlp a thuaand men to join tte aiHed n/mt*s in tr.e East. himself to take the command o? tb*m. Tbe ex-tJovemor !a to lay the offer b?fo-e her Majesty, and the gallant Id. P. rait" bis Sovereign's ?rde>s. lie woald not find n neb difficult* in fulfilling Ms engagement. S3 absorbs g appea's the inter* st in r.he present w?x tbat n e n wilt taik of little el?e. One of oar eity pspem.the Qiebvc Mttcuty, bitbeto regarded at a very tiiok or loyalty and patriotism, ventnred to question the prop^etyof volnnte>-rioK fortbeC*i n;ca, tod in an article mt very r?roark*vle for Bri tish ftelitp hh ted tbat oar aiden; y< raha, who wtreto dtfeimug of courtir.g privation* conid have thfir 1 earn' desire fu, tilled by spendicg tbe winter in pome of tbe lumber s "initios on tbe Ottawa. Toe Isoigratlin of onr loyal population linear no oottoIh, and notes frcm enraged subscribers, ordering tbe <Mscoi tit nance of tbe pacer, poured )c upon tbe bewikered proprietor. Si intem? was tb? feeling, tbat in tbe very n?-xt i?iue of the jonrnul tbe propri etor bad to di-avo v tbe sentiments of bis own edi tor, ar d hunb y apologise fur the appearance of tbe offmdiPK article. We have bad most extraordinary wr =,tber thfi sepsor. Tbe "ollest Inhabitant" rememoera no thing like It. Purirg the pint week it baa Men Tery mi d. Y? pterday it railed heavily a 1 diy, and a per il ct stream of eater ran down tbe h.l'a vod through the streets, rerderfng them in tome places, partica I lerly in tbe lower town aitnost impassable to foot 1 passer g? re. Last Dtgh\ ahout eigot o'clock, it (-eminence d freezing, and a strong westerly wind set in which still continues. (two o'clock P. M.) The ihf rmomtter this mornlrg stood twen.y five degrees below rer ?, and there ia capital ska'Jng in tbe main stre eta. Bioce tbe wir Ur set In It ba? beeo marked by these sodden changes, vety unusual heretofore in Lower Cat ada. Our Wisconsin Corresponttenee. La C?"sbf. Wis., Jan. 0,1865. A Votci from thi Prairies ? Clianeu for *HtUrs? High HaUi of fVagti ? Imptrftctto* of the MaU jitrttmgttntntt, 4*e., 4*e. This is a flourishing tnlU;e of 2,000 inhabitants, litnatfd on a splendid prairie ten miies long by four wide, cn tbe east bank of tbe noble MitHasippi, ISO milts ajove Oalena and tbe same distance bek) ? ft. Pan]. Tbe soil U good, the site dsiightfol, and tbe population indnstriena aod fast 9cie?sinr, mostly from theeaetcn FUtes, an l In t'l probabilt* ; ly in ten t ? a: p this vLlsge will be tbe Kcosd dty ' in 'Jie State. I have travelled tbrongh nearly every county ia tie State, and tbirk this by far tbe best f la e for at 1 eastern nan to sett'e. Wages are high h?re for ail kinds of labor, especially me baoics, and the no I ctisariesof life are much cheaper thao i'. the eaa'.. Building lots a<e < heap a little back f -ob the nver, bolsre'ast itcrea-irg ia vaine. Tbe e (? good lend to be hid some tifteen miies ba^.k at govern ment p. ire, but It is last bt>ng ukra op, tbe to i tries at tbe land office here h?vin< been for the past 1 three months som<! CO, 000 acres. Taere .* a town beiig Isid out on th? oppiaite aids of tbe river, at Tayioi's point, about three mi'es frtim ^ ere, where there are cow st viral dwellings, a store, Ac. A stosm ferry cmcerts it with this place, i sedthe La Crosse and HiUaukie Railroad, now b* rg fsat rcrstrnced will cross here and prmeed to ] Mai kato . r South Brd, In the valley of the F*-. ! Pet??f. Tbia new town is at the mourn of Jbe Ho kah or It /Ot liver vsil?y, wutcb ia a sp endil farm i: g regx o, aid la well tilled with a tnri'iv lot of fat mers, wi>o for a iot>g oistance np the valley most I cone V> tbis n mt t. do their traoiog ac<) ahipDiog, which m?at make it a very impotent point, aod wt e te lortoria roust be made without a great onUay ol capital, as is required at tie cut. It *.ha writer 1 ad a moiety of tbe moLey be kae axpeoded at tbe eaett ying to make. himself iiidepenuen'., he en d here do 10 without eiertioa. One thing is bed bete? the mail facijitka By ft miserabe arrangement. Duhnqn* ia the dis:ribot;eg ? ffiee lor this region, at d our ea?t#rn ma le tbne have to crrss the river twice, beeidts gomp some two bu: dn d mi.?s aicnrd t.-? gr i hr,-^, y^iH is i robshiy tne resson wby ?o few New York papers a;e *k?n bete, bnt we trnst tbl? will no* ]crg heth? mee. a* we want to be a utile rearer New Yot tbaa two ?e? ks. We ar? n?>tinir np a ^tnb for yoc tamable j ! >aper, as we n> ps it e?r? sur,, a^'r havto*? tirea I to long accaatcme J to It at the east. | Pea?)* Chicwh.