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AFFAIRS in europf,.
OwsvewpmshcBao?^ Loudon, M?y 31| 18fi31 Ihe Trtp a) the jitUntic?Our t sttemrere? Ej> futidtnt FSltmore?Cur tout fact Relative to toAt?Jjfaui m Europe, 'ye., &e., tft. IfteriiNt unusually Btfymy passage for this sea Ma ef Ike liar, we tended safely at Liverpool, losing ???Mr g bit ear foresail, which was split by the gale. W were decked aa the evening of oar antral, and ?aienr later the 260 passengers ef the Atlantio were scattered through the various hotel* of that desk sad gloomy otty. fix-President Fillmore, yon are aware, waa a pas ?eager on board of oar good ship, and it is' aa ore dfiable to bim aa It waa to the passengers and craw, that an united in paying him that voluntary tribate ?t Nepect wbkh was do* to the high position he eeenpicd.aadtothe honest, straightforward man ner he Died it. Americans and Englishmen, when seaming from home, are apt to be grumblers, and to exhibit no particular regard for cftitial station- bat en this occasion Americans and Englishmen united hi the praise of Mr. Fillmore, while they made bat eery httle bones of the powers that be, and very tody expressed their hope that things woold soon ehaage tor the better in Wa?htsgton. Oar peeoen gers were from all States of the Union?from Louisi ana, Mississippi, Kentucky, Soatn Carolina, Iidnoie, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Now York, Connecticut, Massa hostile, Minnesota, California, and what Mt; yet among that vast assemblage, numbering ?n ex-Members of Congress and a host of enter pricing men of all professions, there was not one real bona fide friend of the present administration ?net a man, woman or child that did not look tor ward to the expiration of Mr. Pierce's term of of fiee aa a period of delivery from a national position at once humiliating and po werlws. What a position United States might assume, ws all thougnt, if there was a man of v haracter and integrity at the head of thegaven.m'-nt, enjoying the confidence of the people and the resject of the world! The weak, vacillating curse of the administration?Its alliance with all the issues of tne day, its shuffling policy new filibustering, now dieting for a reputation of honesty, lave disgusted everybody, and form the theme of regrtt and oensnre, even through the m> netony ef a sea voyage across the Atlantic. Mr. flttmire was the only man on board the Bhip who em ?lolly refrained from expressing an opinion on Ma manifold shortcomings of his successor in offlc^ There was taste and propriety in Ml be said and did, and a total absence of everything that could invi* Measly distinguish him from the rest of the com pany. The everlasting over-strained effort of Mr. Pierce to appear what he is not, has done mire towards tuning bim than all the philippics admin istered by his opponents. Among the passengers on board the Atlantic we had a gentleman by the name of Man?no relation ef Mr. Dudley Mann, late Assistant Secretary of Mtatc but, by a fortuitous circumstance, the pos ?eeeer ef very important despatches originally in taxied for Mr. Dudley Mann. These despatches refer to the acquisition of Cuba, and reveal a Qsrlist plot for alienating the island. The United Slates were to furnish ten millions of dollars toward the enterpiite, aiding the projected Car list insurreo Man, aad some important Austrian official, (a cham- 1 bcrlain to the Emperor of Austria,) was in a men tore to direct and control the movement. Tne success ef Eap&rtero knocked that plan in the head; but 1 doubt much whether it would have been > uecesaful under aoy circumstances. What I Mink tolerably certain is, that the ten millions, if ??J had been tendered by the United States, wo aid have been accepted by tbe Carlisi leaders, and t rat they would have formed as permaient an investment ? the money voted under the Gadsden treaty. From be fact that an extraordinary appiopriatVon of ten mllhons was asked for by Mr. Pier e, it would seem bat Mr. Dudley Maun was not the only dupe in the premises, and that folly in this instance, as in many * Men, has been remarkably su -cesefnl in making preoelytes. I mesn to follow this matter up in Maris and Madrid, not only on account of i* nc vwMy and romance, but for tbe information it may aad so on subjects generally nlcresting to ths public. Tb? Eastern war ia about to be carried on with baereascd power and vigor. It ia the only metns of ?Mailkg acceptable terms of peace on bath aid w, sad Ike only outlet from the labyrinth of diplomatic failures. Eistorloal acbi vementa and results are fae caly safe basis of negotiation; and though this may be inconvenient to tbe imbeciles who, for ths fast filly years, have nsnrped every important poet fa the government! of Europe, pnblic opinion every where has recognized the necessity of the case, and la prepared to act upon it. The late debate in Par lament, which will be reaumed alter the holidays, baa produced no other effect upon the people of faglaad than to open their 6yee to the real tame, and impcaed no other obligation on ministers than fa openly and candidly avow their intention to pro seeate the war with vigor, until the material potv r and condition of the alliei shall give weight a cd ?omentum to their pretensions. Parliament, at this moment, presents almost as aemplete a state of disorganization as the army did a* eae time before Sebastopol. There seems to be ma lack of individual qualities, but a total waut of cooperation to effect a particular purpose. The Imperfections and tha.tsominga ia svery branch et fae government are deeply felt and appreciated; but there is no master mind anywhere to lead the path af salutary reform. Under these circnmstsooes, fae present ministry will continue in power, com ?pesed.asit still ia,of the best working talent knows fa fae ration; but the time is not far distant when fae erisis itself will point out tbe man equal to its exlgtnciei, and reeolva to substitute logical se quences of events for tbe fancies or idiesyncraoiea ef fae present ruling caste. It is, perhaps, a for famate thing for England that the history of late years has prepared Queen, ncblea sod ootntn >nn fir fae advent cf these men; that they are beforehand ksTikil to take their seate in the national coaa -its, and that that which cool J otherwise only be effected fcv a sanguinary revolution, will be acoepted by all eueree as an unavoidable necessity. In this respect fae present war, though ac?m >anisd by the most frightful disasters and lorn of life, may prove the signal of a general advance in the science of government, undisturbed by thoee lawless passions which follow in the train ef mere tumultuous aebievments. The whole series of revolutions, with all their digressions and extravagances, from 1830 tc 1862, were only symptomatic of the dis esaed state of the bodice politic in Europe; but the men who rose to the surface were not the pbynioinna eepabie of ministering tbe proper remedies. They wet# themselves infected by the malady, and perished under its crashing weight. Ooe step, Wwsver, has been made in ad ranee?toe qa*ck? have been put down en the popular aide: toe pro jpees of the war will probably put dawn the quacks on the othsr side. The seizure of Kertch, and the position taken by fae French on the Tcbensaya, are the flruitfal faeme of congratulatory effusions in the British KThe French papers are less enthusiasts am ibject, and more cautious la their pr agnostics of the future. The truth is, the Frensh hare experience in the science of war than the IfagHfa, amd. above all, they have a batter appro atatiem of their enemies. But ths Russians, fffmtdable aa they are from their endaranoe, are not the chief obstacle to toe prvess af the allied armies. Tbe geographical position, soil sad climate of fae Crimea are far more thrssten fag, and may yet prove more destructive to EuglU 1 aaen, Frenchmen, Sardinian and Turk than all the murderous weapons drawn from the arsenals of Rebastopol. Tbe abeenoe of pare water under a banning son must inevitably breel disease; tiongh H is but reasonable to suppose that the Russians fa? mselvfe, and especially the natives of colder Sions Will not be exempt from similar sufferings, le a has already made its re-appearanoe in the ?amp, and tbe plngue may, la tbe end, carry off i whom the cholera has spared, with these s in prospect, it is bat natural that both w should be pushing forward far some signal achievement. It la almost impossible that Pa a d?dly Straggle for victory, more men should per Ifa by the swrrd than Are do-med ta die from , thirst and_exhaustion. ItwUl, indeed.be *" *t spread all over very centre of that 1st of all aregolag SSi, fortunate if the plague does not spread all over Europe; < ourtdc ring tfral tbe very centre of that ?mrfnl seenrge baa become fae rallying point of all $ id armies, sad that while r inforoenaeiifc forward to Comtaatteopto. It ft fanootofble to to itm the quarantine regulation* ?biok h*w her# tofoie bnsn enppowd to bo Ute chief proteettoa aeaiset erBtaffKW. The evoota to 9pa?n ere etgntfl eeet, bet to too excited state of the pubis? toled to Efcgtoud and Prance on V e Bobiot of tbe Baaakdi war, excite but llttte atL>n ion. N tw would be the time to act if we f el e Uir inter to 9 ualn, eqml to tbe etocgency. Had Mr. 8ju1<5 been ? <ra desirous to reive bit adopted country than to reader him relf conapi uoer, and had Mr. Pierce been more anxious to aetve tbe Month toon to obtain hot suf frages in time to make himself a candidate for re election, Cuba might now be eoqatrrd without loei of blood or reputation. We bave tried to gather tbe green fruit, and it hae turned to poiaoo; we have blustered, and we were obliged to oat our words. Let ue hope that tbe next President will not give na tbe programme of his administration in nia inaugu ral. Let us bave no mace diplomacy for Bo?ootnuo. P. J. O. Scene With the Ctnoen mf Spain la the Palace At Madrid. We tranaiata tbe following iatereeting aeeosnt of the late extraordinary political movement la Ma:rid from the Ctmrricr de Bordeaux:? After a long discussion, tbe law tbat Signor Mndez had promoted to the Cortes, to obtain aa aoinerixation ta ??11 the properties of tbo bta'e, of tbe oterey, of the citabUehmeata and the corporation* of charity aad of JubMe inetrnction, was adopted la tba sitting of tbo 1th of April; scarcely adasentlepaU** apposed it, wnlie tbara ware ICS votes la its favor- Aa soon aa this result was made tins, Kir nor Madoc exclaimed, 11 Tbo revolu tion of July baa made a gigon is itep I" The project of tbo law ban teen tit* subject of a protestation from tbe coort of Rome. At tbe begtrning o; tbe mootb of March, tbe rspieeontative of that oonrt, Muestigneur Kraaebi, bad predated thu official protestation to ISignor Luzuriaga, Minister of For.ign Atfa'rs, wbo hud repHtd that the government was very d-cided not to make any attempts on tbe laleieets of the clergy, an I to rcctact tbe Htipnlatkini of tbe compact or 18M Still later, another protestation was depoat.ed with Kigno Luzuriage, anil communicated to tbe Qu?en rhe court ol Rome, basing Itself precisely en the compact. Histiia td tbat tbe government of Spate, from wnich it did nut separate the Cortei, baa not tbe power to maae any at tempt on tbe right of property of tbe clergy, supported by a diplomatic convention, authorized previously t>y a constitutional law, voted by tbe Cortes and sanctioned by tbe Qceen. These ateps of Mods efeneur Frtnuhi were supported, we are told, by tbe Cardinal Arcbibtshop of Tol. do, recently arrived Horn Rome, and bringing tbe latest inetrnotiOBS of tli* Pope. The repro-eotatious of tbis prelate easily alarmed the religious scruple-* ol the Queen and the King Signor ModoxYxpected it, and be bad told bis two colleagues, tbe Marshall Ktpartero aad tPDcnnel), ibut, when they should ask for tnc sanction cf the law just voted, they would find a resistance in 'he Queen which would require great efforts to vanquish-, and a* Signor MaUoz noticed especially tbe inlln-nceof the Archbist op of Toledo, Marshal O'Donnell r-ple-i, "If the cardinal persists in creating difficulties, we will send bun to tie Philippine lelsnds." On tiaturcay, the 2Sth April, tw:< processions left Ma drid at Ue same boor lor tbe royal re.iid*nce of Aran juez?one conducted the Marshal Oak* ol Victory, Presi dent of tbo Ccunc.l of Ministers wbo was to present to tbe Queen the law voted the preoenog evening at the Cortes, fully determined not to return to Madrid without having obtained tbe royal sanction; tbe other proces sion conducted the M-useiguenr French!, who was to communicate to tbe Minister, Luzuriaga, the orders which he had received from tbe Holy tee,and to demand his passport in ease the law should be promulgated. The Marshal had first a conference with the King, and tbe loud sounds of hie voice struck tbe tare of tbe cham berlains and officers in attendance, waiting the close of these painful discussions. TheQaeenhad answered by a refusal. " I must declare to you, madam," said the Mar-thai, " that your refusal may have the most fatal ooase quenoes, both for public peace and for your own person. You know with what facility barrioodes are made In tee streets of Madrid; the population is already exceed ugly irritated and discontented; very soon tbey wltlbe paeusd to the last extremities, and, believe mo, the Assembly will not hesitate to put in force the most ensrgetic reso lutions." " I reproach myself," said the Queen, "forhnv ng constated to the presentation of tbis law, which trou >1?h my conscience, for it is a violation of n treaty that I made with the Pope; and 1 am resolved not to give it mv sanation, being convinced that there will result from II great evils to Spain." The Marsha) having repeated the difficulties which the ministers would have by a refusal, and the Impossibility for them, in that case, to keep taelr port olios, tbe Queen replied that they had found her docile even in painful positions, end tost she could not beieve they would a banc on her in tbo situation tney htd pla-ed her in, when she would bo without counsellors and without defondois. " Well, then, tigs," said the Marshal. "No," replied the Quoon, "I cannot eirn this great iniquity " lbe Marshal then went to the King, to whsm he re called tbe services which be had rendered to the Queen and to the throne since the revolution " I know not," obsiTved the King, " if it would not have been better to have kut both crown and throne, rather than bave kept tbtm fueh as you bave mode tbem." The Marshal not having scc:ee<'e*i, returned to Madrid In tbe er-eniag thi&aioisterd wera convoked, and it was fcrid'd they should reign til mate, if the Quean it'.' re futed bar sanction to the law. Tbo next day the minis ters arrived early at Aranjuvz; and Marshal O'Dunncll, being tbe first to enter into th? chamber of the Queen, laid to her, "Maoam, I fear that yoa are under til in ion e? to your situation. You are ignorant that if you per sist in your refusal the Assembly will cesatrtate itself k national convention: it will declare your fall from tbe throne, and banish you from Spain. If you push ue there, we wtll renounce taat constitutional royalty for which we have made so many, sacrifices, ant we will 8reclaim a republic. Spain will not be the mor* ua appy from it; but we shall retain your daughter; she be longs to the nation, and might serve as a hostage to an swer for you." These menaces, uttered with great energy, by a mm who is not always master of himnelf, produced the mist profound distress In tbo mind of the Queen, and ap Jeared to freeze her courage. Her strength ' was ex am ted. She only answered with her ^tears for some time. "I hesitate no longer," cried she, with psia. "1 w ll do that for the Interest of my daughter that I woold not hove done for myself. I will sign, 5tf you promtre me not to take her from me: but I protest, with all the strength of my soul, against your violence; and 1 bops that God will make ta fail upon your bead, and tbat 'of your colleagues, the responsibility of my weakness." At this moment the Grand Chamberlain and the la lies of the Qutvn, preceded by the young Prlnooss of As turias, entered. The child throw boreolf into the arms cf ber mother, and the ladles knelt at her feet, entreat ing her to put an end to this contention, and no longer to compromise tbo safety of her person and the destinies of the dynasty. " Hasten, madam," said Marshal O'DonneH: "here are 1be ministers, who are tired of waiting." The minis ters entered, and tbose deputies wbo formed the bureau of the Assembly. On# of tbo ministers pat the pen into the hr.nd of the Queen, and tbe haw was sanctioned. While tbis was pass ng at Aranjnez, Madrid was as suming a revolutionary aspect. The garrison bod beeu consigned to their barracks, numerous groups of p?oplo formsd in tbe streets, and those members of tbe Assem bly wko were known for their advanced opinions mat in one of the rooms of tbe palace, where they proposed measures most anarchinue Th*y demanded a decree tbat should proclaim the national sonvention an-l tbe vacancy of the throne; and were preiadlug these acts, by a singular coincidence, just at the moment that O'Connell was menacing the Queen. At the same time, the chiefs of the mtlltls were agist ing similar questions, and were preparing to second the undertakings of the Assembly against the Queen. Mauy of tbo people, however, wore gaily assisting at the but! fight, and applauding tbo death of the bander illero Olive, known through all the city by the port he took, in the daye of Ju y, in the murder of Mr. F. Chico, chief of the municipal police, and of his servant Olive was the faithful oompsnion of another banderiUtto become fa mous under the name of Pucbeta. Wo have made a point of giving this recite', (says tie CemrrUr de Bordeaux.) not only because we have good reason to believe in its correctness, hut especially be cause It presents the picture of the fate of the Qa sou. from which wo cannot separate that of Spain The circumstance which gave rise to thee* deplorable scene* la not the thing which touobee u* tbo most; whatever interest may bo attached to the project of law of Kigoor Msdoz, and its natural consequences, this interest teles before that which wo feel for the person or tbo Queen and the principle of monarchy In her perena. Royalty la a fundamental institution In Spain, and we are con vinced it la necessary, nay, indispensable, to the pros perity and the greatness of tbat noble country. But it ta on condition tbat the royal person shall be surround ed with regard and consideration, an 1 tbat Its indepen dence should not cease to bo respected. It Is, unbapaMy. too true tbat tbe majesty of tn* Queen has been insult ed end Its Independence bee been violated. This con duet is very culpable, and it le still more awkwar 1 and un clever. What can bo expected frsm ouch exe?*s*?f Without doubt they have obtained the sanction o' the tow on which they found gveat hopes; hat may w* ua? Nor that the constraint exercised upon the Quoin wll. weaken the moral authority of the lew? Sfgnor Madoc will soon lexrn, perhaps, that lie boa frightenst aad sent away from the sale of ths national property those oapi tela or which ho Is so greatly In want, and which an intelligent and moderate policy would have encouraged and drawn towards him. Loula Napoleon and Gen. Canrobert. [Paria (May 29) Correspondence of Manchester Guardian ] My informants an simply two of ths General's highest in command in the army ct Paris; and hers is tbe account g>ven identically by bothFor some time past, Canirobert bad bsen annoyed by the rari oos snd contradictory plans sent to btm fr >? the Tuileries. and all ot whioh he successively tried to follow. Since the establishment of the electric tea graph, however, and tbe posalblllty ct all but hourly communication between Paris and the camp, the position bad become Insupportable; aul as the ?'i mr.i very jutitly observed last Monday, nothing has prcduced " resolts so mischievous is this mis use of the electric telegraph." A short time ago, (rrmewhere about ten or twelve days since,) a complete plan of attack was forwarded to the General in-Chief?of which he so entlroly disap proved, that, for tbe first time, he would not assume tbe responsibility of it, and called a coun cil of the leading Generals in the allied armies. To them he frankly stated that he bad re ceived the plan I allude to, with most absolute orders to put it ink<? immediate execution; but that it seemed to him to promise too little chance of sue ocar; and that he oouhl not this time obey without consulting those about him. The plan was duty ex amined, and all tbe generals present, with the ex ception of Pelissier, voted with Can robe rt that it was not to be adopted. Pelissier, on tne contrary, defended the imparls! scheme; and when Cairo be rt raid to him, point bleak, "fTbetl would you under ake to cany oat that plu ?" ho replied, "I wiald, moot decidedly." Toe oooscil b oho up, aud Cv> wbei t wrote to tbf Emperor o mneh Imger do*pit b thu the one contained to tbo Mmiteur, to waioh, after reooontrag what bod sensed, bo mm bo had of ? on? *o choice bnf to retro from his i>eot, ud to reecnmend General Peite-tar is hi* saeoeasor; edi in?, that ot the assault of 8ebarfo ot, as It ???. pr jeo.ld, to (booJd be qnite pleased to bo preset ncdrr the orders of ooetner, though ho would not tsko tbo xeeDotMbiilty of tbo saavome eHDiM<l upon himself, Now, both the genoral afflwrs I sp? sb to yon tf, ssree In too eery oonoas prtn's: -the* rar, fl'Bt, that Pstbaier, so for fro? tbo rear is g of tbo plan of assault for too first time from C**r bert, at the Council, lad gnco out to the Crimea with that verv plan in bis pocket, aid r'taat hie poottioa with regvd to Canrobert was precisely the position of Cwrobert tight months ago, ?lth regard to St. Amend. Se condly, tney both affirm that Caorebortdid not wri o the letter printei in the MomUur, formally aokiog for the eonmsnd of a divsioa; that be merely e*? J who: I have repeated, namely, that however haupy be might bo to awbt to o eabndteato pesitom a*, toe a'tack of tbe tow*, bo eonid not, oaior the con dltioBO imposed upon him, oommood It Botb my info mhete say, "The Bin eror altered Oaoro-erlN letter to the form it b >re in toe M>nUtur, and be (Canrobert) learned 10 tie Crimev tee oeiocnvical drnond he was euoposed to have addressed to Ms imperial m?s?eT." Ttey also add, "Caorob?rt In (toady rj'n^d the qontmood offered t > him, a*>d tie Grano Cross of the Legioa of Honor also; saving that, like Catine*, l e will have nothing hat a *oid er's place. How tbr whoie will end," say boti theie p*?soie,' it is difficult to toll: for the moment, Can robert has rtfowd ?ven tbtng. though It is poes ble he mav, later, ba icdaord to accept tbe onin&nl of a (I'visien atd tbe ercst." I give yon this word for word, as ii was told to me. Sketch or Kertch and YanMtale. The following soc unt of Kertcb aod she Slroite of Ya* it a e, ?t the eottros e of sne 8a? of Ae>Q it derived from Com?? Anaioe do D^mil^fTs Vtryagt dar-a la Rusaie Mtridvmale et la Crmto Eigr teen vera a beyond Argin are found a wide tjfrLob, the ewtft of wmcb. thrown oat on tie east em ride, terves &s a na'ural rampart. It id of great antiquity. This trrifh, which runs from the BUck 8*a to rte fVa of AzcIT, and closes in tie p-oiamia ol Krrtcb,baa p-eervd the name of t^e Rimpart of Ak^e. It was dog aa a la-t defence o' the frJ'lDg k ! gdom ot th? Bospnorns, a abort time before the fail of t at aroiexit powe-. Now, Me Rampart of Akos, w ich no longer difencs anything, serves o% a hbrlter and an evening s'atloa for toe caravans, which, ti prole t thcmselv*'f em tha wind ia this open plsin, range 'hemejlves, ascorliag as it bio vs. maeiimss on the .as*, sometimes ?a the tree', of tbis pro'ectivg eDineco". In tpproa bng Ke-toh we entered a oion'ry cov ered wi to ruouada or tamo i. Ii no other ulase b?d we fiend tbcm eorumeronfc: ai d to add to tha eff . of tbe lands ape, ail coven a with ooaioa] erar?t*> .s, the neighboring bilks are ma ih of the rams form; they are covered with rock a of coralites, ac omo' v ted by nature so aa to fore khomghace, or tunul*. Nearly all tho mouoda have bean dag open tnd ex amimd, and there ia sometbifR msl-n:boly hi the apt earance of disorder which tbey present. Ycu penetrate into Kertch <, which, under the name of Panticapts, formed the ancient capital of the kingdom of ibe Boaphorns) by a wide and eiega&t ?beet; & raised pavement, footpaths of flats, and t d-flcea built of a atone easy to cat, and whloh Is no other than tbe porous limestone, which we find again atOdeisa. Buch ia the c'ty at ita first tpoeot. The arcades, tbe co'nrous, tbe balustrades, and a thou sand orr ameiita of architecture, cauas nato recog niee, without hesitation one of our cities. Here, however, we must praise the reasonable d meoaioua ot tbe streets, wMcb suffice for an active ciranlati >n without offering that width, out of propoviiei to the wants of tbe place, which turns a city'into a desert. Tbe principal street la cut at right angles by msny lateral waya, o' an appearance equally hatdave. In one of these streets we diioovered.OTWhlahg tea: ch, the Hotel of tbe Biaphorna. (Bmpkm fir.) wbi<b had been recommended to na ?Aa(ii and i rebsbly the only hotel in Kertch; wad yet, what an hotel it was! Alas! jndga of oar mevtifi ca'fon when we sgam found t><at the only slaepiag plaoe is the bouse was the billiard room, just as we bad fourd it all tbe way from Walla- hia. The Hotel ot tbe Bcapborus. kept by a family?let na lay by a very pretty f amily-of Germans, ha* forgotten no thing i f tbe traditions of German slowness. It vu Ftveral bonrs before we could obtain either a tire or a mutton cbrp; and as fortbe wit diva, whloh bad been removed Ion economy's sake, 1hey were quite indignant with na for insisting that the; ahou d be replaced Immed'ate'y. We bad, therefore, to alaeo without windows or beds, and w*ro awakened at da* iigbt by the howling of the innumerable dogs by wM- h Kertch is infested. Rising by tinea, we visited Kertch. At the east cm ext emity of tbe Crimea, at the bottom of a deep bay, where the waters of tha Cimmsrian B>pbrrup, rr B'rait of Yanikale, jiin those of the Black Rea, Kertch rises, and covers a oonaUertble extent of ground. Tbe town stret -bee itself ont, in tbe form of a cresoeat, oa the north side of toe bay. A single point commands tho winlaplaoe. It is tbe tnd of a range of hills, (tunrali,) w'cioh c oses jest above tbe town with a bill higher tbau it e others, and which then sink raoidiy towards tbe sea. Tbia ra tbe Mount Mi'hridatee, crowned witn na'ural eminenoes, which have so striking a reaem blance to ibf tumuli that it is difficult to distinguish at rr me distai oe those which have bean ra'sel by tbe band of man from thuee whose outline has bren traoed by nature. This Mount MtVbridatea, on which was robed tbe citadel of tbe ancient Pssticw pea. comtnanda Kertcb. A hill covered with large rocks, calkd the T.mb of Mithrldates, firms the cti mica'ing point of it. At tbe foot of the tamulua, a rock, in which ia split a large cleft, a place, toler ably like a chair, ia called the Beat of Mithrldates. It was there that the King of Pontns came, wtth a haughty eye, to contemplate hia innumerable skips, tbe terror t f tbe Romans. You perceive already that there traditions ieaew themselves; that a hero baa pataed by these Walls, and tbat this land re members tbe icble for ts eps which have trodden it. City of yesterday, where origin ia lost in antiquity! City of Russia, and oily of the East, reunited in the sum history ! Kertch and Pantloapea, tbe city of Mitbridatea and the ci>y of the Emperor Nicholas ! In ttntb, all tbia history allies itaalf wonderfully with pretent history. One of our favorite excursions was to Ak-Bow roun, that White Poiit, in the language of the Tar tars. who designate with thia picturesque appellation all the culminating points ou tbe sea shore, which the La^ns namrd rromrr.tarium, which the French name cap, after the scutbern idioms, and which the English designate by the word bead. Fsom this place a vast and austere panorama spread before us at our feet This cape, situated at the southern ex tremity of the bay of Kertch, commands at once a view cf the Black Baa, the Straits and their two promontories, aid, at the same time, the coast of Asia, cf wlii'b the bine aummifs of the Caucasus form tho most distant objects. The cape itself, sur mounted bv an immense tumulue, is surrounded with rounded bills, wbieb extend aa tar as Kertcb, and are mingled with the bills which command that city. Frcxn tbia elevated station we counted more than a hundred ships, ploughing the waters of the Bos I horns and the Bea of Azoff, or resting at anohor at the foot of tbe rpaoions Lazaretto. Ou returning to Kertch in tbe evealng we foaad tbe quay crowded witb Impatient spectators. Toe beat of the Piinoe Governor, and bis elegant crew of rowers, quitted tbe sbore, and a-jpnacbed two ?tram vessels wMoh were advancing into the bar. Victory 1 At length all the wishes of this city are folfi'lcd; tbe Imperial guest is on ibe point of ar tivirg! Already perssns with strongaight bad recognised tbe Emperor ou tbe deck of theSaavernaie-Zivceda, tbe Star of the North. His Majesty received ?? bewd the steamer the homage of the authorities of Kerteb, himself expressing the intention te remain on board the vessel until the next day. The nig it being eome. a magical iUnminatum lighted np the hay, in all its vast outline. On the promentary of Ak-Bowroon they tad accumulated a great mass ef bituminous matter, wtrioh abed a blue light an tae ntiphboiiig shorts. The whole of Kartell?it* sweets, ita td floes, its historical mountain?ah with lorg lines of light, whloh, running thro age tbe neighboring Tillages, flnaily joined th we of the Quarantine. One would here nave raid that it wa< a city rf two league* in length, of which an immense line of light, Mat ot tbe quay, marked tbe lim?*a of tie land, and reflected itself in the waters. Tbe entire city resounded with the noise ef festivitv ; a gnat European espttal could not have done bettor. The Bfxt rooming, at the point of dav, the mul titoilewa3 already at its post, whoa the Emperor l*r dtd 00 tbe shore. The moment was solemn, and nothirg could be rooro jplctaresqae thin that im nvnse crowd covering the port and its spproc ,es. All were there, with the same heart atd mind. The Rise ans represented aaihoritv a a* tho public oflictrs; the Jews wore their handsomest black ro bes; aid tbe Tartars, already prepare I fortbe win ter. grouped themselves arou- d, covered with tbeir sheet-skin coats. In the midst of this group you mfpht have seen tbe Greek women, with their rare beauty, and the Russian ladies, who* j native I? guage It was needful to hear to perceive thityon we.e rot at Paris, so much has faahlon?tha <soit powerful of ail geographies? mads one tingle natroa of sll feminine nations. The Emperor landed In tbo midst of Innd aocV msifors. and tbe Grand Duke, heir to the throne, landed with htm. Immediately, carrlsges, which hsd been preparrd be'orehand, conducted the illus trions guest* to tbe chnroh, where the tlitt of tbe soe'ety were M*embled,to reader thanks to Heaven. From the church tbe imperial cortige proceeded to the museum and tho new buildings, amongst which must be mentioned a monumental ehuroh, in a beautiful Greek style, on whieh ia Inaoribad, in Latin, Rtdditt Dti Dto, rt Ctnaru Cat mi. The Bmperor afterword* honored witty hi* presence the hsM of the governor, whkh ti noUy ?wj Tho Priaee Kberk eoBfidaeir had Sw?ff to hi broogfet together tho mm object* of lb* Pacti-* paaa eoU?ttoa, tt? spoil* of lb* richest ftamalui them won oil ^ Mtitim er run. ral luxury which bod bean found to th? t aib of a Greek lady of Uo highest ruk; b*r moat valuable Jewel*, ber every day ornaments the ecgaat taatroaoat* of a refined tiiteue. and a actl of hantaa. covered with cold and prootooa ah aea, for a favourite hose. la aidlttm to these there waa a still more precious object, a mask of god, ard a crown of laarel of the earn* aaeUl, which had beea placed oa the faee aad oo the brow of ;bo UIuIfIoqi defunct. This thick misk fu sot aa or toary composition. It had been fitted exactly to the featoree of the person interred, ao eon. ple'eiy. aa to reveal, even by its imperfeettaiw, the expteisioa of the uhyaiogaonty, which oalv belongs to a aould taken frun nature, These rare treasure*, rt the preen t tiaae, have taken in the Masenm et 8t. Pete-aborg the plaee wht h could close suit total. The Kaoperor had aaea the whole of thivrte p*dty: he axammed the pica oo woksh it waa fc MKcd to ocmptaie is aad wrote nia approbation "?p Margin. At the end of a fow kitn, devoted to labor Much more than reooae, tie monarch attain took the rente of tee Black Ifca, while the hsirpre invpttfi riBiif ed at Ktrtcb, to re urn by the tam? runic which we hao taken, to the Empress end no ?onl[V1?n ???*??* wth Crust W.ronzjlf, amidittbe dehgh a of ?hi sailing Aionpka. For iursfcliei, faithful to ?ur pmjeoc of proceed trgtoTamas, on tee "titer side of toe strait, we 1 ok the road of Yan kale. (Bosika'e.) or the New Ptrt. Bueh ia the i a?e of a little t. wo, toleraoly ancient, which commends the sarrrwe-: at ait of the Crtm*** Bnspnoroa As far as 'be Quarantine, the roan traversed by the vehie'ea or the merchant of &ert b, wbi da no ot er business than that of the lazaretto, is flue and porfsotl? kept: it traverses considerable Rn-eUn viH?ge. T e Quarantine once passed, we bad a thensaao difficulties In gettisg over the ebppery ground, evpsciady if one is assailed, as we were, by ocnMnurd raise. A rapid detent takes you to Yanlkile. It is a small town, partly Oriental, partly Geaoeee, of w icS) tte Greeks of our da, s occsp? a1 moat all the houses. A t jtt, rituateii on tee north of iba town, shows erslly esougta, by toe ignorant Irregularities of its coBBtrnotioa, that it is ibe work of the Toiks. B mo re&at res'orations hsve again pot it ia a good sta?e; one cistipguiskwi eepsc aly a gateway, in ' _,Py* Orien al style. A largo square tower, tl?n)s ad w.th four rmakr towers, whiob rise sepa rately, recall toe sri of war In the t.me of tbe (Je noese. At the foot of tors tower are tw > fountains, constructed by the Turk*. Oae of these fountains is ruieed txd lcs?; the wall is fnil*a, the npriug is drw d up; hut on tbe other yoa atlli hear the mur muring of the spring, aa It thro ws ita waters into a Wn of white marble. Yeat-Kaleh, on this snore of i and beat*n by t~e wiLd<, has fousd moans to open some soop?, whore toey sell sails, pitch, tar, 5?u ?X.B'55*; &Bove ?!'? animmenas quantity or fieh. Tne kii ds most sought for are tie wrbot and lmmesee sturgeon. Tamai., on the opposite side of the strait, present) nothing very imposing on the sea-sbor ; it is only aselancholy assemblage of huta, covered wfta thsten. b.me bouses of a batter sort bear witness *tj to the resideuoe of tae military chief) of taat iopcrtant mi)itw> station. At a short distanoe, a fortification named Phana fforto ircloics witbin its tamparto caccsoijc and ooB??nk at banackas Ai-tr onr retnra te Kertch, we deterauued to vi sit Arabat, at the ex remity of that singular bed of "Ba ao-oss the Sen cf Azoff. We tra veiled towards Arabat by a route wbich may b) considsred isolated svtn in tnis desert. Oa tbe side or the steppe we met no other creatures tbaa large dromedaries, which grazed here and there without anv restraint. Hastes log our journey we arrived at Arsbat. The moon wsa risen, bot in tow night we ware able tr perceive the town by the fetid emanations of tbe neigbboiug aea. On the morrow wo obtained tbo f(5r,a? on tbo filche, or wo had determined to exa mine, though we had not tims to traverse it. T.iis mBde with all pcseible celerity. Na turai history will gain some i beervatfcna made oa ?his angular tongue of sand, which ia ao little raised between the two aeaa, that one would say that a breath of wind would suffice to force the wavrscf the one into tbe otter. 1 be fortress of Arahat, taken by assault in 1768, by tbe troops of Prince Dolgarouki, is a polygm flanked by works resembling bafitioas. Ttsey are 1 tte rains ot a postern, >hich looked towards the SfJfiK A0 V principal entruos was to the scuta. On the left flack of ihe fort extend* a Una "e.ence, Jong enc ugh to oppose tee pas age to dp th? ni* w the Putrid Sea aoqoires a oertain ^ho eveuirg advanced, end wi?h it famine m* nsced us, for Arabat snpp,ies nothing. Wo had with us irom Heitcb a few provisions, aad, above all, seme water, but ail was exhausted. We ??fe ?.re *t!i J?*, bn fractions, having with great d fficulty obtained tbo horses zecesaary for oar wbffi't' .rTiek"fS ?f *rt,Ted al Tbeodosia at midnight, after bavirg traversed to the steppe bv moonlight, in extreme cold. Many times, tie ?Aort journey, the ho wiings of a troop of wolves had struck our ears. These voracious animals, at ths ap pr. ach of winter, quit their retreats, and come like IXSIv'.j?8 b**b?nhns to sweep tbe steppe, and to InifC * ijCX'?v ?nemy. Bat oar Tartar poe tillion toid ns that |the jxen know how to defend ???!!! ?!: baT8 alg'> powerfni dags to defend !?w,iiri S1v < .F01 fd6v'JB of natives have no *b*se pbcres. r#fuBe *bich tie sea cuts on ?.F'om A'abat to Yheodosia is one of those sadden c? ,n ??P?ct of poetry to travelling. 4 h^r"d ooontry, the dismal emb.em of maiediotion and dlspair. To-day a pretty town, at ? 4v>ct,S' l n aBd Tartar?Theoioiia, in 1118 J?wn wbich we in 1 left so lew months ago, and which then showed ?t wi% f"^e8t ?nd most beautiful conn tetanoes. Winter had come, and all had regained tteir homes. Nevertheless, we were told we should i? sonthern coasts of the Crimea all tbe delights of a lengthened autumn, peculiar to that part of the Cricea, acd whkh permits them to w??moJfoh&<'lb?TrI?g40f ^ gnptB t0 first wsex in October. L nfortunate, a premature winter disappointed all these hopes. * ** lbe Brltlth Postmaster General'* Report.? Educ ation and Letter Writing In the United fetalis and England. [Ficm the Lcndon News, Hij 29 ] In the United Kingdom there are 15 letters writ ten in the year lor every one of the population. In the United Statea the number is only four. This ii extraordinary, considering the spread ot educa tion In Ameiioa as compared with thia country, the commercial activity of our Transatlantic kins men, and their locomotive disposition and sociality. The population cf the United tt tales is aboit 24,000, 0C0, and cf the United Kingdom 27,000,000; yet in 1854 the letters whieh passed tnroogh the Ameri can postcffices were 119,000,000, while the number that passed through the post offices in this cool cy was nearly 450,000,000. In London, in 1852, there were 41 letters written for every one of the inhabi tants, and in New York the number waa only 23. The cause of this discrepancy is, no doubt, the want of postal facilities in Amenta. There is no such thing as prompt and daily deliveries of letters to every house, cottage and hovel in that country such as ue have in England, and although there are 24 000 000 prst (ffioesin America, and only 10,000 in theUniUd Kingdom, the former di not afford the a: ccmmodatlon wbi h the latter do on soconat of the vast area over which they are spread; and, be sides, they are a poor substitute for the letter car rier and rnral postman. The population of the fol lowing eight places, viz.: London, Liverpool, Man chester, Birmingham, Bristol, Preston, Leicester, and Limerick, in 1854, was 3J millions; the postal receipts were li millions sterling; and the postal local expenditure was ?260,000. The population of the eight fellowing places, viz., Nsw York, Phila delphia, Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans, Cincinna ti, St. Louis, and San Francis:o, wan in the same year li millions; the postal receipts ware ?300,000, and the lccal expenditure, ?80,000. Tbns in the eight cities and towns of the United Kingdom the postal receipts amounted to nearly half as many pounds sterling as then were Inhabi tants, and the coat was about one-sixth of the re ceipts, while in the eight American cliies the pos tal receipts did not amount to one flftu tie number of ponncs sterling as there were inhabitants, and the cost was nearly one third of the teoeipta The local cost of working a million of letters In England Is ?650, ar d in Ameiioa ?2,400. This difference arb es from the cheapness with which letters charged an uniform postal rate can be worked at compared with the cost cf working letters charged a variable postal rate. In America tnere are three InLnl rates, and in England there is only one. In 1839, before the introduction of an uniform rate of pottage in Enplar d, the cress expense of working a ml!itun of le'ters wai ?10,000; at the present time it is only ?3.000, or less than one-third. Lore Canning,In bis report, save, that the "exten lion of the rnral posts has been in steady progress lor several jears, atd I have no doobt has assisted materially to prodnoe tne great increase that has taken place in the total number of letters." In a large number of total districts there have been double daily deliveries established. Postal acsom moda i?n is now looked upon almost as essen tial as drainage and a good supply of water. The value of genteel residences in suburban districts has been much enhtnoed by a doable daily delivery of letters, as it saves the expense and trouble of sending at a distance to toe chief post office for day mail letters and newspapers. The postal facilities for the delivery ef news japirs have also vastly tnoreaied the number of totters of late year*. Almost every copy of a newspaper published gives rise to epistolary correspondence on business or other patters; but this would pot to (to mm to mm half tto extol, if it were not for Use poet*] facilities tor tto datirery of newspapers, Uomm if tto unpeiien an not of very reseat fate wtoa received and read, tto tmmso? number of letters which ttoy are calculated to fire ris* to are ureters. Oftentimes a single advertisement tn a London morning newspaper caoaei eoorea and even hundreds of letteri to paaa through tto poet. papers and other j printed matter passing through the pest in most or the principal countries in the world. In Austria, Prussia, H&xony, and Lubeok, ?ewspapere and other printed matter pan through tbf post at a charge of (d. per & on. In Baden for 50 per sent on the published price of political ?swampers, and 35 par oeni. on that of non political newspapers. In Bavaria for id. per i o?. en newspapers and other printed nutter, wnloh must not, however, weigh mere then 3 on. In Bel gium for one-tenth of n penny for newspapers, and Id. per ten sieets for ether printed matter. In B sill for fd. for newspapers, and 4 letter postage lor other printed matter. In Bremen nswappers psas free, aid other printed matter at Id. per ez. Jn Bruscwtck newspapers pass through the postata cha'ge of 25 to 8f per cent on the published price, according to frequency ef publication, and other printed matter for half letter postage. In Chili the charge is Id. for native newspapers, nothing for foreign newspapers, nod fid. per lb. for o?ber print ed matter. In Denmark H Is 20 per cent on the pnbtiehed prioeo'Danish newspapers, 10 per oent cn Englitfa ones, and one penny per two oancea tor other printed matter. In Fraaoe it is Id. per sheet f> r newspapers and Id. per sheet fir other printed ma'ter. In Frankfort 25 to 50 per cent on the pub If the d price or political newspapers, and 4 letter postage cn other printed matter. In Hamburg id. per i en. on newspapers. In Hanover 25 to 50 per ant en the published price of newspapers. In Naples Id. per 6 sheets on newspapers aud other piinted matter. In Ntw Granada newspapers go free; ether printed nutter is conrged 2s..per lb. In BoUand the charge in fd. per sheet, ana id. per sheet on other printed matter- In Oldenbnrg it is 60 to 25 per cent on the published price of news papers, and id. per 2 oz. for other printed matter. In Peiu newspapers go free, and 17e. per lb- ii chirged for other printed matter. In Portugal the charge is 4d. each tor newi-papers, and id. per oz. for otuer prated matter. In dardiain it it 4d peraheet for news papers and ether printeo matter. In Spain 4i. per lb. for p?; In Sweden j*. per li enact tor news papers. Is Switzerland 112d. peroz. for Swiss news pspere; 16d. per oz. for foreign newspapers; id. par 2 oz. ror other printed matter net sent bayond thirty miles, and Id. if beyond that distance. In the United S'ates i<J. wr oz. for newspapers and other printed matter, including bookr. In Warteaiberg it is 50 per cent on the \ nblbhed pries of piiiti ml newsmpers, 26 per cent on non-political newspa pers, and 4d. per 2 oz. for other printed matter. In the Ui ittd Kingdom stamped newsnapers of any weight and other stamped printed matter nit wiigbing above three ounces go free, aud 63. per P'nnd is chagtd for books. In 1853 the gross pos tal xevenue of twenty-nine of the p incipil countries in tbe world wse upwards of ?10,000,000, according to tbe Post Office report Reckoning, therefore, the portage on tbe lettera as averaging 3d. each, this wou d give n t .tal of 800,000,000 letters as having passed through the post offices in the above named countries. Before railways were introda -ed, coach proprietors often carried mails for nothing, aud even paid for tbe privilege of carrying them, for the mail hags were then light, and mad roaches were exempted from tor- pike tolls and secured more passengers than other roaohes, on no count of the prestige they aoqulred for punc tuality and safety. Borne idea or the revolution caused by railways and low postage may be gath er* d from the fact mentioned in Lord Cloning's re port, that twelve yeais ago the each proprietors be tween Lancaster and Carlisle paid ?200 a year to the Post Office for the privilege of carrying the mails twice a day between those two places, a id at tbe present time the Post Offioe pays the rail way companies ?12 000 a year for performing the same service. As education is diffased in thla country, the number of letters written will be enormously increased. Letter writing is n necessary of life for both rich and poor, for the circumstances of life stpaints finniiee of every rack and oooditlon. The Post Office is a thoiongbiy democratic Institution, for it delivers letters with tbe same attention at the bovel as at the palace, snd such m the cheapness of ktter writing, that it oan be indulged In by persons of every rank in the scale of wealth in the ooan'.ry. There is enly one cJass who cannot indulge in it? the nceducated. To tens of thousands of adult perrons in this country, at t e present time, the writing of n letter is an effort of great difficulty, throngi defective education. When this is no longer the case, the postal revenue of the country will greatly increase. The ReflttX of Emigration from the United State*. [From the London News, May 30. ] We are told that the law of reaotlon la of univer sal application, and tsat there la bo enrreafc lathe tea whose inflne nre la not to a greater rr less extent counter v&tit d by a atream In the opposite direction. Fmigratkn from the over-crowded ooantriea of the Old World to the fertile and nefiiled regions of the Ncwwemed lsast likely to furnish as with a new example of the general theory. History has lad ed reeorced many instances where the row created by a lajiu atd extensive migration baa been replenish ed by the oveiflow of soma otber rae press in g for ward in the same direc'ios. Bat sach phenomena ate meat essentially nnlika those which iall undrr the description of reaction, and oan in no sense be classified therewith. Re-immigration is a new and cariona illustration of the mingled ebb and flow of labor seeking employment ia oar time. Everywhere gregarious industry is afoot, seeking and aiming after more room for work, and ready at at ort notice to cross half the globe with wives and little ones, in qnest ti ten or fifteen per cent batter wages. Other ir finances, social and political, have in recent yearn stimulated vast cambers throughout sll Western Europe so cross the ccean; bnt from no quarter has there been snoh a gush of population as from Ireland. Tha marvellous magnitude of the continuous atream to America that set in after the famine of 1847, and continued without abatement until 1862, ia tamiliar to every reader. In 1853 and 1854, the current perceptibly declined in breadth ar d volume. Bat from the Southern and Western districts it baa niver ceased to flow up to the pre sent time. 8trange, that already a counter current should now have steadily set in, and that many who but two or three years sgo bade farewell to their native ahort a have already renconoed the hope of mending their condition in the land of promise, and bave returned to settle themselves once more en their native soil. When first we heard indications of this reaction we were naturally deposed to regard it as bat casu al and superficial. In every crowd of migratory ad vi nturers there will always be foaod some who join in the undertaking for no other reason than that their associates and kindred have resolvei to do so, but who are individually destitute of thoee qualities of enterprise, perseverance, and self reliance on wbloh, in new and untried circumstances, their sac cess mast rnainlv depend. We own, therefore, that we were inclined hastily to conclude that it was only the idle, the listless, and the dreamers of an realisable dreams who had become quickly disap pointed with the state oi things they toond on the other side of the Atlantic, and wno had la coaa* qutnoe driftea back again to the old land, where they bad never done well, to do as badly tin re as Ufote. Further inquiries, ^however, have led as to form s somewhat different estimate of the ex-cut and character of the re-immigration that during the last twelve months especially has boen taking place from the United Stales to lrelatd ; and toe mat ter is in every res pest well deserving of thoughtful consideration. Tht unlwkd fo- re a: ticn may, we belt eve, be mainly ascribed to two causes ?the over supply of labor, both skilled and unskilled, which the surplus capital of the Statu has bun insufficient to absorb; and sesondly, the growiig ssnse of distrust and repugnance among the large classes of American citizens, Hit intrusion of organ ized multitudes possessing ftw, if any, ideas in har mony with thnr cum, and avswtaly swayed fcy injlumcts little in unison with those to which the great ammonwealth owes its being. We can readily understand how easily the firs: or second year's overflow of willing hands should have found?we shonld rather, perhaps, say oreatel work for themselves, by suggesting the means of addl Uonal employment. In a new and .prosperous count!y there will always be a host of things that is desirable to have done, the execution of which is constantly deferred for want of cheap and abundant labor. As soon as the desiderated element appears these things begin to be aooompllsbed; tidings it the good fortune that has attended the II -s t detect merit of emigrants reach home, and load others to seek their fortune likewise in tne land of abuncance; tbe widening circle of attrac tion spreads, until at length, in oooseqneoce ol it* very expansion, the attia tion vanishes altogether. Tbe surplus fond applicable to tbe employment of linn igrant labor ia som over-occupied, whereby tie ?mount which each competitor obtains ic wag e is gradually beaten down towards the old sorrowful minimum tost will barely support existence; and then all who come after in sear h of wo>?k are do tared to disappointment, and oftentimes tr keen suffering and d >?!rees. Who can tell how much of human life and lablhr has melted awoy in sickness and priva tun in the great hums of the American republic, having only had strength sufficient to escape from a similar fate a fiw weeks or months before on this side oj the ccean? Wo have bat few aid very Imperfect statistics on the subject; but as through ajmsadarkly western to d'scern a fearful ma?s of human msrery, squalior aid degradation piled npin leaps in tbe sea-boara cities of tbe tlnhn? hi aps which cur ear erdlkns statesmen of the red tape school would dignify with the off hand epithet of "incidental d fflcnUie* attcpdait upon the exo dus"?bnt which tbe just jealousy of American ?iti jctosbip too truly points ^ as pwies for patriot!? apprehension and national reproach. Nor we thaw feelings, anfcrtanefc ly, confined to the miserable ole?? who were unable to And work, ud who speedily sink down Is to dspendenoe apes preosrioas charity. Everywhere throughout the Northern States cf tie Linton aslti'adss of Irish Roman C? thlios ere to be found who, for very am ell recom pense, perform, toe greet extent, the servile duties which in the Suntbsrn S?ere? ere exeoatei by the colored popaletioe. It Is rether their Hlsfertane thee their leult tbet th<-y ere poor, ignesent end . utterly foreign in their habits end ideas, to the po litics] community amongst whom they dwell. Wisely directed, they might quickly be teeght to assimilate In outward forms and cheatsenties to the free end self respecting people whose pro tection they have sought end obtained. Nor can it be doubted bat that a raoe so proverbially imitative would rapidly acquire, if trained to do so, many of the ideas and feelings lastly regarded by ell true Americana as essannal to the maintenance of their nation-hood. Uafortonately forth* Roman Orthc lie emigrants, they have been for some time badly counselled and advised. Ultra montaniem has been as reckless and as rapid of late in the New World as in the Old. Its coxcombical Ctensions to paramount power have been an into tly pnt forth in New England aa in Old Baginudt and what has prsvsd o? more fatal oonseqaeaos to its unhappy vota-ies, political sympathies with des potism and inte>ctual darkness have been openly avowed and crflensvelv promulgated. The public inculcation of tuck nenhm'nts by the prelate* and priesthood cf the Roman Catholic* in America has mere than anything tUe tended to the uprise of the singular organization known under the title of Know Nothihgxsm; a+d wherever its ramification* ptevait it ha* otcom* difficult, if n-t impossible, for Roman Cath lie t migrant* to obtain employment. Hence the retain ot considerable numbers to the land of their nativit-; a? d hence we foar wo moat prepare to expect the infi<o'ion of many an net of hardthi* and injustice such a* the indiscriminate zeal of politico t tltgiiiu* party ha* never failed to infict. Death of Mr a. Thoinaon, the Jttiy Levari or iiu? na. Mrs. Tbom?o&, the J?s y Lewars of Robert Born*, died is Dumfries on Saturday, the 2G.h, at the ad vanced age of r early foa sc >re years. Uj> to a re cent date Mr>. Thomson enjoyed excellent health, bnt tor some months has been gradually sinking. Perso- s faaiHar with the life of toe poet will re member that Jptsy Lima's was on the moatioti nsate tai ms with Run a end his family. Her Atther had been Supervrsir of Excise for the district, but died mme yeas before tbe poet, and Miss Jeasy Le tters, during most of the time that ths >oet lived in Dumfries, resided wit i J er b. other, J rha Lewars, who was then an tffl sr of excise, and who beeame afterwards also Snm-rvisor o' the district, i t! ?. tbort iBW>rval "biJi took place betwixt the peel's re'urn f om Brow and bu dea:h, Jessy Lewars wa* urr;m ttirg in her attention to Mrs. Burrs and the children?Mrs. Bums being almost constantly ecoflatd to ht d, as the youngest child of the poet was born on tbe day of tbe poet's funeral? and coiiveytd from her brother's house snob cor dials of all kinds as she supposed world be accepts bleto thobaid. After Barns' death, two of the children, Robert, the eldest, and another, Hved with tbe Lewars family for about fourteen months. It must sot be forgot *n that Jessy Levari rinsed the eyes olthe poet dlmm-d in death?that eye of which Sir Walter Scott satd, " I have seen most of the eminent men of my day, but I never saw an eve like Robert Burns'." Jessy Lewars, some years after the poet's death, was married to Mr. Alexander Thomson, writer in Dumfries, whn died in 1849, and was succeeded in busmen by l is son, Mr. A. Thornton. Mrs. Thom son bad live sons and two daughters, moit of whom survived their mother. Mrs Thomson, in personal appearance, was tall, somewhat stout, with a beau tiful bine eye. She was of a c heerful disposition, with a kindness and open heartednees which endeared Ler to aU; but ber warm friendship for andunremit tir g attention to the pet constitute the claims which tbe memory of Jessy Lewars has upon theaffection and gratefol remembrance of the admbess of Robert Boms. When in nis later days evil reports as to the tendency cf bia political opinions and his private conduct bad alienated many of his acquaintances, Jessy Lewart, with her brother and sister, became the more unremitting and constant in their friend ship. with tneb opportunities of judging of the poet's sentiments and character, and herself eminently qualified, by her strong religious opinions and mental < apathy, to speak on such n subject, it becomes interesting to know that " Jessy Lewam frequently stated that there never was a man more maligned than the poet, and that. especially i.e wis by no means so in temperament as he was said to be." She visited hie mate-bed both by night and day, aid scorned the idea that tie poet died a sceptic. " He died," she said. " in the faith of a Chria^au." At the pact's death Jessy Lewars possessed a great many manu script* and letters ot the poet. These she gave to Dr. Maxwell, of Dot,fries, to be forwarded to Dr. Cunie for the biography, and it was often a cause of g: eat regret to her that none of them were re tarscd. She possetsed the MSB. of " The Blue-eyed Lu ff*' tw? .T*?"" on tb? of a bill for aa exhibi tion ot wild beat) it Dnmphries, and a presentation ctpytrf Johnson'a Miscellany, with vereee in the band writing of the port Two large gleans re ferred to in "The Life of tbe Poet," on which he wrote some verses with a diamond, were nnfortn rately b-cken if.to a thousand piece! by the care lessness of a rervaat who was earring them from one he use to another in Dumfries. Few have lived more respected and beloved than Jen? Lewam, aud so long as the bnma* heart beats in unison with anything that is r.ob e in genlns and sentiment, so long will the name of Jessy Lewars, the affectionate and constant friend of R bert Burns, be dear to the admirers of Scotland! peel?Scotsman. Commerce of France. The following important official returns have just been published to tne commerce and navigation of "?n?? daring the years 1852,1853 and 1854 Tbelmpons m the year 1854 amounted to 1,158, 0W>0OOt., against 1,103 000 OOOf In 1863, and 986,000 OOOf. in 1862. The imports of goli were 480,700, OOOf. ih 1854, against 318^00,000L1ji 1862 acd 59,200,000f. in 1852; wbereaajhe imparts of sil ver amount* d in 1854 to o?lyd9i00,0(Wr. against 112,600,000f.lin 1863, and 170?900,000f.in 185?The it 8 tbfr?for?> considerably Increased during tbe ast three yean. A oontrary movement has teken piece iu the expott of tbe precious "tqh horn France. There has been ocmperattvelv speskii g, bat little difference daring the three ears in tbe export of gold, which amounted lo 64600,OOOf. In 1854, 20 700,OOOf. to 1853. and to 42 300 OOOf. in 1862; whereas that of stl 711*9 263,5ft0 OOOf. In 1854, 229,600,000f. to 1853, and 182 OOO OOOf. to 1652. The tital amount ?L*iX^05i? "nA "torchandln was 1,259,400,OOOf. to S"WS 'lam3Ji ud 1,233,300^)00f. in *'? in-orta, according to this retnrn, con tinued to inoeese In 1854, ccmoared with the two preceding years, and the exports kept above the ?F)?5?* of 1852, althongh there is a almtontlon of 104.000,000 on 1853. Toe falling iff to the expert ?r?CIIt>! Ib? prii cipal Item to tbe dmimiMon of iS:ma ?52 HFoaLt ?f oofo exported to 1862 was 69,600,000/,; In 1863, 29,900,00f0.; and to 1854 was ? v'A ' Tb0 **pot* cf wine baa also dtir In to* d from 84800 000 . to 76,200 OOOf, and 60,100,. SSAaaV1 ot from 27,600,0001 to 22, 300, OOOf. ac d 13,900.OOOf. The imports by see wore Vfis wl. a 55!'000''? ogaim 1,029,200,OOOf. in o<?n niin! , 300,(i00f. in 1852; and by land, 668, n?t602.200,0?OL In 1863,and l^i^n^nnnr . The exports by aea WON 1,421,700,ooof. ln 1854, against 1,488,700,000f. to 200 fioof0 101852, and by load 306, 200,000/., sgaiost 372,600,000, and 376,200,000f. Interesting Foreign ?"?? biS* b00k ?f t0? B ltuh Parliament con tains the reports of the Poor law Ioapeetors on agricultural stathtlM to Eoglaad to 1854. from a get end summery it appears that the ff*?" *?ul? 1* the counties of Borland ftLd w?)ei were ti follows:?tumefy. number of sUtute acres, 37,824.915, of which the fStoJtoi number* were under tillage for varione grains? namely, 3,807,846 acres of wheat, 2 667 77(1 acme of barley, 1 302,782 of oa'a, 73,731 of rre flnT/^ of beans end pea*, 218,651 of vetches 2 M7 2uo turnips, 177,163 of ?ngold,12 638 J 192,287 of potatoes, 10,166 of fl.i lfi 976 l,079 of osiers, 67 334 cf other crops ?d 895 aw."' roid't 4c? war o?a iq7* ??,* . t E'jcmta attsobed to farms, 786,658; the una wr ot acres lo wood and plantatfoo* I f597 th? Jvuntl?s)Din'#F f?7' 3ri8U'i?^ Th? Btot^ ot all the nw$ S"1 ln 185d- included i'?'^ 707 ??. 268,079 colte, 1,376,703 milch i ' calTe,,' J '39,279 other eattle, in c ot7^oiCrkvg.?T*n' 244,105 tups; 7,299.915 e wee. 6^87,982 lambe 4,iSO,085 other ebeep, and 2,363,72/ swine. It should be txpUlned Urn Nturna have wen received from eleven counties oaiv, thorn for tbe leiriAiiilng counties being simply estimated. .The wor ks for tbeeciargementand embellishment of tbe FaUoe of tbe Elvree, in Fails, are now al most compute)? terminated. There are vsrv taw priicely ree'denoes that have so often cianrei owiere and destlr a'io<> aa toe Elys^e. l? iJliit in 1718 by the aronlleot Molot, for the Prinoe da la Toor d'Anvrgke. sod sold some yean anarwards Pctopadonr. who, hsvtng eniorpcj ftrMj embellished >t; is# dvd tntn until St deattL L^