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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, June 11, 1856, MORNING EDITION, Image 11

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Our Mmm C0rrc>p*iidfiie4.
Macao, Feb. 5,1830.
?Navigation m the Chinese Seat?The Harm of a
Dilemma?Macro? Its farmer Magnificence and
Present Desolate Aspect?Cauoens?Coolie
Store Mioses?Chinese Sense of Commercial
Humor?The llogue Ports?Canton?The Foreign
Cemetery?Trade at Hong Kong.Ijc., <$'C.
We duly arrived at Hour Kong in two and a half
days/rem Yoo-chow, in time to Bee tbe Siamese tri
bute ship, call upon several of the merchants,
write a chapter on Hong Kong?which I mailed by
the Madias? and take our passage in the Spark for
this port. We started, but it was only a start?
the miserable little screw boat reminded mc of the
time that I made myself a martyr to humanity and
the underwriter)*, when taking off tbt shipwrecked
orewof the Boston clipper Whistler, on King's Island,
last June?ior she was bad enough in smooth
weather, and being out of order was bound over
to repair her rotten machinery. We had not been
cut an hour and a half before it began to blow a
small typhoon, and the motion of our boat was
neither horizontal nor perpendicular, but when the
two were given to find the base and hypotenuse?i
3 may use a problematical comparison?it soon be
came evident that we must anchor, aud at twelve
o'clock, midnight, we made fast under the shade of
the piratical island of Lantoa. Here was a predi
cament?a lee shore, a pirate village, an approach,
log typhoon and a boat leaking?I don't know how
many hundred strokes the hour. At this unsatisfac"
tory point the steward atonedoor informed us that
our grub locker was empty, just as tho engineer on
icrcd at the other to say that tbe coal was nearly
out; while the captain discovered that we had
lost our tiller. Pleasant, wasn't it ?
Our position was by no means safe?for the wind
was blowiug wild cits and the anchorage none too
good?shortly after two o'clock it was calmer, which
justified the captain in making another start, but
only to return again in two hours time, the pumps
all the time going at full speed, and tho steamer in
the greatest possible daDger. One of onr party, not
one of the reformed, a-ked for a glass of water
there was none; arc there any blankets? for the
cabin was very cold ? No?we must make the most
4>f the night as we best could. At last I got to sleep
And there came such a succession of strange unac
countable noises, I positively think the infernal
boat was haunted, for no one could lind from
whence they came. Could any one have told me
whether the boat would go tip or down, it would
have been more satisfactory, but the glorious unccr
iainty was particularly unpleasant. In the morning
two Bnspjcious looking jnuks anchored just off the
island?shortly another, and beforo noon two more,
all apparently waiting for the boat to go ashore?
for the news of a disabled craft goes like a prairie
fiic over tbe robber haunts. In the afternoon the
weather moderated, and by the blessing of Provi.
dence we managed to get the crippled boat back to
Hong Kong. This is the well known boat that has
made, daring the past year or two, a lac of dollars
lor the owner, whose bonhomme, hail-fellow style of
doing things has made him many friends. But now,
ss the steamer has done so well, I think the "spark"
should be extinguished.
The next morning, with a calm sea, wc were more
successful, and at three o'clock P. M., reached onr
landing place on the Praya Grande, the celebrated
promenade to the quaint old settlement of the early
Portuguese kings?Macao.
Once the most important maritime port in East
ern Asia?one hundred and fifty to two hundred
years ago, the richest settlement in this part of the
world, even during the English war?Macao was the
chief port of trade for the merchants of all nations.
Its present population will not exceed 30.000, about
a sixth of which only are Portuguese; the others arc
half castes and natives of China. At present thcr
are a few English and other officials in the town?
Dr. Parker among the rest?but, save these few
the place to was more cheerless than an Egyp
tian desert. In company with our party I wandered
about this ancient relic of gaiety aud splcudor
now a disjointed collection of deserted pal ices?
haggard boat women, whose beauty disappeared
With their youth?ugly dames, of Portuguese descent?
their faces hid in that most unbecoming garment
(not a mantilla, but I forget its proper name,)
a calico handkercnief pinned under the chiu, giving
them a monkish sulk; nets. None ljad any preten
tions to beauty. Long, narrow alleys, dark and
gloomy ; decaying cathedrals and public buildings
dropping away; but one old church, the front of
which only was standing, was very beautiful?a
noble relic of the architecture of earlier days. Forts,
with bristling cannon on every side, that one war
steamer could blow in the air; walks, parades, gar
dens, all defaced under tba corroding hand of time*
I saw all these and more, that told of what had
been, but not what is. The exiled poets' last home
was my next resort?the banished scholar, who
made himself immortal in his banishment?for who
can read that beautiful composition, the " Luciad,"
without being reminded of the romantic history of
Vamoens.
To me the old palace garden, covering so many
acres of still blooming flowers and foliage, with
"paths winding through quaint arbors and huge stone
caves?more solid than the artificial groins of Bolton
Abbey, at Chakworth?was the most interesting
part of my tour. I was never tired of roaming over
the grounds, but did not remain soliloquizing long
over the iron-walled monument of the poet, who
lived and died before Shakspere's time. I did not ex
pect to find such old magnificence; but ruins of ages
past do not, at such distance from Christian lands, in
crease my love of decay. From the top of one of the
mammoth stone arbors we have a fine view of the
old town, the inner and the outer harbor?the former
stocked with junks and lorchas belonging to the
place; the yearly incom of the latter, in freights
alone, is said to lie $150,000. We saw the islands
round about?our steamer coaling from the quay?
and were glad to witness scenery as romantic as it
was novel. Looking down upon the Chinese part of
the town, I saw a lar castellated building, the
courtyard of which was crowded with human
beings, dressed in white. My curiosity was excited.
Was it a hospital? No. A lunatic asylum? No.
What could it be?a jail, a charity school, sr what?
No one could tell. We searched and searched, bat
could not make the people understand our wants; first
on one side, then the other, and finally we got a boat,
and rowed round to the portcullis, but even there
there was no admittance, Inquiry only made us
more curious, but not more successful, till at last a
friend in need relieved us of suspense, and told us
that of course no one was permitted to enter?it
was a private institution?being nothing more than
the place where a princely merchaut here stows
away his coolies, when they arc caught in the
country, and kept there till they are ready for ship
ment. When I saw them from the garden high
lands it was probably feeding time. AtWhaupoa
they use a hulk for the purpose, I understand.
we came back through the Chinese town, where
with rest'ess activity mechanics were working at
their respective trades, shopmen were doing a
thriving business, while barters never were busier
music and dancing, with the sing song artists, never
more enthusiastic?and the pawnbrokers were
crowded to suffocation?for to-morrow is the China
men's new year, and hence the unnsual bustle and
excitement in the town?for before midnight nil ac
counts niust be squared, all books balanced, all bills
paid, and debtor und creditor mnst meet as friends
?for It is .the custom of China to close up the
papers and make a clean breast of finance matters
at the aoromenceincnt of every new year. On every
turn I see anxious faces, and men rushing with
aome little trinket to the Hhylocks' den, in order to
raise a little more cash. There are many who know
not what to do, for their pockets arc empty, and
their debts unpaid, and somethin.r must be done be
fore the clock strikes twelve, or >lse they arc dis
graced in the eyes of their country ucn. Some tear
the features of desperation on their faces?and
hence robbery or murder, perhaps suicide, ere the
Lell tolls the fatal hour. For 'tis no unusual thing
to resort to violent measures if all else fails and
bills unpaid. What a strange cuptom ; and yet it is
universally followed from the sea coast to the limits
of Tartary. If Western nations balanced accounts
as often, there would be less rottenness In finance and
sore bvctety la ee?nicrce? Mere, least, the idol
worshipper teaches a kisses it were well if we would .
I* ?rii. j
I Lave seen Maeoe, but do not like it. It mxj be i
pkuicj.t us a summer retreat, for there is a tine
bathing teach near the I'arseo burial ground, which j
bulks towards the East. Save the native trade
commerce has iorsabeii Macao, and llong Kong
once so sickly, is cow the favorite settlement; and
icbtkss progress marks the one, when old age in
its frippery pantaloon, aatu wealth and life, almost
t< lis you of the other. In the warm mouths all
foreign China flock'10"Macao. As a summer retreat
it any of 'he merchants have houses here, one of
which, if in Wall or State street, would make a mil
lionaire of the fortunate possessor; but here they
are hollow, sepulchral, cheerless, they are so
large and cold; rooms wider th in a dancing hall,
with a solitary chair in the centre, and waits so thin
thot the least whisper at one end rings throughout
the house, arid that art acre lot, outside the garden,
still beantiiul with tint,ure's loveliest ornaments. I
went to the foreigner's graveyard, bat my stay wa9
brief, for it made me sad, it looked so dreary and so
coid. Fellow oountrymen, old and young, were
lying fide by tide, the moss-grown marble telling of
age, and death, and merit Governors and subjects,
the rich and the poor, all were there, crowding
each other for more room, for the burial
ground is full. I saw the gruvc of young Joseph II.
Adams, the descendant of a line of Presidouts?a
Lieutenant of the Powhattan, died in 1?58, and
many inorc from the same expedition buried by
their comrades, (hay would never have written an
elegy here?liiB eloquence would have chilled in the
ink?1the atmosphere is so damp.
I was glial to get away, and the next morning we
again passed the Bogue fort, where the old Admiral
of the Chinese fleet beldly met his death, as th ?
British shot rang through the war junks in 1H41
Lin first, ami Kisnen afterwards gave the orders of
the Emperor: but it did no good, for China was not
a match for Victoria's navy. Once more steaming
up the Bocca tigris, where more forts pointed can
non at us, and leaving Whampoa behind, we are
again on the naval battle field, opposite the factory
gardens. A few days in Canton, looking over 'hat
huge pile Of fanatical worship and Bonze priests,
the Honan temple, with its half a hundred statues,
emblematic of virtue and of vice?its sacred josses
and its sacred pigs?I don't kuow which appe tred
the fattest?a few days more in Canton hospitality,
and excursions to the celebrated private gardens of
the Hong merchants, Houqua, Puntinqua.Sequa and
several others. But it was the Chinaman's new
year, and all was still; every phop closed, and all
dropped in holiday gnrb to call upon his neighbor,
aud be called upon in return. Fire crackers, can
non, gongs, bells and tom-toms, driving one crazy at
all Lours of the day and night?a nererceasiug Bed
lain, it was so noisy. Purchasing quite a collection
oi amoy'bracelets, beautiful sandal wood fans and
card cases, writing desks and ornaments of ivory,
and Chinese presents innumerable for friends at
home, again 1 bid good bye to Cauton, the scat of
foreign commerce for ever a century.
But I have written of Canton before, and you
don't want to hear the story again. I got out at
Wkaropoa to take the steamer Thistle into Hong
Kong as she came down in the evening, but unfor
tunately for us there was no "down" on the thistle,
and we had to go back to Canton in a s impau, to
take the early morning boat. Ho s ever, I saw the
harbors of Canton aud Whampoa, and was satis
tied. Here all the clippers load, and if repairs arc
wanted, Mem-re. Cooper's dock will accommodate
the largest clipper afloat. Other docks are also
being finished, aud two or three steamboats are on
the stocks, but the machinery comes from home or
England. I am pleased to see so much go-ahead
ativencss, tor the docks arc really deserving of
every credit. Another graveyard?good God, what
a place?worse than Macao! Why, Mncoa is a
Mount Auburn in comparison. A little square
patch of stingy soil on a bleak and dismal hill that
owns but a single tree?flat tombs, no enclosures,
not even a fence roand the burial place. One soli
tary monument points to the final home of onr
Minister, Alexander Everett, who, in 1847, was
buried by those who loved him while living, and
honor him now that he is dead. Young Walker, of
N. Y., a graduate of the University, captains of
American ships, and missionaries from both
England and the States, masters and mates, cooks
and sailors, and in one deep grave a solitary row of
six graves, whose marble tops give the names of six
young Englishmen, who were killed in 1847, at
Woug-chu kee, by the Chinamen; their bodies were
fennd mutilated, but none knew tbe why and
wherefore of their death: all side by side in an un
enclosed, uninviting, inhospitable pasture, sur
rounded by the paddy fields, that crowd fairly on to
the white man's grave. The descendants of Alpcd and
the sons ot Confucius are sleeping their long sleep
on the barren side of the French Island, that does
not even hoist of a landing place to the cemetery.
The marble stores arc black with rust already, aud
no old mortality to relctter the names. A few more
years the buCalo and the primitive plough will
make a small addition to the rice field paddock.
Shame on the foreigners of Canton for such neg
lect ! Can no better place be provided'!?for it is a
dismal abode for the last resting place of man.
6hould I die on this foreign shore, throw me over
board?do anything but bury me at Nhamnoa.
Late at night we reached Hong Kong, whe-e your
correspondent found a pamphlet, publi hed by the
Melbourne pilots, which has just come up from Aus
tralia, and which calls YouDg America anything but
a gentleman for endeavoring, through the Chamber
ot Commerce, to reduce the exorbitant port charges
of Port Phillip. All right?nothing like opposi
tion to help a man along the rough paths of life.
Smallpox at Manila, and no ship going over, so
I must wait a more opportune time to see the splen
did capital of the East. I am disappointed, for I
wanted to go there and see something of ripaniah
manners aud Spanish life, and look at the sugar and
the rice plantations, and the Spanish girls make the
chcrcots, and the ropewalk?the enterprise of a fel
ow countryman, a friend of mine, from Saicra; but
I must give it up, and lose the companionship even
of my late travelling companion, a partner in the
leading American house there?a jolly good fellow.
My regrets go with him. But Manila, I expect, will
keep for a few years longer, and then we'll become
acquainted.
Hong Kong is as busy as ever, ships arriving and
ships departing, aud I have been so fortunate as to
fet a passage to Calcutta in the clipper steamer
'iery Cross?Jardine's opium despatch boat?which
goes through to Calcutta, stopping at Singapore, in
less than a fortnight, and all for $264. On the 80th
of December I landed in China, and now, on the 14th
of February, I leave it again behind me, having
spent six weeks of restless activity at Shanghae,
Fouchow, Canton, Macao and Hong Kong, from all
ol which ports I have sent yon the impressions of a
freshman in China. On my passage down you must
pardon me for taxing you with a concluding chapter
on China and its people, which 1 shall mad at Cal
cutta.
93. )
" i
Ok Board Steamship Fiery Cboss.
Bound from Singapore to Calcutta.
Feb. 22,1856.
Books in China?Discordancy of Views in Relation
to its Religious Future?History of the Opium
Trade?Noble Declaration of the Emperor ?In
teresting Statistics of the Tradt?A Practical
Subject for English Philanthropy?Precept and
Practice, fyc.
I have not the pleasure of knowing Mr. Tiios. Tay
lor Meadows, but his 250 paged book on China, pub
lished in 1847, was one of the firpt works that fell in
my way while reading upon the Celestials, and a more
unsatisfactory volume, after such a flourish of trum
pets in the preface, I have not found among the
numerous writers on the country. One of the posi
tions which he takes is, that no man has a light to
print his views of a country unless he thoroughly
understands its language. And hence he gives us a
dry dissertation on the pronunciation of words as
uninteresting to the body of readers as it is egotisti
cal. Now, I must admit that I have never given
that attention to the study of the Chinese lan
guage that I have to my commission account
and having been only six weeks among the people
will of course be pardoned for losing myself in the
confusion of dialects; yet I have, nevertheless, exer
cised the privilege of a tourist who prefers a railway
carnage to a stage coach, and who, while he does
not hesitate to give his opinions,; regard lug other's
writings, asks no favor for his own.
Were I to stop in China as many year3 as I have
days, I doubt whether I should distract my mind by
placing these uncouth characters in my memory;
and yet, for the purposes of commerce and litera
ture, it is a praiseworthy study for those who have
the taste and time to devote to it. I only speak of
my only fancy; and being desirous tojsum up, in a
concluding note, the substance of what I have said
to you from every port I have visited?a retrospoc
tive look- na well as to touch on passing events, and
what may happen before three-quarters of the cen
tury has gone. Mr. Meadow's admonition would
have stopped me did I not feel in relation to my
views as the old ludy did of her children, that they
were very homely, to be sure, but they are mine.
Roaming nl>out from port to port and place to
place, as I have been, since my departure from the
golden lands of Australia, trying to add another
chapter to my little stock of knowledge, I make a
practice of reading the several publications regard
ing the country I may l>c in, so that I may fix more
! (QKtyiy la p>j memory many things that qqc'o eyo
sight fails to discover. Hence, everything written |
on China that waa in my reach I have hastily run ;
over, and form my opinion on what I read as well as ?
what I see; but it so happens that the more I read !
the more 1 get confused, and the more I converse on
the subject in question, the less I seem to know;
for the clashing of opinions and statements in the
books are almost as confusing as the coat radio
tury assertions of a dinner table inquiry. On mi
nor things, most of the aide writers agree, but on
many important points they widely differ. Take
the missionary cause?one man argues of the
good that has been accomplished; another opposes
the argument, and asks for facts instead of assertion,
Oue writer will enter into a ieng'hy essay to prove
that Tai-ping-wang, the rebel chief, is a Christian,
while his friend labors equally hard to show why he
calls him the pirate leader of the age. The Bishop
of Victoria, in an aLle article in the Calcutta Review
discoursed most enthusiastically, in 1853, regarding
the nature of the present rebellions?traeea their
origin, tracks their progress, and jumps at the result
?while he points out as inevitable the overthrow of
the Mnntchcu Tartar dynasty, and the consequent
universal introduction of the Christian religion
throughout the empire of the celestials. Dr. Parker,
our Commissioner, and most.of the missionary talent
of the several ports endorsed these views; while the
merchants, the editors of the China journals, the
officials (save Sir John Bowring and a few more)
crossed swords in the argument, pointing out the
difference between robbers and the Divine influence*
The some oontrast may be seen in discussing the
opium trade. The missionary writers see the cer
tain destruction of the Asiutic rices in the increts.
ing consumption of this Indian poison?and that
their Christian labors are fruitless?their exertions
fall to the ground, so long as the drag is smuggled
into the country. Oftentimes say they, aud certainly
with some degree of logic, we are asked by the
more intelligent of the Chinese, "why do you not
use 3cur influence with your own countrymen to
observe our laws, instead of daily breaking them,
and first stop your people from bringing that which
rains us to our shores, before you come among us to
change our hereditary institutions for your strange
doctrines ?" Certainly a most unanswerable fact.
The merchants, on the other hand, most of whom
directly or indirectly are engaged in the profits of
the drag, shield themselves by the gin palace ar
gument, if we do not carry on the trade,
the Chintmcn and Americans will. |Even now,
say tliey, the best part of it has gone
into the hands of the Parsees, who living economi
cally, and doing business for nothing, are taking
our bread ihom our months. And, again if we did
not bring it from India, the Chinamen having once
got a taste of it, will produce it, as they are now
doing, in their own country. Once more, the evil
they are afraid is greatly exaggerated-even the mis
sionaries themselves are as loggcrhcadB. Look at the
seven letters on the opium trade, published in the
British Banner, last May, nnder the signature of a
"Friend of China," where they assert that there are
now some fifteen millions of opium smokers, and at
least a million annual souls added to the fearful list,
while Medhurst, an able writer, in an elabo
rate treatise on the subject, in the Shanghai
almanac of last year, says, that two to three
millions, at the most, indulge in opium
and he supports his position by figures. The latter
writer has the support of the merchants, and they
consider his views a fair exposition of the question.
Dr. Medhurst is one of the oldest of the London
Mission Society, and being a man of unmistakeablc
talent, I can but think that his statement is the cor
rect one, more especially a3 it is worked out with
such collateral proof.
While on this question there can be no harm in
briefly tracing the history of the opium trade, from
the notes which I have made from the several
authors The first opium which the Chinese got
atas'oof was introduced by Col. Watson and Vice
President Wheeler, from Bengal, about the year
1700. These gentlemen, then, may be considered
the fathers of the immense trade which forms nearly
one-half of the entire foieigu commerce of China.
During the next half century the import did not
exceed 200 chests of a piebul each, but in the year
1707?in Lord Chatham's day?it reached 1,030
chests, the Portuguese having the trade entirely
to themselves, at the then flourishing port of Macao.
Six years later, that indefatigable body of merchants,
the East India Company, started their first venture,
and owned the first receiving ship near Cunsing
nioon. The treasury of the company was at Can
ton, and the proceeds of the armed ship sent out
from Bengal in 1781, entirely laden with opium,
was passed to the credit of that government. The
first receiving ship at Whampoa was about the
period of Lord McCartney's embassy to Pekin, 171)4,
and then the Chinamen began to enact prohi
bitory laws, for previous to the commencement
of the present century it wau admitted at the
China Custom House us a medical drug, under a
duty equal to six cents per pound. The import
increased gradually, and at that time (1*00)
amounted to 2,000 chests; which so alarmed the
Imperial government, a stopper was at once put on
in the shape of its entire prohibition as an article of
sale or import, and no man under penalty of death
was allowed to cultivate the poppy in his Majesty's
dominion. These laws have not been repealed, bat
the government has never been able to execute
them.
In 1803 the Hong merchants gave security that no
opium should be brought; but, notwithstanding these
precautions some 5,000 chests found their way
through Macao and Whampoa. in 1820; and the
next year the Governor of Canton was discharged in
disgrace for remisscnces of duty; more stringent
acts obliged the merchants to resort to all the
dodges of the smuggler. Bribery, arms and secresy.
Money was paid the merchant at his counting
bouse, and tnc Chinese purchaser, with boats armed
to the teeth, got the needful from out of
the storeships under the Fintow, in the
night time. Then came the age of opium clippers
and romantic adventures?the time of great risks
for great profits. About the time of Louis Phillip's
debut on the French throne, other edicts were pro
claimed year after year, stronger and stronger,
1831,1832, and again in 1834 the Imperial Cabinet
then drew forth their proclamations against foreign
ers for bringing it, and Chinese for nsing that
which was undcrming all their happiness; aud yet
in the face of all this the import had so multiplied,
that in 1836 35,000 chests were sold in China. We
have now reached the period of one of the most
remarkable events of its history. The exciting
discussion among the chief governors and minis
ters of the Empire, comprising the most talented
statesmen of the land, for ami against its being a
legalized trade; but its opponents were too strong
for those who recommended it. and the former catne
off victorious, while many of the latter were dis
graced by the Emperor for expressing such opinions.
At once mceiurts were taken more decided than
anything before, even to the execution of those who
were engaged in sruu ;gling. Foreign merchants en
gaged in; he traffic were notified from government
to leave the country. In 1848 a Chinraan was be
headed at Macao, aud another towards the end of
the year near the foreign residences at Canton, and
shortly after another Chinaman was executed in the
factory gardens?all lor dealing in the drug. Some
others inland had their lips cut off, and other cruel
ties were resorted to in order to stop the use of it in
the kingdom, and yet all the while the opium mer
chants were still rolling in the drug. We are all of
us more familiar with its history since then. Extra
ordinary powers were given to the celebrated Com
missioner. Lin, who arrived in Cauton in March,
1831). It is a short story; Lin's energy?letters to for
eign residents?bond tram them in return, swearing
they would never again engage in it, which was never
kept?the seizure ot 20,283 chests and its destruction
in twenty*days, by lime and salt?nearly $10,000,000
in value. The protests of the merchants, the acti
vity of the East India Company, the arrival of the
British fleet?the prowess of the British army in the
far famed opium war, where millions of Chinese
were sent to meet their ancestors, and China opened
up to foreign commerce by the treaty of Nankin, In
1842. This war to a certain extent settled tne ques
tion. and the trade has gone on from 200 chests, in
1750. to 70,000 or *0,000 in 1850?from one million
dollars then to forty million dollars now. Bui now
there is little said about in it the Pekin Gazette, and
the traffic still moves on. The late Emperor, when
again asked to legalise the trade in 1*44, made uRe
of strong language in his remarkable reply?"Yes,
1 cannot prevent, the introduction of the growing
poison: gain seeking nnd corrupt men will, for pro
lit. and sensuality, defeat my wishes; but nothing
induce me to derive a revenue from the vice and will
misery of my people."
Among tho several writers who have taken up the
subject, none seem to defend it; all unite in decry
ing it; for, morally, what ean he said In its favor?
Wnon speaking of its evil effects, some of the lite
jury C'hinaam bvcam juoot eloquent against it,
Hone are more able to argue and strike tberewon
than the Chinese scholar. Head that wonderful
letter of that Jacobin Robespierre?the statesman
LiD?when writing to the Queen, in which he aays -
" To seek one's own advantages by o.hers injiny
abhorrent to man's nature, and opposed to the way
of Heaven," and using many arguments, the lan
guage of which Webster or Burke would not have
blushed at. It would le amusing, were it not so sad,
to read the opinions of some of the Coughs a
Kankins who lecture on the effects of the
me copy a pitby paragraph front a letter of t ebru y
1834, from statements made by King Shan, a diotin
guished scholar of Nankin, in 183(5
It first, the imoksre of opium merely wUh to ffU?*
th.fwM m c( tho <i?y, but ia the ??quel the pMeou Uk?i
effect, tie ta it Mccmts fixed,the ihepiog emokerS are all
like ccrprea- leiu acd haB-g*rd a? detj 'oe. fcaeh are tue
iojaiiM It doee t? life. It tbrowe while "?
rein, di?Hipatee e?ery kind of propertv and dertroje m*u
timed*. Tteie eaneot be a greaUr evil than_ ttts. In
eoupaxlaon nithartenii I pronounce it t#atoldtb*f. sate
p"'8?r, tr three who tinike the drag a*? lejurwl>i?
maoywaje. Itexhaceii to# animal iptrtw, beace the
?t ilth wbf umoke abort*j tLa'jr la ujI'1
di< ago will batten tha Tfimluatiou of tha.r jwft'rt.
imp?*** tb? regular perforirftoc* of a?w
the fierh atd blood- flesh in grsdudlj w.rn a vay ana
eontuiucd fiom tie roonet who smote, aid taeir ekta
harge flown like base. Tie laaet of the week who smoke
are black and cadaverous, and their banes ara nek^u a?
b'llets oi'wo.d. I: reniers tbs peraoa lU favored inoeiu
tlow? from their nostril* and '.sara It eta th?ir eyes ? t je?r
very btdlsa are pu'rid and rotten. It p-omoie t o > osoi
tr, It <Slioovern eerre'.B it violate) lawa, It attacks tnj
vi ale, It destroys life? when he be* pvvccd a.l e.*etjr
opium he will pa*n hi* wife wd aril h'.s daughter.
Powerful language. He even beats Pollok when
describing pleasure. This position, I imagine, only
describes the delirium tremens of the day. When a
man sells his bones to the doctor and his soul to the
devil", another of their, learned men says, that the
first eflect is not felt, but after a little?
The eonstitn'loii give* way, the iiter'or graVia'Jy
destjr, th'.n'anfls cf worms and m*s8^C 8?*w ? ,
ttelines; their faces he:'me dlraoloren, tfcti." tsein ?U:i,
their atpssratee like charoial, itrt* ?hon.der? rin? to
their earn, their recks link in, their throats protrude,
and their whole frame is ha etul a* that ot a "Jf".
vil- and, in fine, they conticue tt buy th'i: bias un 11
death overtakes them in the as", of taking one more p i J
I have introduced these two paragraphs to show
the style of composition, and what arguments
were Inid before the Kmperor, when the discussion
was at its height. No wonder the old man stood
unnerved at tie appeal, for be had lost a son?a la
vorite boy?who smoked himself to death, it
be could not keep it out of the pal ice, it c rtainly
would be difficult to shut it out of the gates of the
C11$ie drain of silver from the nation during the
last thirty years, had there been no teas or silk
in return, would have been some sis hundred mil
lions of dollars! , ,
In a memorial to the Emporer, the Chiuese show
the drain from the Imperial treasury, to have been
So
1834 to lh"'.'"I!".'.'."'.'.'.".?' ? ? ? ? ? mWmMO
and even if the former was exaggerated, stitisties
show thut the latter average is about the annual
outlay at the present time. The question ot whether
China could have taken more cottons and imports
from England or ourselves had they not expended so
much for opium, is problematical.
From what I can see you might as well keep back
the waves of the sea (which Sydney Smith, wlieu
he firBt introduced that amiable lady, Dame Par
tington, to the world, failed to do.) as to stop tue
use of opinm. When segars are abolished and to
bacco in any form is not used as a stimulant?when
intoxicating leverages are swept from the races ot
the earth?when slavery is no more and the world as
pure as when created, the opium trade, foreign and
domestic, may prove abortive; but until then 1 daub,
if all the book3 which are published, arguments
which arc advanced, and laws which are enacted,
will he the means of keeping opium out ot China.
The natives have got a taste for it; and If they can
not get it from India, they can cultivate it in any
quantity in their own empire. Borne confidently
assert that even now they produce some 40,000 chests
per year; and us the love of it increases, in spite ol
the government, they will continue to raise it or
import it from those who do. The hist India Co:n
nanv have the credit of all the iniquity, but so long
as they continue to derive $18,000,000 reveuue per
annum, what do they care ^newspaper squibbi
and liuncom editorials.' But China does not take it
fast enough, for even now they have and are estab
lishing retail sliops over the Indian Empire, and the
beautiful rice fields and fertile lands ot Hindosam
must give way for the growth of the poppy. af;er
sufficient have been left for the food of the nation.
As a question of broad and libera! philanthropy
England once expended some $100,000,000 in abol
ishing West Indian slavery. I wonder it her be
nevolence will ever reach the East Indian Continent;
Parliament may consider it. We will wait a little
10 ln?a letter from Singapore I think I alluded to the
rather startling fact that almost the whole revenue
of that island of the company's was derived from the
sale of the license to the opium farmers?some $-00,
000. Take the traffic away from the commerce of
China, and some of those beautiful palaces where the
merchant so hospitably entertains the stranger,
would have to close their doors. Even now the trade
is not what it was; fortunes are not made in one
successful operation, as years ago. Then mort eve
ry roll was a strike; but of late years it is difficult
to irpt a snare. There's no use oi abusing those who
deal in it; you may as well blackball tne rum3ell
rr There's not so much difference as one raayima
gine. Holland gin, on the North American Indian,
or Patua or Molina on the Asiatic?each carries de
struction with excess. If you blame one,.blame
all-and don't save your correspondent for his first
loreign venture was a shipment of lour tons ol
the precious stuff in the old ship Eliza Warwick to
China in 1846, an invoice squeezed out of a clerkship
Falaiy in a Boston firm, (of sixty dollars,) aud l
those who now trade in it are not more successful
than 1 was, tliey will never make their fortunes, for
it almost made me bankrupt, besides getting a scvcic
rebuke from my cominander-in-chiet for indulging
at my oarly time of life in the opium trade. I think
it only justice to state that the shipment won d have
been more successful had not the drug entirely evap
orated before it reached Canton.
The Growing Crops.
ILLINOIS.
The Chiasgo Pros of the 6th iuet. tay6:?With resp'ct
to the qu&n'.i y tf ground under colli rati >u, we thenM
jiKg* tiiat it does not vary much from last v?;ar, t xoep!
In toe article of corn, considerably ,'ess of which hat bttn
p'anted tb's season, especially in the great eorn growirg
legion of the Northwest. A largo surplus of last year's
crop remains over in the hand* of the farmers, and at the
low prices which ruled at the time cl p'antieg, with no
proapect of a riee, there wai little inducement to p'ant
large.y. We have heard of farmers In the a mtheru por
tion of the State who hare not above tea acres planted
now where taty had a hundred last years.
MISSISSIPPI.
The Vickstnrg Timer, of the'JGih ult. gjys:?W* hoar
of cheering acocunts of the eotton and corn c-ops in this
section, l'he c.ld tpell not lorg eii.ce was calculated t>
efl'.ct them uofavjrably? but tne rains that have foil jw
ed it, with the warm sunny weather we are havirg.
make them look very fine and promising.
MARYLAND.
Our Maryland exchanges, wa regret to see, nevly all
speak of the appearance of the fly in tho wheat. The An
napolis /{(publican lays:?We regret to learn that the dy
has made its appearance, and is destriying the waeit
crop In some t arte of onr oouuty, par icularly on the
nor'h i ide of Severn.
The Hasten Gazdlt also eaya:?We bsar complain"from
Garmeta In all parts of the county of tha d?stru3'lja of
the growing wheat by fly. Melon that three week* ..lose
bid lair to aire a good yield, have been almost destroyed,
rnd wheat that is far advanced alone e'oap?s the havoc.
The Denton Journal has the following:?We hive heard
a number of complaints by farmers during tne past we k
that tbeir wheat tea teen materially irjurel by the lly.
generally, the wheat fields In the county present a very
flntterlr g appearance
The Hi k ton Drmocrat saye of the corn:?We hear mush
complaint that the corn bas not ecme up well, la seme
Instances It hu rotted In the ground, and our Urmers
have to do an unuioal amount of re-p'anting. The ssa
lon baa been very cold and unfavorable.
The Baltimore Sun. it the 211 Inst., says :?There Is
universal testimony from the country that the prospect
of the growugcropR la exceedingly nattering, aad tba',
with an ordinary season, a very largi harvest wld b) col
lected. The indications icspsc log frul; are not so
fhvr rahle. Some crops are likely to be an average, or
perhaps above It; these are the ha*dleat class's, such as
sppies, pears, end perhaps lighter fruits. B.i* peaches
the chofoe and fsvorl.e profuse of the autnn. are said to
have very generally suffered under the s*verity ot the
winter, and will probably be very scarce. Many graps
vines, we leirn, have also perished, and the same f.ite has
befallen an oeoas'onal biuh and tree of almost all the
varieties of the orchard and garden.
LOUISIANA.
The I?ahe Charles (Calcasieu County) Pmt, of the 24th
ult,, eajs From all parts cf theptri.h we have Inform*
tlcn that tfas pro*pec; for a eorn crop is desperately
gloomy. In the early part of the spring the first planting
was nearly all destroyed by tlic out worms; since thw
tesvy showers towards the last of Ap.il, the farmers hova
ir planted and replanted, which ltst plantings are now
uiuer the blasting dsatcuctioa of toe army worm, and If
not arrestod wl htn a few days, we shall nave tn seek our
supplies for the coming year in some other latitude.
TKXA8.
The Anstln .SVnfc Times of the 24?h May, says:-Dullest
an absence of thue week", In the c.uatlcs ol Cimtl,
Cuadalupe at d Hays, ore of the editors btdamp'e oppor
tunity ot learning the condition of the g -owing crops ?
Coin is promislig .n all thr.? of the coucties, wi.h ex
ceptions in particular localities where the gra?"hoppsr.s
were mhchitveu". Cot'un is small and n> oiiiuijuof i s
niobabls product can be formed at present, itjls genern'ly
laur thsn iitual. The gr*s hoppers have dons a good
deal ot Irjoi.v In all three oouutles, but it has not
been general?they seem to at'ack rartieu'ar farms. Col.
(.htntnaro, of Hsy?, has planl.d 11" c>rn th'eo times,
whl'e some af his" nelghb-rs hare not been troubled oy
th.m to any >erlcoe extent. Col. Wicks on the C.b >lu had
two hnndied acre* of cotton entirely deatrojel,?'he
remainder rf his crop beirg ntitouabe.1 ? they have des
troyed girdens pretty generally in all three counties.
Abundant rains have fallen snd cops of ev>ry kind ?-?
gioatig rapkuy.
MldtllniiNM Worelgii ?????
Iler British Majesty's ship Amuhitrito, 25, arriv
ed at Bpithead an tta May. She has been twireup
to the An tic regions, to relieve the Plover, andI W
the liirgeatshlp (1,964 tons) that ever reached the
latitude of 70 30 North. During a period or nve
years, 5 mouths aud 14 days, she haH been upwards
of three years and three-quarters at sea, and has
gone 140,000 miles, the greatest number that a man
of-war lias done for the hist twenty years.
Her Majesty's ship Harder is ordered to the south
east coast of South America.
Advices from Madrid, of May 20, say:?The demo
crats have brought forward a vote of censure on
the government on account of the events at Valen
cia. The motion was supported by M. Zigueras.
Gtn. Zabala defended himself with dignity and
energy, and produced a great sensation in the
Chamber.
At a grand banquet given by the Queen of Spain
in honor of the King's birthday, the French Am
bassador was plated at the right baud of her Ma
jesty. w itli the infant Dona Amalia next to him; and
the Ambassadress was placed at the right of the
King, with Don Francisco next to her.
The last dates from Constantinople are to the 12th
of May. General Codrington was expected to ar
rive the following day- The operations necessary
for the lrcsn demarcation of the frontier of Bessa
rabia will occupy three months.
The notes exchanged between the Cabinets of
Vienna and Paris on Italian affairs have had a sat
isfactory remit, and tnc two States have agreed on
the policy tube ndlowed in Italy. The memoran
dum which Austria end France are on the point of
?< r.ding collectively to Home is proof of this. It
contains teveial proposals relative to the rclorms to
be wrought in Rome, which are baed on the secu
larisation of the administration.
The I/mdon Shipping Guzette,oi'2M\\ ult., says:?
The answer given by Lord Clarendon to the Earl of
Elgin, as to ibe reply of the British government to
the application of the Costi Rh ana for arras, to
resist the filibustering expedition of Gen. Walker,
wi* be read with satisfaction, Inasmuch as it shows
that England aud the United States have been act
ing in concert with respect to the outrage committed
by American citizens on the State of Nicaragua.
In the English Commons, on May 23, I/)r<l Pal
merstou said it was not true that no toll was levied
by the Danish government on goods passing by the
new railway from Tonnlngen, in the North Sea, to
Flensbnrg, in trie Baltic. The fact was that there
was a toll equivalent to that levied upon goods pass
ing through the Bound. The toll was paid by the
railway company, and charged by them as part ol
their fare. Hence arose, no doubt, the idea that no
toll was levied.
A late letter from South America says:?Some at
tempts liuve been made to introduce reforms, but
the unconstitutional and domineering inlluence of
Oribc aud Flores render good government next to
impossible. Everybody gives the new President
(Percira) credit for the best intentions, and proba
blv he does his best, but bis power is limited. In
de'iiauce of the law, General Bias, Colonel Tagis and
some others have been sent out o! the country on
suspicion of intriguing to overthrow the govern
men. I.onis Lamas, a Henator, and one of the best
men in the country, finding himself obnoxious aud
possibly considering himself in danger from m'.li
taiy influences, has solicited his passport, and in
tends to leave the republic. Honor Lamas had
manfully exposed in the Senate some of the late
abominable anuses of military domination, by which
the public revenue has been anticipated. Dr. Eilauri
is no longer Minister for Foreign Affairs. His te
nure of ollice was short; ho has been succeeded by
Don Joaquin Requeue.
The London Globe, of May 19, says:?The Monroe
doctrine is receiving-some curious illustrations on
the field of Central America, practically from General
Walter, theoretically from the Walker sympathisers
in Congress.
The London Timet, of 23d ultimo, speaking of
the Italian question, says:?We have called the
Italian question " a great question." It is, perhaps,
the greatest of those which now agitate Europe.
When government atrocities can be inflicted by Ba
li n governments on Italian citizens, and those citi
zens lhe most temperate, the most educated, and
the most patriotic, is there not a grave case made
out for the interference of those States which regard
justice and equity as the sole reliable groundwork
of civil order/
The London Chronicle, speaking of the new mari
time code of Europe, says:?To remove trom the
statute book of the world penal enactments which
derive their sanction solely and exclusively from law
lets and remote times, to confer upon neutral com
merce that immunity which modern civilization h>?s
for a long period extended to enemies' property
captured on land?to remove a pernicious and ever
recurring source of discord?this is the holy, noble,
and Christian tusk which the representatives of the
great PowcrH of Europe so wisely and so successfully
accomplished at the Conferences of Paris.
In the Turin Chambers, on a late occasion. Count
Csvour thus expressed Himself with regard to the
foreign relations of Piedmont:?I will not pretend to
say that the work of the Faria Conference will last
perpetually, or that the Eastern question will not at
some future period raise new European diflicultics.
Our relations with Bpain have increased in impor
tance. The Spanish government professes opinions
eimilar to ours; it is founded on the same principles,
and is, to a certain extent, exposed to the same
perils: it has adversaries of the same caste as ours.
(Laughter.) Our amicable relations with Itus-ia
have been reestablished. Should our diplomatic re
lations not be renewed with Austria, I would recom
mend that we should send an envoy to Frankfort in
order to keep up our friendly intercourse with the
secondary States of Germany.
By the new acquisitions of Russia on the river
A moor, the frontier of the empire has been advanced
as far as to the Japanese Sea, aud made to include
a new territory nearly equal in extent to that of
France. Not far from the mouth of the Amoor, and
on its right bank, lie tlie posts or forts of Marunsk,
or Kisi, and Nicola jevslc, the latter of which appears
to be the more important of the two: for hero it
was that the squadron of Rear-Admiral Bavojka,
consisting of the Aurora frigate, the Olivuzzo cor
vette, the transports Dwlna, Baikal and Irtish came
to anchor in the June of 1855, under the protection
of the batteries that had been erected there. From
the Amoor the Russian establishments are already
advancing in a southerly direction along the eastern
coast of Mandshooria. A new colony already car
ries on a brisk trade with tho Amexicaus, who sup
ply it with all kinds of provisions, and especially of
ammunition, bears tho name or Alcxundrovsk; it is
situate on tlie little stream of Nelly, and consists of
a certain number of tenements with magazines, a
hospital, and a church in a churchyard. Quite close
to Salmon Bay there is a village of Giljaks, where
the inhabitants seem to live on very friendly terms
with the Russians.
The Manchester Guardian of May 17, speaking of
the battle of Rivas (Niea.), says:-If we are to be
lieve the official accounts, every man in the Ameri
can army was a hero, excelling in all the virtues
which adorned the ages of chivalry. The official
annalist is quite impeded in the narrative part of Ins
duty by the necessity of paying due honor to the
sublime qualities of tlie assailants. Night at length
separated the belligerents. The vic tory is claimed
for General Walker, but admitted farts scarcely
square with that assumption. The Costa Ricans are
said to have lost 600 in killed aloue, while (iencral
Walker's loss did not exceed eighty. Tnking into
account the sircnmstances in which the battle wis
fought, this is hardly credible.
The Paris correspondent of the London Times
says:?Nothing can exceed the satisfaction of Count
Buol at the conclusion of the treaty of the 15th of
April?the Traiti A trois?except it be the anger of
the Russiun Embassy at Vienna and the partlzans of
Russia, who arc not few in number. Count Buol is
trroud of his work; it is his glory and his boast, ns
it proves that those were in error who believed that
the conclusion of the Paris conferences left Austria
isolated from the West, and still more alienated
from the North. The Russians, as I have said, are
as furious at Vienna as at Paris.
The Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem, has been
purchased by a Madame Polaek, the widow of a
wealthy hanker of the Hebrew persuasion at Konigs
beig, in Prussia.
The cholera appears to he showing itself again in
St Petersburg. The daily mortality has risen from
two or three to as ninny as twenty-one. The number
oi deaths that have already taken place is 304.
Tlie Giornale di Roma, of the 9th of May, pub
lishes a decree making further reductions in the
customs tariff?in some cases to the amount of onc
half tlie old duties. On tlie other hand, there is an
increase of duty on various articles of luxury.
An account presented to the English Parliament
tliows tlint the sums received into the Commissariat
chest,between April, 1854,aud March, 1855,amount
ed to 5:11.218,C,05. and the payments to ?10,508,572,
leaving a balance of ?650,093.
An English government bill proposes to remedy
the inconvenience of the practice and procedure in
the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, by transferring
its power, ai.tliorily and jurisdiction to the Court ol
Session, which will now lie also the Court ol Ex
chequer.
The French provincial journals are much occupied
wi h the scenes of devastation which their localities
present in consequence ol tho continued riiC of the
rivets In the centre and south of I-ranee. Aj.pre
hensions arc f? It that, when the rivets have retired
within their natural limits, great damage will have
been caused to the young crops. On May 16, the
Snone had risen over the roads of the Bnrbc and
I Fontaines, and almost the whole of the Qual de
Serin snd the entrepots of wine and wood. All the
I Qnsis de la Bolelne, do St. Antolne, and des Coles
| (\n0 nswell ?s the streets running from them as far
i pa the Flftvu U? i'itntvUe, wuiRtctoiy uudec
water. The Rhone continued to rise.. In many part*
the waters were overflowing the quays on the right
bank, and along the Quaide Retz all circular wu whs
cut off. The Plate des Cordeliers and the Roes
Claudia and Stella were complete lakes. Beams or
wood and materials of all kinds were brought down
by the torients. The MouUtur dc In Cote d'Or
states that the waters of the Brenne ind the Anna
con flooded the plains of Laumcs, Athie, Viscrny
and Genay.
The Corriere Italiano of the 13tb of May states
that it is seriously in contemplation to undertake ex
tensive dredging operations on the Danube, and to
deepen the bed of that river. The works will com
mence cn the part between Pre-ihurg and Uonzo.
An English parliamentary paper on Loan Socie
ties shows that the amount actually advanced and
paid by depositors or shareholders m Engiuui and
Wales, last year, was ?220.387; the sums in borrow
ers' hands at the close of the year, ?329,471.
Au ukase of the late Emperor Nicholas of Rii-ais,
issued in PoO, requiring the Jews in the western
govei nments of the empire to doll the long-sairted
gaimcnts. and wear coats of Western brevity, is now
being carried out with all vigor and severity in
Wilna. Kowno, Grodno and Minsk. Another por
tion of the same ukase requires Jewesses to wear
their own hair, and discontinue the use of artificial
topknot*.
The communication between fit. Petersburg and
Crom-tadt by steamboat is not yet re-opened; row
boats ply already between Oruiiienhaum and the
fortress. The ice lia* commenced shifting on Like
Ladoga, end the effects of it comnuncej showing
themselves in St. Petersburg on the 10th of May.
The flatness of trade still continues in St. Peters
burg.
The London Times, of May 17, says:?Some of
tic Calcutta and Bomltay papers brought by the
last mall state distinctly that order* have been sent
out to India lor the annexation of Hyderabad, in
the Decern, as soon us tue Dude arrangement* are
complete. It is abo stated with much confidence
in the Bombay papers that the preliminary steps
lmvc already been taken towards Die absorption of
llaroda. We are authorised to state that no snob
measure has ever been ordered, or even contem
plated.
The abolition of the stamp duties on British news
papers, ni.d the substitution of a postage charge,
nave caused a decrease of alxmt one fourth in the
number of new spapers posted- There are still about
seventy-one millions of newspapers per annum post
ed, or 200,000 per day. Of these much the larger
proportion bear the impressed stamp.
The Vaqai Iraiuit, the official journal of the Per
sian government, contains a singular article, being
an appeal to the two great sects ot Islam, the fiun
nites (Turks) and Shiites (Persians), exhorting
them to reconciliation and union, so that there may
be but one great Mussulman people.
The committee of the English House of Lords on
the appellate jurisdiction recommends the creation
of peers for lite, for the purpose of forming a Court
of Appeal to sit during the legal year. Two of these
life peers, or two of the legal pee in, are to bo deputy
Sneakers of the House, with a salary of ?0,000 each.
The report is the unanimous recommendation of the
committee.
It is asserted that the French and Austrian g ivern
iuents have agreed to prolong the occupation of the
Papal dominions, but that the two great Catholic
powers have frankly stated to the Papal government
that thiDgs cannot be allowed to remain in their
present state.
The governments of Fiance and Austria have
addressed circulars to their agents at the Italian
courts, stating that these Powers will not suffer any
anarchical movements in Italy.
By a departure from its usual practice, which con
signs to unnoted obscurity foreign observations on
Romnnatt'uirp,a portion of Lord Palmerston's speech
on Italy has been reproduced hi the official journal
of Rome. This, it is said, has been done at the
express command of the Pope.
A communication from St. Petersburg states that
the Emperer had approved of the financial report of
the city authorities, which shows thit the receipts
for the year were 1.978,636 silver roubles, and the
expenses 1,938,730 ditto.
The first reports of Colonel Bourgeois, of the
Swiss federal army, on the situation of Tessino.
have reached Berne. They point out a great imi
Erovement in the state of the public mind, which
ad been nmch excited by the judgment of the su
perior tribunal relative to the political assassination
of Degiorgi.
Under the appellation of Le Lixiviateur, a com
pany has been started in Paris, under the auspices of
M. Lelebvrc Durufie, to ieuiedy what they cill one
of the most crying evils which the civilized portion
of the community labor under. The nymphs of
the tub in Paris are addicted to treat the linen of
their customers w*th a disrespect perfectly painful.
Shirt fronts, instead of being treated with iliat deli
cate solicitude which they are entitled to. ot?
speedily converted, by the rough handling of cis
tlamts. into thiDgs of "shreds and patches."' M. Le
febre Dnrnlle and his associates have taken pity
on the victims of this method of cleansing, and the
company they have founded will undertake the
washing?or. as they more elegantly phrase it, the
lixiviotion?of linen, Ac., on economic principles.
An audacious robbery was lately committed in
Fpain?a picture of the Assumption, generally ascrib
ed to Munllo, was taken from the high altar of the
chnrch of Mcndlguren, near Vittoria.
The Russian vessels which had been sunk at the
entrance of the harbor of Sebastopol are very much
injured by their submersion, owing to tbeir'having
been built of fir instead of oak.
Delegates from all the railway companies in Ger
many will assemble in conference at Frankfort on
the "ilBt of July next.
A secret society, called the Community of St.
John, and formed lor religious purposes, has just
been discovered at Vienna, und eighty persons hive
teen anestcd.
In Rome orders have been given to resume recruit
ing for the two foreign regiments in the service of
the Holy See, and to increase the effective of the na
tive troops. The two foreign regiments at, present
consist ol' from 4,500 ta n,000 men. One of the bat
talions is in garrison at Rome.
The arrest of M. Yon (writes the Paris corres
pondent of Lt Nord,) former commisscry of police
to the legislative Assembly, and devoted 'to General
Changarnier, is spoken of. At the time of the
General's arrest some very curious reports of M. Yon
were found. Since the '2d December, 1851, the ex
commissary has not been employed,
On May 21, a party of Mormons, comprising
several families, in all 162 men, women and children,
left London by the railway for Liverpool, there to
embark, with other parties from different parts of
the country, for Boston, whence they will proceed to
the promised land.
The Piedmontese Chamber of Deputies has com
menced the discussion of the budget of the Minister
of the Inteiior, amounting to 77,489,382fr., reduced
by the committee to 75,833,52Gfr.
The Grand Duke of Tuscany has positively re
fused to conclude the Concordat so anxionsly in
sisted upon by the Hoiy tec.
The spring fleet from the north of Scotland for
Canada has taken out above 1,000 passengers to
Canada this season. Most of them are agricultural
laborers and small farmers.
The preamble to the budget presented to the Gen
eral Diet of Denmark 6tates that the last war in the
Duchies cost the treasury more than 60,000,000 rix
dollars, and that the pub.ic expenses now amount to
22,760,000 rix dollars, being more by 5,500,000 than
they were ten years ago.
The Madrid Gauttt contains royal decrees re?
lieving Marshal O'Donnell from the presidency of
the Council, which he held ad interim, owing to tho
visit of the Duke de la Victoria t> Haiagossa. The
duke immediately after his arrival, ha 1 an audience
of the Queen, to give an occoaut of his journey.
COKMEKCEMEKT OF TIIR VIRGINIA MILITARY In
M,Ti is- A Cheat Day in Vkwpkt?We itited Ia? week
Lki the txetcises attendant upon tin coin! eg c>mm?ocs
Oi? i f tLaVlrgit.lv unitary lnitit'i'e w uiU re invest.
Pi wi'h g'?atadoi local Interest troa ike preaeso* of
Cfvuncr Wise, aLd tho e'ecticn of tbe brorrs statute of
Wsakicgtcn. It ban alfjidid as very bigh g. &'.i'lta'.lon to
learn that another etnloen . attrac'iin will bs rupe.-added
to thora before alluded to. Hit. Lawrenc* M tf
8 u'.b Caro'.Ua. has hoosanted to addraes tbe literary
f octet let < f tbr Institute, ard will do sonprn ht rasa*
dat?ike 3d of .Taly?on whiih Hot. Wnt de'irers hi*
addma. Our dtiz-na rsy wsll oongratslate tbe nsslyse
r.a Ihe prtapsct of ro rlcb an intellestoal <"?**?? Tbli
hrosd t'aion eaauot f.itnlah two more fascica leg orators
than Wife and Keltt. Ilia bltwreit oppon'nte will at
let at acknowledge that tbe II. at can talk, and ts'k to
scire pttiprsa, too. Tbe latter la a young man. but one
vb-.aa re, uialt n Is already firirly e?t?bii?h?(l ;cr guan
ine elcqueneeof tbe b'gbeat class. IVs chinned tbe oth
er day to pick np MIfs Murray's book oa the Unl ed
Htstea. sri! fenr.d mat Mr. Keltt's name Is prominently
t. Fn'lot ea by btr a* that cf the moat ekquaat speaker
whc.ro ' he heard on tie floor of Congre'e. Nor la this
a'l. He la a man of the right stamp of Bontnern teellng,
pi itclple and purpose. B?;da frarlen and able, he bis
ir.nde be abclltLn bartlea who now infeat the flo.se ef
Ffpr'FenlatWes quail be'ore bis cnergstlo sttd *-itbfrg
denunciations. To hear autha ran at this psrtlsn'ar
j. neluie of our poll ical tflairs, Is a p;lvli?g-i wb'ci ee.n
cot well be fro much tragi ifi?d, ard we aitiripate To' bis
aut'lei c? aurb a ctnccutae a* the public data of l.sxing
ict have ctvor known.?Ltxityt ?n , (Va.,) I'ail j S nr.
Novel Feature.?We have staled tint tho Na
ttc i.sl t'uitd. t'ap'aia I.yls, all eaoanap fur a week at
tVabai k. 1st aster county, fr im 'be .10 h rf .lane until'
the fltb tf .luly, A a-.vtl feature tithe ilTalr w:il ha tbe
publics'.Un of h dai'y p?i?. by the iijard, 'tin i fire of
Whim sie typ-s. TUslypta pro a. Itt.. wll f rat t pirt
of their camp (qslpafe, and the J icrnsl wld d.ubtlais
fr, ve a neat and lnfere?tl:g affair.- I'Wafelphto fluflf
pn, Ji'Tn 9.

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