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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, July 03, 1859, Image 2

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tbe Ottoman dominions wruil reaioi W> mcmraij tun'
from /iutjva
With regard to France. Count WaWwhkl assured m?
that too imperial gov. rouicnl ? u ost anxi-j.u that uo
caute of i mbrage should b- given to h?r ifajeslv'a go
vernmeut on uuy question ftgvrritug Turkey. U. de
TUouvenel had receivod orleis, to return to Lit port
Sooner tbau be bad iuietided, with tbe sole lew of
giviDg greater weight to (be Kmperor's intentions in
tbia rovpect. Uo would ruoutve the moot pxttira
insti nct ions u> act m complete eoboert with Sir (taory
Bulwer; to consult him on every (piusUon wh.ch might
arite; and on no a-icount to soptrato himself f'Oin liar
llujoaty'a ambaaador. Uo was to discourage md, na far
ai be could, control all attempt* to set the Saitau'a attbority
at naught; and special instructions of a similar
nature wouM be furnished to all French agents in tbe |
Baal. M do Tbouvonol, moreover, wouid take Ath-<as in
Itle way to Coustuuliuopte, with the exclutiro object of
impressing upon tbe Greek government the necessity of
abstaining from all Intrigues to excite rebellioo among the
Greek subjects of tbe Porte
Iammi doubt, fr<en Count lisLeuuki'stone and language,
Got it it thr risuere with of the imperial t/ivernnsent in prevent
any quttCum arising wAvA eoult in any way occasion
differences with hor Stnj-ety'4 govrnm'nt.
I took this opportunity of calling fount Walewtkl's attention
to the language reported to be held b* certain of
tbe French representative* abroad. TKey already began* In
talk, I said, qf Use treaties of 1815 being at an end. Sueh
proceedings, I observed, were not calculated to inspire
ooofldeoco in the Emperor'a^ intentions, Mia must, uecoe- i
Mrily cause groat al.irm in Europe.
(W W<d<v*i r*pr*Kd ?urprtte at wkcU I told km, at
ht had lattiy tent eirotmr indrucUoru ittCtUCiUing the greatest
svbertuss of language.
Fokrhin Ones, May 6,1850.
My Lorh?I have already transmitted to your Excellency
a copy of Count Walawokt'e dosputoh ofthe 26th
ult , which was communicated to me by the Due de MalaItoff
on the following day.
In this ceepatch, Count Wa'owskl claims for France the
samo credit tnat be allow* to Kcglsnd for the ondeavors io
which both bare concurred for the maintenance of pause;
and be counts, therefore, ou a ooutlnuance of a gool un
demanding with tb s country, whatever may happen.
Bis Excellency then refers to the motive* which must Inrfuoe
France to a?aiat Sar-'lnla; to the constant cndeurire
of Austria to acquire for herself a preponderating Influ
ence in Italy, to which aho has no claim; to the meritorious
conduct of Sardinia In resisting these ondserors; and
to the mischief which would ensue if Sardinia were
overcome. He alludes to the o'alms which Sardinia has
on the sympathy of EogUud and Franco, in consequence
of the political system which she upholds, anl ou the
good will of those Doners for her xc.Uoui oooparatioa
in the late war against Russia; and on all tbise grounds
he nppcals to bor Mijosty's government whether Eng
land and France should not eoek to came to an understand
ug between tii- oisetrud, and be declares that the
governmirt of the Emperor, disclaiming all ambitious
views, and baring nothing to conceal. Is preparod to ooacert
wuh ibo tUil.ah Rover nmert 'or the attainment of an
object which Be assume* to bo common to both governments.
I have to Instinct your Excellency to stats te Count Walewtkl
that her Majesty's government have received the
communication or this despatch in the time spirit of
friendship as that by which they are convinced It was
. You may atture hU Excellency a' the great value which
ber Majesty'sgoveitmecl p)s:s on the aiilmo which has
so long subsisted bolwceu tbU country and France, and
wbtch u s their cerneit desire may long continue to previi1
It has cxif-tcd throughiut the culm of peace and the
Vieiit.U cracf var.to the mutual b-cofitof both countries,
ano her Aiijifity'a goverumem, bellovlog that the evenli
now papvlng in Italy, and the Interruption or peace, will
act injirl .sly upon the material Interests of their ally, as
we-l as ujor. lb* common cause of civilization, have, ou
ibafo grcucds, labored earnestly to induce all psrties to
nisi . :h u 4V
Her Majesty's xovioment believe that it ru never Intended
toy Europe, when recngnlzlcg the Lorn bar do Vane
ti?c kingdom ai a portion of tie dominions of the Horse
Of Austria, tut ijetria should, as a sonsoq lenrs of that
rceogntt on. be at liberty to ixtml her m >rai and material
sway over a'l other portions of the paniosula. It
never vat intended that Austria should constantly and
systematically Interfere beyond her frontier: mat sbj
should at wfll influence the internal administration, and
occupy 1.)- ber armies the territories of other Italian
States, whose indcpoudonce was recrgnizrd by the same
tresties. It never arai Intended that the progress of fro*
dom and of social icnprorramuia the Ita'.iui states should
be left to the control ot Auati lit
But if her Majesty's government do not alint their eyee
to the defrcttot the syateia upon which Austria has acted
in IUI7, and which could hardly fail, sooner or later, to
entail upon Austria a fearful unpopularity, and upon Italy
the concomitant mieorns ofa social or of a foreign war,
neither can they bold Sardinia blamolees for the coarse
she has pursued in those latter times, and which has now
produced its certain sad lamentable results.
Her Majesty's government hare hitherto always looked
with rattefactlon on the yr ogress which Sardinia was
makitp, us affording a bright example, to b? imitated
lier'alterby oth*r Tta'Uo Slates, of the benedti which
rtfult to the Sovereign and to the subjects from the tlop
tlon of '.v wise and l.b nil sjstem of aamintstration.
If Sardinia could have conientsd herself with the Is.
Srovement of her own material prosperity, by developing
ic tatutal advantages of her position, snu with the liberal
system of administration whtsh she so wisely adopted,
and which "be has so consistently maintained, she would
have been a Ucdmark to the rest of Italy, act respected
by the whole world, and would by her moral fore? hive
been unassailable Tudcr ll'Oae cUcutastsncss, and with
surh a policy, he; Majesty'u govfrnmeat hsv? no reason
to believe that she wou-J have been molested by her
powerful ne'ghbor.
It was tn an evil hoar for herself, an 1 for Europe, that
Sardinia lent bertelf to dreams of ambition and sssrsn
dizement, and lorgetfa! of the little sympathy rnowu In
1848 by the Milanese for her cause, a ad their icgratituao
for her gallant actions, abu liss provoked the war in which
She Is now engaged.
By violating ber treaties of extradition with Austria, by
fostering deserters fram her army, by rallying in P.ed
moot the dire (Tec ted spirits of Italy, by menacing speeches
against the Austrian government, and by ostentatious doclaratloos
that she was ready to do battle us the champion
01 Italy against the power and lnlluenee of Austria, Sardinia
Invoked the storm, and is deeply responsible to the
nations or Kuropo. Ber Majeety's government saw this
dangerous policy with apprehensions which have now
been realized, sod they cannot forbear from remarking
that the first and immediate effect of the war which It has
caused has been the suspension of constitutional government
in Sardinia Itself.
It was with these forebodings that on the 10th of January
last ber Majesty's government directed your Excellency
to explain c.early and frankly to the imperial government
the anxiety which they felt at the unsatisfactory state of
the relations between France and Austria, and to p>int out
the mischief which must ensue If a better understanding
could not be estabHihed between them. They offered the cooperation
of tbts country, as far as It could bo afforded with
advantage, for bringing abont an Improvement in the social
condition of Italy. To the sincere regret of ber Majesty's
government- a regret that has been increased by subsequent
events?Count Walcwaki informed your Excellency,
on the 14th of Junuary last, that he did not think the moment
a favorable one Tor executing their purpose.
Her Majeety's government, on the 12th of January,
directed her Majesty's Minister at Vienna to make a si ml
appealed to the Courts of St Petersburg and Berlin to Sid
them in their endeavors to promote a good understanding
between France and Austria, to which Prussia at once acceded;
r.uesia replying that she could not give any advice
that was rot solicited l>y the part es st variance.
Her Majesty's government then spared no pains, by the
moat -mprcesivc language, to convince the Sardinian government
of the danger w hich It incurred by aronting the
ezpectaticns and )<a!laming the passions of the Italian
people, and thereby provoking a war of opinion; the consequences
of which could hardly fall to act injuriously on
the politics 1 Icterests and constitutional principles of the
House of Savoy.
t Her Majesty'? government rould give no better proof of
their etrneetoesc la the maintenance of peace, and of their
confidence in the Emperor of the French, than by directing
your Excellency, towards the end of February (having
first obtained the concurrence of bis Imperial Majesty,
and a full knowledge of his wishes and objects), to proceed
to Vienna to endeavor to aacortain whether a common
understanding on the aflalrs of Italy might not he
established between the two Courts.
The position wee peculiar, and hardly admitted tn official
lnterlertnce, or an official offer of mediation, for there
was no substantive controverty between the governments
of Auetria and France, and no positive caso upon which to
mediate between them. For some time the relations between
those two States hail been daby becoming less
friendly, and all that appeared feasible to her Majesty's
government at the moment was to sound tOe lurking
causes of a jealousy which threatened Europe with disaster.
It was, therefore, in a purely officious oharacter that
your Excellency undertook your friendly m.mlon to Vienna;
and the expectations of ber Majesty's government
were not raiemed, for yoar Excellency certi'.nud erectly
by whet mutual course of action II would ba pruwlblo
at the lame lime to remove the sources of ill will, to establish
good relations between the two empires, and to
improve the condition or Italy.
II no immediate re&ult ensued from yoar Excellency'!
mlesion, it wm in con?equenoe of the intervening proposal
o( Russia that a Congress or the great Power s should
be convened for the dltcustlon of the Italian question?a
proposal which Russia has since stat>l to have been male
with a view to meet tbe wishes of France.
Notwithstanding this, the government or tbe K-npsror
or the French will do your Excellency and her Majesty's
government the justice to admit that yonr interposition
was not unavailing, and that, In point of fact, It prepared
tbe ground for those bases which her Majesty's government,
on reoeiviEg your reports, laid dowu or the deliosrailoos
of the Congress, inese were recognized and admitted
by the French government, no less than by the
other Powers, as well calculated to lead to a permanent
settlement of the Italian question.
. Deeply as her Majesty's government deplore that circumstances
which, notwithstanding all their endeavors,
they could noi control, should have prevented tbe oegotrationa,
begun with so much promise, from being coo
tinned, they still have tbe satisfaction of feeling that for a
time at least they have tended to nvert hostilltlw; and
they (eel sure that the government of Franoe, no less
Urns that of Austria, will admit that in will these matters
they have acted tbe psrt or impartial friends and allies,
end that nil their counsels and representations have invariably
tended to inculcate in all quartsrs moderation
and peace.
I will not recapitulate in all their details the various
nflbrts that bar Majesty's government subsequently mads
for >hls objeet, either singly or jointly with other Powers.
Bar Majesty's government found that one of the most
difficult questions upon which they could obtain uauim.ly
was that of disarmament. At first, for the mice of ob
talcing a Congress, they would have agree 1 to postpone
Its accomplishment until the Congress hod met, but the
common dictates of reason indicated that the only rexl
ecu) ity for obtaining a peaceful result from its dellbera
gkms lay In the Caot of its bding an Assembly of unarmed
States. *
It was evident that prejudices and arguments supported
My s miPioo of soldiers were not llkoiy to be" defended
with el'hT moderation or logic.
Furthermore, an armed Congress would have seemed to
acknowledge a caw of war as between the principals who
^ composed ?; whereas, la th?optah? of her Majesty's
govcromert, o? cose of war eitated between any of them |
It ?u wi'htboae vldwi tkit bar Majesty** g iv ?rnmia
pruned ail tha Powers, and itu?Uy omined thjir uaaat |
toouh cons ot to it general, il.mMnaao.ia uJ prelim'a try |
I now pass to tbe formal propoenl made by h^r Majesty's [
government on the ISto olt , wat ih dsoinrod to at ra -aaure <
and tbe eventual mlailaaMu of the ttliaa hates at euhsttn- !
live members of the Oeuirena, and 1 aot deairnm or glvta*
full credit to the government of France for soieding to taat |
proponl It wdl b.iove? a matter or regret aadd imp joint- |
roent to ber Miyeeey'a gorerumeot that (lis Cttiaet of '
i Viooua, after agreeing with all the other l'owort on a gear
ral, jireliuuaarv and siniaitaoonie disarm traeat, tout
have been fo ill advtaed aa to reject thia last opportunity of
' mverting u war oa the taaufflnieot ground of It* unw.lbag i
iiosa U> aim t the participation in tho Congress of the re 1
preerntiilvo* of the Italian State*, ulthou/h it is a matter
of history that *tuit representative* were* ou tbe r mio'io
instance of Austria aod other great Towers, iariloJ to take
part in tho Oongreaa of Laybaoh.
Her MfJaatjr'a government here aUU more deeply Itmentnd
the precipitate oonduot of Austria in ctUiog upon
Sardinia to disarm on pain of Immediate invasion of ber (
territory la oaae of bar rofuaal to obey. They Ion not a
moment In eiproanng their atroog disapprobation #f this 1
prooaeding; and bar Hejosty'? Minister at Vienna hat aime 1
delivered to tho Austrian Cabinet a formal proleet On the
part of tpe British government.
Her U jetty'a govorment h;vd full reason to hope that
the peace of Italy might bo secured by follow ng up la
wdm form or other tho erotistion* whfbh your ExoelItney
bad placed on apparently so sound a footing daring
your stay at Vienna. Whether those negotlattoneohould be
carded out by thomoolvM alone, or in a Congress with
uiuvr ruwpiB, wo/ ?u?wu ui?t wo rvvuo usgu* k?? "?
cod to aatate of things in Ualy of which tU>y had long
disproved, and which iboy agree with the government of
France la considering to be Inconsistent with the spirit of
European treaties.
Animated by true friendship and frankness, her
Majesty's government cannot refrain from expressing
tbeir opinion, that If the government of France, wbioa
possesses so great an influence over Sardin's, bad warned
her as to the danger of her policy, at the tiine that her
Majesty's governmeat protested agtiust it, tboee oomplioations
might have been avoided which, in virtue of tbeir
proovaes, have obliged the Frenoh government to seek
their solntlon in the entranoe of a French army Into
Her Majesty** government de not presume to constitute
tbemselvee Judges of the coarse wbieh Fiance considers ,
herself hound is honor to pursue In this List and fatal
period of the oouiroversy; but it will ever be a scarce of
regret to ber Majesty's government that their advice tendered
to her in my despatch of the 10th of January was
not followed. It Is evident to her Majesty's government
.that from tbal moment Sardinia believed that the dtifi lattice
of Italy would not be solved by a concert of the two
gieat empires which In 1067 had considered the problem,
but that toe might hope for the material assistance of
France, net only to obtain the liberties of Italy, but even
the fuiillmeot of her long cherished hops?the expulsion
of Ausui* from Lombardy.
Viewing impartially the oaoduet of both Austria and
Sardinia in regard to Italy, and lamenting most deeply
tie spirit by which both have bocu actuated, her M ?j sty's
I government can, nevortheless, have no doubt ns to the
[ course which It beflta thorn to pursue in the present emergency.
Ike Bntuh government have abeays recognised at a sacred
rule of trtf'-Ttufaonal Migation, that no cmntry has a right
\ authorUatvcly t? interfere in the internal affairs of a foreign
State, or, iviih a found pAicy. Img witJhhild its
I acknov.l'.<igc*>cnt qf any new form if gioemmmt which
may be adopted and established, with iu! territorial umrpalijnor
alt" rptiem, by t\e tpo rUanevmt wish qf its people
The British government btve she vn, tor a lung scries
of J cars, bow steadily they have observed theee principles,
and they certainly cannot depart from them on the
present occasion, however earnest may be their desire to
secure the freedom of the Italian people, and to milutula
the treaties which confirmed the independence of their
respective States.
The gemerr,meat of the Emperor of the French appears to
ar-tveipete that, *im"MuiatuHng the abhorrence with which
her Jlajniy't government cent midair the coming wtr,ani
[he value which they attach to the principle of non interference,
they will yt be brought to oo-operate with France on
the jneitnt occasion.
The imperial government has had too many proofs of
late years of the anxiety of the British government to
altogether with then in all measures calculated to lead i
to the genera! advantage of nations, to suppose that it is
otherwise than With sincere regret that herMt jetfy's go- i
v-rnsntnt feel themselves precluded, by every consideration, i
from aseoziattvp th-melvrt with France in the present Strug <
gle They believe that that strugg'e will be productive i
or misery erd ruin to Italy, and, to far from ac tolerating i
the dovciopemect of freedom la that country, will lm- a
rvARA nnon it A hf?*vtoar kuriinn ftf n*PMnt vn<n ami fntuvn I -
wxa'loo. Tc?7 feel that the war, ou whatever principles j ?]
It may be commenced, ud whatever oli.leoU 11 miy con. 1
tecr.U'e, wilt infallibly necotar a vrsr of extreme po'lti- 1 1
*-*' ?nfl opinion*. They cianat tut drevt that I I
In.- . 'f In Italy mvy rcict on other -lav.ons, and i
"i i . "nrly day all IJprope will be ln^jlraa in tuo
Yo?r Excellency, who has taken so active a put i
in the tlTo.'ts of dor Majesty ?s government to avert
tb?- teenlls, will, more easily than any one, no
dcTutaed the bitter diesppeintmrnt of her Majesty'a
government that all these efforts htvo proved unavailing.
Noverthelev* your Excellency will uso-iro
the French government that her Majmty'a minister!
will not be deterred by dinicultlea, past or future, from
enterumlirg hereafter any overturn which may be male
to them by either of the contending parties. Indicating a
disposition to avail themselves of the good otHoes of England.
Nay. more; dor Majesty "a government will watch
with the utmoet attention the various phases of the war;
and if an opportunity ahould present itself for pleading lbs
muse of peace and reconciliation, they will not wait to be
nvrttd, bat will at once tender themselves as mediators,
n the rmere hope that their offer may he accepted
'cart to penoa.
Tle? will do eo with the fixed determination to carry
out such a mediation in aeplrit of Uirness and impartially,
a?tl wiih an earnest deelrn in MUblifta and aeoara a
well balanced and real Independence of the Italian States,
cd a general Improvement of the administration through;
lit ih? pstingula of Italy.
Tie Emperor of the French ,miy ho assured Hiat if this
rppcrtiinlly shsuld present itself, her Majesty's govern
Kent will zealously co operate wltli his Imperial Mijesty, :
ml will rcioice most sincerely at again Hading thornelves
ploced on tba same lice with a mo3t valued ally,
by acting cordially with Franco In every work of peace
and civilization.
Tnese are the things for which the people of England
love to labor; and, attached as they aro to constitutional
principles, they believe that It military glory may be the
appanage, it must not be the object of constitutional monarchy.
A war without an Imperative and evident necessity
is repugnant to their foeliogs.and no British Minister
would escape their condemnation who advised his
Sovereign to seek or to share such a conflict.
Ike almost unanimous feeling of the Biitish notion at tkit
moment is one of disapprobation of the present war, and an
anxious desire in avoid cry concurrence in Us progress, and
an earnest hnpe that it will be confined wi'.htn the peninsula.
Her M?je?iy:s government have, therefore, received
wdh siuoero satisfaction the expression o the sentiments
of the French government upon this Utter subject, as
stated in its despatch to the Due de MaVoif, of ine 27th
ultimo. /
In !be:-e sentiments her Majesty's government cordially
agree. Maintaining without reserve the most frank relatlors
with the French government, they will be ever
ready "to combine with it, as circumstances arise, to
preserve the Continent or Europe from the effects of the
conflict which may rsge at one of Ita extremities."
Your Excellency will road this despatch to Count
W&lewski, and furnhh him with a copy 01 it
louaas Orrics, May 20.1859.
Str:?The excitement which the expectation or hoo'.lll.
ties breaalntr out hflitnwm AiiatrU and Fmnro ? > rimm
In Germany bin been Incr eased to luch an extent by the a
actus) commencement of war between those two Power* t
that there 1b every reason to apprehend lomo overt maul- j
testation on the part of the Germanic Confederation of its t
determination to mako common cause with Austria for the s
defence of ber Italian possessions. t
The governments of Germany have had no occasion to 1
InCamo the pensions of the people by appealing to their f
sympathies in favor of a kindred Power engaged ia a r
deadly struggle with France for the maintenance of the r.
territories secured to it by troaty, but have, on tho con- j
trary, merely gone with the current of popular feeling, t
which imperatively call* tor decided action on the part of k
the Confederation. o
Independently or tho sympathy with which the fortunes t
of the Imperial house ore regarded, a deep conviction I* ! r
entertained by almost all classes of the German community I
that tho safely of the common country is closoly connectod | o
With the ability of Austria to maiaktin hersoir against tho o
hostilities of France. It ia felt that success <n Italy, fob I 1
lowed as Jit would be by the breaking up of those great 1 tl
fortresses which form a bulwark to all Germany on the I tl
Tyro lose frontier, and of the territorial arrangements of 1 ti
1815 applicable to that country, will be but an Induce- I 1
racLt to France to make a further attempt to subvert ?
these arrangements on the Rhine: and that the probability i
of sucoess in the latter course will be greatly in favor of r
Franco tf she docs not enior upon it until she has para- I
Ij rod the povrer of Austria in her mora vuinsrabie poj- , i
sessions. i
For this reason Germany considers that ber fnturo des- ] j
tiny is In a great measuru in vol rod la the remit of tho I
Italian s ir; and that it would be a suicidal policy on her , b
part to stand aloof, and allow Austria to be subdued I I:
single-handed, and thereby incapacitated In the cyntlu- I c
gency which ail Germtuy looks upon as certain to arise 1
from contributing to the defence of the common country. y
The Cabinet of Berlin has a.oce, of all toe German gov- p
erntnecte, resisted a* far as posaible the popular feeling. 1
It bos been wisely snxious not to precipitate matters, si- v
thongb It bu nol shown itself Pact ward in mating such , 1<
preparations a? will stable It, when the time arrives, to j
pity tba part In the defi ne* of German interests which the S
great resources or I'rnss a and the posltlou ca?'. she bolus s<
in the OonfedsratWn qualify her to perform. Rut the pub b
lie feeling io Gormaoy generally, and even is the Pros- c
Stan territories, which Is daily acquiring mor: forca, w.ll a
scarcely permit Frusi' t m rch longer to mantain her ex
pectant policy, ard thsrs is every ress in to anticipate thai a
net many Cars will Xapta before some decided indication a
is given ny tho Confederation of Its determination to look p
upon the cause of Austria as vitally bound up with t'us c
general lntcreals of the wnole German race I:
Her y?j-sty> govarnmcnt have done their utmost, 1
within the oo-inds of friendly rspreseDit'.los, tu ca'm the tl
excitement prevailing in Germany, but tiisy have not felt a
themselves callel upon or MUtsrasd to d: iwade the Gir tl
man States rroa taking such measures as thee St ties cou- U
sldersd to be ne s?ary for the maintenance of their neve- t>
rnl lntorcsto; for they could not assume the responsibility I
of even morally guaranteeing them agalaul the eventualities
of the Italian war. tl
Htr Majesty's government have distinctly declared that c
Germany must not bo tafluenoel In arriving at a decistoa tl
on the momentous question now under the consideration b
of the Diet by any bops of succor from Ibis country.
Her Majesty's govornmeot, In acsordance witu the com fi
mania of the Qooen, and with tho universal concurrence o
of the British nation, as displayed at the late election}, I
desire to maintain tho strictest neutrality la tho pretrnt e
war between Austria and Franco. They are del -rmlnad v
to keep ihtmte'.vea unfettered by any engagements, cx c
pressed or implied, which wosld reatrlcl their free loin of n
action In any circumstances that may arise. Taey w ll p
Jnige for themaelvcs, and tbsy will nit embarrass tusir v
poacy by any previous declarations or by any previous d
expression of opinion. ; b
Tftte 1?DK')?E" wtloh her Majesty's govarsmnat have
held t? Outrun y with tefer>?>oe to the prevailing exotte
ruetu Id Ihatcointrv, they hnlit alaoto the Powers sow engage'
In a'tlv 'oiti! Iks; a?d yon will give tu ;-?nt'Oi\n
government oil <rly to uu lerataud tost us regal di the
lindens uo-v ?t ie?uo her Majesty's guve'nnieul will sbsum
(torn ill tutorfereooo, direct or indire it. wb*'?v>r.
(From tb? London ftmae, Juno IS I
General Hiunt Pculca, who Buccoeae Gouut Gyulal In
thecotuuiaou of l>10 Austrian ariny. Is so olllcer whose
tamo was fsunliat to Europe ton ye?rs sipce, wben lbs
Hungarian war *ss raging Be played a part of no la
considerable importance la that coo lost, and la now no*,
mere tbeu 60 years old If we arc to understand that be
micro. ds to the ac'tve oomnsnnd Instead of Marshal Bess,
who bad been previously named for it, the Austrian government
may suspected of having imbibed some radios)
douoqv oo the subject of the age of military com
menders. the young Mtnperer may possibly havo made
the age of Marshal Hen, who Is sow 72, an objeotloo to
bit employ meat to the active duttee of the campaign, and
may think h'u grout experience bettor utilized in planning
than in ei-cuttng the tutors operations of this war.
That there will be much to plan aad<muoh to execute Is,
wo apprehend, tolerably certain. Time may bo required
to repair the morale of the Austrian soldier, and t> restore
that oonfidenoe which the affairs of Mootebello, I'a
lestro. Magenta and Malannno must have somewhat she
ken; but (Aat Austria wtU retire from LooxbarJy without
semt more decisive defeat (Aon (As Aai yd 'udainsd cannot
he ip<ct> d or hoped far. Milan may he hung with Hags
and lit with lamps; the Sc.tlu may exhibit lie capacious
area thronged with emancipated Italians, joyous tn their
enthusiasm; the Emperor and the King may receive the
feliciutioos of (he Lombards la their cap tal Without s
thought of dat gor from that vast Auttrlan army which a
few days ago occupied cvary military post In the oouatry,
and the leoollectiou of which must ho U'avy
on the memory of nil those boulitig citizens;
but tbe permanent possession of Milan to far from
being yet tecurid Continuously as tbe Austrlaos retire,
and atradhy as they are followed up by tbe allies, no one
venture* to prophesy that tola retrograde move meat bis
no limit We are all curious to know wbtro that ptvsili ia
in which Francis Jose pa has designated as am next battle
ground, and to which Uo has nun recalled bis troops. It
certainly is not on tbe Sesis or the MeUe, for the country
watered by these tributaries la already ubmdoiwd, aud
Brescia, wbicb was la former times coatfsted, is already
tn tbe bands or Uarloaidl, wbc s?cms to act rull as the pioueer
of the allied army in tbeir adrasce. Tne Austrian
is now getting near to his fortresses. Be has probabir
crossed tbe Obiose, for, if he had intended to defend turn
river, he would scarcely bave alto wed Garibaldi to occupy
Brtscia. His nest ba'tlrg place must be upou tbe bona*
of tbe Mlnoio, where, if be Bbould turu and await bis pureuars,
be will rest with bis fight artng up,a Pcsoctera.aod
bis left upon Mantua. Our orrtrpvr.denti re- na to hbtdtht opinion
thru tKsit the mmtiim chosen by the .tuWutn O'-w uU
ft* thrir dtcieive (rial rf strength. It wooM, undoubtedly,
appeal' to be well oboeen, for a battle lest by the frema
upon this gr nrpd woutd be dlsastroo*, whereas tbe vua ,
trlans might reasonably hope to draw ell, II btrdly prej??ed,
under the oorer of tbeir fortresses. In ITU Im pto
eeseicn of Ifanlua a loop enabled tbe Austriaus to arrest
Napoleon tor six months before Its wal e, and gave lUtin
time to ra.ee four large n< titles, and bring them lato tbe
field for its deliverance. Iu 1848 Charles AlbortoHi
not attempt to advance beyoud this le rto'e triangle, even
after Badstzky bad passed through Disregarding the rash
countola wblcb urged blm to 5>ursue bis rel'riug eucmy
through this military trap, be set haaeelf to work
letaurely to reduce the forir;i?-s one by one
While bo wae brairgiug Porch era Rudelzly was awa'.tlug
tbe re.lt forcem en i? of Count Nopent and the army of ro
serve, and, about tbo time that Peschlera could b > d out
no lorger, Radetzky ww ready to as-mcne tho off-mslfe
No game ran be fought out with precisely the same moves,
but no doubt lorn to be enl rtaxned- that Uie A wtfiant hvie
not for a moment abandoned, th: hope of ul im ne success in
this tear. "/leculer jtoumiwx tauter" la mil tbeir principle
of tactics. In that land of etlquet'e and that council
of many procodents the authority of former campaigns
will go for mu.U in tbe formatiou of new pltus,
and the nuchlnery which has eenired a prrvioua
success Is very likely to be put Into motion again with tbe
hope of the abate happy retail we utpoct from
Marshal atte aud General Sckllck a ropet lion of
the plan of campilgn devised and executed by Heee
ktiii kfidpi7l-f a ltarr-rt v> fl*u Bin Mllltorw (PuHiilno
Is everything la Austria, rtu<iol7lcy B "rve I uuter M?l*s
tod Suwuriotv, co't II.ss sirred under Kadelzkv. It is
tlmost Impossible that then.' wen c*d ftil to resur t> thos >U1
Fabian tactics which s'> remarkably s ice-coded lu res lor
at credit to the Austrian arms in 11149. When Ksle'sky I
etr rated before tbe army of Chirks Albert, aad Utrou.cn
i country id full irsurroct'on, he rell ba:c at oaco He
ivolced battle, mucaostUr Austrian* uo*r seem to have
lone their bm to avoid It, una, a though he ?r:i> uatrllingly
forced Into a fight at floito, just as G fatal w?*
day. nta, yet lie cnuttuued his retreat until be reoche i his
'ortr.s-es; nor did be even stop there, but retired behind
;bu a strict tbey couuiunaed, und there uwaited tbe arrival
cf Count NugCLt und the arm/ of rrssrvo Th.-n
name bis advance, tbe cole Drilled com.term.rch to Vl
craza, the ttrm'sUoe, the reDnsnl of hostilities, end that
ileeiebre rtoit campaign which ended with the victory of
Itnt, although we think It highly probable that the general
character of the Austrian Uctics in 1848 will be followed
In 1869, tbe general ap nlou appears to bo that In
one Important respect these precedents will be disrogtrded,
and that tbe Hincio will now be tile scone of a decisive
battle. Well informed persons assure us that all that has
yet happened Is but tbe prelade to tho roal war; and there
sic not wanting Auatrtane so confident as to boiiove thai
Mantua will be tbo Capua of Napoleon III. Austria will
very much astonlth the world If anything like this should
happen. General rchlluk may be a very different com
mander from Count Gyu'at, but nubHc expectation is not
yet tutored to the <dra?? -' ?- *-rehch ca. ?,? ueaieh ny
L Auatriacs m a pitched battle upon tolerably equal
terms; and, although the French Emperor and the
Sardinian Rlrg are just now listening to concerts
at Milan, their (reaps are steady la their progress, aud
raibana IIlUn in l)ta Kont r\ivaiti.\n mKawaa * ?.a < i. -
j<vi ua|/? wi'tu w *ii? wvo? |>vaiiivu nuouvow uirvtt fcUO
consolidation of the allied force upon that difficult coon
try wbich baa now to be penetrated. The Allies, howi
tvr, have a efficiency of work still before (lent. Ihry have
(kis great battle of the Mineio yet to win. if tt ahall please
ibe Austrian Emperor to gratify tbe desires of hts enemies
and mike a stand upon that river. Tnoy bare then
10 take three tortreear-s which have been elaborately
>trepgtbened and supplied with every engine or defence
hat modern warfare baa discovered. Against tbe mora
lumerous forces and tbe rifled cannon or tbe French of
16? Pescbi jra will oppose much more per fret fort.doa
ions (ban tfcoje witb wbtob she resisted the Sardinians
n 1849. Hasina is stronger than when Napoleon I.
tnocked at bcr gates; and Verona has all the resource*
tf Ose Austrian empire of her back. Bui,
m the other band, military critici are awaking
!o cn estimate cf I he danger which Austria runs
if being taktn in the rear of lier fortress:* by an army
landed on the coast run lis rf Venice. Tbe Frencb aro un
disputed msstere of tbe sea, and neither tbe old
Iconic campaigns nor those of 1818 and 1819 are adapted
to such a coniTngcncy. To the Austrian tne act is always
an enemy on ber fltrlt, and no position Is strong which
:an be turnod by Nai-oleon's fleet or men of war and
iransports. We have In the resources of tb< s? belligerents
ill tbe eloments of a sanguinary battle, perhaps fur pro
tracted sieges, and even for a long drawn war. It is pro
KiUy htweleu to Ihtrk of aecommoditstn while both the com
Al.irf. cwa str^r,.. f-wl V A J T-..A .... .
iwuitM m# u w* iT'y ir/ [AiU'Mlwrtf t>t*+ U-'J CWllflC
Mhklhat, f.yht as ihe may, Austria can uUimiirly win
Bow mac; million!! of money and loxjuca or territory,
ind how much or military reputation will she wwte in
irotracilng for a abort time ?rh?t, -ooner or later, after
ionttant defeats or alternate triumphs ami reversed, la at
ast inevitable?
[Milan correspondence (June 12) of London Tim -?.]
Decidedly there Is t) be no new edition of tho famous
Alack on the bridge of Lodl. The Austriaus, wider than
heir forefathers, or poibaps nude wiser by tuelr own ex
lerteme at the Poato di Buffelora and Pon'.o dl Magenta,
.ave taken the precanticn of destroying the bri ige. Well,
rbere there is no bridge, no bridge can be taken. Had
his been dose to General Bonaparte, as was intended, In
766, It would have been a serious Inconvenience to blm,
or It would have delayed his following on the heels of the
etreating Austrian army. Aa for at. ".Vau ncus - >
\r<pwnt." The circaniot-mccs are widely different. T
aaeagc of the Adda might have offered soma dllflcu|ies to
be army of the French republic, which was scarcely so
irgo as cne of onr corps d'armee, bnt It is no
bttacle worth moLtlonlng for an army like that of
be Allies, and then we have cot the tame Interest to
iress back tho enemy's forces as General Bonaparte bad.
n his time tue Austrian* bad, militarily speakmg, little
r no hold in Upper Italy. Oooe or twice bea'.en in the
pen Held, they'bad to make the best of their way to the
'yrol and Carinthla; all they could do was to leave a few
housand men In Mantua, and the war was ended until
bey could collect in tho mountains fresh forces, and atEmpt
to regain the lost ground. .Voio Ihit is all changed,
he Austrian/ Kane in the heart rf Upper Italy a ki-id of
1 baiti jed, camecieil wit h the red of the empire, not It) long,
rtfwrpitaLU steppes, lut by excellent raids, and tit many parts
pen by railways. Austria can thus, even belter than
lutaia, concentrate ail her fore e at this extremity,
rhich has been py pared for the purpose by the
run ui jcar* aaa toe expenditure or millions. Any
ireMuie on her retreating army wojfd ooiy bring it
leartr to Ira slroegbold, from which it ought never to
ieve come out: and no pressure would be sulllclcnt to git
to the stroegbo'd logethor with tbo retreating army in
tie word, Otnrral Ttnojexrtt nxird kit campaign at (he
fancio; we hat* to begin there the second and m ire terinut
tune'fit. It 1* well kno an that the Auatriana are pre
itihg on a grand rca'e for thin decisive phase of the
Ullan campaign. Th*y havo changed their co mm and nr.
rbo has contrivod to loae at least to,000 or 0,006 mtu In
:ra than a wect.
The Klog left la?t night, th" Smpcror tb'3 morning?a
Igo that the campaign is about to begin again. Tna
ooner the hotter. The (lialan :cs are bo small that wetrny
ope to he In timo to take advantage ol the demoralizing
fleet of the flnst tuowr, an 1 actlclpito the reinfurccimatj
spectcd by the Austrian* from the Interior.
Milan, to him woo euw it duucglh* presence of tbe
lllod sovereigns, frtmt almost . city of the dead. Ills
b If tbe burst of enthusiasm h id exhausted tha vital
ower of the city, nnd a* if It required sooai ropoec to re
ruit ita atreogth. Tm communications, which had bono
.tcrrupted by tbo war,aia biog gradually re established,
he railway from this to Oomn lus already begun to rua;
hat to Magenta will very hkely be opened to the public
s Boon as It Is no more rrqutrei for the army. When
til si d-me (here will be, vri'h the exception of the little dit
vice from Magenta to the station if San Martina, an unio
rrujied rail way cvmmunici'.ii-n to Turin and France.
That an advantage for reinforcementi and rtnret.
On the Venetian line tbe Auatrlans have carried away
ho locomotive! and moit of the carriages, but tbe deft
iency will be luppllod as we advance; aa for damaging
he line ilaelf, they could do little, except here and there a
ridge, which can be rcolored in a very abort time.
The new Governor of Lombardy scarcely appears la the
?aground, so quietly and amoithiy does the ergaoizstlon
f the country gu oo. As you saw from tbe decree walch
sunt jou yeeterday, as itttie aa poiaible has been c.naog.
d, tbo object being not to devise the best possible goeromint,
but one that should be ready fur tbo emergeny.
All that bas been done, therefore, Is to remove the
unbo of foreigners whom tbe Austrian government cm
loyed In tbe pnbUs offices, and to concentrate the go
eremeet In the hands of ^ sponsible persons with cousl
erable power, instead of the collective body whlob bad
cea soon nalstnce li the tote Austrian administration.
SUNDAY, JULY 3, 1859.
In the financial orR*niz?V?B of (bo oonntry ite niM
hu iwt-ii followed a* la the political oao. Hero
mc ttie two deui eoj winch relate to it:?
f Virvomo bmnl*uki.a, ?to.
fleeing oer d-rrco of IL; Kth last, considering the neoeflHte*
of He u*iio?tl ?u ssd la virtue of toe extraordinary eewnra
conferred ife u* t>> the lew or the KMh of aprti loot on Urn
proposal -f o r Couurll of Minuter*, we bare ordered end we
order a* follow*:?
I. tin (life' end indirect taxes which exist et preienk 1? the
Lombard protui.bts ere pruviaiibjUly maintained, exc?ptiug
whet le cber end by the following nrtlole:?
3 A* to e 1 that e nnerna the sale of article* belonging te the
fceyia Pilritlrv 1 ,uoorpnHrs of the government aueh >. lelt,
lebecoo, gunpowder, Ac ,] the ootte telegraph* aad caatom
hcuace, ue taxes, law* and reguUUius eow In forte In the
o-her part* ol the rojai Males will be applied la Lom hardy by
special order* of the <)orer*er
'I tit atal'ruuiUnu completed, the ooatoea hou?e line between
Lotnbardy ?tid Ihe ether province* will be suppressed
We order that the present decree provided with the seal of
the Bute, he Inserted in the archive* of the government,
culling on every one whom It eoeoernj to reepeolU aad make
It r rupee md.
Another decree orders as follows:?
1. Beneeforth, during the war, the mualetpallfet.or those
who rufrvoe the ncMt duties, oan exact no tax from or lay aar
obstacle In the war ot the Importation and exports!! *, deposit
or L-uoiiiuruuu ui ?uj i?w w vnnwoa wwcn mtj no lur
dished for Mm servk-s of ike nitfvaal and allied troops, either
directly through the Ir airumenteUty of the military edmlnlatra
lion or by private eoierpiUe and requisitions.
1. ifitereafter It should be ptored utat, by thedisposition* of
the preceding artisle, tbe community ha* reoelved a muih
smaller i even tie from the exniee and oetrol than the arerege
of the lex two yean, it will receive an equitable compensation
lor 11a lfnariS
Any lew or disposition contrary to the present one la abolished
Milam, June 9,1810
Thue, with very few exceptions, Lombardy will be governed
for the preeeot by the heme forma wbloh have
tinted hitherto; tho Lombard! will have to pay the same
taxes, and you wilt see the strange spectacle that tubal
wot insupportable under the Austrian rule wilt be, and it
already, cheerfully submitted to under a ulf ehosen government.
Every one thinks It natural, and, should there bs
greater sacrifice*, they pill bear thorn equally well.
Here He* the whole Italian question, turn ltus you like.
1/it tbe foreigner, like Jerome Paturot, go and search after
tbe beet, not of republic*, but governments, and find it,
loo; he will not be iesa detested than he hu been under
the epiilt kilting bureaucratic system which has been
kept up-hitherto in Lombardy. It is a mutter of feeling,
or call It Uiillnct?ariluial Instinct, If you like?but so It
is As tbe gray and red partridge will not dwell together,
ao It ii with some raffs, and moro especially with the
German anil Italian. Notuing can ever conciliate them.
Aa tbe two cannot dwell together, and neither will
yield, they must fight for it. The proclamations of both
lb" Fmperor and the King say dearly enough that the
tfci. g is uol done yet, and that the Italian* must help
the involves aa far as they can. The appeal his not ben
In vain, for within the last two days above 4,000 volunteers
have intuUdfrren this town alone. The display of military
splendor during the presence of tbe allied sovereigns has,
m route, contributed to attract the youtb, hut oven
without it there would bare been a fair comingent. A
proof in thin reepoot i? the success of Garlhaldi, who, in
tplto of what hu hud to piss through, ant in spite of the
l-tlio sttracMon which a small body of men, witn greatcoats
lor uniforms, sad often scanty fare, present id, tail!
contrived to recruit largely on the road. It is on the
i vita ii try in tbe rotth au I the cities, both in the mountains
and In tbe plains, that we may chiefly reckon lor
selive oo ope ration.
[From the Loudon Times, June 18 ]
The I niches* Regent ol Parma is the only on? of tho
Italian magnates whose fete can excite even monrouiary
sympathy or otnnvasfration. This iaiy has done veil at
a Hme when many mm have done very 111. Wo defy the j
most prucfDt or Jar sighted statesman to bugguvt any
inu-g which the late Urgent of Parma has left uudcao {
wbleu she Bhoold have done in order to preserve the iubtr'tan?e
of her children, to maintain her own good faith,
and to rave the little ducby which she has now ruled
very wifoly lor seme years from the horrors of civil-war
and forcyn invasion. It is but a small sovereignty, after
all, this r>ne of Parms, for tbe two duchies of l'saa and
Plax>dia,evco if the province of Luuigluna be thrown In,
ontuin a population of barely half a million souls. Still,
though hut a small trcuon of tho Peninsula, it la one
ahtrn heon snnhcU'd to irreat nolitmal vicltsltu 1m
Tuote two ducniis which, according to all probability,
ee<m dettlnod btfore lesg to i>e incorporated with Lomoircy
under a cwomoo government, were part of it m
biatorlc time* It wu grim old Pari III. who Drat diemember*
d bombardy for the benefit of Piotro Lulgl FarLite,
tie eon, and in that family these two duchies re
mamed until the extinction of the male descendants of the
lire They into taaaod to the Spanish Bourbons, and a
' drscfcianl of that house was actually reigning In Parma
when tbe first Napoleon, at tbe head of the Trench revolu
Notary armies, burst into Italy, and with a tarn of his
swoid upaet airangf meets which had been planned at the
?s:urlai and rtco ve<! tbe sanction of the diplomatists of
AJX-la Chapelle Wo next find the two duchies appearing
as two departments of the kingdom of
Italy. Then Napoleon fell, and the two "departments''
were reconstituted duchies, and hell to
be a ktcd of dowager's essy cbalr for his widow
during hor life, with reversion to tbe descendants of too
Parnicuii bourbons. In 1847 Marie Louise died, and the
revc-rt-ioncra catne into possession of their rights under tbe
?Ulemi-iit. Charles II., of Bombon, reigned in Poroia
fcr a cooplo of years, and than, being disgusted with Ma
rpiyftl fil> rlnrnl An/1 rlnairinOf it Inar* a viwstwntl tlPa
according to bis fancy, In l'arls and elsewhere, abdicated
lb fa'-ir tA bib son. This was the Duke who was stabbed
by the band of an assassin In Parma In the year 1804.
Iho wistchcd creature while atlll extant In this upper
world was known aa Charles III., or more frequently by a
loLriuutt which, aa be is dead, wo will forbear to m.nii
more putlcu^olr?ai mm u? uitn, icwlaga widow
?a octerai children. This lady was the late Regent of
Parma, and is the slater cf the Pulco of Bordeaux. For the
last Are /oars she bat shown more sense, more detormi
nation, more courage tban any ot the latter day Bourbons
with whom we ars acquainted or of whom we hevo road.
For in truth her fvto has been a very hard one. It was
do very brilliant preface to a royal career to be the exiled ,
daughter of the elder branch of the French Bourbons
Tfcore years of banishment must have been fall of bitterof
ss to tbe young girl. WhatOTer professional pbt'anthropistt
may say to it, the pwrphyrogente hare their
troubles juet like tho distressed shoeblacks. There oatna
a time when she whs compelled to regret the dull, sombre
monotony of her youth. In tbe twenty sixth year or her
sge, aid in Ibo year 1845, Louise Marie, of Bourbon, was
married to a young profligate, Cb u lee II I., of Lucca, whom it
Is charily to think of as a madman. Wuat she must hare
endured between tbe years 1815-54 can he only known
to this poor lad/ herself; but then she w is reliered
of the presence of her most abominable husband, and
since then, ns we hare said, has gorerned the
ducby for her children. It was no ordinary .task
that was sot before her, because the dignity of
her own mind and the eenee of what was due to the half
million of people o rcr whom her eway extended, I opellcd
her to free hcreelf from the degrading protection of Aue
uut nuiuii nouiu protect-- ner in spite or herself.
Au&iria was In easy and comfortable possession of
tHat citadel of Pwcenzt i/om which ber troops hive Just
1 been withdrawn without firing a shot. Aust-'.a could at
any moment throw her legions acrose the Po fron great
l.ombardy into iltuo Parma, and overwhelm any puny roI
Bistance which the Duchess Regent might havo
attempted to eot up. Still die did all that could be
I done and more than any one would. before the
event, have thought could bo done r>y a petty
1'Allan Prince. True, Loaise Mario could not get rid of
tbo political ascendancy of Austria; aa woil might tbe
tale of Wight bavo atumped 10 discard the political
authority of England; but at least she contrived
to get tho control of ber little army Into
bur own bards, and to free be; duchies in all
oeuraeroial mattei a from the despotic system of Austrian
administration in Italy. Tbe wonder is not that she did no
more, but that aho could accomplish so much, independently
of tbe stoys absolutely taken to free the dncby
from Anatrlan control in all municipal affairs, tbe Regent
Invariably called to hbr Council tbe moat patriotic statesmen
abe could tind. As tar aa it was possible, tbo government
of Parma under her sway, and since tbe year 1864,
has been an Italian government in the proper sense of the
word. With all this it was not to be supposed when once
tbe Rattle of tbe Giants began In Upper Italy that tbe pa
tism, or virtues, or courage of tbo Duchess Regent
..id long stand in her stead. Parma could not but be
.r&wn ultimately into tho great war maelstrom which was
whirling round under the shadow of the AljJg, and the
ruler of the little State mutt needs accept tbe fate of the
weak when mixed up with the quarrels of tbe strong.
Fur a time Louise Marie struggled resolutely against destiny,
but sbe baa been beaten at last.
When these Italian troubles, which*re cow resulting in
Uerco battles at Magenta bridge and elsewhere, flrat came
w a. ueau, mo uucnc-s* endeavored to maintain an attitude
of neutrality, She vould not take part openly against tho
Austrian#, for abe had been bound to them, both ibe and
bor prcdecoeaori?rulers of Parma?by the faith of treaties.
Neither would she act against the Allle#, tor that
would have been to fight against the cause of Italian independence.
She permitted her subjects to take their
own way, and, as wo are informed, some 8,000 volunteers
from this little duchy mado their way into Piedmont just
before and after the declaration of war. It did not, however,
suit the purpose of the extreme section of the malcontents
to leave the government in possession of the Held,
nominally or otherwise, and accordingly a fortnight or so
back tbey rose, drovo the Duchess and her adherents ont
of the town, and set up a provisional government.
N(ab mark the difference bduyrn the conduct of this lady
and that of the runaway Grand Duke of lutcany. Emm
in the midd of Git tumult, and althriugh the too* aUoluttly
driven out of her cjpilal by the imurrcctwn, the remained
dote at hand to def.nd the inheritance of hi:r children.
Within thirty-six hours of the time whoa she was first
driven away the Duchess Regent was back in Parma, by
the help of that port on of her little army which remained
well affected to her rule. Tne Provisional Ministry fall,
and I/mtso Marie win again reinstated In her honors. She
had previously sect Unr children away into Switzerland,
but icribilr takes rbc remained in parson to unroot any
danger that might merely threaten her own life. It
sooo, however, bee .mo obvious to the Duchess and to
her councillors that she and they could not restrain
tnelr own adherents from abusing the victory
they had just guinea ; and the hour - of retrl
button was saro to follow. For the sake, then,
or the people of Parma, and for the Ultimate benefit of
her children, she resolved to yield at once to the etrongUt
.of a current she was unable to stent, nod to leave behind
tbrr in Parma only recollections wbioh would bs favorable
to ber name in case she or her children should be
thought of when the ultimate settlement of Italy tikes
place. She has withdrawn from a straggle In which her
aid can be of no avail to either party?not into the camp
of one Or other of the comeatants, but Into a neutral
oounty. Before departing she set her house in order, imd
made such arrangements as would enable the people of
the duchy to establish a settled order of things without
Injury to any Internet and without delay. It is quite rofre
thing, la the midst of the miserable chronicles ot [Lilian
misrule, to come across such an iaatanoe of courage, humanity
and good sense as this one of the Drrhots of Parma.
It woall bo Idle t-i speak of wbxt fate may await her and
her children lu the end, but certainly I.rulte Mario of
i'uraut has shown herself worthy of empire.
The Important Political Revolution In England,
[From tbe Don ion Times, Jane 18.]
P?Mom or never Ins a change of government been attended
with to complete a obange of persons sad places as
that which this week has witnessed. In considering this
gait of the subject ws may leave out of the question alto
getber the government of Lord Derby, and iuiMUte oar
cxw|?iiioa between tUa loot m i tba prosed admialstr*
tien ot lord Paimcrston. Thi Prima Mtaisl'-r rt'.nus Iho
place wulob he held a year and a half ago, tad Lord Grip
Title, the Fictident of the Council, still holdv hit former
sitnal'ou. But, wilh three two except osa, uo member of
the Cabinet Is placed in the office ho hold before, tod iiudj
have been removed from office altogether. Not only have
all the change* been made which p'tblto opinion
and the efficiency of the servlco might reatouxbly
require, but the iloalro of alteration aeonat acta
ally to have effected change aa we are dlreoiet
to puiaue virtus?for its own take. Pasting over the auo
stitutioa Of Lord John Kussell forjf/ird Oltrcudou, oa which
we buve already rematked, nanny may thlak that It wai
oooroely worth wbllo to remove Sir George Lewis, whose
management of the public finances gave satlafkction to
everybody, to make room for Mr. Gladatoae, who hat
hitherto at least found meant to please no one, and who
hoe, moreover, been In diametrical opposition to all reoent
dtvieiooB to the party now In power. It Is dot likely that
the Pott Office will be managed more efficiently by Lord i
Elgin tbna by the Duke of Argyll, nor that the Duke of
Somerset will effect in the Admiralty any considerable Ime-ovement
upon the administration of Sir Charles Wood.
r. Oordweil Is not likely to manage the Board of Works
with more success than Sir Benjamin Bail; nor have we to
autlclpate Treat Mr. Mllcer Gibson a management of tke i
Poor Law Board very superior to that of Mr. Bouverie.
I he Duke of Somerset bus his spurs to win at the Admiralty,
and My. Sidney Herbert at the Department of
War, and experience can alone determine whether they
will admin later these departments more to Ute satisfaction
of the public than their predecessors. It may be that
Lord Campbell may eclipse the mild renown of Lord
Cranwcrth; bat nil tbeoe things remain to bo proved, and
until ttoy are proved, comparing the men only wttb reference
to their efficiency In the administration of their
several departments, the iaferenoe in favor of the present
government ef Lord Pnlmerston over that government
which so many of his present colleagues combined to
eject from power la 1858, is not so striking aa might be
But, then, wo must also admit that to compare the
huh wnn t&cn oinwr wna reicrcuue to tue tuuaout uncharge
of the duties of their several offices b? not the boat,
uor tbo only, criterion of their efficiency as ft Cabinet. A
Minister in England is something more than Iba bead of
pmrUcular department. Be ia expected to be wiee in council
and eloquent in debate, for want of the latter of these
qualities the former Government of Lord Polmerstoa died
actually of Inanition. On every aubject they were outdebated,
until at lent tbey came to be out-voted. Their
defence was generally left to tbeir leader, and If he fallod
there wee no efficient reoerve to rector# the fortune* of the
debate. There will bo no fear of suqb a reverse now, for
surely never did a Government proeent ao rich a superllutty
of the powers of speech. Mr. Gladitono, Cord
John Russell, Mr. Herbert, Sir George Grey, Mr.
Cobden, Mr. Caxdwell, Mr. Gibson, *nd Sir Goorge Lewis
are all debateis cf very considerable excellence, and in
the House of Lords the numerical minority In whloh this
government is placed will bo amply compensated by the
amount of debating power whloh the Ministry can at their
wlil put forth If comparatively little has been gained ia
roerc adminialrative ability, the increase or the amount of .
ibo means of attack and dofenco Is enormous. So long as
tbey sre confronted with on opposition nearly as poworful
e- ilii receives such a government is very likely indeed to
bold iU own against ail comers. He will bo a bold man
who will bring upon himself the rolling periods of Mr.
Gladstone, the authoritative reply of Lord John Russell,
the yiavfu' and atruging, colloquial questions of Mr. Herbtrt,
or tLo clear statement and pointed ridlrule
of the i'umior. So far <u the dehalb'J part of tl\e
naiti r gees we apprehend f tat '.here never tear u geverament
nne }e>fuihj able to take care of Urdf; yot such might,
with almost equal truth, have been said uf Lord Aber
' en's government in 18512. They had tho tame redundance
of power as now, only fo-. tided by ama!ortt> more
Imjaieicg. Yet all thio could not lcaep tb : iwrnu\?nt
in office, and it will be vuin for ths now t .0 trust
to us eloquence or its abilities if it does not for the
execution cf rt3 dctigns the first end the lut lentlal
point?the maintenance of internal unity.
Tho charge tbey bavo undertaken after t many
mutual sacrifices Is no slight or trivia' cue I'pou
tl.eir succors it depends not only whether tbo
prtrcnt government, but whether tho literal party
tball remain the paramount power in tbo State,
or whether it shall fall a sa trlSco to its adversaria* on account
of its intestine divisions, That which has been
worth to much pains in ttxv acquiring is certainly a 1st
worth preserving, and a victo^? over thj oppjeiticn will
be dearly purchased by any relaxation of internal disci
pline. If parties wore as capable of learning' by expert
tree as Individuals, it would be impossible that the lcasoa
already administered should be forgotten By personal
rivalries and internal discords the liberals have been
brought to tbo very verge of destruction, and have only
been saved by majority ma narrow that a few very conceivable
accidents might have nouirw>iz-5<i it uiioaethar,
Iht-y are stiong enough if united, but quite incapable of
resisting the euectn of any serious disagreement among
themselves To effect Uie present union innumerable
private feeltega have been sacrificed, innumerable ties
broken, and man/ not unreasonable expectations bitterly
bo disappointed? Boar melancholy it would bo It,
all this should have been done in vain, and If
the union of so much talent, of views so dlsoordant, and
tntemts so contrary should only end In ciademning the
present ministry to the same fate which overtook their
more feeble, hut also more hoinngcseouu prodeocsaor*.
/n (he construction of the preterit Cabinet, at tn that of a
first ran Anus iron yacht, symmetry, beauty, Oomfurt, every.
(amy hai been sacrificed to ctfuieray. To command the
support of all, nil parties arc to bo represented, and It
may not unreasonably ho supposed that a confederation
to powerful and so sble will make for Itself a support
which its predecessors did not possess, and put down by
sheer strength the mere numerical l?n-?wc? that i3 opPored
to it t>?? party have their destinies in
lueir own hands. They have at their bead a body or
men capable or directing and defending their policy, they
btvo no bir.g hotter in reserve, and it they should turn
out to ba unwilling to support the present government
they mvst make up their minds to enter for m ruy years
on the dreary functions of opposition.
Yachting In England.
regatta of tub royal Thames yacht cub.
The entry cf yachts for the two great racea of tbia club,
appointed to take place on the 2Sth ult., have ciosoJ, and
are as follows:?
fob tub oNu buxdrkd ornntAS pnr/.R, orr; to VAcata ov
amy koyal club.
Yach.lt. Ions. Owners.
Thought 25 Mr. F. C Marshall.
Amazon 49 " J. HL Johnson.
lady Bird 38 " J. P. l.ethbr'Jge
Kitten 13 " R J. I.*vb.
Wildftro (schooner) 69...... " J. T. rumor.
Mosquito 69 " T. Oroves, Jr.
Minx 68 " V. R. Magenis.
Osprey ; 69 Col. R. W. Unojr.
Vtttal (schooner) 74 Mr. F. 0. Marshall.
Time for tonnage by Acker's graduated scale.
VockU. 2 on?. Omrrt.
Zayda 25 Mr. 0. F.7*ns.
Telia 21 ? R. W. Hartley.
Violet.'. 9 IiOrd l)c Roe.
Chimera 10 Mr. E. 3aunderson.
Whisper 21 " W. W. Rudgo.
In tbie race the yachts are to be manned exclusively
by mcmbera of a royal yact club, or oflicers of the army
or uavy. Half a minute time for tonnage will be allowed.
Id the first list the Wildfire, Mocqoito and Osprey appear
to be the favorltee, the former beautiful craft having
rltghtly the call. For the seoond the Zav^a and Violet
arc backed for preference. This is undoubtedly the finest
list of yachts that ban appeared tor years past in Thames
yachting. The course In both races Is from Krltli to the
Kore and back. The Prince of Wales steamer has been
chartered by the club for the oocaslon.
THe committee of tbe Roy el Thames National Regatta
bavo appointed the 1st of August for the annual groat
meeting at Pultnoy. A groat number of valuable prizes
will be offered for competition.
nut beat of war.
Turn, Friday, Jane 17.
Tbe official bulletin published to-day announces from
Tuscany that Prinoe Napoleon has commenced the movement
of his troops. 10,000 Tuscan troops, with 8C0 cavalry,
are ready to depart with him.
Ravenna has pronounced for the national cause, and a
manifesto has been published declaring the adhesion of
that town to a central government established at Bologna,
which is to hs placed under the dictatorship of the King
of Sardinia. Tbe manifesto alvo expresses the unanimous
wish to he enabled some day to form part of a monarchy
worthy of tbe gratitude of the Italians.
Turn*, June 17?10 40 r. m.
owiciai. Btriums ruuuenaD this svmn^i.
Yctterdsy the head quarters of tho\ Emperor wore si
Covo, on tbe road from Bergamo tj Cremona, and tboso
of the King at Castcgnato, six milca to the west or Brescia.
Rimini and Cescre have pronounced for the national
VntosA (via Vienna), June 17,1869.
The following Is offljlal:?
General Gjulal has, at bis own request, been released '
from tbe command of tbe second corj-s d'arvue, which j
has been given to Count Schlick, General of Cavalry. ,
Bkrnb, Jane 17,1859. ,
A despatch from Co!re announces that a numerous Aug- i
trian corps, coming from Stelvlo, has arrived atGroe '
toto, In the Valtelllne, and alvanced toward* Tirano. The
Federal Council ban ordered the occupation by the federal 1
'roopa of the pees of Muretto, between the Grlaou and '
the Valtelllne. I
Rem, June 14,1853. i
It is averted that the Freneh are about to occnpy AnCOtMU
Tho Drat Fwii* regiment has left for Perugia.
Jhe Russian Ambassador hat given A banquet m honor :
of the French Commandcr im Chief, Central Qoyon.
Paris, Friday, Jane 17?13:20 P. M.
the Bonne opera flat. Kentee,02f. OOo. j
8 .20 P. X. <
Beatee cloeed OSf. 80c. for money, and 82f 45c. for j
the account?telog a decline of x in the former and % i
In the latter caeo linoe yesterday, '
Nai ler, Jane 17,1859. 1
An amnesty ban been proclaimed. Those condemned j
for polltloal offences are amneetlcd, not Including thoee (
amnestied on the 27th of December and 18th of March. I
The latter ere to remain under lurvelllancc; thoee era- 1
pected are pardoned.
Common lenience* are shortened by three yean.
A Tight Stop* Dancer Wulklag ici'OM Nla.
gun Falia oat ? Veldt.
rr-nin tbe Huch< R'ar Union, July 1 ]
The promised foul of walking acro?? the Nt*g*r? oa
tight rope yesterday km accomplished tuooeaaluliy of
Mob*. Bloedln, in the prreeeoe ol' tbouaaada of epeotet ri
For the purpose of rvcreal on and to aee what ??? u l>a
seen, U> show the oouQdrii.# we had la Maud. Wo a He,
wad, above all, to atsure our Eaatarn cotomp >r?riee < ??
we were ready to be sold if there wti a eeil la tu's a i d',
we went to Suspontloa Bidge ai.d uoVed some of v ?
events of the day. We left the city at 11 4'e in the tr
conducted by our popular triend Wolla, ?u I found
board a number of our citizens, wbo were b>ua 1 on
errand like our own. the train plokad op a great maoy
eeegers at tbe way stations, and reached the bridge ?
half-past two. Our party went to the New York G>
Bouse, and were there serve ' with an exoelleatdiao
the obliging boet, Mr. Be Camp, alter which we
reedy for eight seeing
The weather was deltghtfUl?the sun ehoae briga j
but there waa breese enough from the river to modify e
mfluenoee end make every shady grove a pleasant spot?
repose in. n>e bank* of the rivor on either aide for h#
* ? }? were alive wlih people, tvhe had aeleoted the bt*
positions they oonld llnd to obtain a full view of the rope
upon whieh the feat waa to be performed; and ell, event#
tens oi wouaaMs, could tad oeufortablo places, with a
futr prospect before them. We remained upon the American
shore, bat Incline to the opinion that ttaore were more
spectators on the opposite aide. Tboee standing there
were the bent shaded, as the sun toward erening was
throwing Its rays upon tha American bank. Immense
stagings end platforms, with sained seals, oould bo seen
on the Uanada side, eear the end of the groat rope, but en
be American Bide there was hothlng of the sort. The.
rape wan sustained hers by a huge oak In White's plea-1
sura grounds, and as this hank was the lowest, nil stand-1
ing on the grounds could see without difficulty. It had
been arranged with the proprietors of the Pleasure
Grounds that II. Blond la should receive one-hair of the
receipts?tweaty-lve cents for each admission?and that
he should give e tight rope performance there before I
crossing the tlrer. Borne two or three thousand persona
were ;<m these grounds, sod If all paid at the gates the receipts
were s handsome sum,
About four o'clock M. B ondln arrived in a carriage decorated
with the American and French Sega, and was received
with cheers from the multitude, music from the
bands and the Bring of a cannon* which was answered
from the Canada side. A ring was male by a rope, and
within the ring waa a tight rope six feet above the ground
upon which the preliminary exhibition took place. H.
Bloudin appeared with a smiling (ace, to the moat agree
able humor. Be is n man af medium height, of rather
muscular build, but not fltshy; has light hair, basis eyes,
wears s small mustache and goalee. On this occaiioa ha.
waa arrayed in s tort of half Turkish and ha f ciroea
drew, end wore a wig with long pendant ourls. Lit* feats
upon ihe tight rope were sufficient to give ooodieaoe to
ait who witnessed them?if tbey had djiots of bis tooctm
in the great feat promised thtra lis would tarn .
summersaults, leap over chairs backwards and forwards,
aud do a great many other things upon this rope which
ordinary gy emssSs fled It difficult to do upon ibo ground
At length this performance was nt an end, aul lloaateu
ritirid to bis tent to dresi lor the rope walk
The greet rope his already been described to o?r readers,
but we will briefly refer to it again, that they may have
a cWar Idea of the feat accomplished. Tue rope was made
in New York to order, and Is over 1,100 feet in length. As
something like one hundred feet covers the shore, we1
may safely say Gist the pari covering the gorge is at least
l.bCO.'ect. This rope is u trifle more than two luobcs in
diameter, and was drawn with the blocks and windlass as ,
tight as it could be without risk of parting. The depres-1
Eieri was perhaps sixty feut below a true Tine, ami aa the I
Canadian hank is some twenty feet or more higher thaa
ti.o American, the greatest depression was nearer the latter
than the former. The lowest point was probably 1M
feet above the swift water rushing towards the whirlpe
below. Til's rope was stayed from aide sway by sat.
guys cf half-inch rope, of which 2,700 feet were us-d.
l'tn-y wire fastened to (be main rope in pairs, about iwea.
ly leetupart, and ran diagonal y to the shore on either side,
where I'icv were made last to trees. Onlv i?o iruve ran
donn to keep the rope from an upward moremsut. TUa
rope and guys cost tbCO, and were purchaaed chiefly by
subscriptions made at the Fall*.
?ooq utter Qvo o'clock U. Bloodin appeared upon tbe
platform where tbe great rrtpecamoto the American abore,
and was greeted witb cheeri from both stdea. He waa
dreered in tight clotbee, without covering upon his bead,
and be wore lllpeeia which appea-ed to- be made
of buckskin or similar material Tue bands played
upon either side. Arrangements bsd been made for
flrlrg the cannon st ibis moment, but tbe gu?
hung Are and refhaed to go off. Blondin gt <
cuturediy called out to have It shaken up, but the gnu?
not speak. For nearly ten minntes the dariog adventnt
stcod In full view of the breathlebS tbouaandi, In fanui
c^nvereation with those around hit-., and evinced no sign*
of faltering. Indeed, front hit - ,lm we do not
think he had tbe least fear or ? ' or doubt nboi
hie success. His manner gavn cootieuca to all about
bim, and no one expressed a don . uiiuued to the pro
liability tbat he would fall. Atfoiut-.-ou minutes past live
Blondlu coolly picked up his black polo, some twenty Qro
feet lorg, which he used for btlanc og, ond walked down
tbe rope with a firm but cautious step. The doscont was,
wo suppose, the must difficult put of tho advenvore He
laid rno foot before Uie other in short hot well' measured
Mepc, unill he had advanced eome two hundrod feet, ant
then he sat down as if to rest In * minute he aroee and
walked forward some dlatancu, eat down aga'n, and before
risiug ho threw himself ou his back lengthwise of the
casionaUy dancing or ?landing upon one Ami, looking over
tlx abyss. Whtn Lp h?d reached a point near the centre
or the river, he reeled himself and beckoned to the steamer
Maid of tho Mlet to come up the rlrer and give him a drink:
meanwhile be took from his belt a be 1 of cord, unrolled
it till the end reached the water below, and then patiently
awaited the coming of the steamor. me Maid
came slowly up against the current, along the American'
shore, and when under the rope' 'stood quartering" across '
ibe stream, with her engines In full motion. The current
thus drifted her to where the line was suspended, and it d
wan taken aboard. A bottle was fastened to the core I
when Blondin dropped another cord. This was taken by I
the men ou the steamer and they drew the bottle up to I
ibe main roDe. Blondin took It, removed the cork and I
drank the health of tho spectators. He then threw away 1
the bottle and resumed his jouruoy. The Maid having I
wailed upon him dropped back to her dock. 1
When the centre of the ropo was crocso<l where there
are no guys, Blondin began to arcond to the Canadian
bank at a pretty brisk walk, nod did not again stop till he 1
reached the shore. He was greeted with cheers at land- ,
log, and general rrjoic'nga were exchanged among the
si>ectatori. The feat was accomplished, and M. Blondin
stands before the world unrivalled as a man of nerve, and
the champion rope walker. It was .just eighteen minutes
from the time Bloudin took up his pole on one shore to the I
time be laid It upon the other. This time was more than I
half spent In stopping by the way, chiefly In waiting for, I
the steamer.
As sn instance of tho feeling of satisfaction among the
spectator s standing near the end of the ropo, iu Whlta's
pleasure grounds, wo will mention one Incident Conductor
Tambllngson, of tbe Central Railroad, had to losva
the spot as soon as the (eat was accomplished to take his
train to Rochester. He desired to have an expression of
feeling Immediately, and parsed about a hat Into which
tome ten or fifteen dollars were thrown in less than half
a minute for Blondin. The money was handod to a responsible
party, and llr Tamllngson left, and we camo
with him, quite well pleased with the oc:aston and with
what we bad seen.
We learn by those grho remained UU tho end of the exhibition
[that to. Blondin was taken to the Clifton House
eflov ha lan/tn/1 am **??? J" ?r- M 1 " * *
in, t?uuvu uu lull VMI?I> SK.U, una IU RUJUt Mil SD
hour bo returned to the American eide, walking- over the
irpe rather faster than be travailed in going over.' So '
ended tbe exhibition, wblcb wai entirely successful. A
contribution, amounting to over three hundred dollara
was taken up on tbe Canadian side for, tha succes-ful
performer, and hit receipts from other ncurcrs will
no doubt pay him handsomely for hla venture. The ropa ,
will remain auepended, and he will walk over two or three
ttmee a week daring the pleasure reason. His next trip
screes Is announced for the 4th of July.
The Bofi s'o Republic says Blond In Is a Frenchman by
birtb, and one of a family of six children. He has two
brothers and three sisters, all tight rope performors The
above Is his assumed or professional name, llis right
name Is Juan F. Ororlette. He was born in Paris, but has
been in this country some eight years. His age Is about 35.
He has performed in nearly every principal city In the
Union?New York (st Nlblo's), Philadelphia, Cincinnati, ,
Montreal, SI. Louis, New Orleans, &c. He has repeatedly
walked irom the tops or buildings across streets. At
Charleston his greatest feat?walkirg in a sack, and with
a wheelbarrow, to the top of tbe theatre?was tlrst performed.
His first feat was at Lyons, when he was hut
six yean old, making an ascension to the height of 175
The Express Business.
to the editor of tUK herald.
At the clcto of jour article on "Express Business," in tin
Huuld of this dsto, yon sty that, "Neither the limits of
this article nor the disposition of the managers of the various
lines, will enable us to glvo anything like an accurate
estimate or the amount or business transected by the various
companies." It is historical Information and should
Ka fr.nlv IT Iron sad the first on the list. .i~? it... i-??
matlcn should be the (so called) Hsrndcn Kxpress Company,
a name wblob, to them, has been of Immense value,
and for which they hare, comparatively, paid nothing. I
Wo widow of Mr. Harnden received one hundred and fifty A
dollars. I think, per year for two or three years af ter the
death of her busbanu. He left little or no property (hie I
residence In Bedford street, nesr Washington, being his w
enly possessions), hsving Invested his all in the Kuropean
express business, which never returned btm a cent. Hta 1
widow was reluctantly compelled to keep a boarding
house, In or near Bowdoin square, Boaton. Having failed '
In that attempt to support herself and two tons, aged i
Igbt and ten years, she soon went to California, where she
'a low keeping a lirst class boarding house. Her sons,
having arrived at manhood, are now In the employ of
rrccman 4 Co., In their San Francisco office, at salaries
f SI ,800 and 88,800 per annnm. Could their
ether have lived, he would now have enojed
what otbsrs are enjoying at his expense; for
t was a long timo after his commencement before he carled
anything more than an ordinary slaed trunk between
Boston and Mew York, his expenses being defrayed by hlo
wire's brother, lfr. John Fuller, who now lives at Newton ?
Corners, Mate., and who Is a man fhlly competent to writo ?
up the express business In Its early days.
The present proprietors of the (so called) Harnden Rx- 1
press Company?Messrs. Thompson, Livingston ft Co.,? J
ought to have sense of shame enough to at least psy her 1
rornslngber name the paltry sum of $150 per annum, i
which, In her present ciroamstauoeo, would be most acceptable
to her: and I do not think it would he amiss If
Ihey would each one p .y a Blight tribute of respect to hlo
memory by collecting rundi and purcbislng n house In
which she could with happiness spend the remainder of j
ber days. Wm. F. Harnden was in bis day a public bene'actor,
and as the country at Large is now reaping the
benefits of his Industry end porsoverunos, and the present
express companies growing immensely wealthy, let thorn
mow their appreciation of his worth by placing his widow
In a way that her downward course of life shall to her bo
is pleasant us bor childhood days. ShaU it M donor
Nsw York, Jane 20, 1880,

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