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THE SUEZ CANAL.
Complete Success of the Great Work, The Empress of France In Her Yacht at Suez. Inception, Progress and Completion of the Canal. Paris, Not. 20?0 P. M. Advices from Alexandria Jnst received contain the gratifying Intelligence that tne Suez Canal Is a fnocesa. Tbo French imperial yacht Algie, with her Majesty the Empress on board, baa arrived at Sues without Accident. Its Earliest Inception, Progress and Comple tion? M. Ferdinand De Lesseps? Ilis Per severance and Success? Inspiring Influence of the Empress of the French. The map which we present to oor readers to day illustrates th? Suez Isthmus Canal In its completed Condition, its points or entrance anddlscharge, and the connection of Europe, Asia and Africa, affording also a full view of the new transit route, by the use of which uie "rounding" of the Cape of Good Ilope will be, for all prolltable purposes, obliterated to narinera and travellers Journeying to and from the Bast, a mileage to the extent of 6,600 miles be saved either way, the hitherto existing current of the world'a oommerce be revolutionized towards Amer lea, and New York, with the aid of the raclflc Rail road, be made the receiving and distributing entre pot of yie commerce and first news of the universe ; Egypt be revivified, Turkey brought still more com pietely within the pale of the great nations ol the wrth, Hindostaa be eventual)/ liberated and civil ised, China christianized and the world, moved by ?team and girdled Dy telegraphs, be made one in commnmty of interest, the nnlverKaliam of religion and simplicity of faith and form of worship. For the more easy comprehension of this Vast and beneficial change, wits its certainty of effect, by ?ar readers, it is merely necessary to state In plain worda the following geographical facts relative to distances by the different existing routes from Europe to Asia, as well as the economy of the one:? From the point of a ship's starting, off Gibraltar? at the Azores? round the cape of Good Hope to Cal cutta, is 15,000 miles. The distance to Calcutta, starting from Gibraltar? at the same point? and travelling through the Suez Canal, is 0,600 miles. The difference in favor or the use of the Suez Canal route is consequently 6,600 miles. A leading London Journal says, generally, that the distance from Gibraltar to Calcatta is "about" 16, 000 miles, and that this will be "shortened by about one-half " by the opening of the Canal Suez. By means or the electric telegraph, In the shape of despatches from Asia, Africa and Europe, transmit ted for our use by the deep sea cable wires sub merged in the Atlantic Ocean, we have already an nounced to the readers of the Hbrald the compie tlon of the great work ot the Sues Canal, its utiliza tion by actual navigation by the Empress Eugenie of France, the fairest and most illustrious incarnation and representative of tlut Indestructible spark which has been from the beginning and dies not, as *&? grand idea of such an undertaking, which was thrown out to humanity three thousand /ears ago, the assemblage of crowned heads, princes, learned men, statesmen, military and naval officers, already distinguished in the service of their respec tive countries and rendered still more notable by their presence on this occasion, with the general and very Illustrious representation of all tne great living Interests or the world besides, literary, commercial, financial, diplomatic, artistic, scientific, mechanical," Industrial, and of tne great dally newspaper press the enlightened bond which unites, and the powerful leverage which moves. It may be said al most thinks for, the whole. We have presented M. Ferdinand de Lesseps, who nurtured and matured the Idea of its conciudluir effect, to the world in his moment of triumph. Surveying the whole from the deck or the imperial French yacht L'Algle, any dis position towards an undue exultation at his splendid success, a natural and almost Inevitable human tendency or feeling under such glorious circum stances, being effectually toned-neutrallzed we may call it? by his companionship with the Christian lady ?landing by his side, one who has never forgotten the divine precept of humanity even in her first youthful exaltation to an active partnership in the every day responsibilities and duties or one of the most powerful ? perhaps the most powerful throne in the world. We have proclaimed the consecration ?f the canal work In prayer ofltered up by the reverend Almoner of the Empress, Fere ifaner, at Fort Said, and announced the fact that the reverend gentleman subsequently preached a sermon in which he congratulated tho world on the success of this grand enterprise, thanked the Viceroy of Egypt, who bad immortalized his name and reign by his co operation in one of the greatest undertakings of modem times, besides dwelling in terms of lively gratification on the liberty or worship which had been granted to Christians; and, thanking the Em press for tho sympathy she bad shown, and M. do Lesseps for the exertions he had made to bring the work to completion, and also returning thanks to all the other illustrious personages who had hon ored the occasion with their presence. We have also shown how the Kmperor of Austria, the Viceroy of Egypt, the Crown Prince of Prussia, the Prince and Princess of Holland, with tho other distin gulshed personages, participated in the religious ceremonies without reference to "form of creed '> and also how the Empress of France subsequently landed and assisted at a n Drum and at tho Mus sulman prayers; thus perfecting her glorious mis ?ion by sealing to the peoples the acceptance of a really world-wide catlioliclsm on the soil of the land of the I'baroahs at a moment when the current of commerce and thought had Just been changed in its rule from Europe and Asia towards America. We have chronicled the congregation of a fleet of thlrty-four steamers at Ismalila, with tho notices of others -coming up," as well as reported the con gregation of the immense number of visitors from all parts of the world, with the continual streaming in at that point of the numerous advance of 3 000 Europeans, and the 25,000 orientals who had been ?peciaily invited as tho guests of the Viceroy of Egypt We have telegraphed the trip route of the first detachment of these visitors from Ismalila to Fort Said, in the canal, within the space of eight hours and thirty minutes, and shown that the transit had a depth of water ranging from twenty-five to thirty feet through the wnole line of the canal, as well as the preparations which were made for' the ?tarting or tho entire fleet from Ismalila to Suez on Saturday, the 20th of November, at noon. Our readers havo seen in the pages of the Hbrald how lnilpcr,al y*ctit L'Algle, with the Era of th? ron.^K1' fo"owo<1 through tho first part lia in f ho ' fort' ?eMe'8 and anchored at Ismal offlcerainrt pre*eno6 of th? ??t multitude of the the lanrest * DeWlT ftrnve<' Kusalan frigate, a world's ovationf 61 ^ lt>? enjoyIllent ?r nwtoi\Vho?Sot^entemiltl0 Norwe*,M *0Tern ?orvette Nord.tjer?en SITU*" (1?Clde<1 lhe gurauon of up ^n., Mq ? " tn* lnau" Uow that vewei left %>r Map THE SUEZ OANAL. Showing the Old and the New Routes from Europe to Asia? The Distance Shortened Five Thousand Five Hundred Miles. ten to call at Brest and Cadiz before entering tho Mediterranean; how the Emperor of Austria was to arrive on a viBlt to the Sultan of Turkey and after wards proceed to Egypt to be present at tne opening of the canal; how the following personages had Dcen Invited by the Viceroy of Egypt to be present at the inauguration of the Suez Canal, and acceptation sent to Egypt: ? DukeofTetuan, Deputies D. Antonio Palon, D. Buenventura Abarzuza and D. Eduardo Jasset; Engineer Luoto de Valle, Director of Canal of Lozoya; Engineer D. Cipriano Segundo Montesino, Alcalde del Ayuntamlento de Madrid; Manuel Maria j os(5 de Goldo, and the writer Eusebla Blasco.and a re presentative of the Spanish militia; bow some twenty live North German scholars and artists were invited by the Viceroy, and that they were to proceed to Paris and thence travel to Egypt with the other guests at the expense or the Viceroy, and that the Professors Mommsen, Dove, Drake- and Rlchter, wltb the Arctic explorer Dr. Petermaan, of Gotha, were also invited. A special invitation was forwarded to tbe editor of tb#Niw Yjpx Huuld and tbe editors of the other le*4tn* Jcursals of tbe world. The Prince or Wales bad Intended to be preseat, bnt although British royallty may be unrepresented on the great occasion, the President of the Royal Society, Sir Ed ward Sabine, being unfble, through pressure of offlclal duty, to accept the Viceroy's invitation, was allowed to nominate a gentleman to represent the Royal Society, the President's choice, .which has been approved by tbe council, falling on Mr. J. F. Bateman, C. E. Electrlo enlightenment from the hoary lands of Asia and Africa bas enabled us to showalao to the ey 09 of the New World the Illuminations winch blazed along the banks or the Suez Canal, from the house tops and windows of the dwellings lu UmaUla, as well as from every available prominent point of the outer works of the vessels comprising tbe huge fleet to which we have referred; America and Europe, with the exception of England, Joining heartily In the jubilee of civilization near tbe very spot where human tyranny was first stricken down and an "ocean heaved," In the words of tbe poet, "on the march below of the tyrant.*' It was Humanity re suscitated, man made better. Christianity purified and faith "walking on the waters"? all, under the Influences of the animating first principle of science, controlled and rendered more gentle and acceptable by woman? the Empress Eugenie of France. TUB SUEZ CANAL? ITS HISTORY. Under such circumstances we feel called on? not withstanding our previous enterprise m the same direction? to plare before our readers a succlnot history of the Suez Canal from the moment of the first earliest conception o? such a work down to the time of its embracement by M. de L esse pa and its elaboration under his care and by means or Ills energy and perseverance to a successful fruition, and tho "union of tho waters of the sea of pearls wltb the waters of tho sea of corals" been actually effected. To-day, this moment, is therefore most opportune and meet for a review or the great un dertaking which bas been inaugurated in the pre sence of rulers and princes of nations which bad no existence when, 1,400 years before the Christian era, Ring Setl's "navvies" threw up the first spade ful of earth from the line marked out for the original lstnmua of Suez Canal. The period thence till now includes a space of 3,000 years. The work done is colossal In Its character, but tho leading incident* are few, and their recital may be brief. The idea of forming a through water communica tion across the isthmns or Suez was familiar to the Egyptians under the Pharaohs, though with ends in view widely different from thoso with which the nineteenth century promoters of tbe undertaking have been animated, in those days tbe whole of the lakes which He across the Isthmus were flooded. Nothing required to be done save to dig tronches betweeu each, and so connect thom. Ring Sell L commenced the enterprise, and a thousand years later (320 B. C.) Necbas worked to death 120, ooo men in renewing it. The Romans and tho Arabs, as they successively occupied the country, patcned up and extended the canal; but in a more enlightened age, the Caliph Almansour, being at Issue with his sub jects in a province through which the canal passed, and ueinv desirous of starving them into subjeo tion, destroyed the route by which they were accustomed to receive provisions. This was in the eighth century, and the idea of connecting tbe Red Sea with the Mediterranean slept for a thousand years, when it was reawakened In the mind of a man for whom such a work bad a pe culiar charm. In 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte the First, then serving the French republic as commander of tbe expedition to Egypt, proposed that a canal, capable ol being navigated by sea-going ships, should be cut across the Isthmus of Suez; but he was mot by the curious yet ttme-honored objection that the waters of tbe ited Sea were not on the same level as those of tbe Mediterranean, and that the conseqnenoe of putting them into communication would be some tbing dreadful. Bonaparte scouted this Idea as be ing contrary to the scientific laws which govern tho globe; but he, nevertheless, directed the commission of savants which accompanied the expedition to sur vey tbe isthmns wltb the view of ascertaining tbe twu of uts tiro MM. Xttfl rwuit ir?p Llssere, an engineer or high standing, wbo conducted the survey, reported that one sea was higher than the other by several Inches, and the Idea or connect ing them was thereupon abandoned. The statement of the French engineers, though at first accepted as being the result of a special survey made under competent direction, was so directly opposed to the teachings ot science tbat presently It began to be hinted that there must be ? mistake on one side or the other, and it was generally agreed that it was more likely to Have been committed by the surveyors. In 1830 Lieutenant Waghom? to whose memory a monument has been erected on the bancs ot the canal? planning the British overland route, re-surveyed the Isthmus or Suez, and settled the question by demonstrating an almost perfect equality of level between the two seas. At this time M. de Lesseps was serving hi* diplomatic appren ticeship in the French Consulate at Cairo, and the laying ot the bugbear which had hitherto prevented engineers from seriously considering both sides of a project for dividing the continents, suggested to bis mind the possibility of carrying out the ?cnoma. n? felt ? powerful "call" to the woie, but it was plainly more than might be undertaken by a man aged twentr-slx years, and but Just started In life. M. de Lesseps, however, did not by any means abandon the idea because circum stances happened to make It Impracticable at the moment. Ho carried It with him to Barcelona, whither he was shortly after removed, and where be gained great fame by his conduct during the siege of 1842. He kept It before him in Rome, where in 1848 he further distinguished himself by presuming to differ from his government on the question of the French occupation of tnat city, and by honestly avowing bis sentiments and .Baenflclng his position thereto. In 1864 the opportunity for which he had long waited arrived. Mahomed Said, the Viceroy of Egypt, Invited him to pay a visit to Catro, and one day, while crossing the desert from Alexandria to the capital, M. de Lesseps opened out his scheme to his Highness. Mahomed was delighted with the Idea , which he was shrewd enough to pcrcelve was fraught with great advantages to Egypt, and pledged himself to support the undertaking by every means In his power. It was In the beginning or November that this conversation took placc, and on the 30th day of the same month M. de Lesseps was in possession of a vlceroyal firman bestowing upon him the exclusive right to construct a mari time canal across the Isthmus of Suez. M. Lesseps had reached an ngc at which most men begin to think of rest when he commenced the work for which he was bom; but if he had been twenty five instead ot fitty he could fiot have set about doing It with more ardor. At the outset difficulties were no sooner overcome than others arose. It waa necessary to obtain the Sultan's confirmation of the Viceroy's firman, and the Sultan was not greatly disposed to further an enterprise which, whatever became of the original shareholders, could not fall to add to the importance of Egypt? a dependency already too precocious to suit the Jealous policy of the Porte. The late Lord Palmerston, possibly foreseeing an ulterior French "annexation'' of Egypt, canal and all, set his face against the project, and was supported by some of the British Journals, the writers or which In leading articles which M. de Lesseps carefully preserved In his desk and gleefully shows to lus friends, styled the promoter of the scheme, the "High Priest of the Egyptian Enterprise," and other funny names. Scientific men demonstrated the Im possibility of the undertaking, and even Stephenson lent the weight of Uia then great authority to crush It. But the energy of M. de Lesseps triumphed over all, and in 1868, four years after he had definitively taken the matter In hand, the subscription list of the Corapagnle Unlverselle da Canal deSuez was opened on all the stock Exchanges of Europe. Shares were taken up with encouraging alacrity, and on the 28th April, I860, possession was taken, In the name ot the Suez Isthmns Canal Company, ot a narrow belt of sand on the northern coast of the Isthmus, washed ou one side by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the other by the shallow waters of Lake Menzaleh. The first point which the engineers under tho direction of M. de Lesseps turned their attention to was the creation of a port for tho ships which brought from Europe the machinery and the princi pal supplies of food for the great army of workmen. There was no choice of site. The starting point or tho canal was fixed, and there must be the port, notwithstanding the fact that the water was at the time so shallow tbat nothing bigger than a barge could approach within half a mile of the bcach. The only thing to be done was to run out seaward break waters, as described in the different maps, on either side ot the space required for the harbor, and to deepen the enclosure. But before this could be dono it would be necessary to land cargoes of provisions and of heavy machinery, and how were they to be discharged T Thus:? An Island was created at the limit to which the ships might approach; immonse cranes were erected thereon, and by their means the Imports were transhipped into lighters, which conveyed them to the beach. 1(1* building of tbf fcwtwrs wm urovwW with, stones being supplied from the quarry of Gex, near Alexandria; but this course wan !oun<l to en tail great cost and delay, and the men who had made the little Island in the Mediterranean deter mined to make also the stones for the breakwater. They established a manufactory on the seashore, and by an ingenious process moulded, of sand mixed with ume, blocks of clay weighing twenty tons a piece. These being exposed tor a due season to the sun and air. became hard as granite, and of them are built the breakwaters, which, stretching out Into the sea? one a distance of a mile and a half and the other of upwards of a mile, make the II ARBOR OP PORT SAID. While the breakwaters were being built and the har bor deepened, and a town growing up on the narrow belt of sand, the construction of the canal Itself waa vigorously pushed on. The course from sea to sea being definitely marked out the work waa simulta neously commenced along the whole line, ganga of men being told off for stations fixed at equidis tances. Machinery of the most ingenious design and upon the vastest scale was introduced, and, with an unlimited supply or nardy workmen, the canal was growl a# apace, when, in 18?3, events occurred which threatened to put an end to the work altogether. Three years earlier, when the Sultan saw the work actually commenced, and perceived from the character of the men engaged in It that It was very likely to be carried on to the end, he ordered the Vice roy to send away the Frenchmen, and it was only upon the Intervention of the Emperoi that he wltudrew the Injunction. Mow, again, In a manner more peremptory than before, he Interposed, for bade the Viceroy to permit his fellahs to labor upon the Canal, and declared null and void the firman of I860, which conceded to the company the lands necessary for the works. Before this mandate of bis liege lord the Viceroy of Egypt was powerless, the fellahs were withdrawn, and the works came vir tually to a standstill. Attempts were made to sup athe place of the natives by an importation of Eu ean navvies, but under the sun which beats upon the sands of the Isthmus none but of the negro race can do a fair day's digging and live, and, till the matter at issue was settled, the managers were fain to be content with holding the way already made. Again the Emperor of France camo to the rescue, and being appointed arbiter, he early in 1864 effected an arrangement by which the works were resumed under pretty nearly the same circumstances as those under which they were carried on previous to the Sultaa's interdict. Here ends the record of the exceptional difficulties with which the promoters of the buez Canal have had to deal. The history of the last five years Is simply a chronicle of dally progress, and is best summed up in the statement of the fact that the canal la now ready for opening. TUB NAVIGATION OF THB 8UHZ CANAL? OFFICIAL REGULATIONS AND RCLR8. The code regulations for the transit of vessels on the buez Canal were issued some time since by M. de Lesseps. During the inauguration of the canal tbero will be no charge made, and these regulations will not come Into force until the 2ist of the present month of November. Ships of all nations are per mitted to use tho canal, the sole condition being that they do not draw more than twenty-four and a half feet, the canal being twenty-six and a quarter feet deep. steamboats may be propelled in the ordinary manner, but sailing vessels over fifty tons must be towed by the company's service. The maximum speed of vessels in the canal Is flxod provisionally at abont six miles an hour. Navigation is allowed during the night on condition of lares being kept up and a strict watch maintained. Tno commanders of vessels are forbid den to anchor In the canal or to throw earth or rub bish overboard, and if anything should fall over board which they are anxious to recover they are forbidden to try to recover it themselves, but must give notice at the nearest station. THB C1IAKUE FOR TRANSIT from one sea to the other is ten francs per ton and ten francs per passenger, and the cost of towage is fixed at two francs per ton. The pilot, who must be retained on board in case of stoppage. Is to ctiaige twenty francs a day. A reduction of this charge is, however, to De made on those vessels which are towed. RtLlS OF NAVIGATION. The following are the official regulations for the navigation of the Sues canal 1. Navigation on the Suez Maritime Canal la per mitted to all vessels, whatever their nationality, provided tliey do not draw more than seven metres and a half of water; the canal being eight metres deep. Steam vessels may navigate hy means of their own steam power. Hailing vessels, about fto tons burden, must bo towed by the service established for this purposo by the company. Steamers requiring to be towed will arran?e by special contract. Every vessel lowed will provide its own towllne. 2. The maximum speed of vessels oti the canal 1s provisionally fixed at 10 kilometres an hour. 8. Evcrr ship exceeding 100 tons burden must take t pilot employed by the company, who is bound to furnish every inlormation as to the route to be fol lowed. the captain remaining responsible for the oondhct alia handling ot the vessel. 4. wtiena vessel requiring to pass the canal h^s taken np her moorings at Port. said or at Suez the oftqtajft is to enter Wi vetsei at the offlcs and to nay J I S5pJ!5^a*"'" wel1 M tne pilotage fees, tow ?nh<] harbor fees, when due. A receipt will be ftl J! n lm IT j "r"1 be avai,al>le in case or need. i.!L m bound i? rurnlsh tho following partlcu Ihn' ?T Nanle an(1 nationality of the vessel, name of ?i 1 names of the owners and ciiartererg, port whence nailed and destination, draught of ?,f Passengers, tonnage of the slilp documents measurement, certiaed by official ?i6.\,lD 1,16 formalion of trains the captain, furnished with a number according to his receipt, aerv JJ}I a? a way bill, and alter haviug received the b'm ? will take up the position assigned to ?. Every vessel about to enter the canal Is to have her yards braced up and booms topped. She must have two anchors? one forward and one aft? to allow of anchoring at the first order of the pilot. fcT,ery vessel must have, during the passage nrrt.J.n ? * boat'n to* witli a hawser readyiln nf ?h? ^Lcaso 01 nea 10 oarry out her hawser to one of the mooring piles placed along the two banks of canal. j'3*' Tlle captain ta bound to keep tJ. * 2 eolc bott ni*,lt an<* <5 ay. to be ready ? fr? - or cut the tow lines at the erst order (4.) During the night voasela win keep lights burn }?? ^rding *0 regulation, and a lookout forward it tiS nll.o tea? ta# or other steamer win wnistlo at the passage of curves at the approach of vesseia are to be passed or crowed, and atTho lyproach of dredging or other engines which they op^^d.^uofrvj.0 ? slacken speed, each keeping me starboard bank or atop, according to the order of the pilot, (a i wiun re<zuire? to paM another goingm the direction, warning must be given by signal at least speed U to keep So th5 ktarboyd bank and to slacken speed as much as nhuJlh' Jeaael* which for any cause whatever are 11 10 t 8 canal are, as soon as possible to place themselves on the windward oauk and' moor fore and aft. (i) Incase of nec.-ssarr ston page, and when it Is impossible to reach a siding which Is always to be done if possible, the cantani must immediately give notice by signals by dav aud by lamps by night, fore and aft. m.) jn case t>f grounding the agents of the company win havo th<j right to direct the means of getting ttie vessel off and. if necessary, of unloading? tne whole at tho expense of whoever may have caused the grounding ?? sro lorblduen (i) to anchor in the canal, except iu case oi absolute necessity and not without the pilot's consent. (2.) To throw into the canal earth, ashes, cinders or any otner mate rials. (3.) In case oi anything falling into the oaual a declaration is to 1ms made to the pilot, who is bound otransmu It to the agent at the nearest station (4. The captain is lormdden to Ash nD any thina fallen Into the canai, except under tne direction of the company's agents. (5.) The salvage o! an ob ectl fallen into the caual is at the expeuse ol the captain expenses restored on payment of thwe 10. captains will bind themselves, on receiving a <?py of theie regulations, to obey every order for the purpose of carrying them out. U. The dues to be paid arc calculated on the actual tonnage of the vessel, botn as to the transit dues and the towiug aud harbor dues. This tonnage is determined mntil further orders) by tlie official papers on buard. The transit due from one tea to the other is lof. per ton burden and 101. per uasseu ger, payablo at the entrance at i-ort haul or Suez lhe towage dues are tlxed at it. per ton; tho harbor dues for anchoring at 1'ort Said, at lsinaiila and before the platform at Suez, after remaining twenty, lour hours, lor twenty days at the utmost, 6 can times per ton per day, at the placo assigned by the captain of the port. The pilotage dues for the passage of tlie canal aro fixed according to tho draugiit of water, as fol lows:? Up to a metres, 6f. per decimetre; from a to I nietres, lof.: from to a metres, lSf. ; from 8 to metres, 20f. Every decimetre to bu pawl for proportionally according to the category to which the vessel belongs. ' wnicn ?? pilot kept on board, in case of anchorage, win be paid aor. per day. Vessels towed will be entitled dues. 01 twentJr-flve Per cent on the piiotago PEKD. tia LESS EPS, President Director. CONSPLAK JL'HISDICTION IK KllYPT. Ute telegrams from Alexandria report that the mixed International commission prayed for by the Viceroy of Egypt from tho chief European govern ment to Inquire into and to report on the alleged abuses of the capitulations in Egypt was to meet. Sir I'tiilip Irancis, tho Judge of the Supreme Consu lar Court, was named to bo the British delegate com ing from the Levant, and the French government I will be represented by the Cnder Secretary of the Paris Foreign Office. Though the Austrian Prus | sian, Russian and Italian governments were ex-* I P*0""1 10 'oln 10 ta? investigation the names of their respective delegates were not mentioned. Tho Com mission was to meet in Alexandria or Cairo and its functions limited strictly to Inquiring into the at leged abuses of consular jurisdiction and reportina tnerebpon to the governments, .impij wuh , to furnishing the latter with data for judging who ther any modifications of tho existing practice aro On this important part of the subject a communi cation from Vienna lately pubiiahen In Heriinsays: U<mof?/ta neutrliirfn81168 ?hDal na9 ra,9cd lhe 'lues- I very aet?v??? fI^ , .J(Jn" ,Tl1? ''owers are said to tie I rnent foV ir .Yf ,wltn tho a,ra|r at this mo ? bocomini iho ?h ?clare(1 neutral it ruus tlie risk ! I iiPt?SI>n ihf tlieatre of rivalries and struggles to im in rail r nations. Austria Is understood linrrv tn 51 I ? 8tei>t bu* WOUld HOf b? III a n Iet3*?n 0 " J1 c-e- Pru ss i a is reported to be com- ; thl> tiAn?J Pi W1 England, who ardently desires rommSSH ? ltal^' w,,? Be,", nef Eastern ' increasing, is strongly disposed to sup in,F .I% ,i.^ ,(ycc Erance and Itussla? always accord i JVil-v~are ot a contrary opinion. Too ' ' i Principal promoter of tho now com 1 Eli. i works. Is Huppo>ed to hope to obtain certain privileges lor iho French ships, which mnv wwh to ?a'# u?e of the cana); and the latter, who regards with a distrostiui eye every road which Is opened towarus the East, uhd of wtilch she is not mistress, is boneved to entertain the project? if this channel is really accessible to large swaju vessels? of aakiug for a modification of the treaties which regulate the navigation la (he Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. KnclUb Opinion of the KtTecta of the Hue* Can). A London Journal, speaking on this subject. Jus; previous to ttie formal incorporation of the Suez Canal, said:? No doubt next autumn, after the festival of the inauguration, all the European papers will oe Qlle<l with detailed explanations of a matter which aa jet the greater part of Europe seems to regard as s I thing only in its infancy. With the exception ol France, which is interested In the canal in its double capacity of a proprietor and of a merchant, who, through it, must come Into the possession of the whole trade of Egypt, Austria la the only country thai has taken any practical steps in anticipation of the changes the canal must unavoidably produce 1q the relations of Europe with Asia, and moro especially wiin China and Japan. The government of Vienna, perfectly aware 01 the Importance which the port ol Trieste u about to acquire, has sent au important expedition to tho chief places of Eastern Asia wltu a view to Inquire Into the conditions of their trade, as well as to introduce samples of Aus trian manufactures into the now markets. The re sult or this expedition muni be, no doubt, of great importance for Austria, and 1 u return is looked for ward to with all the more ca^lrness as the expedi tion is believed to have beeu formed In a more satis lactory manner than might have been expected of bureaucratic Austria. It seems to be com posed of several practical men of unquestion able competence. No other continental nation has as yet done anything in this way, although the interest of all of them arc involved in tins mat ter, aud must, we fear, turn to the disadvantage of England if it will not take any special stops in ac cordance with the new circumstances, some of which we shall indicate. The impulse which the Suez Canal must give to the trade of (Spain, Italy and Ureece may be leit out of view as being of mere local interest in consequence of the very uature of the chief products of those countries. Hut If. also, we put aside France, which will apply its commer cial energies chiefly and for the first time to the de velopment of the Egyptian trade, wu shall be Obliged to admit that the changes likely to take place in the trade ol the rest of Europe will be very considerable indeed. Trieste, Odessa, Taganrog and the mouth of the Danube must attalu in a few years an importance that they never possessed be fore, and whicu might easily raise them tu some respects to the rank of Marseilles, if not to that o t Liverpool or Southampton. Presuming that two parcels of goods ot the same quality ana at tha same price are consigned to China, the one from Trieste or Odessa, the other from London, the rormer will have an the advantages ol a considerably re duced freight and of about ten to twelve days' le.?? travel. Such conditions must inevitably beneOt tho productions of Austria, as well as of Uussta, at tha expense of England. Holland and partly of France. To Austria aud Russia mar be added also a part ol Uertnauy. uerraau lactones, situated at a distance or auout eight to twelve hours by rail from Vienna, win obtain all the advantages of a commnnlcatlou with Eastern Asia by small ships loading at Vienna and sailing down the Danube, the Black Sea and the feucz Canal, without any inconvenience or reshlp piug. or course, great advantages will still be on the side ol the best produce; but in the trade witn Asia the price is more looked to than the quality, and II U very likely that this state of things wll continue for u long time. Moreover, it is not at all probable that (icrinany. the trade belug established, will re tram from improving its produce, lX the demand sug gest* improvement. .11. Ferdinand I>e Letiepi. flaring thus chronicled ttie history ami work of the Suez Canal, past and present, its completion and opening, the muster ot crowned heads and distin guished personages and the peoples on lta banks, tha presence and inspiration of the Empress of France, the reorganization ot a great fleet lor lta passage id the wake of her Majesty's yacht, the signal, ths start and the run through and time to Iaraaiila, it la but proper that we should conclude with a sketch of tbe life of M. de Lesseps, the guiding mind under which all has been accomplished, prefacing tha biographical sketch with the most pleasing feature of the announcement of his approaching marriage to or in Paris, the blooming and happy bride being in tbe year of her age. M. Ferdinand ae Lesseps Is the son of Jean Bap tlste Bartheleml, Baron de Lesseps, who was bora at Cette, a French port In the tlulf of Lyons, in tho year 1766. His father was, for Ave years, French Vice Consul at St. I'etersburg. in 1785 hi accompa nies La Perouae on hla voyage to Kamtchatxa, whence he brought, by land, the papers containing a description of the expedition. In 1733 ho waa ? onsul at Cronstadt and SL Petersburg. From St. Petersburg ho was called by the Emperor Napoleon I., in the year 18T2, to Moscow, and appointed lntendant oi tbe latter city. In 1814 he proceeded to Lisbon, and was stationed there as Consul until 1823. He died In Tarts. May 8, 1834. Ills son Ferdi nand was born at Versailles. In 1*05, and Is. conse quently, In bta aixty-tounh year, though hiB appear ance ia that of a man little past middle age. In 1826 ha waa attache to the French consulate at Lisbon. Two years subsequently found him engaged in the com mercial department of the French Ministry o( Foreign Affaire. During tbo latter part of 1*24 ba was attach^ to tbe consul General at Tanis, and la 1831 was despatched by hla government as Consul to Alexandria, m Egypt. Seven years subsequent to bis appointment at Alexandria, and when ne waa in bis thlrtv-flfth year he waa sent aa Consul to Rot terdam. From thia place be proceeded to Malaga, in 1939, to negotiate wltn tbe Spanish government ia behalf of Frencb commero*. In the latter port of the same rear he waa transferred to the consulate at Barcelona, where, during that and tbe two following yeara, be waa especially active, and signally dis tinguished himself against tne reign of Kspartero. In 1844 he waa again in Alexandria, whither be wu sent to take the place of M. Lavalette. lie did not remain long in Egypt. Returning to his former position in Barcelona, be waa witness to some of tha scenes of the Spanish revolution of February, la 1S48 ne was appointed French minister at the court or Madrid. Remaining at the Spanish capital about a year, he returned to Tans immediately after the revolutions of 1848, and in May of tbe following year was despatched as envoy of the French republic to the republican government or Mazzinl. at Koine, wbcra he took a leading part in the abortive negotiations winch preceded the restoration of UW Tope by a French army, in 1854 be received a commission rrom tne Srxri to d 'Etudes du caruil ite Suez, at Tarls, to negotiate with said Pacha for the construction of the canal, lirst projected In 1818. Accordingly, to ward the close of that year, wo again And hun on tne Isilimua preparing for bis work. Hid mission was crowned wltn success, and tha necessary concession was made In November or that year* A nalace and retinue or servants were as signed to hli use, aud he was treated as a guest ot the \ iceroy with the utmost respect. (ireat opposi tion followed, especially frotu England, aud It waa not till January, ib.">t>, that the second and fuller con cession was granted by Said Pacha and the "Inter, national company" fully organized. in 18.18 M. ne Lesseps succeeded in raising two hundred millions of franco in France alone, aud in 1859 he proceeded to Egypt and planted in tbe har bor or the ancient Pclusium, where Port said now stands, the Egyptian fla?. Laying at tho same time the foundation stone ror a lighthouse, ho proudly proclaimed the work commenced. Fresn uittlcnities, cluetly or apolitical nature. Interposed; but I.esseps never despaired, lti I8i9 he had the sat isfaction of seeing his company and work placed up hi a dim looting, though the final decision of the French Emperor was not given till July, 1884, and from that time to the present hour tbe canal has steadily progressed. The perFonal appearance of M. de Lesseps is very striking; though long past mtddie age, he baa a fresh and even you'.hiul appearance. Hotn lace and figure are well preaerved; Ills slightly curling gray hair setting oif in pleasing contrast his brozed yet clear complexion, his brmht eye and gonial sunl". He Is aomewiiat over the medium stature. Is pos sessed of a compact and well knit irame, he carries bis head erect and moves about wltn a buoyancy and animation perfectly marvellous in one of hm years. His address is that of the French gentleman he is: his manners are winning, his voice clear and under most oxcelietn control. What is, perhaps, the most remarkable is, that with great gentleness of speech aud suavity of manner he combines a strength or will and steadfastness of purpose worthy of Napoleon. Though beset by difficulties and scoffed aud jeered at alike by rrlend aud foe, he has never for ouo moment swerved from his purpose or relaxed hia efforts to accomplish It. Neither the sneers of Stephenson ana his associat* Engllan engineers nor the heavy broadside ol the London "Thunderer," ma le any visible impression on the will or conduct of Lesseps. He early learned to labor and to wait. "Tai i??tr vrinclne ?le com menoer Y>ir avoir ui flsntew*"-"My principle from the commencement waa to nave contldeuce. FiRE AND KPUBKHl Severnl .Hen Injured. A fire was discovered about half-past tweivo o'clock yesterday in the rear or No. 123 Cedar street, caused by a leak in tho main gas pipe. Tha firemen and police promptly arrived and forced open the door, when an explosion Instantly occurred, indicting injuries more or less severe upon ihe following persons abont the head, lace and hands:? James Kooney, assistant foreman; John McKewn and Theodore liakeu, firemen, of Kngluo No. fl; John Mccarty, laborer, residing at No. 1J8 New Cham bers street, and William Pogarty, occupant or the premises as a boarding bouse. All the injure I parties were conveyed to the l went y ?eveniii precinct station house, attended by Surgeon Andrews and sent to tnelr homes, witn tne excep tion ol McCarty. who was ao hadty burned aa to render his removal to Kellevue Hospital expedient The builulug was damaged ?260; iuUy covered or insurance. ' FELONIOUS ASSAULT_8Y A WCKAN. The aeraroant of tho Eighth precinct was laat nlghl notified by a physician that he had a patient at Nok C8 woost r street lyiug n v critical condition from Injuries Inflicted by another woman. It appeara tuat t:iu (mured woman, Maggie Wilson bv name, on Friuay nlfht had a aire t quarrel wiih i.tz, is Ben n "it, ot No. lui x liroome street, who klrke I bar se verely in one of ho suits. Tne gir. icuncu waa ai res ed an I locked up l.i tbe Prince street station house.