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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, August 17, 1872, Image 6

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030313/1872-08-17/ed-1/seq-6/

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mod. 1 might tk?n have gone hark and doposei r
ffcereef and Awatbe, but this would have required c
ve or six months and In that time, or perhaps Ichs ?'
Ome. at least, I had good reason to hope that the t
exploration would be finished and my return woutd c
be up Albert I.Hko and Tanganyika Instead of the ?i
ireary port of Manyema and Guba I already Know v
perfectly. The desire to finish the geographical r
part of my work was, and Is, meat intense every t
ftxue my ftunll.v cornea into my mind. I also hoped *
that, as usual, ere Ions I should rain Influence over r
my attendants, but 1 never had experience with r
Danian UAulom BlnvAfl lidfnrr* uhn ht<1 lmlkiHj?il > tl
tittle ot the Mohammedan religion but Its fulsome t
Edde, and whose previous employment had been v
rowbeailng Arab debtors somewhat like the low- s
eat class of our sheriff officers. t
Aa we went across the second groat bend of the f
Lualaba they showed themselves to be all uccom- t
plished oowards, in constant dread of being killed t
>p.i eaten by Manvema. Fulling to induce me to *
send all the goods and return, they refused to go a
beyond a point far down the Lualaba, where I was t<
almost in sight of the end towards which I strained, c
They n?w tried to stop further progress by false- b
hood and they found at a camp of OJIJian and main- h
Sand Arabe a number of willing helpers to propa- f<
aate the slander "that I warned neither Ivory nor e
Saves, but a canoe to kill Munyema." Can It bo l<
wondered at that people who had never seen d
strangers before, or even heard of white men, be- c
Meved them? By this slander, and the ceremony h
of mixing blood with the head men, the main- d
land and Pjljian Arabs secured nine canoes, whllo I p
sou Id not purchase one. But (our days below this p
art narrows occur, in which the mighty river la a
compressed by rooks, which jut In, not opposite to fi
each other, but alternately; and the water, rush fig
round the promontories, forms terrible whirl- a
pools, which overturned one ol the canoes and ao l<
terrified the whole party that by deceit preceded o
W that they returned without ever thinking of A
dragging the canoes past the difficulty. This 1 r
should have done to gain the confluence of the Lo- >
name, soino fifty miles below, and thenco ascend t
through Lake Lincoln to the undent fountains be- t
yonri the copper mines of Katanga, and this would s
nearly llnlsh my geographical work. But It was so u
probable that the dyke which forms the narrows I
would be prolonged across country Into Lomame c
that 1 resolved to turn towards tnls great river v
considerably above the narrows, and where the
distance between Lualaba and Lomame Is about t<
eighty miles. a
A friend, named Dngumbe, was reported to bo li
coming from UJU1 with a caravan of 2u0 guus and v
Dine undertraders with their people. The Banian u
laves refused duty three times, and the Bole s
reason they alleged for their mutiny was fear of I
going where "there were no Moslems." The loss i
of all their wages was a matter of no importance to i
any one except their masters at Zanzibar. As an t
Englishman tncy knew I would not beat or chain l
them, and t\yo of them fraukly avowed that all they 1
needed for obedience was a free man to thrash <
them. The slave traders all sympathized with
tbem, for they hated my being present to witness '
their atrocities. The sources of the Nile they knew
to be a shum; to reveal their slaving was my true
object, and all dread being "written against." I
therefore waited three months for Dugumbe, who
appeared to be a gentleman, and oifered 4,ojo
rupees, or ?400, for ten men and a canoe on LoBame,
and, afterwards, all the goods I believed I
ted at Uiljl, to enable me to finish what I had to do
without the Banian slaves. Ills first words to me
were, "Why, your own Blaves are your greatest
enemies, l near everywhere how they have baffled
vou." lie agreed to my proposition, but required
few days to consult his associates.
Two days afterwards, or on the 13th of June, a
Massacre was perpetrated which flllod mo with
. each intolerable loathing that I resolved to yield
to the Banian slaves, return to UJlji, get meu from
the coast, and try to finish the rest of my work by
golug outside the area of Ujijlan bloodshed Instead
Of vainly tiring from Its interior outwards.
Duguinbe's people built their huts on the right bank
cC the Lualaba, at a market place called Nyaflwe.
On hearing that the heatBslave of a trader at Uiiii
had. in oraer to get canoes cheap, mixed blood with
the head men of the Bagonya on the left bauk, they
were disgusted with his assurance, and resolved to
Cnisn Mm aim tuaitc an impression in tnc country
fitvor of tlielr own greatness by an assault on
(be market people and on all the Bagenya wlio had
Oared to make friendship with any but themselves.
Tagamolo, the principal rudertvatler of Dugumbe's
party, was the perpetrator^ The market was atiended
every fourth day by between 3,000 and 3,(joo
people. It was held on a long slope or land which,
Sewn at the river, ended In a creek capable of con,
talning betweou fifty and sixty largo canoes. The
majority of the market people were women, many
of them very pretty. The people we3t of the river
brought fish, salt, pepper, oil, grass-cloth, lion,
fowls, goats, sheep, pigs, (n great numbers to ex- t
change with those east of the river for cassava
grain, potatoes and other farinaceous products.
Thej have a stiong sense of natural justice, and nil
unite in forcing each other to fair dealing. At first
my presence made them all afraid, but wishing to
gain their confidence, which my enemies tried to
adermlne or prevent, I went among them frequently,
and when tliey saw no harm In me became
very gracious j the bargaining was the finest acttngl
ever saw. 1 understood out few of the words ]
that flew off the glib tongues of the women, bat
tlielr gestures spoko plainly. I took sketches of
the fifteen varieties of fish brought in, to compare
Mem with those of the Nile farther down, unci all
were eager to tell their names. But on tho date referred
to 1 had left the market only a minute or
two when three men whom I had seen with guns,
and felt Inclined to reprove them for bringing them
Into the market puce, but had refrained by attributing
It to ignorance in new comers, began to fire
Into the dense crowd around them. Another party,
down at the canoes, rained their balls on the panicKruck
multitude that rushed into these vessels,
l threw away their goods, the men forgot their
paddles, the canoes were jammed in the creek and
oonld not be got out quick euouiih, so many men
and women sprung Into the water. The woinenrof
the ielt bank are expert divers for oysters, and a
nllne of heads showed a crowd striking oat for
land a mile off; to gain It they had to turn the
left shoulder against a current or between a mile
and a half to two tulleB au hour. Had tlicy gone
diagonally with the current, though thut would
liave been three miles, many would have gained
UIU IUUIUi n nuo uviuiiiv IV ow vuv ucimi nnoi I
another disappear, some calmly, others throw- i
Ing their arms Irtgb up towards trio lireat i
Valuer of all, and golug down, some of the men
who got canoes out ol the crowd paddled quick, i
with hands and arms, to help their frleads; three I
took people in til) thev all sank together. Cue man !
had clearly loot his head, lor he paddled a canoe i
which would have held Ufty people straight up
stream uowhero. Hie Arabs estimated the loss at
between four and live hundred souls. Iiugutnbc |
aent out some of his men in one of thirty canoes '
which the owners tu their fright could not cxtri- i
eate, to 6ave the sinking, uno lady refused to l>o
taken on boardbecause she thought that she was
to be made a slave; but he rescued twenty-one. and ,
f his own accord sent them next day home. Many
escaped and came to me, and were restored to
their rriends. When the firing began on the terror- j
Stricken crowd at the canoes, Taganiolo's band
began their assault on the people on the west of
tbo river and continued the Are all day. I counted
seventeen villages in names and next day six. l?ujrumbe's
power over the underlings is limited, but
be ordered them to cease shooting. Those in the
market were so reckless they shot two of their own
number. Tagamoio's crew came bick next day, m
canoes, shouting and firing off their guns as ii believing
that they were wortny of renown.
Next day about twenty head men lied front the
west bank and came to my house. There was no
occasion now to tell them that the Kucllsh hail no
desire for human blood. They begged hard that I
should go over with them and settle with them,
and arrange where the uew dwellings of each
.ahould l-e. I was so ashamed of the bloody Moslem
Company in which 1 found myself that 1 was unable
to look at the Manyema. 1 confessed my griei and
.Shame, and was entreated, if 1 must go, not to
leave them now. Jiupuinbe spoke kindly to them,
and would protect them as welt iib he could against
bis own people; but when 1 went to Tagatnoio to
auk back the wives and daughters of some of the
head men, he always ran off mid hid himself.
This inas.-acre was tue most terrible scene 1 ever j
aw. 1 cannot dcsctibc my reelings, ami am thankful
that 1 did not give wav to them, but by Liuguinbo's
advice avoided a bloody leud with liicu who,
for the time, seemed turned into d.-aious. The whole
transaction wag the more deplorable, tnuanrjCh |
awe have alw ?y? heard from tne Minyeinu that
though the mcu oJ Die districts mat t>e engaged iu
Actual hostilities. the worueu pass from one market
place to another with their wares and Mere I
ever known to be molented. The change has ;
come only with these alien bloodhouuds, and all
the bloodshed has taken place in order that captive*
might be seized when' it could i>e done without
danger, and In order thut the slaving privileges '
tH a petty sultan shoulJ produce abundant rrult.
HcarWore and great!; d*press:.?l in splrtta by tlio
many instances of "man's inhuuiKiuty to man'' I '
bad unwillingly seen. I commenced tl* long, weary
tramp to u?t, witn the blazing hud /ight overhead.
The mind acted on the body, ana it Is no over- i
statement to say that almost every stop of between
rmr Hundred and five hundred niHtu win In pain,
felt bb if dying on iny feet, uud I came very near .
to deuth Id a more sumniarv way. It ls\wltnln tUe
rea of bloodabed that danger alone occurs. J
could not Induce my Moslem slaves to veB.ture out- ,
ide that atea or sphere. They Knew bettt r than I
dnl, "Was Muliainad not the greatest 01 .a", and
their prophet P' ^ \
About midway back to Hainbarre we earner fo villages
where I had formerly Been the young men i
compelled to carry a trader's ivory. WiieD 1 came |
on the scene the young meu bad laid down the
tunics and said. "Now we have helped y?u eo/ar J
r. without par, let the men of other villager <?? a* j
much." ">o, no, take up the Ivory;" aud tyke it .
up they did, only to go a little way and cast IcJnto 1
tbe dense vegetation on each s,dc the path we ,
afterwards know bo well. When the trader reached
It's next stage he sent ba<k In* men to demand tht:
"Rtoien" ivory, and when the eiders denied the
theft they were llred upon aud five were killed,
eleven women and children captured, and also
twenty-five goat*. The remaining elders then
talked the matter over, and the young uien rolnted
mil Hi a ivnrv ami rurrled It twentT-lwo iniW-H ?liir
the traiJer. He clioae to nay that three of
lite tUMkH were wiMinp, and carrlcd awaj
* all the houIh and jroatfl lie had captured.
' They nov turned to U)o only rviourcv tucy
"r
I-J
L
NEW YOK?
mew. ana when Dagnate passed, waylfld
ind killed one of tola people. In our return mo
>assed another camp of CJlJIan traders, and t*ey
?rgged me to allow their men to join m? party,
rticse included seventeen men of Manyeina who
'a<l volunteered to carry ivory to IJJIji and goods
iafk again. These were the very llrst of the Manema
who had in modern times gone lifty miles
rom their birthplaces. As all tlu Arabs had been
m.lolncd by Sayed Majld, the late SulUn, to show
no all the kindness in tneir power, 1 could not deline
their request. My party was increased to
l;?hty, and a long line ol men bearing elephants'
usfcs gave uh all the appearance of traders. The
mly cloth I had left some months befoic consisted
ir two red blankets, which were converted into a
rlarlng dress, unbecoming enough, but there were
in T\iirr>TM?n.nn in ?o#? it. Tnn ma 1!routed nifln. now
mrrung for revenge, remembered the drees, and
'ery naturally tried to kill the man who had j
nurdered their relations. They would bold
10 I'arley. We had to pass through Ave
lours of forest, with vegetation ho dense that
ty stooping down and peering towards the mm
re could af timet* only see a sbadow moving, and a
light rustle In the rank vegetation was a spear
brown from (be ahadow of an lnfnriated man. oar
>coplc In front peered into every little opining in
he deuse thicket before they would venture past It:
his detained tbe rear, and two persons near to me
fore slain. A targe spear longed past olose behind;
oother mlnsed mc by about a foot In front. Coming
o a part of the forest of about a hundred yards
loarcd for cultivation, I observed that tire bad
een applied to one of the gigantic trees, made still
igher by growing on an anthill twenty or more
let high. Hearing; the crack that told the lire had
aten through, 1 felt that there win no danger, It
>oked so far away, till It apnearcd coming right
own toward me. I ran a if w paces back, and it
ame to the ground only one yard oil, broke in
everal length*, and covered mo with a cloud of
ust. My attendants ran back, exclaiming, " Peace,
caco I you win finish your work In spite or all these
eople, and In spite of everything." I, too, took it
s an omen of good that I bad three narrow escapes
rom death In one day.
The Manyema are expert In throwing the spear,
,nd as 1 bad a glance of him whoso spear missed by
ess than an Inch behind, and ho was not ten yards
ift, 1 was saved clearly by the good hand of the
Llmlghty Preserver of men. 1 can say this devoutly
iow. hnt In rnnnlnor tho terrible irauntlet for five
reury hours among furies all either to signalize
liciiiHolvos by slaying one they sincerely believed
0 have been guilty of a horrid outrage, no elevated
entlmcnts entered the inind. The excltemcnt
ave way to ovorpowerlug wearluess, ami I Tclt us
suppose soldiers do on the Held of hattle?not
ouragi'ouii, but pcrfcctly indifferent whether I
re re Killed or not.
On coming to the cleared plantations belonging
? the next group of villages all Uy down lo rest,
nd I poon saw their headman walking unarmed
11 a stately manner toward us. He had heard the
ain tiring of my men into the dense vegetation
nil came to inquire the cause. When he had conulted
Ills elders he sent an offer 16 me in the evenng
to collect all his people, and if I lent him my
>eopie who had guns he would brlncc me ten goats
ustead of three milch ones 1 had lost. 1 again explained
the mistake under which his next neighnors
labored, and as he understood the whole case
lie was ready to admit that my joining in his undent
feud would only make matters worse. Indeed,
my old Highland blood hud been routed by
the wrongs which his foes had suffered, and all
through I could not help sympathizing with them,
though I was the espccial object of their revenge.
1 have, Ac. DAVID LIVINGSTONE,
Iler Majesty's Consul, Inner Africa.
Letter No. 5?Dr. Livingstone to Dr. Kirk.
Ujiji, October 80, 1871.
Sir?1 wrote on the 25th and 23th current two
rcry hurried letters, one for you and the other for
Lord Clarendon, which were forwarded to Cnyanpembe.
1 had Jest reached this pince thoroughly
aded in body and mind, and found that your agent,
ihereef Uoslier, had Bold off all the goods you sent
"or slaves and Ivory for himself. He had divined
>n the Koran and found that I was dead. He also
wrote to the Governor of U ay any em be that he had
sent slaves to Manyema, who returned and reported
uy decease, and be wished the permission of the
Governor to sell the goods. He, however, knew
'Tom men who camo from me in Manyema that I
iras near CJiJi at Bambarre, and waiting for him
ind supplies; but when my friends here protested
igainst the sale of my goods he Invariably aniwered,
"You know nothing about the matter. I
Hone know that the Consul ordered me to remain
uic month at Ujiji, and then sell of and retnra."
Vhen I came he said that Ludha had so ordered
llm.
From the Banian slaves you sent I learn tha t
..udlia went to All bin Balexn Burasclild, a person
lotoriously dishonest, and .he recommended Shercef
ioaher as leader of the caravan. No sooner did ho
>btain command than he went to Muliamad Nassur,
who furnished twenty-flve boxes of soap and eight
cases or brandy, to be retailed In the course of the
ionrney Inland. At Bagomo.vo Hhcreef got a quantity
of opium and gunpowder from two Banians
there, whose names are unknown to me. In their
House Shereef broke the soap boxes and stowed the
contents in my bales; the brandy case* were kept
entire, and pagazl employed to carry them nod toe {
jplum and gunpowdor, and paid oat of my bales.
Hie Banians ana Sbereef had Interposed their own
rade speculation between two government oill:ers,
and thenceforward all the expenses of the
ourney were defrayed oat of my supplies, and
ihereef was able to send back to his accomtlicea
five fra8llah8 of Ivory from I'nyany >inbe,
afoe some sixty pounds; the pagazl agnln paid by
ae. He was In no hurry to aid me, but spent foureen
months in traversing a distance that could
oslly have been accomplished in three. If we deluct
two months lor detention by sickness, we
iave still twelve months, of which nine were demoted
to the private interests of the Banians and
ihereef. He ran riot with my goods, buying tho
t>est provisions and drink the country afforded;
lived in my tent till it was so rotten and full of
holes 1 never could use it ouce; remained two
months at three several places retailing brandy,
opium, gunpowder, and soap; and these being
finished, on rcuchlng Ujijl he would 30 no further.
Here It was commonly reported he lay drunk tor
n month at a time; the duro pombe
and palm toddy all bought with my
lino satusam beads. He issued tweuty-four
punls of calico per month for himself,
sight yards for cach of his n'.aves, eight yards for
tils woman, and eight yards tor Awuthe, the other
head man: und when he sent seven o( the Banian
slaves employed by Ludha to 111c at Bambarre he
would not allow me more than two frasllohs of the
very coarsest beads, evidently exchanged for my
Hue aamsams, a few pieces of calico and in great
mercy half the coffee and sugar. Ttae sluves caino
without loads. Sliereef finished up, as above
stated, by selling off all except the other hair of tho
coifee and sugar and one buudle of unsalable
bead*. He left four pieces of calico and went off
from this; but, hearing or disturbances at I'nyanyeuibe,
deposited his Ivory in a village near, and
coming back took the four pieces or c ilTco, and 1 received
of all the line calico and dear beads you sent
not a single yard or string of beads.
Awatlie, the other head man employed, was a
spectator of all the plunder by Shereef from the
coast onwards, and never opened ins volcc in remonstrance
or in sending buck a report to his employer.
He carefully concealed an Infirmity from
you which prevented him from performing a single
duty for rnv. lie had his "sheepa" long before lie
w.is engaged, and ne stated to me tnat the large
fleshy growth came up at once on reaching rjljl.
It Is not hydrocele but sarcocclc, und his own
Mtateinenf moved that the nain he feigned had en
tirely ceased when bugumbe, a friend of mine,
offered to convey htni by short, easy stages to me.
lie refused, from believlng that the llauians have
so ruucli power that he wilt be paid in full for all
tho time he has been dishonestly devouring my
goods, though <|Uite unable to do any duty. Dugmube
also offered to convey a packet of letters
that was delivered to Sbcreef here as my agent,
but when he told him that he was about to start it
wuh not forthcoming. It was probably destroyed
to prevent my seeing the Hat of good<* you beat by
one IIns.sutil to Unyanyembe.
With due deference to your judgment, I claim
all the expenses incurred as set down against me
in Ludha's book from the Banians who, by fraud,
converted a caravan to help me Into the gratification
of their own greed. Muhaniad Sassur can
re veal the names of the other Banian accomplices
of Shcreef who connived In supplanting help for mc
Into a trade speculation. They ought also to pay
the slave* sent by Ludha, uud let them (the Iranians)
recover from Bhereef. I report this case to
Her Majesty's government as well us to you, and
belle\a that your hands will thereby be strengthened
to see that Justice is done and that due punishment
be Inflicted on the Banians, on Sliereei and
Awathe, ana on the Binlan slaves who bailled and
thwarted me, Instead ot lulfllllng the engagement
enured into in your presence. A not'! is enclosed
to llis Highness Seyed Burghash, which you will
please present.
Id entrusting the matter of supplies and men for
>ue to the Kanlm Ludtm. tou seem to lmvo been
unaware that our government forbids lt? servants
to euiplo; slavea. The Comiulasloner and Consul
ut I-oauda, on ttie Weat Coaat. Rent all the way to
St. Helena lor somewhat stupid servants rather
than Incur the dlspkiasure of the Foreign Offlcc by
using very clever I'ortuguese slaves within call.
In the very trying circumstance* you mention
during the visitation of cholera, and In the absence
of instructions 1 had enclosed to employ freemen
aud not slaves, as also in the non-appearance of the
cheques for money enclosed In the same lost packet,
the call on LudUa was. perhaps, the easiest course,
and I trust that you will not consider me cngratefuJ
if I point out tjiat It Involved a grave mistake,
litidha la polite enough, tint the ilnve trade, anu,
luderd, most other trade, Is canted on chiefly by
tlic raoncr of Hantaan, Urllish subjects, who receive
moat of the profit* and adroitly let the odium of
slaving rest on Dip Arabs. They hate us English,
tod rejoice more over our failures than succe.ssca.
Ludha sent his own and other Hainan slaves at $?o
a year, while the uaual pay of freemen at Zanzibar
U only from twenty-live to tlttrty dollars a year. He
wiiJ cuarge enormoua Interest on the money ad
vanced, from twenty to twenty-flve per cent; and
even tfupnoslng Shcreers statement that Ludha
told tilid not to go beyond UJtyl. but after one month
sell off al> and return, to be quito untrue, It Is passing
strange that ever/ one of the Hainan Hlaves
employed atoulty aaaertgU ^ey ."WV W
HERALD, SATURDAY. A
r follow, bat to force me back. I had no hold on people
who knew that they would not be allowed to
keep their wages. It la also very remarkable that
the objects of your caravan should be bo completely
frustrated by Uanlana conniving with Shereel
almost within shadow of the consulate, and neither
dragoman nor other paid officials under your orders
gave any information. The characters of All-blnSuk'tH
Hurascliid and his "chum" Shereef could
scarcely nave been iild from them. w ay employ
them without characters ? "Vours, Ac.,
DAVID LIVINGSTONE,
Her Majesty's Consul, Inner Africa.
P. 8.?November 10, 1871.?1 regret the necessity
of bringing the foregoing very unpleasant subject
before you, but 1 have Just received letters and information
which make tno matter doubly serious.
Mr. Churchill informed me by a letter of September
10, 1870, that ller Majesty's government had most
kindly sent ?1,000 for supplies, to be forwarded to
me. Some dlillcultles had occurred to prevent ?600
worth from starting, but in the beginning of November
all were removed. But it appears that you had
recourse to slaves again, and one of these slaves
informs me that goods and slaves all remained at
Uugamoio lour mouths, or till near the end of February,
1871. No one looked near them during that
time, but a rumor reached them that the Consul
was coming and off they started, two days before
your arrtval, not on their business, but on some
private trip ol yonr own. These slaves came to
unyanyerabe In May last, and there they lay till
war broke out and gave them, in July, a goou excuse
to lie there still.
A whole year has thus been spent in feasting
slaves on ?600 sent by government to me. Like
the man who was tempted to despair when he
broke th? photograph of hla wife, I feel inclined to
relinquish hope ot ever getting help from Zanzibar
to finish the little work I nave still to do. I
wanted meu, not slaves, and free men are abundant
at Zanzibar; but if the matter is committed to
Ludha instead of an energetic Arab, with somo
little superintendence by your dragoman or others.
I may wait twenty years and your slaves feast and
felL D. L.
I will Just add that the second batch of slaves
had, like the Crst, two freemen as the leaders, and
one died of smallpox. The freemen in the- first
party of slaved" wore Shereof and Awathe. I enclose
also a shameless overcharge in Ludha's bill
$3?4 oex.?D. L.
Letter No. 6?Dr. UTlngitonc to Eul
Granville.
UJ1JI, Dcc. 18, 1871.
My Lord?The despatch of Lord Clarendon, dated
Slat Hay, 1870, came to this place on tlie 13th ult.,
and its very kindly tone and sympathy afforded me
a world of encouragement. Your lordship will excuhc
me in saying that with my gratitude there
mingled sincere sorrow that the personal friend
who signed it was no more.
In the kind wish expressed for my return home 1
| can join most cordially; indeed, 1 am seized with a
sore longing every time my family, now Rowing up,
comes into my mind; but if 1 explain you will not
deem me unreasonable In making one more effort
to inako a feasible finish np or my work. 1 know
about six hundred miles of the long watershed ol
South Central Africa pretty fairly. From this the
majority of the vast number of the springs of the
Nile do unquestionably arise and form great mains
of drainage in the Great Nile Valley, which begins
in latitude ten to twelve degrees south. But in the
seventh hundred miles four fountains arc reported,
which arc different from all I have seen In rising
from the base of an earthen mouud as full-grown
gushing springs, each of which at uo groat distance
off bccomeB a large river. 1 have heard of this remarkable
mound 200 miles distant on the southwest.
Again, 800 miles distant on the south Mr.
Oswctl and 1 heard that the Upper Zambesi or Lambai
rose at (tills) one point. Then intelligent natives
mentioned It iko miles off on the east, and
again l&o from It on the northeust, and also in the
Manyema country loo miles north-northeast. Intelligent
Arabs who had visited the mound and fountains
spoke of them as a subject of wonder and confirmed
all my previous information. I cannot doubt
of their existence, and 1 have even given names by
anticipation to the fountains whose rivers I know.
nut On the next point, which, if correct, gives
these fountains a historic interest, I speak with
great dittldence, and would rain apologise for mentioning,
on the dim recollections of boyhood, and
without a single book of reference, to hazard the
conJccture that these fountains rising together, and
flowing two north Into the Nile and two south to
Inner Ethiopia, are probably the sources of the Nile
mentioned to Herodotus by the Secretary of Minerva
in the city of Hals In Egypt. The idea imparted
by the words of the ancient historian was
that the waters of the sources welled up In unfathomable
fountains and then parted, half to Egypt
and the other half to Inner Ethiopia.
The ancient traveller or trader who first brought
the report down to Egypt would scarcely be so precise
as to explain of waters that seom to issue
ffom nearly one spot flowed on to opposite
slopes of the watershed (*ic.) The northeast
fountain, Barile Krcrc's, flews as the large rfter
Luflra into Kamolondo, one of four large Takes in
Webb's Lualaba. The centre line of drainage then,
I flint r\r\ (ha nnrlhurAbl nf tlio frimimt Yminrr'u /Uli*
Paraffin) fountain flows through Lake Lincoln, and
ns the River Lomame Joins Webb's Lualaoa before
tbe fourth large lake la formed, of which the outflow
is said to nc Into Pctherlck's branch, two certainly
(low north, and two as certainly flow south;
for Palmcrstou's fountain on the southwest ts the
source of the Llainbal or Upper Zambesi, and Obwell's
fountain ou the southeast, is tire Kaftie,
which far down Joins the same river in "Inner
Kthiopla." I advance the conjecture merely for
what It Is worth, and not dogmatically. The gentlemen
who stay at home at ease may smile af my
assurance in recalling the memories of boyhood in
Central Africa; but let these be tho sources or the
ancients or not, It seems desirable to rediscover
them, so that no one may come afterwards aud cut
mc out by a fresli batch of sources.
I um very unwilling to attach biamo to any one,
aud 1 can only ascribe It to Ignorance at Zanzibar
of our government being stringently opposed to Its
officers employing slave labor that some Ave or six
hundred pounds' worth of my goods were entrusted
to Luriha, a concealed slave dcalor, who again
placed tho supplies In the hands of slaves under
two dishonest freemen, who, as I have described in
my letter of the 14th ult., caused me a great lose of
time aud ultimately of all the goods.
Again, ??00 of goods?this being half of ?1.000
kindly sent by Her Majesty's government to my
aid?was, by some strange hulluclnation, handed
over to Luilha again, aud he again committed them
to slaves and two freemen. All lay feastiug on my
stores at Bagomoyo, ou the mainland opposite Zanzibar,
(rout the latter part of October, 1870, to the
latter part ol February, 1871, and no
one looked near them. They came ou to
Unyanyeiube, a point from twenty days to a month
I east or t his, and lay there till a war which broke out
In July gave them a g.iod excuse to continue there
still. Ludlia is a very polite aud rich Kanlan, but
in this second bill he makes a shameless overcharge
$ytH. All the Hanlaus and Arabs hate to see mc in
the slave mart and dread exposure. Here and In
Nun.\euia I have got into the good graces of all the
Arabs ol position. Hut the Haitian hatred of our
i Interference In the slave trade manifests itself in
I tin: low cunning oi 1111 milittr me muias oi me slaves
seut with the Idea that they are not to follow me,
but, in accordance with some fabulous letter, forcc
mo one*. This they have propagated all through
the country, and really seem to believe it. My let'
ters to the coast having been so often destroyed, I
I had relinquished hope oi ever obtainfng help irom
' Zan/.lbar, mid proposed when I became stronger to
work my way down to Mteza or Baker lor help and
men.
A vague rumor reached DJljt In the beginning ol
' last month that an Englishman had come to I'n!
yanyenibe with boats, horses, men and goods In
I ubundauce. ltwuslnvaln to conjecture w.ho Una
I could be; and my eager Inquiries were met by an{
swers so contradictory that 1 began to doubt if any
| Mranger had come at all. Hut oue day. 1 cannot
say which, for 1 v. as three weeks too fast In my
reckoning, my man susi came dashing up iu great
excitement, and gasped out, "An Englishman coini
ing; see him!" aud oif lie ran to meet him. The
American Hag at the head of the caravan told mc
the nationality of the stranger. It was Henry M.
i Stanley, the travelling correspondent of the Nnw
| York ilKKALi), sent b) the son of the editor, James
<;onlou Bennett, Jr., at an expense of jU.ooo, to ob'
tain correct Information about mc If living, and II
dead to brln(r home my bones. The kindness was
extreme, and made my whole frame thrill with cxj
clteiuent and gratitude.
I had been kit nearly destitute by the moral idiot
Shereef selling o(T my goods for slaves and Ivory for
. himself. My condition was sumclently forlorn, for
I I had but a very rew articles of bat ter left of what I
, had taken the precaution to leave here, In case ol
I extreme need. The stranganews Mr. Stanley had tc
i tell to one for years out ol communication with the
world was quite reviving. Appetite returned, aud
in a week I began to feel strong, ilavlng men and
i goods, and intormatlon that search for an outlet ol
the Tanganyika was desired by sir Koderlck Mur
cliison, we went for a month's cruise down to Its
northern end.
This was a pleasure trip compared to the wearj
; tramplug ol all the rest of my work; but an outflow
1 we did not find.
On returning, on the 13th current, Mr. Stanloj
received a letter from the American consul at /.an
zlbar of lith June last, and Aden telegrams of En
I ropeau news up to the .Nth April. My mail wai
I \iivpmh?r. 1870. and would not have left th<
slaves hud not Mr. Stutiley accidental!; seen It ani
seized It for me. What was done by the Americar
consul could have been done It/ the Kngllsh consul
but for the unaccountable propensity to cinploj
slave trader and slaves.
Seeing no hope of even the third ?500, or lasi
half of the government ?1,000, being placed In anj
other hand* but those of the polite Ludha, 1 hav<
taken the liberty or resolving fo return afullmontl
eastward to secure the aregs of my goods from th<
laves there and accept those that Mr. Stanley offers
hire trecmen at I njanyembe with them and ther
return back to the watershed to finish the little
have to do.
In going and returning from Pnyanyembe I shal
lose three or four months. The anclcnt fountain!
will require eight months more; but in one yea:
from this tlmi', with ordinary health, the geographl
cal work will bo done.
I am presuming tlitrt your Lordship will say, "I
worth doing at un, It 1# worth doing well." All mj
friends will wish me to make n complete work o
the source* of the ancient river. In that wish, It
spite of the strong desire t<*g? home, I Join, bellev
lng that it Is better to do so .now than altcrwurdi
In vain.
Hutting that Your Lvrdshlp w|ll kladiv make al
UGUST 17, 1872-WITH SU
IlowancM for what, to some who do aot know how
hard I have tolled to accomplish ^ix-Beveiiths of
I lie work, III* Y BlJi'CUl UUIIIUUUJ. I I1BTO, mv..
DAVID LIVfNtiBTONE,
t ner Majesty's Consul, Inner Africa.
P. &?The mortality by smallpox In tills region is
i bo enormous that 1 venture to apply to government
lor a supply of vacdne virus to meet me on
I my return?by one portion being Bent la the Governor's
mall bag to the Cano and another portion
by way of Bombay?all convenient baste being enjoined.
Many intelligent Arabs have expressed
to me their willingness to use it. If I
remember rightly, Lady Mary W. Montagu
brought the knowledge ol Inoculation from
Turkey. Tins race, though bigoted, perhaps more
than the Turk*, may receive the superior remedy;
and, if they do. a gi eat boon will be conferred, for
very many thousands perish annually and know no
Srcventlve. The reason for my troubling you is I
o not know any ol the conductors of vaccination
in London, und Professor Phristison, of Ediuburg.
who formerly put the virus up in capillary tubes,
may not now be alive. The capillary tubes are the
only means of preserving the substance trcsh In
this climate 1 have seen, and if your lordship will
kindly submit my request to vaccinators to send
these tubes charged with matter I shall be able at
least to make an effort to benetit this great population.
D. L.
Letter No. T?Doctor Livingstone to Karl
Granville.
Fnyanyeihje, near the Kazeh of Spoke,)
Feb. 20, 1872. J
Mv Lord?My letters to and from the coast have
been bo frequently destroyed by those whose lutercst
and cupidity lead (hem to hate correspondence as
likely to expose their slaving, that I bad nearly lost
all heart to write, but l>eing assured that this
packet win be taken safe home by Mr. Stanley, 1
add a fifth letter to four already penned, the pleasure
ol believing that this will really come into your
lordship's hands overpowering the consciousness of
having been much too prolix.
Tne subject to which 1 beg to draw your attention
is the part which the Banians of Zanzibar, who
are protected British subjects, play in carrying on
the slave trade in Central Africa, especially In
i Manyema, the country west or Ujljl; together
with a proposition which I have very mnch at
heart?the possibility of encouraging the native
Christians of English settlements on the West
Coast of Africa to remove, by voluntary emigration,
to a healthy spot ou this Bide the Continent.
The Banian British subjects have long been and
are now the chief propagators of tlic Zanzibar
ulrtttA *ka/Ia tvtnnnii <?rwl nffftti I hnir mnabafa
gunpowder, balis, flints, beads, brass wire and
calico, are annually advanced to the Arabs at 1
enormous interest, for the murderous work ol
slaving, of the nature of which every Banian
Is lully aware. Having mixed much
with the Arabs in the Interior, 1 soon
learned the whole system that is called "butchee"
or Banian trading 1b simply marauding and murdering
by the Arabs at tne instigation and by the
i aid ol'our Indian fellow subjects. The canning Indians
secure nearly all the profits or the caravans
they send inland, and very adroitly let the odium
of slaving rest on their Arab agents. Ae a rule,
i very few Arabs coulu proceed on a trading expedition
unless supplied by the Banians with arms,
Ammunition and goods. Slaves are not bought in
the countries to which the Banian agents proceedIndeed
it is a mistake to call the system of Ujijl
slave "trade" at all: the captives are not traded
for, but murdered for, and the gangs that are
dragged coustwards to enrich the Banians are usually
not slaves, but captive free people. A Hultan
anxious to do justly rattier than pocket head-money
would proclalurthem all free as soon as they reached
Ills territory.
Let me give an instance or two to illustrate the
trade of our Indian fellow subjects. My friend
Muhamad Bogharib sent a large party of his people
far down the great river Lualaba to trade for ivory
about the middle of 1871. He is one of the best
of the traders, a native of Zanzibar, and not one of
the malnlanacrs, who are lower types of man. The
best men have, however, oltcn the worst attendants.
This party was headed by one Ilassani, and
i he, with two other head men, uuvanced to the people
of Nyangwe twenty-five copper bracelets to be
paid ror in lvoiy on their return. The rings were
worth about Ave shillings at UjlJI, and it being well
known that the Nyaiigwe people had no ivory the
advance was a mere trap; for, on returning and demanding
payment In ivory in vain, they began an
assault which continued ror three days. AH the
villages of a large district were robbed, somo
burned, many men killed and about one hundred
aud fifty captives secured. r.
On going subsequently Into Southern Manvuema
I mot the poorest or the above-mentioned head
men, who had only been able to advance five of the
twenty-five bracelets, and he told me that he had
bought ten tusks with part of the captives; and
having received information at the village where I
found him about two more tusks, he was waiting
ror eight other captives rrom Muhamud's camp to
purchase them. 1 had now got into terms or friendship
with all the respectable traders or that quarter,
and they gave information with unrestrained
rreedom; and all I state may be relied on. Ou asking
Muhamad himself afterwards, near UJ1J1, the
proper name cf Muhamad Nassur, the Indian who
conspired with Hliereef to Interpose his own trado
speculation between Dr. Kirk and me, and defray
all his expenses out of my goods, he promptly replied,
-This Muhamad Nassur Is the mau from
whom I borrowed all the money and goods for this
Journey."
I will not refor to the horrid and senseless massacre
which I unwillingly witnessed at N.vangwe,
In which the Arabs themselves computed the loss
01 llie ai oeiween luree uuuuieu ?uu luur uuuureu
souls. (See No. 4.) It puinecl me sorely to let the
mind dwell long enough on It to peu the short
account 1 gave, but I mentlou It again to point ont
that the chief perpetrator, Tagamoto, received all
his guns ami gunpowder from Ludha Damjl. the
richest Manian and chicf slave-trader of Zanzibar,
lie has had the cunning to conceal his actual participation
in slaving, but there is not an Arab in the
country who would hesitate a moment to point ont
that, but for the money of Ludha Damjl and other
Damans who borrow Iroin him, slaving, especially
in these more distant countries, would Instantly
cease. It is not to be overlooked that most Other
trades as well as slaving is carried on by Banians;
the custom-house and rcvenuo are entirely in their
hands; the so-called governors arc their trade
agent*; Syde bin Salem Iiuraschid, the thievish
Governor here, Is merely a trade agent of Lndha, and
honesty having been no part of his qualifications for
the olilce, the most shameless transactions of other
Danian agents arc all smoothed over by him. A
common way he has of concealing crimes Is to place
delinquents in villages adjacent to this, and when
they arc inquired for by the Sultan he reports that
they arc slew. It was no secret that all the Iranians
looked with disfavor on my explorations and
disclosures as likely to Iniurc one great source of
their wealth. Knowing tills, it aluiost took away
my breath when I heaid that the great but covert
slave-trader Ludha Damjl had been requested to
forward supplies and men to me. This and similar
applications must have appeared to Ludlia so ludicrous
that he probably answered with his tongue
in his cheek. His help was all faithfully directed towards
securing my failure. I ain extremely unwilling
to appear as if making a wail on my own account,
or as if trying to excite commiseration. I
am greatly more elated by the unexpected kindness
of unknown friends and the liberality and
sympathy of ller Majesty's government than cast
down by losses and obstacles. Hut 1 have a purpose
in view in mentioning mlshans.
Heforc leaving Zanzibar in i860 I paid for and dispatched
a stock of goods to be placed in depot at
Ujiji; the Banyamwexi porters, or uagazi, as usual,
brought them honestly to this Governor or Banian
I anent. the same who Plundered Burton and Speke
pretty freely; tfud he placed my goods tu charge of
iiIk own slave Mu^a bin baloorn, who, about midway
between thin and FJljl, stopped the caravan
tcu days while he plundered us much as he chose,
and wont oil'to buy ivory for Ms owiier, Karague.
Saloom has been kept out of the way ever since;
the dregs of the stores left by this slave are the
only supplies I have received since l.soe. Another
stock of goods was despatched from Zanzibar In
1868. but the whole was devoured at this place ana
the letters destroyed so that 1 should know nothi
Ing altout them. Another large supply, sent
through l,udha and his slaves In 1800-70, came to
r UJljl, and, except a few pounds of worthless beads
i out of Too pounds or flue dear beads, all were sold
olT for slaves and Jvory by the persous selected by
Ludha DainjL I refer to these wholesale losses be;
cause, though well known to Ludha and al> the
Uanlans, the statement was made In the House of
' Lords (1 suppose on the strength of LuUha's i
plausible tables) that all my wants had been sup'
plied.
> Hy coming back In a roundabout ronte of 300
i miles from Cjlji I did And two days ago a good
i quantity of supplies, the remains of what had been
I sent oir from iuuzil>ar sixteen months ago. Lnrtha
r had again been employed, and slaves he selected
began by loitering ul Hngoruoyo, opposite Zanzibar,
i for nearly four months. A war here, which Is still
going on ?cave them a good excuse for going no
' further. Vhe head men were thieves, uud had I
not retnrned and seized what remained I should
again have lost. all. All the Haitian slaves who have
r been sent by Ludha and other Uanlans were mil of
] the Idea that they were not to follow but force me
' back.
i | 1 cannot say that I am altogether free from cha>
grin In view of the worry, thwarting, baffling which
1 the Hanlaus and their slaves have inflicted. Com- !
i mon traders procure supplies of merchandise from
, the coast, mid send loads of ivory down by the
r same pagazl or carriers wc employ, without any
loss. Hut the Uanlans and their agents arc
t not their enemies. I have lost more than
r two years In time, have been burdened with
> 1,800 miles of tramping, and how mnch waste
nf inntin v 1 I'unnnt an* thrnurrh n iv nfTiilrw
j having betn committed to Hainan* and slaves who
, are not men. I have adkored, in spite of losses,
i with a sort of John Dullish tenacity to my task, and
I while bearing misfortune In as manly a way as possible
It strikes 1110 that It Is wed that 1 have been
1 brought face to face with the Hainan system that
) indicts enormous evils un Centra) Africa. Uontlor
men In Irtdla who see only the wealth brought to
Bombay ami Cntc.v, and know that the religion of
the Banian# does not allow ihcm to harm a fly, very
t naturally conclude that all Cutchecs may saicly bo
f entrusted wltlf thn possession of slavos. But I nave
f been forced to see that those who shrink from
i killing a flea or mosquito are virtually the
worst cannibals Jn all AlrUa. The Manyema
i caunlbals, among whom I spent marly two
years, arc innocent* compared with our pro
M?t?d Banian follow tf^bjevu. By their Arab
tPPIJSMENT.
agents they compass the Attraction of mere human
lives In one year than the Manynerna do lor their
fleshpota In ten; and could the Indian gentlemen
( who oppose the anti-slave-trade policy of the Foreign
Office but witness the horrid deeds done by the
lianian agents they would be foremost iu decreeing
that every Cutchee fonnd guilty of direct or indirect
slaving should forthwith be snipped back to India,
if not to the Andaman Islands.
The Humans, having complete possession of the
the Custom House uui> revenue of Zanzibar, enjoy i
ample opportunity to aid and concetti the slave !
trade and all fraudulent ti an-sartions committed by
their agents. It would be good policy to reeoinmonil
Mm fliiitun ua ho rnnnnf. trnaf nia
subject, to plaee Ins income from all sources in the {
hands of an English or American merchant of |
known refutation ami uprightness. He would be a
check on the slave trade, a benefit to the Sultan I
and an aid to lawiui commerce.
Hut by far the moat beneficial measure that >
could be Introduced into Eastern Africa would be
the moral element which has worked ho benoflclally
in suppressing the slave trade around ull
the English settlements of the west coast. The
Banians seem to have no religion worthy of the
name, and among Mohammedans religion und
morality are completely disjoined. Different
opinions have been expressed as to the success of
Christian missionaries, and gentlemen who judge
by the riff-raff that follow Indian camps speak very
uu favorably, from an impression that the drunkards
who profess to be of "master's caste and
drink brandy" arc average specimens ot Christian
converts. But the comprehensive report of
Colonel Old presented to Parliament (1865) contains
no such mistake. He states that while
the presence of the squadron has had some
share In suppressing the slave trade, the result
Is mainly due to the existence of the settlements.
This Is supported by the fact that, even in
those least vlslteu by men-of-war, it lias been as
effectually snppresseu as in those which have been
their most constant resort. The moral element which
has proved beneficial ail round the settlements 1b
mainly due to the teaching of missionaries. I would
carefully avoid anything like boasting over the benevolent
efforts or our countrymen, bat here their
good influences are totally unknown. No attempt
has ever been made by the Mohammedans In East
Africa to propagate their faith, and their trade intercourse
has only made the natives more avaricious
than themselves. The fines levied on all traders
are nearly prohibitive, and nothing 1b given in return.
Mr. Stanley was mulcted of l,6oo yards of
umutrlnr flirt a on. nurl ITHil nnil wn
made a detour of 300 miles to avoid similar spoliation
among people accustomed to Arabs. It
has been fluid tluit Moslems would be better
missionaries than Christiana, because they
would allow polygamy; but nowhere have
Christians been loaded with the contempt the
Arabs liave to endure in addition to being plundered.
To "honga" originally meant to make
friends. It does so now in all the more central
countries, and presents arc exchanged at tho ceremony,
the natives usually giving the largest
amount; but on routes much frequented by
Arabs it has come to mean not "black mall." but
forced contributions impudently demanded, and
neither service nor food returned.
If the native Christians or one or more of the
English settlements on the West Coast, which
have fully accomplished tho objects of their establishment
in suppressing the slave trade, could be
induced by voluntary emigration to remove to
some healthy spot on the East Coast they would In
time frown down the duplicity which prevails so
much in all classes that no slave treaty can bind
them. Slaves purchase iheir freedom in Cuba aud
return to unhealthy Lagos to settle as petty
traders. Men of tho same enterprising class who
have been imbued with the moral atmosphere
of our settlements would be of Incalculable
value In developing lawful commerce.
Mombas is ours already; we left
It, but never ceded It. The mainland opposite
Zanzibar Is much more healthy than the island, and
the Sultan gives as much land as can be cultivated
to any one who askB. No native right Ib Interfered
with by tho gift. All that would be required would
bo an able, Influential man to begin and lead the >
movement; the officials already In office conld have
irtuwages in men-of-war. The only additional cost
to what is at present incurred would be part of the
passage money on loan and small rations and house
rent, both of which are very cheap, for half a year.
It would be well to prevent Europeans, even as
missionaries, lrom entering the settlement till It
was well established.
Many Enplish in new climated reveal themselves
to be born fools, and then blame some one for having
advised them, or lay their own excesses to the
door of African fever. That disease is In all conscience
bad enough, but medical men are fully
aware that frequently it is not lever, but folly that
kills. Brandy, black women and lazy inactivity are
worse than the climate. A settlement, once fairly
established and reputed safe, will not long lack religious
teachers, and it will then escape the heavy
burden of being a scene for martyrdom.
If the Sultan of Zanzibar were relieved from paying
the heavy subsidy to the ruler or Muscat ho
would, for the relief granted, readily concode all
that one or two transferred English settlements
would require. The English name, now respected
In all the Interior, would be a sort ol safeguard to
nettv traders while aradually supplanting: the un
scrupulous Banians who abuse it. And lawful
trade would, by Uic aid of English and American
merchants, be exulted to a position It Una never
held since BanmnH and lloslema emigrated to Africa.
It is true that Lord Canning did ordain that
the annual subsidy should be paid by Zanzibar to
Muscat. But a statesman of bis eminence never
could have contemplated it as an indehnlte aid to
emier slave traders, while nou-paymeut might be
used to root oat the wretched trattic. If in addition
to the relief suggested the Sultan of Zanzibar were
guaranteed protection from his relations and others
in Muscat, he would leel it to be his Interest to
observe a treaty to suppress s.aving all along his
coast,
1 am thankful in now reporting myself well supplied
with stores ample enough to take a feasible
finish-up of the geographical portion of my mission,
nils 1b due partly to the goods 1 seized two days
ago from the slaves, who have been feasting on
them for the last sixteen mouths, but chiefly to a
large assortment of the best barter articles presented
b/ Henry M. Stanley, who, as I have already
informed Your Lordship, was kindly sent by James
Cordon Bennett, Jr., of New York, and who bravely
persisted, in the teeth of the most serious obstacles,
till he found me At UjiJi, shortly, or one
month, after my return iroui Muuyuema, 111 and destitute.
It will readily be believed that I feel deeply
gruteful for this disinterested and unlooked-for
kindness. The supplies I seized two days ago,
after a return march of 300 miles laid on ine by the
slaves in oharge refusing to accompany Mr. Stanley
to UJiJi, were part of those sent off in the end of
October, 1870, at the Instance of Her Majesty's
government, and are virtually the only stores
worthy of the name that came to hand, besides
those despatched by Dr. Seward and myself in lSttfl.
And all in conscquencc of Ludha and Banian slaves
having unwittingly been employed to forward au
expedition opposed to their slaving Interests. It
was no doubt amiable in Dr. Kirk to believe the |
polite Banians in asserting that they would scud ,
stores off at once, and nguln that my wunts had all ;
beeu supplied; but it would have been better to I
have dropped the money into Zanzibar harbor than
trust it in their hands, because the whole popula- ,
tlon has witnessed the open plunder of Knglish
property, and the delinquents are screeued from ;
Justice by Banian agents. The slaves needed na '
more than a hint to plunder and baffle. Shereef j
and all the Banian slaves who acted in accordance
with the views of their musters arc now at U.ilji and !
Unvanyembe by the connivance ol the (Jorernor, |
or, ratfier, Banian trade agent, Sydo bin Salem
Buraschid, who, when the wholesale plunder by
Shereef became known, wrote to me that he (the
Governor) had no hand In it. I never said he had.
However, though sorely knocked up, ill and dejected,
on arriving at UJijl, I am now completely recovered
In health and spirits. 1 need no more
goods, but I draw on Her Majesty's Consul at Zanzibar
tor ?600 of the ?1,000 placed at his disposal for
mn by Her Majesty's government, in order that Mr.
Stanley may employ und send off fifty free men, but
no slaves, from Zanzibar. 1 need none but them,
aud have asked scyed Burghash to give me a good,
honest head man, with a character that may be inquired
iuto. I expect them about the end of
June, and after all the delay 1 have endured feel
quite exhilarated at the prospest of doing my work.
Geographers will be interested to *now the plan I
propose to follow. I shall at present avoid Ujljl, aud
go about southwest from this to Fipa. which is east
of and near the south end or Tanganyika; then
round the same south end, only touching it again
at Pambctte; thence resuming the southwest
course to cross the Chambcze und proceed alone
the southern shores of Lake Bangweolo, which
being in latitude 12 degrees south, the course will be
due west to tlie ancient fountains of Herodotus, j
From them It is about tun days north to Katanga, i
the copper mines of which have been worked For
ages. The malachite ore is described as so abundant
It can only be mentioned by the coallieavers'
phrase, "practically inexhaustible."
About ten days northeast of Katanga very extensive
underground rock excavations deserve atten- I
don as very ancient, the natives ascribing their !
formation to the Deity alone. They at e remarkable
for ail having water laid on In ruunlng streams,
and tne inhabitants of large districts can all take
refuge In them in case of invasion. Returning
from them to Katanga, twelve days northnorthwest.
take to the southern enu of Lake
Lincoln. I wish to go down through It to the
Lomanl, and into Webb's Lualaba and home. I I
was mistaken In the Information that a waterfall
existed between Tanganyika and Albert Nyanza.
Tanganyika is of no interest except In a very remote
degree in connection with the sources ot the
Nile. Hut what. If I am mistaken, too, about, the
ancient fountain v Then we shall see. 1 know the
rivers they ure said to form?two north and two
south; and in battling down the central lino of
drainage the enormous amount or westing It
caused me at times to feel as U running mv hoad
against a stone wall. It might, after all. De the
Congo; and who would care to run the risk of being
put into a cannibal pot and converted Into a
black man for anything less than the grand old
Nile y Hut when 1 found that Lualaba forsook Its
westing and received through Kamoloudo Hartle '
Frere's great river, and that afterwards, further
down, It takes In Young's great stream through
Lake Lincoln, I ventured to think I was on the i igtit 1
trciffa
Two irrcat rivers arise somewhere on tne western
eiirtof fhewJtciShed and flow north-to EgjVi <v>
Two oUiit lump rivers rise In the same quarter and
now south ^ the Zambesi or Llambal, and the
Kafue Into Inner Ethiopia. let I speak with diffidence,
for I have no affinity with an unravelled
would-be geographer, who used to Hwear to the
fancies he collected iruni slaves till he became blue
"VkMwaftout six hundred mile* of flic watorshed
BretwW'J. *lurn 10 lUc "evcuUl llUnJl?a
I
with pleasure and hope. I want no eomp&nion now,
though discovery means hard work. Some can
make what they call theoretical ulstoveries by
dreaming. I should like to offer a prize for an ex-r
pianatiou of the correlation of the structure anil
economy of the watershed with the structure ana
economy of the great lacustrine rivers in the pro.
auction of the phenomena of the Nile. Tiie prizo
cannot he undervalued by competitors even who
may only have dreamed of what has given
?i.u.K?,rXi?!eiat tr?uljl?. though they may have hit
on the division of labor in attaining, and each dlsmllei.
In the actual I
discovery so iar I went two jears and six montiiS
witnout once tasting tea, cottoor sSJar aSdexcopt
At fed on buflfeioc*. rhinoceros clcphants,
hippopotami, and cauie of tha? ^rt' and
have come to believe that KngUshrairt b?ef' wd
plum padding must be the reifgenulne theobroma.
the food of tV gods, and I otfer to iu wSSSStol
competitors a glorious feast or beefsteaks and stout.
No couipetitlou will be allowed alter l have nuhL
llshed my own explanation, on pain of lmm.X.Y-,
tixecurion, wuuout ocneiu 01 ciarnry |
I send home my Journal by llr. Stanley scaled tn
my (laughter Agned. It Is one of Letw'iarn^ fkiivl 9^1
diaries, and Is full except a few (five) pages re H
served lor altitudes which I oannot at present couv H
It contains a few private memoranda for my bumfr fH
alone, and 1 adopt this course.^n order to secure il M
from risk in my concluding trip.
Trusting that your iordsnlp will award me your
approbation and sanction to a little longer delay.
I have, AC., DAVID LIVINGSTONE,
Her Majesty's Co69ui, Inner Africa.
The Italian Prcu on (lu Livingston* H
Expedition. H
[Prom the Voce dl Milano, July 37.]
In the somewhat circumscribed history of Jour.
nailsm we have no record of on enterprise or *uocess
equal to that which now crowns the magn&nlmous
undertaking of that great Nestor of the
transatlantic press?the New York Herald. In
the honorable cause or Journalism tne Herald's
commissioner has proved himself as brave as he B
was self-sacrificing, and as industrious in perform- Hj
lng his famous task as he was successful in rulflll- H
ing it. BclflHhncss and Jealousy have no foothold H
here; for the Journalist who would not afford that H
great newspaper its merited congratulations upon H
the accomplishment of a design which reflects H
honor upon our profession Is nnWorthy or th? H
craft and recreant to the genius or liberty to H
which Journalism Is consecrated. Just arrived afc H
Marseilles?and a special* envoy from a great fl
English newspaper hastens to grasp hlnk H
by the hand?Mr. Stanley, returned front H
beyond vltirna thtOe. Hotel after hotel was I
searched until Stanley was Jbund^ and, for aught |
?? AUUTT, HUQ 111 Dl nuiutv IIUU1 UK rvU|JIIQII wi l*r
Bpondent was:?"Mr. Stanley, I presume V and the
answer, "Yes, sir." And thus there was an episode
hardly (ess Inviting than tbe laconic introduction
or Mr. Stanley to that Isolated old man who wore a
naval cap whoso gilt hand was failed with time and
bard usage In the wilds of a land unknown. Then
the two representatives of the press of two great
nations quailed a frlend^r international glass upon
that most auspicious occasion. One was grateful
for England's hospitality; the other paid worthy
tribute to American enterprise and valor. And it
Is by these little means that civilization accumulates
new elements of peace, charity and trne greatness;
and it is only by such means that the
otherwise Incalculable Influence of journalism
can demonstrate Its* vastnesa and utility. The
liberal and cultured great ones of Paris would not
permit the occasion to pass of giving honor to this
indefatigable friend of science: and when Stanley
saw Paris a throng of earnest patrons extended
him enthusiastic welcome. The Minister from
Washington received him, and It gave him joy to
greet him who had added another laurel to tnelr
country's fame. In the metropolis of England
other honors await Mr. Stanley., and that his reception
In his own land will be worthy of a grateful
people we will not hesitate to express our convlotion.
Apart from any profit whlcn may accrue to
the Herald from this suocessAil enterprise, the fact
alone of having succeeded Is worth the princely
expenditures made to secure that buocess.
Mo Persian legend of regal wealth
and splendid munificence can Burpass the
idea or one newspaper organizing armies In a
region Bltuated thousands of miles trom the
bournes of civilisation, and supplying corps of ,
couriers, baggago masters, guides and brills to
allay the fierceness of hostile sheiks and clans.
Months and months passed; still the Hekai.d heard
nothing of Stanley. Bat its enterprise or its hopes
were not dampened. Stanley's unaccountable
silence at times rendered his predicament in the
minds of his friends and the world little less grave
than that ot Livingstone. With indomitable energy,
with manly, physical und moral courage, of which
any soldier might be envious; with uuwavorlug
confidenoe in his Kkill and spirit of peracveranoe,
tho Herald's special commissioner to unknown
Africa moved Btoadlly on to Came and success.
Weak and dlBabled lie rose from his sick
bed, period after period, to pnrsue his desfierate
journey ana accomplish his wondcrul
mission. His lifo was never safe; lie
was certain that his attendants w?i*e of treacherous
blood, and might desert or mnrder him at any
moment, lint thov? w a peculiar spirit of self-possession?the
offeprlngof genuine courage?wfiich
some men possess, and with which they hold a ,
supernatural sway over multitudes. Wo have two
marked examples of such a class In onr time, and
those arc Livingstone and tho Hkralo's commissioner,
Mr. Stanley. The First Napoleon was tho
most conspicuous example among the heroes of tho
past. Kagerly awaiting Mr. Stanley's papers, we
will close this comment on the greatest expedition
of this century i>y tendering many soul-reit (con
8r/i3a anima) congratulations to him who conceived
the grand enterprise in which Mr. Stanley
succeeded so perfectly, and to Mr. Stanley personally,
who has not only honored his profession more
than any man living or that ever lived, but who
has proven himself a man of Inflexible resolution,*
faithful servant and a brave soldier.
A BAMPAFT BHIN0CEB03,
Terrible Depredations by a Performing
Splke-Noscd Momter?It Breaks Away
from Twenty-four Men, Horribly Matt*
latea and Instantly Kills Two Men,
Upsets the Seats, Wounds Several Spec*
tatora and Frightens a Multitude,
Breaks the Centre Pole and Brings
Down the Tent.
Chicago, August in, 1372.
A letter from Red Bird, a email town in Monroe
county, 111., gtves a thrilling account of the cscape
from its keepers of tuo rhinoceros belonging to
Warner A Co.'s Menagerie and Circus on the occasion
of Its being brought into the ring for the first
time. The showmen had prepared the animal for
the exhibition in the ring by attaching to a ling in
Its nose two strong wire ropes, and twenty-four
men were deemed sulllclent to control the beast,
which submitted quietly to being led frotn the cage,
but, on entering tho arena, suddenly threw up its
head and plunglnsr madly to the right and left broke
loose from the men and dashed forward through
the tents.
Its first victim was .lohn OaUem, a canvasman,
who was knocked down, and, the beast tramping
upon his breast, he was killed lustant.ly.
It next ran Its noso against Martin Ready, annthnt'
r>mt-.ianuin atrllrlncr lilm In t.hA ntnmafh nnri I
ripping out his bowels?killing him.
It next made a dash In the direction of tlie Heats.
which by this time were eleared by the frightened
spectators, and knocked down nearly all of the
seats on one Bide of the tent, dislocating the
shoulder of one of the employes and breaking the
arm of a spectator.
It then ran Into the menagerie tent and npset
Mr. Forepaugh's den of performing animals, after
which It struck the centre pole with Its head,
bringing It down with a crasn upon the caires of
the tiger and leopard, but not breaking them so as
to allow those animals to escape.
Dashing Into the mtiieum tent It smashed all the
curiosities, stampeding all the people In the vicinity.
and rushed out through the sldo of the canvn*
Into the street, finally bringing up In a vacant
house, t he door of which stood open, and here the
men succccdcd In capturing the animal and getting
it into a cage.
The damage to the show was about three thousand
dollars.
THE SUNDAY CLAUSE.
<
The German Saloon Keepers* Protective
Organisation.
The delegates of the German lager beer retailers
of this city, who a few days since formed organization*
in the several Assembly districts for the
purpose of lnsoriog protectioa against the re-cnloroen^nt
of the Sunday clause of the Excise law,
nnd ff> secure the passage of a law to
insure protection against the brewers, held a meeting
at the Bowery Garden yesterday. A temporary
organization was effected by the election of temporary
officers, Christian Schmidt, chairman. Mr.
Felnstcln, of the committee of five appointed at a
previous meeting to wait upon the Kxclse Coininls- .
sioners in reference to the Sunday question, subniltted
a report stating that no official Interview
had been granted to the committee by the Commissioners,
but that the committee, in 9 private and
infnrmal rnnfnrAnro with nnoAf fcM Oomfnilrtlonvr^
had been assured that the inner beer retailers will
not be prosecuted for any alleged violations of the
Sunday clause of the Excise law; that do arrests
will be made, and that no licenses will be forfeited
for alleged offences oPthat Und. only a limit >d
portion of the several Assembly districts were reported
to havo completed their organisations, and
further action was taken to make the organization
thorough.
OA&BYINO DEADLY WEAPONS.
PlHI.ADEL.rHIA, August 16, 137Z
The charge of carrying concealed deadly weapon*
against Robert Lester Smith has been abandoned,
he having been convicted of an assault and battcrr
on H. K. wayer, and sentenced to one year's iiupxia,
onmcnt. Smith 19 now la jail.
1
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