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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, April 25, 1873, Image 3

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Horribly Filthy Condition of Metro
politan Thoroughfares.
The Beauties of Baxter Street
and Donovan's Lane.
Where the Brooms and Shov
els Are Needed.
A Street Nine Month* Without Clean
ing? Wliat Must Be Expected in
the Warm Months.
It wu privately decided upon eome time ago by
the clerk of the climate, after an understanding
with "Old Probabilities, ? tbat no Spring weather
?hould be furnished us this year, and so we have
keen fooled up to the very Kates of Bummer witb
rain hopes of enjoying that delightful intermediate
Mason, wherein, according to Tennyson, "a young
man *s fancy lightly turns to thoughts of love."
There was very little turning tbat way this time.
Thoughts of overcoats and hot toddy bad rather
the upper hand of the gentler passion In the minds
?f the young men during the prologue of this
phenomenal year of grace. Sharp contrasts, say
the meteorologists, will be the rule for
1878, and, as we have had a prolonged
and painful Winter, we shall have to get
ready for the other extreme without delay, and be
prepared to accept a lengthy and blistering Sum
mer. To-morrow or the day after may see the ther
mometer go up with a bounce. The change came
appreciably yesterday, and before people have
lime to count the number of excelsior degrees per
Fahrenheit or Centigrade they may find them
teivee in something lice the atmosphere of a Turk
ish batb.
it is because of all thiB that the condition of the
itreets becomes a matter of vital consideration. If
the thermometer stood at eighty to-morrow? anu
there is no telling what changes may mark the
pulse of the weather In these sensational days?
is in a fit condition, with the proper generating
heat at hand, to start an epidemic. Some people
may suppose that so long as the greater part of
the city is in a cjean condition? so long as Fifth
avenue and all the lateral streets are odorless and
(Tee from dirt? that the health of the city is safe ;
hut intelligent folks need hardly be told that a
eham is no stronger than its weakest link, and that
in an urban community like ours, swarming with
life, and. the focal point of emigration irom the
world at large, If any part be in a diseased sani
tary state the whole is in peril. Just as the Five
Points is disposed to be bad and dirty, so
much the more need does It stand in need
?f moral and physical supervision. The Street
Cleaning Department takes a contrary view. As
the Five Points is naturally a filthy spot, and the
people wbo love to live there are Incorrigibly un
clean in their habits, let tbem remain as tbey are.
We cannot waste our precious time and labor
where we are not appreciated. This would seem
to be the conclusion of
??Where we are not appreciated we *111 send no
brooms" should be the motto or the Department,
there resides In Yorkville a population of modest,
undemonstrative, moderately well-to-do people,
who manage to feel grateful in a quiet way lor any
favors extended them. The Street Department
sent them four sweepers yesterday, ana a local
statistican calculates that if the Day of Judgment
is not unreasonably late in coming thits quartet of
scavengers and their accompanying cart will con
trive to have Yorkville swept ana ready in time.
Yesterday a reporter of the Herald started for the
plague spots ot the city. He charged from i'earl
street through Donovan's lane to .Baxter street in
a way that excited the admiration of a policeman
In tbe neighborhood. This charge was no joke, in
Donovan's lane ibere is always a powerful bat
talion 01 smells on guard. They are of a very in
cisive character, cutting Into the olfactories with a
keenness and force that leave no room to doubt
their presence and vitality. Tbe reporter who per
formed this heroic feat of plunging through
will hardly be fit to go to church forlome weeks,
until after he takes a course of Russian baths and
is hung over a clothesline in an easterly wind.
Donovan's lane is a consistent Introduction to
Baxter street. It is one of an Innumerable series
of alleys peculiar to the Sixth ward. Tbey are
from two to lour feet wide, and they act as venti
lating shafts to the tenement houses In the rear of
the street proper. Few strangers care to stand in
the way of the ventilation, ana consequently these
alleys or lanes are seldom explored except by the
police. Donovan's is a model of its kind. If we
stood badly in need of an epidemic that would thin
out the population of New York some few hundred
thousand, so as to give elbow room to the remain
der, we could have it made to order here
at any time. The manure heap in the passageway,
which the reporter successfully dodged only to
carom oil a Chinaman, who was hunting lor mice
through his wardrobe, and pop against au Italian
brigand engaged in his annual washing, was suf
ficiently decomposed to start a combination move
ment 01 cholera and typhus fever. Several odor
ous additions to the pile were made while the re
porter was contemplating the picturesque coup
Wotll of the clothes fines overhead, every stitch of
calico and canvas being out and every Inch of rope
covered. The odorous additions were so ab
normally rank that all the stationary smells, the
familiar old stagers, were lost sight of. EVeh
Shang-Fl-Kian, Just come from making his cabbage
cigars, was made aware or their presence,
and retired to Baxter street to get the
fresh air. The Italian, less sensitive, stooa
Ins ground, but was forced to beat
a retreat soon after, in consequence of a colored
lady in the upper story or the tenement house
thoughtlessly emptying a pail of domestic slops
on hie bead. Emerging (Tom Donovan's allev the
reporter found hlmseir face to race with the river
Styx flowing along Baxter street. Soundings had
been taken by the shovels of the Street Cleaning
Department. There were ten shovels at work on
tbe sides of the river, making excavations In
what appeared to be tho snow of December, pre
served In boiled cabbage, egg shells and the gene
ral refuse of the Baxter street kitchens anu bed
rooms. The
In tbe middle was still untouched, out of regard, It
is to be supposed, to tbe feelings of the Baxter
street pesple.who are strongly attached to eld as
sociations. This mud has been with ttiem since
l%gt June, and being a familiar acquaintance t hey
are loth to part with it. Tbe department will get
over tbe difficulty by removing it so gradually that
the people will hardly miss it. Baxter street was
never famous for its cleanliness, but it never
reached a worse condition of fllthlnesa tban it Is In
at the present moment. Tbe people of Mew >oik
could well afford to allow a hundred private streets
uptown to go unswept for a month that the Five
Points may be purified. Police regulations
could inforce on the people the practice of
dumping their night soil in boxes
for carting outside the city limits, as their houses
have no drainage conveniences. Perfect sewerage
<loes not exist In this region, bat that is not the
fault of the inhabitants. Should we have an epi
demic arising from the unclean state of the streets,
it is not irom Madson or Fifth avenue it will spring,
but from the neighborhood of Worth, Mulberry,
Mott and Baxter streets. In justice to the depart
ment, It should be stated that the
are kept.ln excellent order. Foruteenth, Twenty
third, Thirty-fourth, Forty-second and manv others
are In unexceptionable trim, and it Is liardly pos
sible ror a plague originating Irom dirt alone to
happen In such localities. But these pure places
have no immunity from an epidemic starting out
?f the Five Points and sweeping over the city. It is
Here the department must exercise all its vigilance,
and not so much in the region above Union square.
In the junk and old clothes trade were not par
ticularly pressed with business yesterday, so they
had tune to set in front of their storeB and pa
tiently watch the progress of operations by tbe
?hovel brigade. There was much curiosity ex
hibited by them in tbe excavations made among
the tali nuud banks on either side oi tbe street.
One jnnk dealer kept bis eye steadily fixed on
three shovels engaged In scooping out the black
ridge opposite bis door. He was rewarded lor his
watchfulness by several valuable treasures, in
cluding tbe carcass or a dog with a whole skin,
being brought to light. A rumor spread along the
street that an Italian and _ his barrel organ were
ring out of one enormous mountain of mud, along
with two Ohlnamen and a lull length tobacco sign.
There was no foundation for this, not tbe people
looked for all sorts of startling revelations from
niHler the vast embankments or mud and garbage.
At the corner of Worth and Baxter the scene
was more picturesque than anywhere elBC wltblu
the cnannlng precincts of the Five Points. The legs
?f an Ice cream stand, presided over br a son of
sunny Italy, were here planted in the mud, and a
host of dirty, ragged, happy little children crowded
wound like bees absnt a sugar cask. The female
element of the nelf hboffcpod wm abroad la force, I
ana appeared rather to enjoy the operations ol the
?hovel brigade, n wa? indeed
a bob* or ran day
for the me FMnta. Almost a year hod elapsed
^nee the last visit or the street cleaning officers,
and their advent was thought worthy 01 commemo
ration by o general cessation of work. When the
shoveto tonohed the ploold surface of the liquid
mud. there was a tremendous escape of smells,
which travelled up Worth street to Broadway and
were finally lest over In Jersey.
The Department of Public Works has as much to
answer for as the Department of Street Cleaning
for the eondltlon of this portion of the city, it is
over three years slnoe Worth street was opened to
Chatham square, and In ail that time nothing has
been done towards grading the extension. It is
easy to throw a street Into a filthy condition when
there Is no " hard pan" on which to operate with a
broom. It will be impossible to give Worth street
anything like a clean appearance until it Is paved.
The reporter called at Police Headquarters, and
learned from the assistant superintendent of the
street Cleaning Bureau, Mr. Pickett, that there
were too men and TOO carts at werk throughout
the city. That official said, when asked what
streets were now la process of being cleaned,
"All the streets. .We clean them every day. We
ceuld not get at some of them sooner
on account of the weather. We shall have every
ward In the city In goed erder for the Summer.
The worst places are the Fourth and Sixth wards
and along the river fronts as far ap as Fortieth
street The trouble Is we cannot get enough or
carts to work. That is the drawback to our opera
tions, but we are getting along as well as might be
expected under the circumstances."
Suppose the Department just uuadrupled the ten
shovels It has at work in the Five Points, would
they not be able to plaoe (hat region clean beyond
perodventure In two or three days f Some shovels
and brooms are wanted in the following streets,
whleh In the forenoon of yesterday were not In a
condition to pass Inspection vestry, Lalght,
Hubert, Beach, Watts, Desbrosses, Spring, Robs,
Pearl, Madison. Clinton. Columbia, Essex, Bayard,
Mulberry, Mott, and the environs of Spring and
Washington Markets, it would be well if the
Health Department looked into the condition of
some of those alleys like Donovan's. ,
Few of them are In a proper sanitary condition,
and dirt accumulates among them until it bccomes
offensive even to the aoclimated inhabitants. They
are well adapted for breeding epidemics and
should be carefully looked after. When it is known
that the great plague spot, the Five Points, is
thoroughly cleaned the citizens of New York will
rest easier. It is time the Street Cleaning Depart
ment understood that the great mass of the people
who pay taxes prefer that Che really filthy places of
New York should be attended to first. It would
seem (torn the present management as If the great
point to be gained was the approbation of the rich
folks In fancy streets up town, while no thought is
given to making the streets whereon the poor
dwell and sweat their lives out decent and
An Important Paper by Dr. Elijah Har
ris on the Consequences of Drunken
ness and its Relation to Crime? Action
of the National Temperance Society.
The National Temperance Society invited by cir
cular a number of ladles and gentlemen, who met
yesterday In the parlors of the Young Men's Chris
tian Association, to listen to a paper by Dr. Elijah
Harris on "The Connection 01 Crime with Drunken
ness." Mr. Aaron M. Powell, in the absence of Mr.
W. E. Dodge, presided and introduced the reader.
There were present Dr. Wllliard Parker, the Rev.
J. Willetts, Superintendent of the Kings County
Inebriates' Home, and Mr. sterns, Secretary of the
National Temperance Association.
Dr. Elijah Harris, Secretary of the Prison Asso
ciation of New York, Bald that lie was enabled to
speak rather boldly on this question, because he
had occasion to look at the inebriate and the
criminal as a physician, and the most mournful
lact that human history could present was pre
sented by the development that this condition of
' was almost universally an inheritance. In the re
lation of drunkenness to crime, the use of alcoholic
liquor tended to induce acts of crime. Ac
cidental and chronic drunkenness did result
lor the most part in crime. Of all the
convicts In our State prisons and the Union
one-half of them voluntarily enrol themselves as
addicted to intemperance. But it had been ascer
tained that eighty-five per cent of criminals were
Intemperate. Tar more than half of the criminals
in our State prisons had, he discovered by per
sonal inquiry. Deen lnoited to crime by the use of
strong drink. More than eighty per cent of these
prisoners had been reasonably educated. Ouly
forty-four per cent have had anything approaching
to home ties. A corrupted Imagination, an absence
of moral restraints and the loss or hope and self
respect were all elements fonnd to be promotive
ol the unfortunate condition of the criminal classcs.
in England on Saturday and Sunday nights had
shown a great diminution in the number of crimes,
especially that ol offences against the person, it
was so in New York and Brooklyn under the excise
law, and the figures showing this in that con
nexion were very remarkable. During the present
month, in the Supreme Court In a small tewn m
the State, the speaker nail seen three vouths sen
tenced lor arson. He interviewed each or them :
alone, and found that they were in the habit or
going to dram shops in the evening, and on their
return home they were
and went Into a barn to steal, and they afterwards
Bet it on fire. Sixteen persons the speaker had
seen In Mate prisons, in this State alone, each or ;
whom had killed one person, and two who had i
killed two apiece. Three or these were already con- .
lined as lunatics in one ol the criminal asylums of j
the State. The remaining thirteen cases were
particularized in detail by Dr. Harris, and the nar
rative showed that it would have been scarcely
possible for them to commit the crimes they were
lniDrisoned for had it not been for drink. More
than one-half ol the murders, manslaughters,
arsons, Ac., were traceable to the influence of
drink directly. The conditions which drink brought
about were to
and the will, and to bring about a state ol demon
Ism. The necessity was, therefore, incumbent upon
every person of sound mind and sound body to do
all that was promotive of that which was oppesed 1
to alcoholic inebriation. There was also the duty of ,
regulating the sale and use ol that which was
proved to be so great an accessory to crime. Al
coholic drunkenness was clearly so great an Injury f
to the offender and the offspring, to families and to :
society, that it was incumbent upon all who desired
the improvement of society to treat
and to Cfthtrol flife 3attees tfiftt &T<5 so greatly COU
tribntary thereto. The resources of educational
measures and all available sources or moral and
spiritual Influence must be brought te bear uhon
this question or drunkenness, and it was theretore
imperative that this should be taught in the public
schools. There should be a provision by law so to
treat inebriates as to clearly deprive the com
munity of drunkenness. Until some strong hold
could be taken or the drunkard, so as to treat him,
in his relation to crime, criminally, little would be
The following resolutions were submitted to the
meeting and adopted
Resolved, That the time has come when science, the
necessities of civilization and the duty of Christians ami
enlightened citizens require that drunkenness be branded
ai a dangerous form of crime; that, In view both ot the
revelaUons of science concerning alcohol as a poison,
and of the statistics of our prisons and penitentiaries
affirming the Intimate connection between Inebriety and
crime. It is the opinion of this Conference that total ab
stinence trom all alcoholic beverages is the only wise
and sate rnle tor the Individual ; and that It Is the duty of
legislators, state and national, as a sound publlr policy,
to confine the traffic in alcohol to the legitimate purposes
of science, art and mechanism.
Dr. Masen, Dr. Wlllard Parker and the Rev. J.'
Willetts took part in the discussion, and the Con
ference adjourned at about six o'clock.
The Teutons' Sunday ??Sociable" to be
Stopped? Mr. Crawford on "Free
Lagc**' and What It Means.
The thousands of Teutons who every Sunday
conscientiously perform their duties at the shriae
of Gambrlnus, arc no doubt interested in the issue
of the "Civil Fino" b.ll of Mr. Crawford? member
from Monroe? now pending in the Legislature.
Last night that gentleman spoke on "Free Lager
on Sunday," in the Eighty-sixth street Methodist
Episcopal church, which wan fllle J by an attentive
audience. The title of the lecture is very decep
tive. It does not mean the distribution of that
aelectabie beverage "free, gratis, for nothing,"
but the Iree and unrestricted sale of the same.
Mr. Crawford entertained his auditors for three
quarters of an hour about his doings in the Legis
lature In favor of temperance, which at length
being finished, he launched, figuratively sneaking,
put oa the sea of "free lager." He said that "free
lager on Sunday means free whiskey, and free
whiskey means wholesale drunkenness and mur
der. and to support his assertion he qnotcd a
thousand instances and as many authorities which
substantiated bevond a doubt the premise which
he lald down. _ Mr. Crawford's description ef the
SfJJ ? 5* mSn an(1 Influence of legisla
huiryjy ^ w#" duly appreciated by
his auditors. To the gentleman's mind there is but
2 J110* anrt drunkenness sn
ml' &if n? ?hA i!??Si5?ut Dp fbe I*er Bal?ons.
His bill In the Legislature will come up for a final
hearing on Wednesday next, at which time hap
piness or misery will be dealt out to Teuton
tipplers and beer bibbers In general. U 0D
BVFFAL^ N. Y., April 34, 1873.
Ab unknown man, with one arm, aged about
tw?ntj-tbree years, who All or .tumped rroin the
Krle JUIlway train, near Aiden, oa Tuesday last
falling on his head and receiving Internal injuries'
tiled this morning. Be was unable to speak aftrr
the accidant, and there was nothing ou his person
to iQOicai* his p&mt or residence
Governor Parker's Wrath Over News
paper Enterprise? A Change in the Pro
gramme the Reanlt? The Noinlnntlona
Confirmed an Amended? Silent Shep
herd's Little Unpleasantness.
Governor Parker, of New Jersey, has been known
the whole country over as the war Governor. He
was a steadfast opponent of the "Let us have
peace candidate." He is in a chronic state of per
turbation over trifles. When his message to the
Legislature was purloined he was angry, very
angry with the press for being "too soon," but
when he Baw the names be supposed should be
kept for a time at least a dead secret, in yester
day's Herald, he shook his shaggy locks and de
clared war henceforth against that journal.
The representative of the Herald was notified of
tne disastrous consequences that must ensue, and
the reporter Is accordingly about to transfer bis
domicile to a spot two miles outside the city of
Trenton, there to remain till the anger of the great
Joel of Monmouth is appeased. One serious eflect
of the publication of the names was a change of
base which the Governor was compelled to adopt.
He was approached by several prominent men,
who denounced some of the nominations. It was
a combination of lawyers and railroad men against
the agrlcultnral, commercial, manufacturing, edu
cational and all other Interests ef the State, and
such it virtually remains. Yielding to the press
ure, however, he cast to the whale the following
Jonahs:? Speaker Pisher, ex-Chancellor William
son, Jacob Vanatta, Senator Willlums and Dudley
8. Gregory.
The amended list of gentlemen to frame amend
ments to the State constitution is as follows:?
First Congressional district, Benjamin Carter, Sam
uel H, Gray; Second district, Chief Justice Beaslev,
John C. Ten Kyck ; Third district, Robert b. Green,
John F. Babcocit; Fourth district, Murtiu llyerson,
Jacob L. Swayae; Filth district, Senator Cutler.
Benjamin F. Buckley; Sixth district, Chaueelior
Runyou, Senator Taylor ; Seventh district, ex
Chancellor Zabriskle, Attorney Gcueral Gilchrist.
The Senate met at twelve o'clock and went into
executive session. The Governor sent in the fore
going nominations, but, a recess belli;? taken, they
were not acted upon till two o'clock in the after
noon, when tliey were confirmed without debate.
No other business was transacted, und the most
noble Senators Incontinently bundled up their
papers and started to the railway depot for home.
Among those wlio led the van in this rush Senator
Shepherd was conspicuous. A Herai.d reporter
kept up a lively gait to overtake him, but was left
far behind. He met him at the depot, how
ever, and set lorth the very reasonable
proposition that if he had any disclosures to make
in regard to the charge ol bribery and his arrest
thereon the Ueiuld would publish it plain ami
unvarnished. The following conversation then
occurred : ?
"Have you any objection to state your position
in this matter f"
"Well, all 1 can say Is that time will bring out
"But have you nothing to say in your own be
half T"
"I will think over the matter, and I may set
forth my position."
"The term of Court is fast approaching, and
oon't you think that this Is the most seasonable
time for an explanation on your part
"I will think over it. (Alter a pause.) But sup
Eose nothing should come out ol it, can't J then
avc a statement published?"
"Your statement, will not then be necessary, for
the press will have possession of all the lacts i'u the
case even without your permission."
As the Senator was very unwilling to communi
cate anything the reporter entered the opposite
camp and ascertained that proofs strong as Holy
Writ are forthcoming against somebody. The
"National" men are as perplexed about the affair
as the Tom Scott men and will use every expedi
ent to eflect a compromise of some kind, flow
they can achieve that in a charge of
this deep criminal dye does not seem at
all trifling. On Sneplierd's side It is charged that
the "National" men proffered bribes (and there Is
not a doubt of it), and that whatever he did in his
dealings with that class was done at the sugges
tion of a Senator who is Tom Scott's brigadier gen
eral, to place the so-called lree railroad men in a
fix. On the other side it is charged, and will be
proven in good time, that a committee of twe from
Shepherd's district was constantly in Trenton to
conduct negotiations on behalf ol a third partv,
and of a character the reverse of legal or honor
able. The trial, if it takes place, will develop some
facts of a positively startling character.
Mr. David Dudley Field Before the
Medleo*Leg>l Society? The Four Kinds
of Insamity? Mr. Field's Six New Points
ot Law.
Mr. David Dudley Field read a very able paper
last evening, before a critical audience or the New
York Medico-Legal Society, corner or Twenty-third
street and Fourth avenue. Mr. Field began by
asserting that he would not consider the medical
aspects of the question, but wonld simply treat of
emotional insanity ax it concerned the commission
of crime and Its punishment, lie believed that it
was not a question of right or wrong whether a
crime had been committed or not; it waa
rather one of law. What was wrong a
century ago was right to-day. aud what waa
right to day was wrong a century ago. The dis
tinction between these two qualities was the result
of education. Why waa crlmc punished ? Not to
avenge, not as a mere chastisement for an offence;
but punishment was Inflicted to deter, and when
it ceased to have that influence it Bhould cease al
together. It waa
Certain exigencies permitted certain punish
ments for the public good. If three men were at
sea In a small open boat, and one should labor
against the life interests of the other two, It would
be perfectly right and proper that the offender
should be launched into the sea. Ilawng shown
that punishment was not to be guided by mere senti
mentality, Mr. Field proceeded to criticize severely
the charges of the Judge s in some of the moat fa
mous of modern criminal cases, where the plea ol i
emotional insanity has been pat forward In Justin- ]
cation for crime, and successfully maintained.
Huntington's waa a case in point, and in tiie trial
of Sickles for
the Judge charged that the Jury should acquit if
they found that the prisoner was In such a mental j
state at the time he shot the victim that he did not
know that he was commuting a cflme; In other
words, it the knowledge that Key had debauched
bis wile had so aflected his mind that he did not
consider the quality ol hi* inoial action in the
shooting, then he was to be holden guiltless? that
is, If Sickles thought he was doing a good tiling, it
was all right, and the jury must not convict, waa
there ever a greater absurdity t He also men
tioned the case of Waguer. and ridiculed the charge
In the ca?e ol Cole. In this case the Judge charged
that if the jury should find the reason of the
prisoner was dethroned by the intelligence of Ins
wife's defilement, so thut lie was lacapable of i
knowing that lie was committing a legal and moral
wrong, then they should acquit. Recorder Hack
ett, in
had made a charge equally absurd, in? Recorder
charged that nor only must the prisoner Know that '
he was committing an offence against the statute,
but that he Is morally guilty as well, in order lo
constitute a murder; In other words, again, "I
think this is a good thing to kill Ilicliardson, there
fore I'll do it. judge smith had also lakeu the !
same ground, and only two months ago Judge
Brady, in the case of Scanned, charges that tne
prisoner must have been couvinced of doing a
moral wrong in order to have been guilty ol mur
der. Theposrman thought he was avenging the
death of the brother. Mr. Field thought that all ol
these crimes should be punished, because they
were absolute offences agalust the law, aud as
punishment was to deter, its eperation in ihese
cases was necessary for security. Insanity had
been defined by many able men, yet ail differed,
lie would venture to state
what insanity should be considered
in law.
first? Was the prisoner at the time of the com
mission sf his crlmc capable of refrainiug from its
Sfvorui? Did he refrain from Its commission?
Insanity, he considered, us that manifestation in
a person showing that the processes of his brain
were At variance with the average liuraun brain. !
Insanity, he saft, was divided into?
first? Perceptional.
Second? Overthrow of the reason, or intellectual
Third? Emotional.
fmirt h? Volitional.
Emotional Insanity was manifested by impulse:
perceptional by hallucinations, while Intellectual
and volitional insanity were allied to either other.
Mr. Field, after an exhaustive discussion of these ;
forms of insanity, summed up his papers with I
first- That children and idiots are not holden to
criminal responsibility.
Mroml? That mental unsoundness may excuse
crime when the will becomes the slave or defective
Third? insanity excusing crime must be shown
by experts to be a brain disease.
fwirih? Neither emotional nor perceptional in
sanity Is aa excuse In itself ror crime.
fXfih? All prisoners declared insane shonld be
pnf in lunatic asylums until their restoration to
sixth? The punishments should be graded to suit
the quality or the crime and the intent and relative
guilt of the criminal.
Continuation of the Trial of Bockafellow at
Trenton? A Love Letter aa a Weapon of
Freaeantlfln? Intereeting Facte for
the Poetmaster General aa Well
at for the Public.
The case of the United States vs. Rockateliow
was resumed yesterday in the District Conrt at
Trenton berore Judge Nixon. As on the preceding
day every available space in the Court room was
occupied by a deeply interested and anxious
looking audience. The mother of the defendant,
together with big sister, brother and betrothed,
Misa Gardner, occupied seats near counsel. A
laige number of his friends were alee present
(rem Somervllle.
The accused was not an employ# of the Post Of
fice in which the depredations took place at the
time of their committal, as erroneously stated.
Rockafellow formerly worked for Porter in his
printing office, but was never connected with the
Post Office. In order to throw more light on the
manner in which the theitB were committed, it
may be here said that the supposition rested on by
the prosecution la that the guilty party obtained
the keys of the grocery store adjoiuing the Pout
Office, and by this means, after effecting an en
trance into the store, had procured a nail or some
other rod of metal and with it forced back the
spring lock which secured the door of the
office leading into the store. It will i
| be understood by this that the Post Office and
grocery store were separated by a light partition,
and in the corner of the building the door in ques.
tion is located. Rockaiellow's mother keeps a
boarding lieuse, and one of the clerks In the Rtore
boarded with her at the time the depredations
were committed. Tbi9 clerk closed the store at
night time and carried the keys with him. It Is
alleged by the prosecution that Rockafellow, who
also boarded with his mother, managed to purloin
these keys while the clerk was asleep, undetected
by him. Both men occupied rooms next to cach
other. It is also alleged that Sunday night was the
time always chosen by the accused to carry out his
designs. The counsel for the prosecution rested
their case yesterday alter examining witnesses.
Edward Porter, the son of the Postmaster and
General Manager of the office, was the first put on
the stand. Over two hours were consumed in the
takiug ol his testimony. He corroborated the evi
dence of his father, and nothing new was elicited
irom him, with the exception that he saw Itocka
fellow deposit a letter in the dropbox, and imme
diately arterwards one was taken from the box,
which proved to be one of the decoy letters. He
was not sure it was the one deposited by the ac
cused. There was a box in the front of the office
large enough to permit a man's hand to go through
and abstract letters. Favorite parties had access
to the office besides the employes, and often came
inside to get their mall. Be testified that Rocka
fellow had complained ono time of a registered
letter directed to his mother which had gone
Culver Barcalow, the well known Tom 8cott lob
byist, was next sworn. He merely testifled that
he kept a drug store two houses from the Post
Office and that some or his letters had been miss
ing about the time charged in the indictmcnt. lie
was also collector of Internal revenue. His evl
. dence did not lead to any direct charges against
the accused.
G. W. Mark, a member of the Secret Service de
partment of the I'nltud States, followed Karcalow;
he arrested Kockafcliow in April last in Sommer
ville; before he took him in custody tuc accused
alluded to a settlement or $400 or f 800 which he
oirered to make last Fall, and the accused further
said that, "I wish to God I had settled;" he subse
quently said thero was "a job put up on him." The
headquarters of the witness were jn New York and
his dittos w^e aU over the country.
J. R. BcheneR. proprietor of the newspaper on
which Rcckafellow was engaged, testifled to the
handwriting of the accused in the subscription
book of his paper. (A batch of envelopes was here
produced and examined by witness. The super
scr.ptian on them, it is alleged, is in the hand,
writiug or the accused ; and iurther, it Is stated by
the prosecution that these were returned threugh
the drop box with the missing letters enclosed.)
He said the handwriting was similar, but would
not swear to it, alter comparing the envelopes and
subscription book.
Natnan Richardson, a rather stubborn witness,
who gave his evidence with much reluctance, alter
being admonished by the Court, testttled that he
was familiar with the general handwriting of
Rockafellow, especially with the word Somerville,
when written by him, and, alter examining the
envelopes, said that it was his express, cmpnatlc
cpinifin that the superscription on them was in
| Rockaiellow's handwriting.
Mr. Gaylor, a Post Office official, also testified
I that he believed the handwriting in the book and
that on the envelopes was similar.
| Richard Latan testified that he heard Worman
(the grocery store clejk who boarded with Itocka
I fellow) say that the rostmasterauspected Rocka
i rellow of the theft.
This closed the evidence for the prosecution.
Mr. Vauatta then addressed the Court in reierence
| to the point he raised the day before as to the dell
i nltion of the word "mall." He wished to quash
the Indictment on the ground that stealing from
I the I'ost Office and irom the mail were two distinct
! ofTences.
| The Conrt ruled that the case should go to the
< jury, and that the question be reserved lor iuture
I Mr. Clark Wade then opened for the dercnce In
a short address to the Jury, arter which Kugcne S.
1 laugh tv was placed on tuc stand ror the defence.
{* He tentifled that the drop box was often so full
that it was easy to abstract a letter I herefrom.
He also alluded to a registered letter, directed to
I his father, which was receipted for but not dc
j livercd until numerous inquiries had been made
j ror It.
! A letter written by the accused to his sweet
heart, Miss Gardner, was frequently brought up
when his handwriting was being compared. It
was in the possession of the District Attorney. A
number ol witnesses will be examined to-day who
will testify to the good character or the accused. It
is intended by his counsel to prove an alibi. That |
Is (lie main point of the defence. It is expected
the ease will go to the jury this afternoon.
The testimony for the de,eno<4 thus far shows a '
i reckless management oftho Post office, and to t his
I end counsel for the dercnce are bending all their
energies, one result of this trial will bo to place
| the Postmaster in a very unenviable position.
Arrest of a French Mervnnt for Plunder*
Ing Her Employers.
Florcncc Doublet was arrested last night by
Detective* Clapp and Bennett, charge') with rob
bing a number of private families In the city of
property valued at about three thousand five hun
dred dollars. Complaints were received by
Captain Irving some ten days ago of
the depredations of this woman, and he
detailed Detectives Clapp and Bennett to
hunt her up. A desciiption of the woman was
given the officers by a Mrs. Alphonzo, who had suf
fered Irom Miss Doublet's admiration lor other
people's property, uud they commenced operations
bv endeavoring to locitu the supposed thief. They
several tunes got upon her track, but were unable j
to tln<l her dwelling ior the reason that she !
was constantly changing her abode. One
of the icniale detectives generally used I
iu such cases was called In, aud alter working lor
several days she was obliged to confess her eirorts
had laite JU Detective Clapp then got a clew which
he supposed 10 be reliable, and with that (or a
b.isis he was not long in discovering the house that
contained Miss Doublet. A search warrant was 1
procured b.v Detective Henuet, and, armed with this I
instrument, the otllccrs went last night
to the room occupied by Miss Doublet. |
There they found not only the prisoner, but two j
trunks, which she claims as hers, and which con- j
tained property valued at $3,000. Miss Doublet i
lived last at Mrs. Ogden's, 26 West Twenty-first
street, and has also been employed at 240 West ;
Tweiity-flfth stree'. The property the trunks con
tain Is of a most miscellaneous character, and the
detectives are now looking lor the owners. The t
prisoner was locked up at the Central Ofllce by
Capl.tln Irving lust uight, and will be sent to
appear before Judge tiogan, at the Totubs, this
morning. ?
The Ante-Mortem Statement of the Vle?
tint Called For? A Sergeant of Police,
an Officer, and a Fireman Said to be
Late yesterday afternoon Coroner Kecnan re
ceived information that William Kehlsen, a Ger
man, was lying in a very critical condition at his
residence, 812 Klghth avenue, from the oflTects of
violence which had been inflicted upon hlsn.
From the wife oi the Injured man It was learned
that about a month ago a conductor on the klghth
Avenue Kailroad entered her husband's restaurant
at the above nnmber, accompanied by a dis
reputable woman, and artcr remaining some
time their conduct was such that he at
tempted to expel them, and In doing
so became involved In a fight with the conductor,
during which an offleer of the Twenty-second pre
cinct, with sergeant Westerman, of the Thirty
first precinct, came In. A ilreman also appeared,
and all oi them, It Is alleged, joined in the quarrel,
aud taking sides against Mr. Kehlsen beat him In a
terrible manner, besides robblnc him of his watch,
valued at (Tift, and also some money.
Kehlsen and his wire were then arrested and
released on bail the following morning, since when
Kehlsen has been under medical treatment and is
now in mi eitrememiy daugeroun state, taoaetl by
COUVMM9B 9f U? brain.
Capture of the Virginia Horse Thief la
Richmond? An Exciting Chaae and a
Plucky Defence? The Story of His
Escape from the Cars*
Fredericksburg, Va., April 34. 1878.
Albert Fortune, the desperate horse thief, whose
numerous and remarkable escapes were fally re
ported in the Hbhald yesterday, was recaptured
here this morning after an exciting chase and a
most sanguinary struggle. It will be remembered
that while being conveyed to the Penitentiary a
Richmond he escaped from the cars, which were
going at the rate or forty miles per hour, with
manacles on his wrists and ankles, on Tuesday
morning. Bince then he has been hotly
and mounted men through the country from Ash
land, nearly fifty miles Irom this point. Ills pur
suers were, however, unable to tracic him through
the woods. In jumping rrom the train Portnne
was greatly stunned by the terrible force with
which he was dashed to the ground, but after re
covering bis senses he wandered into the woods,
slowly, bcoauBc of his manacles. After making a
circuit he returned to the railroad, where, with
the aid of a stone, he succeeded in
breaking thb shackles
from his hand* and feet, (lice more rree, with the
Instinct of hiH equine pre.eBslon he went t* the
farmhouse of A. C. Davis, of Hanover county, and
there stole another boree, which he mounted, and,
riding uight and day, arrived uere last night about
nine o'clock, lie then abandoned the animal that
had served him ho well, and sought refuge In the
house of his aunt, who resides here. Early this
morning three men Irom Hanover county arrived
here, and, going at once to the Mayor's office, re
pmed io the police that they had been in pursuit
of a stolen horse, which they found quietly graziug
in a Held In the outskirts or the city.
This information aroused the suspicion of the
police, who concluded that Fortune must have been
the thter. The Mayor was then apprised of these
facts, and, quietly summoning his police lorce, with
several private citizens, proceeded directly to the
house oi Hallle Fortune, situated in the west end
of the city which was soon surrounded. Two of
the most trusted and daring officers at once effected
an entrance. But while they were in one portion
of the building Fortune, who soon comprehended his
danger, dashed out of a side door and ran rapidly
across the Btreet, accompanied by
which was discharged at klm. Jumping a fence,
Fortune got into a lot, closely pursued by the
police and citizens. He continued his courso
across the lot, but before reaching the next fence
Officer Gore fired at him. Fortune was then seen
to stagger, and in wild exultation the ofllcer cried
"I'VE GOT niM."
The wonndod and fatigued convict still continued
to run for life and liberty, but while in the act of
jumping still another fence he was captured by a
man who happened to be accldently passing at the
other side. Even here he resisted with great des
peration, but the man hung to 1Hb leg with the
tenacity of a bulldog. The pursuing crowd soon
arrived and the courageous convict was over
powered by numbers and secured. His only ex
clamation at the time, hissed through his clinched
teeth, being,
The ball struck him just above and behind the
right ear, coiniug out above the teuiple. On the
way to the Jail he said to Officer Gore, "I'll give you
$400 to let me go," to which that individual sav
agely replied, "If you offer me money to let you
escape again I'll kill you, you son #r a b b
Fortune's wound was promptly grossed, the phy
sician pronouncing it a mere flesh Scratch. For.
tunc is thirty-five years old, is married and has
three children. Since escaping irom the Peniten
tiary he has lived in Philadelphia, New York and
Baltimore, where ho was recently captured. He
states )ie was making for Canada this time, and but
for ili luck would have made the trip. But even
now he does not despulr of soon being in the en
joyment of freedom again.
Thieves Hard at Work While the Police
are Idle.
The premises 594 Broadway, the first floor of
which is occupied b.v W. H. Carpenter and Richard
ttaiembier, were entered by thieves ou Monday
night last and robbed of goods valued at $10,000.
The appearance of the doors 011 the morning after
tho robbery would seem to indicate that the thieves
got into au empty building in Crosby street, next
door to the one gutted, and from there proceeded
with their work. As soon as they were in this
house, which is 120 Crosby street, they fastened the
door and then got on the roof through a aky
lignt. Placing a short piece of plank agaiust
the wall of 164 Broadway they gained the roof, and
it bccamo an easy matter to force open the trap
door with a jimmy and drop down into the store uy
means of a rope. Thoy passed on
until they reached the flrat, and then, selecting the
valuable laces belonging to Mr. Saleiubier aud the
silks of Mr. Carpenter, tliev flileil their sacks aud
departed the way they had entered. Mr. fcalembler
estimates his loss at ?3,ooo, and Mr. Carpeuter has
discovered he lias suffered to the extent of $4,000.
The robbery Is a particularly severe one on Mr.
Balembler, as ho Is only recently started In busi
ness, and such a calamity happening in the midst
of an unusually dull season is much more distress
ing than It would be otherwise. The interior ar
rangements ol the house are singularly weak and
fle:ectlve as regards safety, aud this, undoubtedly,
(he thieves knew.
are slight, and their fastenings are of the slightest
and most primitive description. All this does not
save the police from censure. The Central Ofllce
Is not far irom the house robbed, and the Four
teenth precinct station house is nearer still. How
the thieves got in and how they camc out will, of
course, be the points ot discussion amonir the
force; but that they did go in and did
get out with a quantity of merchandise
packed in bags and boxes Is certain, and the police
are to blame for J,n? XlTCIS Uie tnUroiiuen,
rovrjdsnien, seigeaRta, captain? anddeRctlveft, a"
ot wnotn are supposed to be watching the property
of citizens, and there are yet thieves who are far
more watchlul than these
Wttt FaID, SftjttfftLENT OPFICIA1.3.
Thieves not only do their work open'y and dar
ingly in the neighborhood where this affair
occurred, but they congregate and live there.
took place in the Sixteenth precinct on Monday
night. Messrs. Hevlin A Michaels, or?4 Bowerr,
were deprived ol property valued at $500 by prob
ably the sainc desperadoes. Ol course the usual
pretensions of arduous labors arc being made by
the police, but what they amount to the people are
familiar with.
Purchase of Mew Properly on Staten
Island by the State.
The Supply bill lor quarantine for the coming
year has passed the Assembly. The appropriations
Include one lor the purchase ol the Clifton property
and the Improvements thereon for the residence
of the Health Officer aud his assistants, at $100, U00.
A bill had previously been passed which appro
priates $30,000 for budding a new steamer for
quarantine purposes in place of the Andrew
Fletcher, which was recently burned.
Lecture by John Uough at the Academy
of Music Last Kvrnlng.
Last nl?ht Mr. (Jough delivered his popular lec
ture, "Will It Pay?" at the Academy of Music, to a
large audience. The plutiorm was crowded and
included many local celebrities, conspicuous
among whom were \\ iiitara Culleu Bryant and Dr.
ormtHton; Mr. Andy (iarvey, the celebrated plas
terer, and wile, occupied proscenium boxes. The
lecture had little that was novel in it, though It
was announced as having beeu revised. The audi
ence appeared to enjoy it, however, imtnenselv,
and were moved to laugnter and tears at the will
or the orator. Mr. (iougli lectures in sstclnway
Halt on the 6th of May.
Miles Johnson, of ^ardvilie, N. J., anil John j
Townsend, of Fairvlew, N. J., will to-day shoot
their match of thirty -live birds each, Tor $260 a
side, at Dexter's (late Hiram Woodruff's), near the j
old Union Course, Long Island. This match was
agreed upon during the late tournament at Hall's |
Driving Park, the conditions being that but one j
and a quarter ounce shet should be used, the
rise twenty-one yards, boundary eighty yards, and
to Hnd trap and handle for each ether. Mr. Towns
end Is quite a young man, and has manl tested con
siderable courage In meeting such a calm, take-tt
?asy professional as Miles In this, his tlrst, contest
ot TnaKnltude; but we admire him all the more for
It, ana hope that he will make a good record.
Fi.ertwood Park? Trottino? TRrRsnAT, April
24.? Sweepstakes $75#; mile heats, best, three in
Ave, in harness.
Pierce Hayden's br. m. Lady Annie a 1 l l
William Novell's h. m. Topsey 1 a a a
F. J. Anderson's bik. g. Winfleld 3 3 3 3
Quarter. Half. Mile.
First heat 1:I9X 3:43
Second heat 3ft 1:17 2:45 u
Third heat h* 1:11* ?:41
fourth beat 3V 1:17* 2:44
The Condition of Annie Hennessey Yester
day?She Says that God and Angela
Told Her in a Vision to
I Kill the Children.
The Coroner's Inquest and Ver
dict of the Jury.
Annie Hennessey, who murdered her children In
a lit of religions frenzy, remained at tbe Uellevuo
Hospital yesterday. She was confined in one or
the cells which are set apart for lunatics. She ap
peared very unhappy. When her husband came to
see her she scarcely recognized him, and, when he
came the second time, she said, "Everything was
all right" and asked htm "To take care of the chil
dren," as if nothing had happened. He kissed her
wildly and affectionately, bnt she stared' at him
vacantly and as if he were a stranger. From his
crazed wife the wretched man went to look at the
remains of his children and to think how he had
doted on them and laved them. There they lay
before him lifeless, charred, black from the fire on
which they were roasted. They looked sweet even
In death. A smile rested upon the Dace of tbe
younger child, aud the father kissed It passlanately.
Annie Hennessey Is a woman abont tbe middle
height, slim, wltu a long, sallow face, large gray
eyes, that are deeply sunk and have a strange,
weird lustre, and turn, pale Hps. At first she
seemed to be quite indifferent in regard to her
fate, but in the afternoon she folded her bands
together whenever one or the phyBlclans ap
proached her cell and prayed him, in touching
accents, to let her go. Two
visited her, and then came some relations. Sha
spoke to them in incoherent, hollow whispers, and
In so low a tone that it was very difficult to under*
stand a word she said. When the reporter of tha .
Herald and Dr. Farrlngton? who had already ex?
amlned her in the morning? visited the cell in the
afternoon the poor mother mentioned her children
for the first time.
"Oh ! my children, oh t my children," she moaned
In a low tone, "oh 1 my poor children !" The ex
pression or her face was heartren Jing, and her eyes
filled with tears.
"Where- are they ?" the Doctor asked.
She paused awhile, and gazed on him with a look
of deep anguish. "Ob! oh! they're dead," she
moaned in the same low tene, and 'wringing her
hands, "1 killed them; 1 burnt them."
She burled her head in her hands and sobbed.
"Why did yon kill them t? the Doctor asked.
She was still weeping, bnt she raised her head
and said, in the same hollow, unearthly tone, "The
Lord and the angels appeared before me in a
vision and told me to do It. The Lord motioned
me to do it and (sadly) when I looked at my chil
dren I saw that their tongues were red flames, and
I did it." There was a pause. She sobbed pite
ously, "Oh, my children! Oli, my poor children I"1
"Did you straugle them first?" the Doctor in
quired, . .
"oh, no," she moaned, gazing listlessly at him.
"I held the oldest first over the fire, (sue wrung
her hands.) Yes, I did. Oh, my children! Ob.
my children!"
"And then you held the other one over the fire f"
"Yes, yes," site signed, moaning again, "Oh, my
children, my children."
Words could not convey an Idea of tbe anguish
that was expressed In these simple words as
uttered them.
" How ion? did the vision remain with yon f"
the Doctor asked.
"Oh, God and the angels slaved all through un>
til It was all over," she replied, earnestly. She
lolded her hands and prayed for her children. A
mist came before her eyes. She staggered and
would have fallen had the Doctor not held her.
she Implored every one who came near her to
let her see her children. Her children! None but
a mother could have uttered the wprtf as she
uttered It. The reporter was told that she hpd
I been truly devoted to them, that she had seemed
; to love them better than she did her life. The
I thought that she had killed them whirled wildly
i through her leveiish brain, and when she wag
j told ttiat they would be buried in a few hours,
she hid her face in her hands and wept a long
I time, until at length she laid her head upon tbe
pillow aud sank into repose.
The children were buried yesterday by their
father. Their charred forms rest m Calvary Cerne
tarv. When they were found dead they lay with
their arms entwined round each other's necks, and
In tbe same position they He in the grave.
The following is the testimony which was elicited
at the inquest neid by Coroner Keenan:?
George Hennessy, residing at 87 Third street,
testified that deceased were his children ; last even
ing about half-past seven o'clock 1 came home and
found my door locked; I knocked at it about a
quarter of an hour or twenty minutes; my wife
then opened the door and 1 saw the two children
In a large washtub near the stove, on the floor; my
wile said, "Everything was all right? I'm happy
now;" I asked her what was the matter with the
children ; I supposed that she had been washing
them; she said, "Everything Is all right; they have
gone to heaven ; don't say anything to anyone;"
sue prevented me rrom looking at the children
lor a full hour; I did not suspect anything was
wrong with them; i then went to them and found
them dead : she went on her knees and prayed me
not to touch them or to go outside the door; I then
went out for Dr. Thompson and returned with him
to my house; be then notified the police at tne
station house: since the last child was born my
wife has acted different from before; about six
weeks ago she said she was dying and sent me for
Dr. Thompson; several times she has sat up all
night and prayed a good deal ; she used to Bay sbo
baw ghosts; she wa$ very qulqt,
- "mkoJcaT. ti?stim6ny.
Surgeon Farrlngton, who has the case of Mrs.
Hennessv, testified that she was suffering from In
sanity, and he believed her to have been Insane
when she took the lives of her children.
1'rofessor Jane way says he has examined Mrs.
Hennessv, who, undonbtedly, Is insane, and was in
that condition when she took the lives of her chil
dren; she has suffered from religious excitement,
and the debility lrom fasting may have Induced the
Wooster Beach, M. D., who made an examina
tion of the bodies of the deceased child reu, tes
tified that they were terribly burned abont their
heads, necks and chestr, which may have been
caused by thrusting tbe in head foremost through
one of the openings in the top of the stove.
The case was then submitted to the Jury, who
found " that the deceased children came to their
deuths lrom suirocation and burns at the hands of
their mother, Ann Hennessy, while she was suffer
ing from an attack of lusanity, at 87 Third street,
on the 23d day of April, 1873."
For the present Mrs. Hennessy remains in the
care of the Commissioners of Charities and Correc
tion, under treatment, but how her case will finally
be disposed or remains lor the proper authorities
to determine.
The Church "Militant" In WeiUhnltr
County? Latest Phase of the (tuml
for the Rectorship of Trinity Pariah,
Mount Vernon.
The unseemly scramble over tbe Rectorship of
Trinity (Episcopal) cliurcli at Mount Vernon, West*
chcstcr county, which lias disturbed and divided
that congregation during the past ten years, has
assumed a new phase since the annual Easter elec
tion for wardens and vestrymeu. On the occa
sion last alluded to the rival candidates for
congregational honors received an equal number
of votes, thus causing a tie In all but a single In
stance, where one of the wardens, who acted as
such last year, was re-elected. As the election re
sulted in no choice, or course the old chnrcn offi
cers bold over. To tho solitary vestryman elected
on Easter Monday, however, Rev. Charles Sey
mour, w no has officiated as rector of Trinity parish
since 1*07, sent in his resignation, preferring
to retire from a contest which has too long
brought discredit on that church. The resignation
wan not actcd upon, owing to a premeditated ab
sence of a quorum. This state of affairs does n?t
give satisfaction to the adherents of Rev. W. s.
Coffee, who Is pastor of the adjoining parish of
St. Paul's, at East Chester, and who through %
series of years has stubbornly contested be
fore ecclesiastical and secular tribunals the
rlgnt of any other rector other Itaaa
himself in Trinity parish. His adherents,
however, effected a coup tVCtat last Tuesday even
ing, when they captured the.keys of the church edi
fice from Its too confiding sexton, and, as a conse
quence, the rector, with a majority or the congre
gation, are excluded from the sacred edifice. This
action has occasioned considerable excitement in
the village named, and expectation is eager tor the
next move of the opposing forces.
St. Catharines, Canada, April 24, 1873.
The Welland Canal is unusually low, and a num
ber or vessels are rasi for want or water. In tin
loug level al Welland it is roar leet baiow the usua
spring level.

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