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The Snows of Siberia and the Sandy Steppes of Central Asia* RUSSIA'S LINE OF MARCH. A Herald Correspondent Uses His Own Permission to Join the Invad ing Army. COSSACKS AND KIRGHEEZE. Features of the Czar's Prospec tive Oriental Railroad Route. HOME LIFE OF THE NOMADS. St. Petersburg Nearer than London to tbe Heart of India. TWO METHODS WITH THE ASIATICS. England Sec-ks to Dominate Them bj Force, Russia to Assist Them in the Path of Civilization. VORT NO 1.? KAZALIHSK, ON TUB STRDARIA OR | YaxakV ft'VKR. MlIj:8 KR0M THK \ ARAL SKA. Ea8tk> feclf|)AY( April 20, 1873. J To lie suddenly ordered from tbe comfortable quarters that I Had just settled into in London, to go, at a day's notice, to St. Petersburg, and thence across the snows of Siberia, and the in hospitable steppes orcentral Asia, in order to follow up the Russian expedition to Khiva, was uo joke. But orders lroui one's lawful Commander-in-Chief, especially wUen dated at the Herald office, must be obeyed at any cost and risk, and consequently but lew days had elapsed be lore I was once more In St. Petersburg, having stopped on the way only long enough to take a flying trip to rcsth, in order to consult the great Hungarian traveller VumbOry, on tho re gions which he was the first to explore recent tiui?2. vssitjrj Viiitci K&iT* Bok hara in 1863, disguised as a Dervish, and the books of travels he wrote on his return gained him a world-wide celebrity. Some have doubted whether or not he actually visited those countries. How ever that may be he certainly is, from his knowl edge of their history and languages, the greatest authority on Central Asian affairs, and is con stantly expressing his views? views which are \cry antagonistic to Russian policy in tho Eng lish and German newspapers. It is perhaps partly because ol his expressions against Russia, added to many slight luaccuiacics in tils book, that the Russians are disposed to deny the genuineness of VamMry's travels. Professor Vambery received inc very cordially, and gave me much iniormation that was useful to me; but in the main object of my visit, which was to secure the services of the Tartar servant whom ne celebrated in his book, I was disappointed. Indeed, Iron the way In which 1 was refused even a sight of him, 1 almost inferred that he was either a myth, or that he knew more, than the Professor chose to have him tell. At St. Petersburg 1 met a troop of correspond ents hurrying like vultures to the battle field, all of them bearing letters from tho highest and most distinguished personages to others equally lofty and well considered-all of them desirous of being conducted to the Held of operations with all the pomp and circumstance of war, and all of them being politely but firmly refused. Finding that permission to accompany the expedition was inva riably refnsed, I determined not to ask It. na\ ing bad some frank talk with prominent officials, I was led to inler that there would be no special ob lections to my going to Khiva since 1 was an American, but the difficulty was as to giving me permission. If one correspondent was formally permitted, others would have ground to complain that permission was not also given to them. I de termined to solve this difficulty by acting on the Implied hiut and going without, permission or any papers whaterer. once in the army 1 landed wight safely trust to my lucky star and some old acquaintances there. A few days were consumed in necessary prepara tions for so long a journey, and after fifty hours on Knssian railways-going not at the highest rate of speed? I found myself at Sarator, on the I-ower Volga, beyond which was no convcyance but the THE LINE OF GESGHIZ-KIUN. 1 esteemed It a fortuuate omen lor my further journey that the only acquaintance 1 made tn rotite to Saratol was a lineal descendant of the lamous Genchiz-Khan, whose name six centuries and a ball ago filled all Asia and all Kurope with terror. The lTince Cenglilz is the son of the last Khan ol the Hukclef Horde o> Klrgheez, who live north of the Caspian, between the Volga and Ura rivers. More than that, he Is the letittimate heir to the throne of Khiva, of which his aucestors *crc dispossessed not a century ago. The Priuce Is a cultivated young man, who reads and speaks French and had just returned from a pilgrimage to Mecca-being, of course, a Mussulman-and a journey through Europe. He was educated In the Corps of Imperial Pages, served In the Im perial Guard, and was raised by the Emperor from the dlguity of sultan to prince a few years ago. His brother, the Sultan Bukelcf, is an aide de-camp to the Lmperor, and his brother-in-law. at Orenburg, is one of the head rulcts of the Kirghiz. Strangely enough one of the Tartar servants, ?whom I engaged at Orenburg, proved to be one of bis people. On the 27th of March, when 1 left Sarator, there was a tremendous thaw, and I feared 1 should find the roads in a fearful slate; still, I took an open sledge for ntyself and another lor my bag ?hoc and ammunition, and proceeded across the Volga on tne Ice, on my way to Oren urg. Contrary to my expectations, as soon as I bad crossed the river 1 round an excellent snow road, and apparently the depth of Winter, so far as climate was concerned. For the first seventy miles 1 ascended the Volga on Its left bank, passing con tlnually through Gorman colonies, established here by Catherine II.. in 1779. It was a great P'*?ure to sec the neatness and thrift which pervaded these flourishing communities, in striking contrast with the dirty and poverty-stricken air of the Russian vil lages in tho neighborhood. For. curiously enough. theGermans have exercised no appreciable inline nc ? on the surrounding Russians. They have succeeded In making themselves heartily disliked, and stick closely to themselves and their own languaze and bablts. These eolomsts are not, like most others in Xtussia, secturlaus. but ordinary Lutherans, an< know not which are more bigoted? the Lutheran pastors or the Russian priests-in lorbtdding all Intercourse with their neighbors ot unlike laith. There must oe In ail about sixty thousand *f these Cermans In this locality. At all the vtllages whosc names, Catharlnenstadt, ScbalThauscn, Ac., ?nade one feel In the middle of Germany, an Illusion Which was heightened by the language? one could Set good ? offee, bread and butter, and 1 was really a?rry when I saw the last of them. From Nicolaietsk I tound It better to branch off to Vralsk as being the nearer and speedier route. In general I had little difficulty about horses, flnding them, whether good or bail, in sufficient .number at the post stations. TRAVK1.LINU BT POST. / fhould observe here ib*i la Jiuuiia, in order to travel by port, one ts obliged to go through the formality of snowing one's passport to the police authorities and (retting out a podorathnava- or road pass, wliU'li entitles you to a certain nnmbe r of horses. Wltnout the production of this pape> and a large number of entries to books at every station no horses can be got. It Is strange that this useless and stupid piece of red tape should be Itept ip when one can travel everywhere on railway and steamboat without any papers or passport at all. In Finland it is simpler; and you have merely to r write your name and destination in a book to re ceive all the horses yon want. The cross route to Uralsk, nowever, was not a post road, and I bad to be dependent on what are called free horsea. All went well till, in crossing a spnr of the Ural Mountains, I arrived at the village of Kuzebal. This village, which was Hardly visible uutll 1 came on it, was built of low mud huts with flat thatctied roofs, on wntoh numerous dogs disported themselves. It was inhabited almost exclusively by Bashkirs? a race of Tartars? and boasted a small mud mosqne In its middle. The sledge stopped. I made my way through slush and farm yard tilth to the nearest hut, and, going down a few stops, entered. The cleaullness and coseyness of the Interior contrasted curiously with the court outside. In one corner was the stove, where a rather pretty young girl was trying to boll a lm.ee vat of water. A curtain drawn across from here half conccaled some Half naked children, and was evidently Intended to mark the strictly private portion of the house? what in a Mus sulman house of more pretensions would be the harem. Kound two sides ran a divan of earth, which, as well as the mud walls, was covered by felt and carpets, on one end of this was a woman, unveiled, with an infant, which had been born but a few hours before, and in the corner of the room was tied a sickly colt, whose droppings were at once brushed up by the housewile. While 1 was drinking tea the colt? perhaps out of consideration lor me? was banished to the ante-chamber. "BRINO FORTH TOE HORSE. " The master ef the house, a very One looking and respectable old man In full Tartar dress, with shaved head and skullcap, lamented on my behalf that there were bo horses, but promised to seo what he could do. Speedily an assembly of horse owuers, young and old, was convoked in the hut, and I had a number of Bash kirs squatting on their haunches beside me. A verso from the Koran being recited, the bargain ing commenced. The visitors were informed I wanted horses. A long pause. "How much would 1 give?" "The usual price? flfty kopecks a horse." Another long pause. "The road was very long and bad." More reflection. Urged by despair my offer went up, but nothing satisfied them. Finally, in Indignation, I sent tliem all away, and relused to have anything to do with them. The host again commiserated me, and brought in a new set of Bashkirs, with whom 1 Anally Btruck a bargain at a rouble and a half a horse? three times the regu lar price? for the twenty-five miles. We clenched our bargain by shaking hands all round, and, hav ing another blessing from the Koran recited, I at last got off. This little operation lasted about three hours. CAtTdHT IN A RTORM. In the next stage after this I was caught In one of those whirlwinds of snow called Burans, which so frequently afflict the steppe In Winter; the drivers lost the way, and for more thau an hour It was impossible to move in any direction. At last the storm somewhat abated, and the drivers, by going backwards and forwards, hit on the road, and we moved on. When 1 came to tlie station the snow was still blowing furiously In every direc tion, and I was warned against proceeding, and told Tearful tales of being lost In the snow and frozen to death, and how only three days before a driver on horseback had been lost and not yet found. As even the drivers refused to go on, there was nothing to do but to stay. So 1 drank my tea and spread my sheep skin coat on the floor to await for the earliest dawn. I seemed to have Just dropped asleep, when I was awakened by the station master. It was only one o'clock, but, as he told me, it was bright starlight and 1 had better take the horses while I could get 'hem. I therefore pressed on, crossed the last bit of mountain, and reached the first Cossack station at seven the next morning. AUO.N'O TUK COSSACKS. What a change It was from tho Bashkirs and the peasants, and how I luxuriated in the Ircsh white bread and cream of the kind-hearted oln Cossack, who sat before rac the best ho had 1 Ilow clean and neat everything was! I have known souie thing of the Cossacks before, and every one I have seen, since on my Journey, has only confirmed ray earlier impressions; and I am convinced that Russia can boast no better, braver, kinder and nobler race thau these same | Cossacks, whom Western Europe holds up as an i eternal buglear an t an example of all that U brutal and savage. Perhaps I am wrong in calling the Cossacks a race. They were originally pare Russians, more daring and more enterprising thau the rest, who wanted always to be on some border lorray, or to engage in some bold enterprise, where they could show their pluck and receive Its sub stantial rewards. They were thought to be too bold and daring not to be somewhat dangerous to the government, and accordingly they were colo nized everywhere along the frontier, and to them became Joined the rash and enterprising youth from all Russia. Bead Gogol's charming "Tarass Bulba," or Mdrimde's "Les Cosaques d'Autrefois" to see how delightfully bold and simple the Cos sacks were three ceuturlcs ago; hear of the con quest of Siberia by the Cossack Yermak to llnd out how they fought; and then go to the Don, the Terek, the Ural, Orenburg and the steppe, and sec the same men. You will hear at Irghlz how, four years ago, seven Cossacks cut their way through 1,500 Kirgmz. by whom they were surrounded, and at Fort AlexandrotTsky how lltty Cossacks made a sortie and a forced march, and put to flight ft.uoo K hi vans. The peculiarities of Individuals have, after two centuries, become permanent In a race ' where every roan Is brave, perslsteut and endur lng, and where neatness and economy are the characteristics of the women. lu crossing the i steppe, wherever the post horses were well kept up and In good order, there 1 found a Cossack, civil and polite, ready to attend on me and hasten my journey. Wherever there was a Cossack j woman the station was neat and orderly, and I hail clean dishes, ircsh eggs milk, gooii bread and sometimes a dainty little meal. The Cossacks were never ser.'s, but always boasted of the proud designation of "Volny Razak"? "Free Cossack." This inherited freeuoni is one great cause ot their Immense superiority to j I the mass of the Russian peasantry. The meu all ! serve In the army lor three years, furnishing their j own lioraes and equipments, aud rctalng their ; rifles at the expiration ol active service. There j they learn habits of order and discipline. Though ! practically free from service alter this, the* are nominally only on furlough, aud are liable to be i culled out lu case of war. As light cavalry and skirmishers the Cossacks are excellent; and their III lame us marauders comes down to us only iroui the olden time, when every man's hand was was against them, and when all soldiers were much alike In these respects. Since 1H1-, a nation claiming to be at the height of civilization has shown us how modern wars can t>e conducted with a refinement of barbarity aud cruelty uuknowu to the simple Cossack. These meu are intetl.'g >nt, and the great majority or them can read ai.d write. They are the Ameri cans of Russia, the pioneers of her civilization ; aud whenever Russia has hard and steady work to be none along her borders there she sends her boid ami laithful Cossacks. ViniMry may sneer aud scold as he pleases at Cossack civilization and the Russian eutposts In central Asia; I am convinced that no nation can get on so well as the Russians with these fanatical and enervated Asiatics, and that for the interests of Central Asia itself the spread of Russian influence Is greatly to be pre ferred to that of England. The Anglo-Saxon Knows but one wa> of dealing with an inferior rare? crushing it. Russia attempts to raise u la the scale. It was Sunday morning when 1 reached Uralsk, the cossack capital, a town similar, In all respects, to ordinary Russian provincial towns, except in the Kirghiz and Kalmucks that were frequently sccu m toy streets, wo caweis mid porno va horseback. The day tii warm and the streets were fall ol mud ana mettea snow, and any one who has seen a country town daring a spring ihaw cau Imagine It. The public offices being shut, 1 had considerable difficulty in obtaining my road pass ; but finally got off by evening, glad enough to escape from the miserable atofogy for a hotel, where, as Lent seemed kept here with the utmost strictness, I could get uothing to eat but fish. In Uralsk, and indeed through all this portion or the country, 1 could not help noticing the great gravitation toward Central Asia. Every one I met talked to me with interest because 1 was going there; spoke of their friends and relatives who were there, and their desire to go themselves. On walking out in the afternoon at Uralsk I saw a crowd of young CoBsacks just re leased from the army, who were trying to find places and service? a sort of employment bazaar. All were anxious to get to Turkestan and Tashkend, 1 could not but recall th? exodus to California in 1849. The Journey of 200 miles from Uralsk to Oren burg, along the left bank of the Ulver Ural, was easily made, except that 1 oltcn haJ great difficulty about horses, as they were all retained for the use o' General Krvzbanoffsky, the Governor Gen era) of Orenburg, who was expected on his way to St. Petersburg. It was only by a skilful diplomacy, and the assertion? which fortunately was true? that I had seen a telegram from the Governoi General putting off his journey, that I was able to get on, and at last, on the 1st of April, ten days from leaving St. Petersburg, 1 arrived at Oren burg, the threshold of Central Ada. TIIE KQl'l mSNT FOR TUB HO 11). I think that lew of my mends would have recog nised me had tliey seen me driving Into town. I wore a sheepskin coat with the wool inside? the characteristic winter dress of the Russian peasant huge felt boots on my feet, several scarfs round my neck, and a brown cloth bashlyk over my head. Add to this a pair of black goggles on my eyes as a protection against the snow glare, and a face burned bright red, from which the skin had already half peeled off. My nose Is red even now, and I tear that all the heat of Asia will not make it re cover from the freezing It got on that journey. 1 think I looked more than anything else like a pro fessional diver in lull panoply. Orenburg Is a place where one meets the extremes of civilization and of barbarism? the culture and fashions ?f Western Kurope in the large houses of the officials and the Hie and manners ol Klrgheez, Bokharlots and Khlvans in the Bazaar. At a better season I should probably have been charmed with the boulevards along the river and the white Bok harlot mosque, with Its graceful mlneret set in the midst of a pretty garden, and should have examined Its museum and public Institutions, and have studied the great progress which this frontier city is making. But then the streets were filled with snowdrllts, and 1 had little leisure to spare from filling cartridges and making my neces sary prcpartlons. As henceforth I had to depend eutlrely on myself, 1 had to lay In a stock or pro visions, ulshes and cooking utensils; buy a vehi cle and secure servants who could interpret lor me. Through the kindness of a Tartar profes sor of Arabic and Persian 1 managed to hire an excellent man, who had made several journeys to various parts or Central Asia witli General Kryzhanoffsky, and who spoke all the languages necessary. He Is a Tartar named Ak-Mar.ietef, and has so far proved an excellent and useful man. I got with him a young Tartar, Achniet, who loses | no opportunity to help ine. Only one kind of a travelling conveyance can be used here ? a "taran tass'1? a sort of covered carriage, resting on two long poles instead of springs. As the sledge roads were still good I had to have the wheels taken off and the "tarantass" put on runners, ready to be changed back whenever the snow gave out. I have found It a most comfortable vehicle, very warm and convenient, anil 1 have got so used to It in this long journey, where I travel day ami night without Intermission, that, in spite ol the Jolts or the road, I sleep almost as comfortably as in a bed. "WANDERING TUROrOft THE FASTER* COUNTRIES TEACHING." In making m.v preparations l was greatly as sisted by the only American in Orenburg, Mr. John P. Groves, a Bostotilan, who came to Kurope years ago to study music, and who, alter tnkluu the first prizes ror the violin at the conservatories ol Brus sels and Leipzig, has been drllted by late Into this remote corner ol the world. Mr. Groves is In the government employ aB the Military Musicai lUrcctor of this district, but I think he occasionally Blghs lor home, und it is really a pity that his re markably great talent should be wasted here. UNCLE SAM TURNS UP. At Orenburg 1 was lortunate enough to meet Mr. Schuyler, the efficient Secretary of the American L'.-gation, who, alter ably performing for more than a year the duties of Chargd d' Affaires at St. Petersburg, had determined to add to Ms already very extensive knowledge of Russia by undertaking a Journey through Central Asia. Mr Schuyler will be the first foreigner since the Rus sian occupation to visit Tashkend, Samarcand, and Kokan, anil proposes 10 return through Sibe ria, or, If possible, will go to Kashgar, and thence to India. The opportunities he will have of seeing everything and everybody will enable him to bring back very valuable and accurate lniormation. As a compaulon Is always desirable on such a long Journey, Mr. Schuyler and I speedily agreed to travel together as far as possible, thereby saving much in time, expeuse and horseflesh. We there fore kept the -tarantass'' for ourselves and our small bags, and put onr luggage with one of the servants In another open sledge. At Orenburg I was surprised at, tho slight im portance attached to tee campaign against Khiva, the International signification of which and the possible complications which might arise rrom it being either unthought of or Ignored. The expe ditions had all set oi.t in good order, and all intelli gence received irom them was satisfactory. The caraj'iiljjn was regarded muchln the same light as we lu New York regard the news or a fresh expedi tion against the Aparhcs in Arizona. And, indeed, between the Apaches and the Khlvans there is really no very great difference. TIIR I'KAL MOUNTAINS. From Orenburg our route lay directly eastward to Orsk, the rarthest ontpost or Kurope, and the J last telegraphic station In this direction. At one point the road turned to the left troin tnc Ural Klver, which we had been following, and for more than fifty miles we were entangled in the Ural Mountains. Here they are not high, and are easily crossed. Though the range was here so low, vet It had all the characteristics of mountain scenery, and the view irom some of the ridges we crossed was superb. It was like an oceau of mountains; on every side range after range, crest i alter 'Test rose up, bare and brown, streaked with w hite patches and furrows of snow lu the hol lows and valleys. We soon learned to put no confidence In the account* of the roads given by the* people at the post stations, and to trust to our own Judgment Sometimes, or course, even we were mistaken, vve made a triumphal pa-sage with nineteen horses over an easy bit of road that we had been told was almost, im passable, and becoming disgusted with such a herd or animals In front of us, all or which pulled different ways, we reduced our establish ment to nine, aud with the greatest difficulty made the next station to Orsk, over a road oiten , entirely bare or snow. Though ttie drivers were ! pas-ing every day over tnc road, it seemed impos- j slble that any one should tell the truth aoout evcu one station ahead. At Orenburg we were told we would not Ond snow even to orsk, and at Orsk we ) were solemnly assured there was not u bit beyond, j A little discouraged by onr last stage, we rashly ] followed the advice ot those who ought to know, had our runners taken off and our wheels put on, | and found an excellent snow road nearly all the way | to Kirjheez, about three hundred miles farther. In j fact, there was no dependence to be placed on any thing; for while up to Orsk the snow was rapidly melting, and it was getting constantly warmer, for the next two days after leaving there, though we were going directly south, we had the coldest weather that I have ever seen, together witua violent wind, and It was with diffi culty we kept from being frozen to death. Whether It was the nearness to the Orient that made every one aud evcrythlng-even the weather? so prefarl rftttPflftqd i-* 'nfaiatcat. 1 cannot aar. but 1 Jtavw that from the moment we not Into Asia onr dlCBcnl- ! ties greatly increased. It was the worst season in , the year lor travelling ; the Winter was unusually | late, and the horses, having eaten all their stock of provender, had nothing but snow or sand to sub sist on, and were lean and feeble in the extreme Even the camels were almost worthless. Up to the province of Turkestan? that Is for three-fourths of the route ? the stations were kept by Kirgheezes, who were negligent, improvident, and uncivil, and oo whom no dependence could be placed. The station houses, if any, were wretched and ! filthy, and were usually mere Jcibillcaa? Klrgheez ( felt tents? or underground hovels, called irrrilan- ! ka?. These latter were often warm and comforta ble. They are dug out 01 the earth, with a long descent to reach them, and have a Oat roof made of mud and reeds, almost on a level with the ground. This is the last year, I believe, of the contract made by the postal authorities with the Kirgheezes, and hereafter tho route is to be con trolled by Russians. It ia probably in the ill J natured epirlt of a bad servant who has had notice to quit that the Kirgheez station masters are now so particularly negligent. Everywhere the Cossacks on the route complained of thea, and of the neg lect of the postal authorities in not punlshlug them, one poor fellow^ employed as a writer, and living In a most wretched underground hui, had received no pay for three months, and, as his wife informed me with tears In her eyes, they were almost starving. Several times wo were begged to give, 11 we could, a little tea, sugar or bread to thpM poor Cossacks who were eo badly looked after b* tlic authorities? requests we were only too giad to comply with. Aa aeon as we entered the province of Tnrkestan, though it was In the worst part of the steppe? the desert of Kara-Kum? a great change was manifest Owing to the praise worthy exertions of the District Inspector of Kazala the road is kept in order; the station houses are neat, substantial buildings, made or ?un-drlcd brick, with broad divans covered with rugs, where one can sleep comfortably, and every thing* seems clean. This part of the route Is under contract to a Russian company, and tho horses are better and the service ex cellent. So far as the roads are concerned we were very lucky. We had expected mud aud all sorts of horrors. We found first the snow road hard and firm, and then the road over tho steppe still irozen ana practicable, and our vehicles did not even sink much In the band. Really bad bits of road were very rare, and our greatest difficulty was in crossing the river Or about two o'clock one morning, when we found the ice too weak to bear us. We wandered about the banks tor two hours, vainly aeeking for a better crossing pl.ice. At last we succeeded in persuad ing one ofour Klrgheee drivers to go, at the risk of drowning, to a village ou the other side, wake up the Inhabitants, and find out the ford for us. He enme back with the news that we could go straight on; and, though our unshod horses hated to break through (he ice and cut their feet, we iouud the water hardly more than a foot deep. NOT SO DAD AS IT IS PAINTED. In another respect we were also favorably dis appointed?namely. In the dangerous character of our journey, lloth of us had been assured, even by persons who should have known, that there were bands of marauders Infesting the road; that statlohs had been attacked ; that the mulls were not considered sale, Ac., in consequence of which we provided ourselves with a liberal supply of pis tols, and took every precaution to ensure our safety. All these rumors and reports seem to be pure Inventions, calculated for the English market, in order to excite hopes in a certain party there that Russia Is finding her Asiatic possessions too miirh for her, and will have difficulty 111 crushing Klilva. How people lu tho frontier forts smiled when we told theui of these rumors of the reported attacks by Kliivans on the Kmba and Irglilz forts and especially at the intelligence J thought 1 had had froin a sure sonree that the Kirghiz Sadyk was spreading terror and devastation through the steppel Why, the steppe was never so tranquil. No hostllo Kirghiz are known to exist, no bands of Kliivans have been seen, Sadvk has not been heard of, and we have arrived here safe aud sound, without a breath of opposition or a dream of dan. ger, and without having had a single article stoleu, though opportunities were aoumiant. Even ladles tfavrl here alone or with a single servant. To Insure the tranquillity of the steppe various forts nave been constructed, where small garrisons are now maintained. The first of these on our road was Orsk, wlilcn is now of no practical Im portance. About one hundred and thirty miles south of this Is Kara-Uutak, on the little river of the same name, a small but secure fortress amid the hills which form the southern continuation or the Ural Mountains. It is garrisoned by about one hundred men aud mount* one good rifled gun, which is more for ornament than use, as the natural strength or the place would enable It suc cessfully to resist any rorce or Kirghizes that could be brought against It. The fort Itself is a mere earthwork, aud about are grouped a dozen small houses. Fort Irglilz, for merly called Fort Uralsk, is 170 miles fur ther south, on the low bank or the River Irghirf. and a small village bus grown up about the fortifications. To the west t wo forts on the Kmba complete the line to Fort AlexandrofTsky, on tho Caspian, and to the east tnere Is Fort Oreuburg. Kara-Hutak and Irgliiz we looked on as welcome halting places In our disagreeable Journey, aud I cannot sufficiently express my thanks to the com mandants of those forts for the kindness and assist ance they showed us. At Kara-llutak we arrived late in the evening. In a small sledge with two wretched horses, having found il Impossible to get our impedimenta further than the last station. The commandant. Colonel Senukovitch, to whom Mr. Schuyler had a letter, received us most kindly, feasted us and gave us quarters in his own house, and sent on horses for our vehicles and luggage, otherwise they might be still waiting In that little hole of a station. THE $TftrrE. It is a llttte difficult to describe tho steppe except by saying that for the first half of my way 1 saw nothing but snow, and the other naif nothing but sand. In general appearance the steppe re minds me of the plains of Colorado, or rather those of Arizona. Unlike the steppes of Southern Rus sia, the land here Is not perfectly flat, but slightly rolling and swelling, and until we reached the Aral Sea there was always a line of low hills ou our right, the Mugodjarsky Mountains, the lower end of the Ural. In general the steppe Is covered with grass and various small plants, Including multitudes of tulips and numerous low bushes, v. Iiicti help to furnish fuel, but at th.s reason tho grass whs dry, and It was only n^ar the Syrl?arla that the slightest shade of green was noticeable. Even the desert of Kura-Krum, which I had often seen described as a howling waste or sand, Is covered with bushes and other plants, and spaces of loose drilling sand are very Infrequent. It is need less to say that our ideas of sandy deserts, drawn rroni the travellers' tales we read in our youth, liavo been very materially modified. Water, and usually good water, was to be found? at least, at tills time of year? at all the stations, and fuel, such as it is, is aiuiudaut. Jn some places reeds are burned; in others bushes and roots known under various designations; and along the Syr-I)arla they have a very tough wood, found there In great abundance, called sax-aul. It conststs of the trunks aud branches of various t>us>?es, which have been warer suaked and have rotted, aud sui ply nearly as muoh he.it as coal. It is certainly better tuel than the birch wood burned in St. Petersburg, and Is even cheaper. The most common tuel on the steppe is, however, camel dung. There is an abundance or animal life on the steppes, in the shape or birds aud small fur-bearing animals? some sn.-liks, like our prairie-dogs; others valuable for their skins, lu our whole journey we saw only one woir, though I they are tolerably plentiful. Many of the birds are | excellent eating, especially tho bustards? probably the same mentioned by Xcnophon In the ?' Ana basis'? the wild pigeons, partridges, snipe, ducks and geese. There were also plentry oi cranes, magpies, crows, hawks and eagles. We orteu secured a supper on bustards and wild plgeous, and ' had much sport at trying to bring down eagles, ! being only once succcssrul. Tne ducks and geese were in multitudes on all the little ponds and lakes south or the Irghia and on the Aral Sea, along the sands or which we drove lor about twenty miles oqa luvelr niierimu. on crossing the overflow of the Syr-Parla yesterday to reach here we were ' surrounded by myriads of them, but all were too j shy tor us to shoot. A RAI1WAY ROt'TE. Because at this particular season of the year the po6ttil communication* are ba?l, and 1 wax four teen days In getting to Port No. 1 from Orenburg, it must not be supposed that the steppe is crossed with very great difficulty, or that there is any Insuperable obstacle to tho movement of large bodies of troops. In Summer they can easily inarch across it during the night and morning, halting during the day to aveld the heat. As to Winter marches, a few weeks ago two battalions of sharpshooters and three totniaa of Cossacks were sent down to tho Khlvan expedition. The men were well clad In the usual sheepskins, with hoods, felt boots and warm mit tens, and were taken In sledges along the post road, finding warm kibitkas, food and a little vodka soon ready for them at the stations, and In this way easily made gfty and sixty miles a day. Pe roflfoky'a disastrous expedition to Khiva was In Winter, but the Winter was unusually severe, the rontes nnknown, and Peroffsky's men were im properly clothed and without the practice and ex perience that enable the Russian soldier of the present day to lace the coldest weather success fully. With the construction of a railway every thing will be easy, and Russia will ne as secure on the Yaxartes as on the Neva. There are no enormous difficulties in the way. none so great as wero successfully overcome In the con structlon of the Pacific Railroad. The ground rises and falls in easy gradients, and will necessi tate lew corves, cuttings or embankments. Wood for ties can be had In the Ural mountains, and can be brought to the spot as easily as It was to our Western plains ; Iron for rails Is abundant In the Cral, and fuel can be obtained from the rich coal fields lately discovered on the upper course of the Syr-Daria. This railway to Central Asia is no mere dream, for explorations have already been begun for It, and General Beznoslkoff has Just arrived here on business connected with It. A railway from Orenburg to Toshkend, from the Volga to the Yaxartes, means the civilization and enlighten ment of Central Asia the restoration of peace and security where peace and security have been for centuries unknown, the development of a rich commerce, the reclamation of the desert by Irrigation, and the return of Transoxanla to the state of prosperity in which It was lelt by Tamer lane. It means the fall of the greatest strong hold of Islamlsm. the spread of Intelligence and culture, the dally Hkiulu the on reading room tables of the clubs of Samarennd, Bokhara, Khiva and Herat. A railway to lashkend means the spread of Russlau Influence and authority to the summit of the Hindoo Koosh. It means that Cabul Is nearer to St. Petersburg than to London. I.IFB ON THE KOAO. As there was little variety In the scenery of the steppe, aud It was not always that we could see anything to shoot at, tho incidents of our Journey were chiefly concentrated In the scenes that occasionally passed at the stations. Some times, however, we amused ourselves on the road. If the horses or camels went very slowly we were able, when It was not too cold, to read In the carriage, and we got through in this way ?'Mlddlemarch," a couple of French novels and most of the Koran. The last, of course, wc read with interest In this Mussulman region. Very Iro quently indeed there were no horses to be had. or only very bad ones, and wc were obliged to take camels. At first we were much amused at seeing these lumbering, unwieldy beasts harm ssed to a carriage; ,licy wcnt 80 slowly-*: l'are'y 111010 than two miles an hour-that we coucetved the greatest aversion to them. If one of them w.,s in the slightest degree dissatisfied lie would begin to howl wltk most discordant noise, and would ?eep It up for hours at a time until we arrived at tho j next station. The camel seemed to hie a nonde script. animal, far more resembling a bird tiiun a neast, and 1 classed him In my lancy as a sort of cross between a cow and a cassowary, partaking more ol the nature of the latter. XIKOllF-E/. HOME LIKE. At Tokan, the tirst station after leavlug Oisk. the Cossack told us. alter wc lud wailed a long while, that though the Kirgheez who kept the sta i tion had twelve horses. he refused to give us any, and had driven away with blows the men sent to fetch them. He told us, further, that nothing would do him so much good as a severe drubbing, and advised us to go ourselves and administer It. We accordingly, under the guidance ol the Cossack, with revolvers In hand, set out for the nelghboiing a, it, or Kirgheez village, where this tyrant lived, de termined to have the horses nv fair means or toui. The old Kirgheez seemed astonished at this unusual apparition, aud, alter he had been well beaten by the talthfnl Ak-Mametef, fell down at full length at our feei and sued :or pardon. With many tears and groans he furnished us with the horses we demand ed in the space of about two hours. Faster not even our weapons could make him work. In the mean time we had an opportunity of observing a Kirghec v. Winter dwelling. Under sheds covered with straw and earth, tilled with cattle and sheep, we passed luto a crooked underground passage, and emerged Into a sort or den biir enough lor two people, but filled to the uttermost by three men, four women, throe children, several sheep anil a sick horse. A hole answered lor a window, and In one corner was a mud stove, with the huge pot, which Is the chief piece of furniture In all Kirgheez dwellings. The children, who were sitting In a picturesque group on the top of the stove, were fair, with dark eyes and very pretty faces. 'Tis a pity they get ugly so soon l At another time on a ramv night we got lost lu tho steppe, and had to wait till morning at a Kirgheez ??<?/. This was much lurther south, nnd the Kir family were already In their Sum mer habitation, the kibitka. This Is a round tent male of a very light wooden framework and covered with felt. The whole is so light that It can be carried ou the back of one camel and so slinr.io that It can be put in place In ten or fifteen min utes. Here we found a family of two men and their wives and children sitting on their haunches on pieces of rem while their tea was boiling over un open lire of camel dung In the middle, the smoke of which escaped through a hole in the rool. Tney received us hospitably, spread the best quilt for us to hit on, and looked on with great inter est, cracking Jokes with our servants, while we made aud drank our tea and eat our supper of bread, sardines and cold wild goose. Having in return for our shelter regaled our host with our tea aud presented him with a knile and fork, in the use of which he had seemed so profoundly in terested, wo retired to our tnra/uu?s to sleep t!!l daylight. Tho Kirgheeze are a singular people, appearing to belong, so far as physical type goes, to the Mon golian race, but speaking a lartar dialect. Tills is the Middle Horde, living tu Winter near the shores at tho Aral Sea, and in Summer wandering up to Orenburg aud the Northeast. They are periectl.v nomadic iu their habits, their whole wealth con sisilngin their flocks aud herds, their horses, sad dles and tho furniture or their kiNtkiu. iney rareiv cultivate the ground exc -pt In the vlciuitv or settlements, and there raising ouly a row melons and a little barley. They live now contentedly un der thedominlon or Russia, though in is??they were ma state or rebellion In consequence of the intro duction or a new system. All that is now over. Ihev are governed by men ol their own race, under Russian supervision, and pay their taxes? three rubles a kibuka? with a wonderful punctuality aud regularity, being rarely lu arrears. They are nominally Mohammedan lu religion, bur. cling to many Pagan hauts. and trout.ie tUetue.!ives little at xiu t prayers and ceremonies. They are kind, hospitable and simple, but at the same time cow ardly and abject. I have nad a man I threatened grovelling on the ground at my feet; and another, who was astonished at receiving rather more lor his services than he had counted ou, came up to n,e m the most grandly simple way aud gratefnlly pressed my hand. Another, meeting us on the road, without solicitation changed his own good norse ror one of our bad ones. At one of the last stations we found that the only room was occupied aud locked. We were rtlt her Indignant, but were speedily pacified by learning that a baby had been born there the day before to the wile of a lashkend official, who was accompanying her husband to St. Petersburg. We pitied the poor woman confined on the open itej pe, had our tugs spread lu the waria sun out side, an<1, as we were taking tea, tent in to my S that anything from onr stores wan at the lady's [ service. The happy father thanked as, told as ; all wan going 011 well, and accepted a bottle of claret and a can of condensed milk for the infant. The country around Fort So. 1 la all cut op wltn curtain, and the overflow of the river has covered the country with water, so that we were forced yesterday oa arriving to make a long dtumr. We were stack in one of these sloughs for about two hours, with the water over the axletrees, and the carriage slowly sinking; and It was only alter getting oat, riding the horses to dry land, and coming back with more, that we succeeded in ex tricating ourselves, ami getting into town, where we arc established in the only hotel the place affords. 1 am now within less thhn Ave hundred miles of Khiva, bat the hardest part ef my journey is yet 10 come. HlitDER IS JERSEY CITY. The Demon of Drunkenness Again at Work. A Qnarrel Between Railroad Employes and the Consequences -An Innoccnt Kan the Yio? tim-Peacefnl Mediation Exercised at the Cost of Life? The Alleged Murderer in Custody. No murder more unjustifiable was ever perpe trated than that which was entered on the criminal records of Jersey City yesterday. No fatal wound more undeserved was ever inflicted than that which harried to an untimely end John Adams, an employ^ ol the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at the depot in Jersey City. The Tacts or this murder need no varnishing. Nothing appears In the case to mitigate the atrocity of the act except the stale defence of rum and Its maddening effects. II drunkenness can be urged In extenuation of murder a defence based on that may be introduced here, though such a defence has very little weight In a Jersey Court. The efficacy of such a deience was thoroughly tested in the case of Bill Woollcy, who was hanged at Freehold, in Monmouth county, a few years ago. In his ease there were many ex tenuating circumstances that cannot be lound n the present one. The recital of tho bare facts wlU suffice to make this evident. Nathan Brltton, the alleged murderer, was em ployed as a yardman in the depot ot the 1>ennHylv*" I nia Railroad, at Jersey City. On Monday night his i boss, James McCann, told him to go Into the yard of the Vnlon freight line and assist the hands there, as there wns a scarcity of men In that department at the rime Brltton grumbled at what he considered an arbitrary onler, and after some hesitation re fused to go. McCann warned him of the ronseotiences of disobedience, and Anally Brltton consented, but as he went he nursed wrath in nls bosom. This circumstance Is the key to tne whole case and to this Is traceable that tierce re sentment which resulted in the shedding of Mood. Hrltton did not remain more thnn an hour In the iiiHcii'iriie of the duty forced upon him when he returned and demanded his "time," an expression well understood by railroad men as a prelude t< resignation. MeCunu offered no obstacle, and the recalcitrant workman lei t and went to New This concludes what may l?e set down as the first Mmss&ssssi lie would blow the brain* out of the ? . uii !? Rm 11111111; cruSHert liia path, nnd was about to irreat Him when John Adauis appears ihe seen" as a peacemaker to soothe the i foclinirs of the excited man. Adams, the benefactor? the disinterested benefactor? an em ? him and put' hint to sleep." And here cuds I CUAdamsNthe benefactor, and Brltton, the raving, lllrean ? till minnifcm, Ma|oney. the engineer, that he wanted to and M^-?iui as hc inicude> io shoot ?iim tiip ?>no*inoer replied that he did uot Know llhi'r# Mrftenn wa< -but/' added he. "there got; riot iu e r^ the drill ma-tor." At this announcement itrttton surted an" said, "Well, he'll do; I II shoot | iuul the ," at the same time drawing his re I volver ' Moloney grappled with him and rcniioded liim in very forcible terms that no must n it nlav uuv game of that Wind just then. \cij Loon alter I niton encountered this samo CUothle* and 'demanded I In .. language ???? larrililp tlliin ClegUUt 111* tlUll Ol "IU?. Clothier answered that the regular custom wasto iii if thi- omce aud that llrittou ought to know that The latter been me fnrions, nnd, drawing his revolver poured out a torrent ul imprecations end with " I II take it out ?( yon with this," I rlndMiing the revolver. At this critical Juncture Hrltton. The crisis was at hand. Don t nrei ! Juried Adams. But ton -was thirsting for blood. He 1 w w swooping down on his quarry, am. Adams ! crossed ni' path and frustrated his purpose, lhe di-sneratc man's blood had been boiling for an hour auil now it was at fever heat. "Let go, I riinff ou' on the one side, and "Don't, oh 1 "rack-^ums1 ,ciV naA' wards a'ldumicd piteously sua .wr w? gr. here ? vend for the doctor." Huteen minutes after "The" ^aH entered tl?c teTOn, severing : the in t i-i?t 1 ties an?l death ensued from Internal hem orrhage! Brlttou was secured and taken to^?)liio lie iduuarters. He was taken before J ustiu. Hey was viewed by a Hkkai.o rc port* y ? j 'I'lio pvui'i'MhIoii Is ch calm uii-i pi?ttati ?o though the unlo.tuuatc man had lapsed into a on let 'slumber. But lb. tho habiliments ot death I an.l the gloomy surroundings ?nc would hardl* suppose mat he had sunk to sleep *[ter life s ilt fni it'vcr " Atiiong t host* who called \^a* the - bereaved broken-hearted wife, whose Btlllcuon is the moro poigaiint as he was a model husband. ! I, u sank upon >hc cold body, and Tor s .few m? miu? was lei t undisturbed. Uers wa? a iiicni ^nci I mat corrodes the heart, and dings to the he'ng it crushes tu close companionship till Ule 1 * la&t hnger in H hoar "Don't disturb her," said the kind hearted undertaker, Rowland? "don't disturb her. his time with her will be short enough, ood Ln*.r<Tm? was a hardy son of toll, with sharp features and a good physical ^e*?^?in5hJ. alleged awswuswsS&i v/it si??SES5?!ite railroad company wilt Inar tne c-?i . tcrnieut. . . art matters. Kwln Carvril Work. The Summer apathy will be enliveued during one or two altoruoons and evenings 01 next week with 1 the sale of some flue carved lurntture and kmck Qgckerv, the produce, we believe, of the Swiss Manufacturing Company. To remark that the sale is a Intna ft'te and thoroughly legitimate one sounds i like merciless satire on tne system npon which these sort of auctions are sometimes conducted. [ t'linton Hall is to be the scene ef the disposal, and we bHiuve that the exhibition dates from to-day. The sale will be a large one and Is expected to he 01 a good ileal of interest to th?- trade, as well as to private buyers. Meanwhile It is worth more than mention as being a pleasant and honest expression el' a peculiar and highly popular sphere ol art. lHr. Copelsad'i Plefarea. Mr. Alfred B. Copcland, who lately cam' hither from Antwerp, and expects to return there In j July, to remain a couple of years, has removed to the hall of the Young Men's Christian Association the pictures which he recently had on exhibition in lta Qarmo's llall, lu the building mainlv occupied by the Homervule Art (iaflery. Some of these pic It ures are scriptural In design, and are copies ot the most celebrated works of Rubens, Van Dyck. and so on. Among those now on view at Associa tion Hall are "Tho Presentation of Chn*t to Su (Jerome" and "The hducution of the Virgin" (Ru ' bensi ; "SL (ieurge and the Dragon" (Van Dycki ; ; "rtt. Nicholas Bringing Kood to The Sufferets trom Famine" and ' St. Nicholas bringing Money to a Bankrupt" (Vacnltis) ; "The Ravages of War" (Ucrohem* ; "Old Woman and caraffe" (Adrlen de ! Vois) : '-The Fisher Boy" (Kranr. Halls) : aud sev eral original studies of Mr. C'opeland's. Ihcse plo I tores ar<? all for sale, and their removal :o Assoct^ I Uou llall is calculated to oromo-te Utat yitpatmn.