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THE AMERICAN REDS.
Map of tHe Indian Reservations and Military Posts and Agencies Controlling the Civilized and TTncivilized !ftibes<
3ft Longitude S3 West from 81 Washington 29
rmic b RU8SCLUM.V.
WARDS OF THE NATION.
Our Indian Reservations and
The Hostile Tribes in Dakota and
KICKAPOOS IN KANSAS AND IN MEXICO.
Condition of Red Men on the Pa
A Prospective and Retrospec
The Lands Occupied as
Military Supervision at the
13m map presented above shows the principal
Indian reservations and military posts In that part
?f the United States ijln* between Texas and
Minnesota on the east and Washington Territory
and Mexico on the Pacific coast, with few excep
tions all the aboriginal tribes and bands, both peace
foi and hostile, are located within the territory in
dicated. Most of the troops in the Departm ent of
Dakota have been concentrated under Colonel D.
8. Stanley to escort the surveying parties on the
North Pacific Railroad line to the Yellowstone, and
M a consequence bat one or two posts are now
There are live reservations in this State, on which
were are about six thousand Indians. The Chip
pewa* of the Mississippi have been assigned to the
reservations known as White oak Point and White
Earth. A great many still pursue a roving life,
preferring to remain on their old grounds. White
Oak, from the nature oi the soil, possesses few ad
vantages for successful agriculture ; but any natu
ral deficiencies here are more than compensated
by the surpassing beauty and excellence of White
Earth. Tfle latter consists of thirty-six town
anipa, diversified by lake, prairie and tim
ber lands, and le equal, if not superior,
In quality or soli to any other lands In Mlnne
?ota. The I'lllage and Wlnnebagohlsh dwell within
the limits of the reservation, chiefly upon the
lalanda ana snores of Leech and Cass lakes. The
Ashing Is not to be excelled. The Red Lake and
r?mbina Chippewa* occupy a fertile track along
the shores of the lake deriving its name from that
tribe, although they do /?vt pi?flt py the fertility of
the soil. They live upon roots and berries, which
are abundant. The locations of the reservations
are marked on the map. The Minnesota Indians
are generally peaceiul and need little military
This Territory, situate west of Minnesota and
immediately sonth of the British Possessions, has a
large and troublesome Indian population, princi
pally composed of Sioux. It is studded over with
military posts and camps. There is a general Sioux
reservation, with seven others of lesser area. The
Sisseton and Warpetons are located some miles
south or Fort Abercrombic, and, with the Upper
Missounans, number about eight thousand seuls.
Two companies of the Twentieth infantry, under
Major Yard, occupy Port Wadsworth, on the
spot. The Two Kettle, Sans Arc ana Minne
conjoux bands, estimated at between five
thousand and six thousand at the Cheyenne reser
vation, have been very troublesome. Two
companies of the Seventeenth lnrantry are
stationed at this point. Nearly seven thousand
Onpapas, Yanctonians and Cuthcads are at the
Grand River reservation. They are disposed to
follow the chase and avoid, as far as they can, as
sociation with other Sioux. Two companies of the
same regiment are also stationed at this agency.
The Yancton reservation, in the southern part of
the Territory, has 1,800 Indians. They arc said to
be making some progress in civilization. At the
Whetstone or Lower Brule reservation about 4,000
draw subsistence from the government. One-half
are at the Upper Brule. They comprise the Ogal
lalan and seceders from several bands of
Sioux, together with 600 half-breeds and whites
who have cast their lot with them. They roam
over the country a distance of twenty or twenty
five miles. These are guarded by Captain Bush's
company of the Twenty-second infantry. At the
Crow Creek Agency there are 2,400 Indians, be
longing to different tribes, of violent disposition
and difficult to manage. Troops are located near
them. The Poncos, on a reservation by them
selves, on the Nebraska boundary line, close to
Fort Kandall, have been reduced to 700. They are
willing and anxious to learn the arts of peace.
They are provided with a school, but the Interfer
ence of whites does them mnch injury,
There are six reservations in Nebraska. The
four largest? the Pawnee, the Winnebago, the
Omaha and Santee Sioux? are marked on the map.
A few years since an allotment of lands was
mado tn severalty among the three last named.
The head of each family received eighty acres, and
those nnder eighteen and unmarried forty acres
each. The Pawnees, for some reason, did not have
an allotment. Most of tbem live In earth-covered
lodges, which are neither olean nor healthy. The
Nehames have schools and temperance societies.
The Quakers have charge or the Indians. Large
tracts of land are represented to be under cultiva
tion. Nebraska is Included in the Northern
Superintendence The Indians number about
seven thousand. There Is a large garrison, com
posed of the Second cavalry and Eighth infantry, at
The Klckapoos occupy a very desirable reserva
tion, containing 28,686 acres, in the northeastern
part of the State, and through which tne central
branch of the Union Pacific Railroad passes. The
country wound tbem u settling op rapidly. They
are loyal and peaceable, and evlnco a desire to
jot* their raiding brethren in Mexico, on a tract of
land in the Indian Territory, if the removal of the
latter across the Rio Grande can be effected.
There live about 1,600 Pottawatamies on a reser
vation eleven miles square, in Jackson county.
They live in separate lodges and possess cattle and
an abundance of agricultural implements; on the
Kansas reservation, 600; Ottoc, 600, and Keosho,
6,000. The Shawnees are also anxious to go South.
The Third and Filth infantry and Sixth cavalry are
stationed in Kansas.
The CfcoctawB, Chickasaws, Kiowas, Arapahoes,
Cherokee*. Comanches, < mages and other tribes
are settled in large numbers In the Indian Terri
tory. Altogether they number nearly fifty thou
sand souls. The Choctawa constitute a nation, and
are governed by a President and Legislature. The
Sac and Fox tribes are situated on Deep Fork, west
of the Creeks and north of the Semlnoles. Their
land? of good quality? comprises 760 square miles.
They were removed from Kansas. The Arapahoes
are on the Upper Arkansas, and are well supplied
with cattle and buildings. The Kiowas and
Comanches behave well. Large tracts of land
arc secured to these tribes, a considerable
portion of which have made great progess in civili
zation. In Kansas and other States Indians desire
to be removed to this Territory, where greater ad
vantages are enjoyed than in any other part of the
country. The interference ol white men frequently
causes disorders, and there arc some of the red
men who Indulge in raids into Texas for the pur
pose of cattle stealing. There are five companies
of troops serving in the Territory? four colored and
one white. Three are stationed at Fort sill and
two at Fort Gibson.
There are no reservations in Texan. Six regi
ments are stationed in the State to keep the tur
bulent savages in order, and to guard the line of
the Rio Grande from predatory Inroads from
Mexico. The government aims at removing the
various tribes to suitable reservations, but they
prefer the war path and delight in plundering ex
peditions. The troops are kept continually mov
ing to protect exposed settlements, and escorting,
as in Arizona, trains. The Indians on the Indian
Territory in the southeast are charged with fre
quently making Inroads for the purpose of robbery
Returning to the North we find that the Assina
boincs, who principally make their abode in the
British Possessions, cross froquently Into Montana.
There are besides In this Territory the Gnos Ven
tres, Blackfeet, Flatheads, Bend d'OreUles, Crows,
Kootenay ana other tribes, each of whom have
agencies. Smallpox has made great ravages among
these people. The Flatheads have adopted the
dress and habits of whites and have made great
progress in the arts of civilization. An Immense
tract of land has been set apart as a reservation
near the boundary line lor the various tribes*
The Piegan massacre Is not forgotten, and It
would appear the Indians prefer the northern
side of the line to United States territory. The
Yellowstone, towards which the Northern Pacific
Railroad surveying party Is now advancing, es
corted by a small army, Is In this locality, and a
few days since a report cams of an attack on
some engineers who wero in advance. The num
ber of Indians in Montana about thirty thousand, |
but they have allies In Dakota and in the British
The Shoshones and Bannocks and Mountain
Crows are on reservations in this Territory. They
live principally by the chase. In 1868 a tract of
land in the western part of Wyoming was set apart
for the Shosnones, who agreed, when the Bannocks
should desire a reservation, one should be set aside
for them. The Shoshones selected one themselves,
which includes a large amount or arable land well
adapted to cultivation.
There arc several Indian agencies in Colorado. A
general reservation has been laid out for tne sev
eral tribes of Ctcs and there is another In the
southern part of the Territory on which there are
8,000 Indians. These, of course, do not all remain
within the limits. The red men are not far re
moved from their original savage condition.
The Indians in New Mexico principally consist
of various tribes of Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos and
Mescaleros. They number about thirty thousand,
but are constantly passing away. Manv of them
hold communication with their brethren In Ari
zona. At the Cimarron Reservation there are
Maquache and Jicarllla Apaches amounting to 900;
at Abequln the Neblnoche and Capote, numbering
600. who are every day growing less, and the Gila
and Mogollons, at another agency, though having
plenty of good land, are, by associating with bad
white men, completely demoralized. There la a
large reservation in the centre of the Territory,
but there are few Indians on it. There are gar
rison s at forts Bayard, Craig, Cummlngs, Garland,
McKee, Heldon, Stanton, Tulerosa, Union and Win
gate. The Fifteenth Infantry and Eighth cavalry
are stationed In New Mexico.
There la but one reservation In Utah? the Uintah.
It contains many thousand acres of excellent land,
and, It ib said, there is no better site for Indian
farms. There is plenty of timber and excellent
grazing. The Plutes, Goahutes and Shoatomes are
the government wards. They are self-support
ing. No Indians now roam over Utah in search of
furs, but several thousands are engaged in hunt
ing. There is a considerable military force in the
Territory, but their presence is not occasioned by
Portions of thePlrat and Fifth cavalry and Twelfth
and Twenty-third Infantry are stationed in Ari
zona. Since the visits of General Howard and Vin
cent Colyer a few years since several of the reser
vations have been broken up and the Indians re
moved to other localities. The Apaches have shown
the greatest disinclination to remain on the reser
vations, and when off them have engaged in every
description of outrage. A vigorous war has been
prosecuted against them in consequence. Cochise
and his band are now on the Bonora boun
dary line,i and the Narlcopas,' Talorosas,
Pimas, Gila Apaches, Ighlte Mountain Apaches
and other tribes are required to remain on
their respective reservations, at the risk of being
exterminated if found off them, in nearly all
cases the Indians are subsisted by the government.
The tribes generally are la a very degraded condi
tion. The fighting force of General Crook was
weakened by the witndrawai of five companies of
cavalry sent to operate against the Modocs. It is
presumed tuat the government will tend these
troops back. The Arizona Indiana are not by any
means subdned, as recent reports clearly show.
Tncrc Is yet much to be done to secure the pacifi
cation of the Territory.
The principal reservation in Idaho Is that or tho
fthoshones and Kan nocks. They number 1,100, and
arc contented with their home. The Nez Percez
have a valuable reservation In the northwest or
the Territory containing 600,000 acres, made up of
bottom and valley land. The Lapwats have their
grouad rcnced in and raise good crops, besides
being provided with comfortable dwellings. The
Pond d'Oreilles and spokanes are provided for at
There are several tribes In this State related to
those In Utah. There are two reservations In
Nevada? one situate on Trnckee River, near its
month, which includes within its limits Pyramid
Lake; the other is near tho mouth or Walker
River, Including wltbln Its limits Walker's Lake.
The fish is plentilnl and excellent. The land Is
much Improved, and tho Indians are willing to
work for compensation. Tho Plntes, Shoshones,
Washoes and Goskoots number altogether about
seven thousand souls.
There are eight reservations in Washington ; the
number or Indians is about 11,000. By treaty
fourteen tribes and bands were nnitcd on the
Yakabama Reservation, the largest in the Terri
tory. It was formerly occupied as a military sta
tion (Fort Slmcoe), and all the buildings
were turned over to the Indians in good order.
Number or Indians, 2,700. Fire reservations are
Included atTolallp, near Bellingham Kay, which
embraces a large swamp of 12,000 acres, capable
or being drained. There are 4,ooo Indians at
Tulallp, who are Industrious. They have plenty or
cattle and make a profitable business or catting
The chehallln Reservation contains 5,000 acres or
rich alluvial land on the Cbeballls River. It was
purchased by the government for the use or the
Indians, bat the treaty not having been ratified by
Congress there have been fears they woald oe dis
turbed in possession. They namoer 600, including
Chlnooks, Shoal Water Bays, Clatsops and liamp
totops. Chehallis, Colvllle, Shokomlab, Nean
Bay and other agencies are in rair condition. The
other tribes In Washington are the Coenr d'Alcnea,
Spokanes, Walla Wallas, Payallops and Umatlllaa.
Portions of the Fourth artillery and Twenty-flrst
Infantry have been serving In Washington.
The six reservations in this State include Warm
Springs and Klamath. The two named have now
become historical, Klamath being the home In
which the government placed the murderer Jack
and where he refused to remain, and Warm
Springs having furnished Donald McKay and bis
band of warriors, who fought so effectively against
the Modoos. Umatilla Reservalion has l,ooo In
dians, representing three tribes ? the Walla Waljas,
the Cayuse and Umatlllaa. They are Intermarried
with the Lapwais, the Slmcocs and Warm Springs.
The Grand Rondo Reservation is well supplied
with cattle ; Alsea has great nataral resources and
Is capable or supporting a large population, and
Silets supports a number or fragmentary tribes
and bands. They are reported to be restless and
quarrelsome. There Is a reservation set apart
n?*r Fort Warner for roving tyuids oi Indians. The <
confederated tribes of Middle Oregon prosper In
peace. The Oregon tribes have always been war*
The reservations in California, with the excep
tion of the one occupied by the Mission Indians,
have been heretofore very badly managed. Hound
Valley, in Mendocino connty, contains 6.000 aores
and la entirely surrounded by mountains. There
are located on It abont seven hundred Indians, and
its recent direction illustrates the degree of pros
perity that may be attained onder just agents.
The Indians have been stimulated to labor and
they thrive accordingly. This year they hare 700
acres planted In small grain, 195 acres
In corn and 100 acres in vegetables.
The- Indians are docile and jcontent.
Hoopa Valley is not at all well conducted; the land
is besides sterile and the crops usually fail. It is
partly fenced In with brush. There are abont two
hundred of the Tule tribe on the Hoopa reserva
tion. The Mission Agency, in San Diego county, has
under Its control ever Ore thousand of the San
Luis, Rey, Diegenes and Cohahullla tribes. There
exists a dispute as te the title to their lands, which
are very extensive, they claiming under Mexican
grants made before the acquisition or California by
the United States. Having been under the control
of the early Catholic fathers these Indians are far
advanced in civilization. The Nomalacher and Pitt
Hlver agencies are In peor condition. The total
number of Indians in California is about twenty
flve thousand. For the most part they are Dig
gers? a very luferlor race.
STATE TEMPERANCE CONVENTION.
Albany, N. Y., June 22, 1878.
The arrangements for the state Convention In
the Interests or the Sabbath and temperance, to be
held next Tuesday in Tweddle Hall, are nearly
completed. Among the prominent gentlemen who
have signified their intention to participate are
Rev. Dr. Cuyler and Rev. B. E. Hall, of Brooklyn;
Rev. Dr. Foss and J. N. Stearns, of New York : Re*.
I)r. Darling, of Albany; Hon. W.J. Groo. of Middle
town; John O'DonneU, of Lowvilie; J. W. stebblns
and Rev. Mr. Mailer, of ltochister, and Rev. J. B.
smith, of Geneva. The tajier beer and political
questions will probably occupy m et of the- tune of
CANADIAN MARKSMEN PIT T0~WI?BLED0N.
QuiBtc, Jane 22, 1878.
The Canadian marksmen whe are to take part 10
the shooting at Wimbledon sailed for England to
day In the steamship Prussian. Thry were ad
dressed on board by the Governor General.
BHIP WRECK AND L088 OF LITE,
qvsbbc, c, IS., Jnne 22, 18 n,
A telegram frem Port an Basque reports a ship
totally wrecked and the drowning of the captain
RECOVERY OF BODIES FROK THE ATLANTIC?
Halifax, If. 8., June 22, UJ%
Pour more bodies have been recovered from tM
FIRE IN PENNSYLVANIA.
South hctuliihv, Jnne 22, 1878.
The large tannery belonging to B. J. Routs, at
Beersvtlie, four miles from here, turned last
night. Damage about twenty thousand dollars^
k insurance. 116*000.
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