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The Origin, Aims, Organization aiid Strength of the Movement. HOW IT BEGAN. A Visit to the Headquarters of the Order. AN INSTRUCTIVE INTERVIEW. ? J - TT ^ TT M . % jilt. oanacrson, a nara-neauea ~coccn Granger, Rises to Explain. BUSINESS, NOT POLITICS, THE OBJECT. The Number of Granges, 5,147, and Members, 300,000. CASH THE TALISMAN OF THE ORDER. Oo-operative Stores and Agricultural Societies No Remedy for Farmers' Grievances. The Success of the Movement Assured. 1b Official Declaration That Politics is the Handmaid of the Devil. Washington, August 0,1813. Can any good come out or Washington ? That is ft question hard to answer creditably in the nation's capital. This city has been abused by people within and without, until the taint of corruption or bad morals is supposed to infect every deed and existence within its boundary. Old Parson Brownlow used to say that whenever he approached Washington there came over him a strong propensity to aleal something, which was generally accepted as a response magnetic to his ruling passion. These thoughts were suggested by the rapid strides which the oi'der of Patrons of Husbandry has made throughout the country within the last seven months, and which organization has given so much momentum to the so-called farmers' movement in the West and Northwest. In looking over agricultural papers one would oppose the granges liad come down from another century instead of scarcely having been released from swaddling clothes. And it was in this connection that it occurred to me that A HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER, as well as its present status, would, perhaps, do Mmeibing toward redeeming this city from its bad reputation, you know; for here the order was conceived and brought lortn until it has become a mighty power, workiug silently, but effectively, in every State where it has taken root. It is called by some the farmers' David, destined to ping the giant monopolies which have so long hindered a healthy growth of onr agricultural resources. It must be confessed that searching alter tho mysteries of a secret society, with the mercury ambitiously rising in the nineties, is by no means an easy task. I bad heard that the office of the Secretary of the National Grange was somewhere in Georgetown, perhaps under the roof of an ancient residence for which this old burg is famous. Search in that direction proved fruitless. Where the headquarters had been was found to be a pleasant house. Visions of harvesters, mowing machines, rakes, ploughs, churns, harness and other utensils necessary for a farmer vanished, and 1 was directed to seek for the office on Louisiana avenue, Washington, just above the Pension ffice, and what was formerly the Seatoa House. A plain three story brick dwelling bad recently been refitted irom basement to attic for the accommodation of the wants of the National Grange. The furniture is plain but substantial, while there Is an absence of everything that Would cause a Solon bhlngle to complain or being extravagant. Here I met Mr. 0. H. Kelley, Secretary or the National Grange, and was Invited to Inspect tbc premises. THE GRANGER'S HEADQUARTERS. His office, on the first floor, adjoins that of the lady clerks, three In number, who work regularly eight hours a day for hall what the female clerks In the department receive. There was a business air about the place, yet of the thousauds who dally pass this unpretending edilice probably but very few are aware of what is going on within. The rooms In the second story are devoted to the male clerks, the consulting room of the Executive Committee and the packers, employed In Ailing the orders for stationery, tracts, pamphlets, manuals, Ac. Apartments above this floor are reserved for future use, as It is evident more room will soon be needed. In the basement, irom floor to celling, were tin boxes, used in sending to new granges copies of the constitution and other papers; manuals piled up by thousands, Innumerable folio tracts on different subjects, blank oooks by the cord, boxes of envelopes, reminding one of a wholesale warehouse more than the capacious rooms of an ordinary dwelling. And from what did this originate, and how has It developed so rapidly without the aid of the press ? for auch is the case. One ol the leaders told me it was astonishing, the Order had so few friends when It was first nronosed. The editors of agricultural papers were natnr&lly sought to present the plan of the l'atrons or Husbandry, but invariably the answer was, "It will injure onr advertising, and we cannot afford to do it." About that tirhe the benevolent Order or the Knights or Pythias (also originated in Washington) was making great progress, extending its lodges into every city and town of importance from Maine to Texas, ir I am not mistaken, the Knights or i'ythlas and the Patrons oi Husbandry are or about the same age. In fact, among the names originally suggested for the latter were Knights of Husbandry and Knights of the Plow. The press did not appear to aid the knights more than the patrons and yet the former was moving on with such rapidity that several times the Master of the National Grange was on the point of seeking advice from the knights and if possible get the secret of their success. But he did not do so and the order was left to mature in its own time. Looking back to ' fn* FIRST TEAR OK ITS EXISTENCE, n' ii John Smith's colony, all the members were officeholders, and when there were not even enough to flu the offices designated In the ritual, vur ran awccij realize that the organization of to-day. with Its o,(H)o granges distributed throughout tne land and a membership of probably not , less than three hundred thousand persons, Is Identical with that which just six years ago Testerday was shaped lu room 45 ot ihe United States Hotel, on Pennsylvania avenue. 1 propose to give some account of Its origin. Mr. <>. II. Kelley, the present Secretary ot the National Urange, and Mr. William Saunders, superintendent of harden* and Ground* at the Department ol Agriculture, the first Blaster of the National llrauge and at present chairman of the National Executive Committee, divide the honor of starting the movement. Whether Mr. Kelley flrat suggested the utiitty of such an order or Mr. Sannders first, defined it is not material. Between them It was first agitated. Mr. Kelley waa a desk In the Post office Department and Mr. sannders In the Agrieuitural Department. They presented their ideas to Mr. William M. Ireland, then as now chief clerk f the Finance office, Pott Office Department; Rev. lobn Trimble, Jr., Rev. A. H. Urosh and J. R. Thompson. These were gentlemen of education, members of Masonic and other secret orders, and, with their varied experience and views, were enabled to mould the plan which, with some modification. la to-dar the basis 01 tag order, Acting on . SEW TOR] the suggestions offered. Messrs. Keiiey and Ireland together compiled the drat degree of the order on August 5, 1M7. One week alter Mr. Saunders went West, under orders of the Agricul; tural Department, and availed hlmseli of tne op'portunlty of disseminating the plan to promtneat agriculturists wherever ne went. Returning to Washington, and encouraged by the views of those he had talked - with. he drew up a circular, which 'embraced every point It was desirable to have understood In presenting the plan of the Orange to .tbeoountry. In that circular he said the order , was organized by distinguished agriculturists, .with every assurance that it would become one of , the mast useiul and powerlul organizations in the United States. ITS GRAWD OBJKCT ' * was not only general Improvement In husbandry, but to lucrcasc the general happiness, wealth and prosperity ot the country. It was founded upon the axioms that the products of the nntl cnmnrlsn ft tie baaii) of ail woarib; that individual happiness "(Jepciids upon general prosperity, and that the ' wealth of a country depends upon the general intelligence and mental cnltnre of the producing classes. The best uiode ol securing a diffusion of knowledge, with a vujw to its application tor tho increase of the products of the soli, was, therefore, one of the mast important questions that could he propounded, and it was hoped to greatly facilitate' its solution by the results that would follow the ' work of this organization. Tne circular continued as follows:? All rotating popular modes of creating ail Interest In Agricultural ami kindred pursuit* have hcou caret ally scanned and studied. Agricultural lairs enlist attention, ami, to a certain extent excite competition, but It is becoming a matter ot history that these associations are gradually losing their influence. Tbo novelty and cxciicme.ni of horse-racing, and other means still loss commendable, are looked upon us essential to their success, it not to their very existence. Clubs lor mutual instruction and iriendly interchange of Ideas. seem, also, to logo their interest as soon as the Urst excitement of organization is paused. Even iruit growers societies, with ail their attractions, only enlist a low eiithusiaalsts, whose eftorts are scarcely, felt by the great producing masses of the country. The incentive to the format'ou ot' tile-*) societies results from tlio recognition of the well knowu principle, that unity of action Is necessary to secure success, but io encourage and maintain progressive success this unity must bo made 'olid and permanent, not trivial and spasmodic. Wliou we reflect upon the fact that certain associations have s'ood the test of centuries? aa, for example, the MmouQ order, wc may well pause and ask "In wnat does tbelr permanency consist ?" We can ttnd but one satisfactory answer to this question, and that U la their rituals, SKCliaCY, raATXUNlTT AND BCTUAI. BBNKFITS. If, then, these aro !hc cfllclent elements of extension, permanency and success, why not employ thorn lor the ,dissemination ot useful knowledge and a more general and effective organization of communities engaged in rarul pursuits? And this wo propose, not only for their beueilt. but also lor the increase ot national wealth and power. It there are available accessories for the permanent organization of husbandmen?all other means having failed?whv not adopt tbciu? It a secret organization of husbandmen, with an appropriate and impressive ceremony ol initiation, will secure Iraternity. unity, efficiency, discipline and permanency?as the projectors of this order believe?ail intelligent citizens and especially those engaged in rural pursuits, will approve and sustuin our enterprise, and extend to the Patrons of Husbandry their unqualified approval and support. Women arc admitted Into our order, as well as young persons of hoth rexes over the age of sixteen and eighteen respectively. In its proceedings a love tor rural lite will he encouraged; the desire lor excitement and amusement, so prevalent In youth, will lie gratified, iusteud of being repressed; not, however, in trivolitlcs as useless lor the luture as they are tor the present, hut by directiug attention to the wundcr-workingsoi nature, and leading the mind to enjoy and appreciate that neverending delight which follows useful studies relating to the anitnai, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Young tnen are constantly being attracted to the cities from the country, leaving behind tbrui the most certain sources ol comlurtablo competence, tor precarious competition in channels already overflowing. There are undoubtedly good and stitilcient reasons lor this migratory tenileucy?a want of attractions for the mind and the absence of organization in rural pursuits. We solicit the co-operation of woman because of a conviction that without her aid success will he less certain and decided. Much might be said in this connection, bnt every husband and brother knows that where he can he a'ccomEanied by his wife or sister no lessons will be learned ut those of purity und truth. With regard to the MobkS or INSTRUCTION ADOPTKIi IN TOR ORDER mention may be made of the reading of essays and discussions, lectures, formution of select libraries, circulation of mag&zincs and otljer publications treating directly upon the main subjects desired?namely. those inculcating the principles governing our operations in the field, orchard and garden. The novelty of this organization and the manner it proposes ol introducing a system of special education has hitherto prevented ine originators from calling public attention to its work; but the Sreat tavor with which it has been received prompts to a older actlou, satisiled that the noble purpose* to which the order is dedicated will command the respect and : serious attention of all. Wo Ignore all political or religious discussions In the order: we do nol solicit the patronage of any sect, association or individual upon any grounds whatever, except unon the intrinsic merits of the order, it needs no such patronage. ana would not do wnat it is it it aid. its objects, as already indicated, arc to advance education, to elevate and dignity the occupation of the tanner and to protect its members against tiio numerous combinations bv which their Interests are injuriously aliened. There U no association thatseeurvs so manv advantages to its members as this. The brdcr ot the Patrons of Husbandry will accomplish a thorough and avsteraatic organization among tanners and horuculturalists throughout the United St iter, and will secure among tliom intimate social relations and Acquaintance witli each other, for the advancement and elevutlon of their pursuits, with an appreciation and protection of their true interests. By such means may be accomplished that which exists throughout tlie cotiutr.v in all oilier avocutians. and among all other classes?combined co-operative association lor Individual improvement and common bcnellt. In the meetings ol this order, all hnt members are excluded, and there is in its proceedings a symbolized ritual, pleasing, beautiful and appropriate, which is designed not only to charm the fancy but to cultivate nnd enlarge the mind and Purify the heart, having, at the same time, gtrict udaptafiou to rural pursuits. It la an order in which all persons will find innocent recreation and valuable liistruct'on, pecuniary profit and mutual protection. It is, in truth, a need long felt, and now required. fttr secrecy or the ritual and proceedings of the order have been adopted, chiefly, tor the Ditipose ot accomplishing desired eUicieucy, extension and unity, and to secure among its members in the Internal working ot the order, confidence, harmony and security. Among other advantages which may be derived lroin tlie order, can be ineulioned, systematic arrangements tor procuring and disseminating, in the most expeditious manner, information relative to crops, demand and supply, prices, markets and transportation throughout the country, and lor the establishment ot depots ft?r the gale of special or general protracts in tne cities; also, for the purchase and exchange of stock, seeds, and desireu varieties ol plants amf trees. aud lor tlic purpose of procuring help at home or troin abroad, and situations lor persons seeking employment; also for ascertaining ana testing the merits of newly invented farming implements and those aot In general use. aud lor detecting niul exposing those that are unworthy, and lor protecting, uy all nvallnble means, the farming Interests Irom lraud and deception of every kind. In ronclnsion, wo desire that agricultural societies shall keep step with the music of tlic age and keep pace , Willi improvements in the reaping machine nud steam engine. In this order we expect to accomplish these results. Every grsngo is In intimate relutlon with its neighboring granges, and these with the State Orange, and the State Oranges are tn unity with tho National Urnuge. Valuable information aud benefits enjoyed hv one are commutiieated to all. The old style of farmers' clubs, like Hie old sickle and tlall, were very good tn their day, but thev are of the past, and arc too (ar hehind all other enterprises in the progress ot civilization. Hence the necessity of this new order. This circular lullv explains what the object of the organization was, and will serve aa a guide to those who think they see In this unification of the larmera a political problem which It will be hard to solve. The National (.range waa ORGANIZED ON THE EVENING OP DECEMBER 4, 1887, at the office of Mr. Saunders, on Four and a half street, between Missouri avenue and the old canal, by the election of the following oillccrs:?Master, William Saunders, of District ol Columbia; Lecturer, J. R. Thompson, of Vermont; Overseer,- Anson Bartlett, of Ohio: Steward, William Murl, of Missouri; Assistant Steward, A. S. Moss, of New York; Chaplain, Rev. A. B. Grosb, Pa; Treasurer, Win. M. Ireland, Pa.; Secretary. O. H. Kelley, Minn.; Gate Keeper, Edward P. Karris, III. Several of the persons from the States elected officers were not present, but were elected because of the interest they had manifested In the matter, and with the hope that they would serve. It was thought proper to elect the officers for a term of five years, since the majority of them had actively aided In establishing tho organization, and having matured their plan of operations de sired a sufficient time to carry it out in accordance with their own preconceived Ideas. Soon alter a subordinate grange was established in Washington us a school of instruction and to test the efficiency of the ritual. This grange numbered about sixty members. On the 1st of April, 1868, Mr. Kelley accepted the position of travelling agent, at n salary or $2,000 a year, provided he eouid make that amount by fees for establishing granges in the States, otherwise no expense incurred was to be borne by the National Grange. The first dispensation was issued to a subordinate lodge at Hanlsburg, l'a., the second to a lodge In Kredonia, X. Y., and the third at Columbus, Ohio. Next came Chicago, and finally Mr. Kelley reached his homo in Minnesota, where he organized six granges, so that during the first year ouly ten granges were in operation. From Washington circulars were sent In every direction setting forth the objects of the order anil inviting the co-operation of all interested in agriculture. At first It was suggested that only those engaged In this pursuit should participate In Its benefits, but the won! "Interested'' w^s substituted so as to bring all within the scope of the organization. It would not take root. The farmers looked upon It as a new-fangled notion, another patent cnurn invention, to be shunned at first mention. The Hecret ritual and hidden wonders could never be tolerated. It was, in fact, a Yankee trick to get money. Mr. Kelley did not prosper on his salary as travelling agent. Tilling his farm in Minnesota was lar more certain than commissions or lees for starting new granges. Occasionally an application would be received from the required number of peisous necessary to lorra a grange. In 1809 ya dlsnon HaUonH wcro Issued; In 1870, 38, and In 1871, 125. The existence of 260 subordinate granges encouraged Mr. Kelley to change his headquarters to the District ot Columbia, and after residing m this city a few months removed to Georgetown where, until recently, his orilce lias been located. I.ast year there were over eleven hundred granges organized. To-day the weekly bulletin of the .secretary shows tho number of granges to bo as follows ORANORS IS TITR CNtTRD STATES. Alabama 21 New York 8 Arxunsas 28 North Carolina 36 Caltlornla* 35 Ohio SO' Oeorgia... 77 Oregon 24 Illinois 312 Pennsylvania 9 Indiana 272 South Carolina 131 Iowa 1,785 Tennessee 63 Kansas 405 Texas > Kentucky 1 Vermont 24 liouisiana 11 Virginia 3 Massachusetts. 1 West Virginia 2 Michiaan 40 Wisconsin ls? Minnesota 33d Colorado 2 Mississippi 200 Daknta II Missouri .. 501 Canada ' 8 Nebraska 305 New Jersey S Total 6,147 I think it is a fair average to Hay that since the beginning of tujg year tweutr-dve wnucatloaa. $ L HERALD, MONDAY, AU have been daily received at headquarters for dispensations. Nor la there any sign of the number decreasing, so that by the end o( this year the total number of granges organized will not be less than 8,000. Having given some idea or the progress and strength o. the order, a brlei Insight into TUB MBTHOD OP HTAXTINO A OKANOB may be interesting. The circular above quoted fully presents every feature of the order, the social, intellectual and the business, and famishes all there is theoretical in trie order. What it la in practice can only be ascertained by living where the orders exist. The grange room. It is claimed, is a kind of moral club room for ths enjoyment of both sexes. Tbero Is much music in the ritual to culivcu the ceremonies, and many of the granges possess libraries for the amusement and Instruction of the members. This, It Is claimed, naturally lias a tendency to prevent young men irom leaving rural llie, where they possess comfortable competenco, for precarloud competition In the large cities. Every grange pays into the national treusqry (18 for a dispensation; receiving in return material dollars, and oouslstliig or sample regalias, manuals, song books, blank books, In a word, evers tiling essential to starting tlie order. Ail the funds ore deposited in the Farmers' Loan and Trust company, in New York, where, I understand, tnerc Is to. day a iuud of over twenty thousand dollars- When fllteen subordinate granges arc organized In a State authority Is granted to organize a State grange, composed of tnaatcrs of the subordinate grange, who, in turu, elect their master, and ho becomes a member of the national grange. Tho highest organization bears the same relation to the order, that Congress does to the States; the State organization to tho Legislature, and the subordinate granges to comities and municipalities. There in also an executive committee, both National and state, whose duty U is to attend to the work assigned them for the general good of the order. Passing over tho soelal and intellectual features of the order, TUB BUSINESS ASPECTS AND TIIB PROBABl.H EFFECT ou the political condition of affairs are most worthy of attention. In the absence of Mr. Iiudley w. Adams, of Wanton, Iowa, who is Master or tho National Grange, i called ou Mr. William Saunders, the Chairman oi the executive committee for tho information sought, tie Alls the honorable position oi Superintendent ol Hardens and Grouuds at the Agricultural Department. Passlug through a neat iron gate ou tue north aide of tUe building, up a broad smooth concrete walk, which divides the grounds, with here and there clusters oi young trees, rorntug an arboretum of tuo haruy growth of trees and shrubs from all parts of the world, the visitor enters the most lovely o. flower gardens, after tho Italian mode of decorative architecture, the emerald plat being covered with petunia, geranium, verbena aad heliotrope, while the air is redolent with all the perfumes of Arabia. Tho grounds are interspersed with terracotta vases filled with loliage plants and pruning vines. To the left is tiie eunllhsoulan institution, half hidden In a grove of maples, I tsiiiml Mr HniitirtPN upatnd In iila urtlrn umnlfinrr a pipe aud apparently at his ease, on stating my errand I was cordially received and at once made to feel that everything he could do to enlighten ine he would mout cheerfully do. About the wans of the room were suspended photographs and rural scenes, while over the desk a bust of Shakspeare rested on an ornameutal bracket. Books, papers, a library, desk anil plain furniture made up the apartment. Mr. bauuders is a Scotchman, evidently about tlity years old, with massive head, Intellectual features, a gencrouH growth of silvery hair, bushy chin whiskers and a clear, round, blue eye. Ills phjslque and good complexion indicate a inau who has taken good care of liiuisell. I should say be would turu -.&0 pounds, aud would not be able to walk uprightly under a door less than six feet high. 1 found him earnest and enthusiastic. He appeared to bo the organizing spirit op the order of which he spoke so oloqueutly. My respect lor the man Increased when he Informed mc that journalism had at one time been his employment, and that he had for ten years edited one or our leadiug agricultural papers. 80, whatever may be said against the press lor not encouraging the infant Ol der of Husbandry, it certainly has a helmsman who knowH what the press is, and It owes something to the discipline he received through this medium. Haviug explained the purpose of the visit, I said "The Patrons of Husbandry have of late challenged the attention of thoughtful men, aud the Impression Is that the Order will drift Into politics, In spite ol the object for which It was started. As the business phase, however, appears so popular, ler mc ask you to give, first, your views on this point, and thcu tbo probable relation of the Order to present or ppture partt movements." Mr. 8acndkhs said?"i will try to'conUne myself to the subjects you have mentioned, and In the manner suggested, but if 1 digress a little do not get impatient. 1 know exactly what the herald wants, but It Is not so easy a matter to separate the chafT troin the wheat?you see we naturally adopt the language of agriculturists. What 1 mean is to discuss the subjects you have suggested, without consuming time on the social and intellectual features or the Order. Well, lot us consider the busluess relations 01 the Order. I have just received a number of papers from different pans or the West, containing long articles on the progress ol the organization. Some or them arc leading dailies, others are weekiv agricultural papers. 1 suould soy, if all the articles beiore me were generalized, the Substance would be this:?Beware of money, the root of all evil, and politics, the handmaid of the devil. You see the farmers have had their eves opened by the inestimable benefits conferred through the grauges, and have lound out what exorbitant charges they have been compelled to pay the agents, or what we call the middlemen?thai is, those wiio,iive off the consumer or purchaser bv handling the goods and Inventions of the coaler and manufacturer. When the MCU1 feature of the order was fully developed, every grange wnuted a piano or a nielodcen, or parlor organ, or some instrument with whn.Ii to accouipauy the vocalistlc part of the programme. Pass over the number of bands through which a finished instrument goes before it finally finds a purchaser, and, as everybody knows, the cost Is double. In some cases treble, what the same instrument could he purchased for lor cash at the manufactory. When the granges wcie rapidly Increasing the proposition was made to purchase these lnsfrumeuts direct lrom the factories, cash to accompany every order. An agent visited a number of the firms, but received at first very little encouragement. Finally a well established house offered to sell on the terms proposed at such a low figure compared with tlie prices asked by the agents that It was supposed un inferior Instrument would be sent. When the agent was satisfied the work would be as perfect in every order filled as though he purchased it from a middleman that information was communicated by confidential circular to the granges, anil all the master had to do to secure the benefit of the arrangement was to (or ward tnc cash, with an order signed by the treasurer of the grange and stamped with its seal. So much lor that special arrangement. The same thing is done in regard to every other article needed. And let me sa.v now. wo do not uklievk in CO-operative stores, and discourage their formation. That Is not what we want, it is to give to the farmer the articles necessary for his support, convenience and comlort without their paasing through too many hands, and by that method convince htm that his remedy for making a market for his produce on the seaboard is not in dgntlng the railroads, but in negotiating with them. Not long ago several of the masters of granges in Iowa called 011 me, and they were full of the pngiUstic spirit. They wanted to light everybody. My advice was. drop the word fight, or rather get rid of the desire to light, and try diplomacy. Let "negotiate" be your motto. You can never make anything by fighting an intrenched capitalist. They admitted that might be the best plan, and would try to carry out tbe suggestion. It would take me longer to explain it than the Herai.d readers would care to endure. But they will catch the spirit of my remarks, I am sure. Now, I asked the master, who was most obstinate, what he expected to g&in by persistent and unreasonable opposition to the railroads, "oh. I sco you are influenced by this national legislature and the growth or monopolies which arc enconraged here In Washington I What answer could I make to a man with such extreme views f Suppose, I said, you raise corn worth tweuty cents a bushel delivered in Dubuque, and that corn when It reaches New York Is worth $1. Do you mean to say that alter it has been handled, exchanged, bought, sold, transferred, shipped, risks paid, and all the profits divided between yonr city and the sealxiard, vou can expect to get as much lor it in Dubuque as It sells ior In New York f That Is unreasonable. He said that view bad never occurred to him; hut since lie nail realized tne benefits of the grtinge system In getting JUs harvester aud refijler and sewing machine- Cheaper by dealing direct with the manufacturer, he thought It the bu*in*fls of the CODsnmers In the cities to look after their run hi iiiu luiuuiuiiicii, wiuie mo producer iou* care not to be overtaxed on tlic article* necessary for hi* welfare. 1 tell you, the great, trouble with the agriculturists in this country ha* been that they have been Isolated. Compelled to worn early and late, tney have become accustomed to tlte extortions ok pe4lfus. The nearest place of dealing has been the town store, aud credit Inw been their greatest drawback. Now they have found out how much they can aave by paying caHti: aud, I tell .veu, cash is king. It wan said, you kuow, at one time,"Cotton is King,-' "Corn is King;" but with business people there is nothing like cash. It makes the factory gy, the merchant go, the tradesman go, and it mtXhs the larmer go. Cash Is emblazoned ZH all our banners. You understand wo are discussing the business view, and 1 am willing to exhaust, your patience if yon And the subject Interesting. About protective stores. I received a letter to-day from the master of a grange in Tennessee. who writes:?"We have S'Aj.ooo cupltjl with which to start a co-operative store. Please send ns your plan." My answer was:?"The grange does not encourage co-operative stores. Until one can be found mut has stood tho test of twelve years' business such organizations cannot receive the approbation of the National Executive Committee." Tney all run int* speculation, and that is what we want to avoid. I received a letter to-day from a wealthy farmer In Ullnets, who sub prihtwl nrKrlnAll* tin nnn ?a thn -Moh runs by hi* farm. Ac does not complain that be has not been benefited. Illft land has been Improved In value and he finds a moro ready sale for his products. Ho does complain of this lie is taxed for carrying the merchant, lawyer aad clergy men dead head over the road, who never contributed a single cent to the building of the road, and who never pav anything tor freight; while he, who In compelled to pay five cents a mile inr a passenger ticiet ?u<l lull raise lor crew nouuii oliwWifc L GUST 11, 1873?WITH SU! lit really Imposed npon for the benefit of so called respectable gentlemen who are ere nted with Influence. Ajruin, tins co-operation movement, when concentrated In stores, is bound to encourage greed, whereas, if it is confined to dlreot relations, as by the advice of oar confidential circulars, It is impassible that any set oi uien can Impose upon the granges. Tufce, for iusunca, this circular. It Is oonlldenttaf, but will give yon an idea of the operation of the grange system tu all its relations. This circa.or was sent to every subordinate grange is the United Btates. It contains the names of over tlfty leading merchants and manufacturers, who have inrnlshed A Pities I.T9T SOB CQSBr and by which they have agreed to stand provided nnrohiiLinim fulfil *- ? - i>uv> i'h.wiiwow.o iuiui bucni.p.iib ui biiu goiibmui. II Is only one of many such. For instance, take tlie ' price 01 sates. The ordinary retail price oi a sale, weighing 3,ouo pounds would be $.150. cosh will pur- J chase that sale in St. Louie for $1-5, trie very same i safe tne planter would pay the agent the retail price for. 'fckc Rowing machines. it makes no difference who the patentee or agent is. They go tUrongh so many bands, and commissions are so rapidly multiplied that before the macliino reaches the purchaser It has increased In value Willi compound interest Surely no sensible person will suv that a fictitious value adds any benefit to the farmer; yet where does the bnrden finally felt? On the farmer, who gets less tor his products and is compelled to pay more lor everything he buy?. Three weeks ago'we pnrchased on a general order 1,500 sewing machines, at a cost on each machine of $30 Iosh than they wore lurnlshed the agents, in less than ten days 005 of the nunibor had been delivered and the price of the balance Hccured. Take harvesters, for instance. A manufacturer in Ohio is glad to sell to the granges anil lias no other customers. Kvcry machine lie can turn out brings htm In cash at the railroad depot, and as fair a profit as when he was selling them on Lime through agents about the youth. It any doubt was entertained against tiik perpetuity of tub order. it was because it would not find favor in the South. It bus uot grown so extensively lu that section as it would had we been fortunate lu securing deputy masters, whoso business It Is to go from place to place and explain the objects of the Order. Mr. D. W. AiKin, of South Carolina, has shown what one niau can do who Ls In earnest, lu Ills State there are to-day 131 granges; North Carolina is rapidly increasing; Mississippi has aoo ; Georgia, 77. Virginia has outo-three, but there are political roasous for that. Wheu I say that there is not a colored member of a Southern grnng >, you can readily umtersniml that politics does uuc enter into It. Take tbe giauges in Soutn Carolina. They represent the wealthy planters, the owners of the i farms and plantations. Cotton is still a staple pro- | duct, as well as rice. With them it Is an item to gel uauon, lard, flour, bams, Ac., as cheap as possible. You will be surprised, perhaps, when l tell you that Kansas and Iowa granges sot inu.su urncics howu in unarieston at uitcen ami twenty per cent vheaper than they can tie purchased In that city, and among the Items of course is the cost of iretght. When Mr. Shonfclunn?one of the National Executive Committee?asked of tlie general Height agents of the Southern lines whether un.v reduction could be made in the charges ior transporting freight direct from Quincy, St. Louis, Leavenworth and other points, he was courteously luiortned that the most ravorable rates would be allowed, and in tho absence of the president of the connecting road, a letter promptly conveyed the same In formation to the agent. Come nearer home. The cotton planters are hound to have bagging and rope, certain old-fashioned Units, who have annually realized a handsome nroUt and have done business in New York, sold to their Southern agents and rejoiced in easy wealth. When it was proposed to sell directly to the planter through an authorized agent lor nisli these ANCIKNT LANDMARKS OF TUB CREDIT HYSTElt refused to change their business arrangements, so strong was custom and the force of habit. Favorable arrangements were subsequently made, however, to the great joy of tne cotton fuctor, who expects a coi responding evidence in the lower priuo or lnanuiactured cotton. I might go on and elaborate the manner in which the granges have taken right hold of tho pocketbouks or tho farmer; but what I have already said ought to satisfy you of the force or the argument Urst presented. If the iarmer can buy the articles he Deeds at a great redaction by dealing with the manuiacuirer direct, may mere not ue room lor improvement among the consumer# who do not produce, provided, always, he buys lor cash ? 1 tell you that is the talisman of the granges. When large orders are tilled and the business man knows there Is no risk, he does not includo Mic probahlo bad debts or the house in the charge made against such a customer, fiow let ug take up inn political question. You sec, the South is as much in love with the grange system as the West and Northwest. Nover mind making too close a comparison at present. Bnt look at the table of States. New Knglaud has but twenty-live granges, and of these twenty-four are iu Vermont. Those granges have been there for some time, while the growth In the leading Western States has been very rapid. Is it a conflict of interests? It would seem so. Yet polities and political Issues, you see, are lust aH foreign to the purpose of the Order as theology or astronomy. 1 have noticed, as 1 said beioro, tUe advice of the newspapers on this point. What good can tbey do? It is true, the circulation of good agricultural papers is encouraged, bnt is not the press as powerlul to-day as it was in the last Congressional campaign? Will the farmer now be guided by the suggestions of partisan papers an> more than lie was two or three years ago? And what has he to be thanklul lor? If such a paper as the New Yoke Hkiiai.d could reach the farmers there would he nothing to fear; bur now there are so many papers anxious to become the organ of the Order, ready to do anything to secure favor, that we have been obliged to discountenance this eleventh-hour conversion. Kvery grange stands on its own merits. The granges of an entire Htutc do the same, and if iowa, Willi its powerful organizations, should drop out to-morrow it would not have, iu my opinion, the slightest influence on the welfare of the Orncr In other Stales. To como directly to the political question: tho granges havo nothing to do with platforms or parties, and. so far as I know, the intelligent leaders iu the farmers' movement have not attempted to ofTcr a party measure as a remedy for any evil complained of. The intellectual principle of the Order will set the farmers to thinking for themselves, and, if they find that legislation is at the bottom oi injustice, it will be their own lookout to remedy it. The Idea that, any politician governing, guiding or controlling the granges is as absurd to suppose a isoutberu blunter or a Western farmer can rule the grange in Ins section of the country. Tne views of the grange* are hound to be as diverse as they are numerous. Whether in a Congressional district couvcutiou, a State convention or anv other body composed of entirely the same political element the grangers should see fit to unite on one man, that would be a cnoice for which the Older could bo held responsible no more than If a Mason was nominated lor an office who wns unpopular among his Masonic brethren. The political puzzle has not reached ns yet. I think it worries the outsiders only. To go back to the remark 1 made In the beginning of the conversation, P0I.1TICS IS THE HANDMAID OP THK DEVIL. The politician will promise vou everything If you will only support him. lie knows he has nothing of his own to give, while he is Invariably on the side ot the wealthy, whose servant and slave he Is. I do not believe the toilers of the .South and West, alter finding so easy a solution for one-naif their troubles, will squander the benefits of the granges on buncombe political platforms. Wheu|lt becomes necessary to Invoke the aid of party, the object for which the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry was started, will cease. It has no need of special legislation from Congress through the recommendations of any committee appointed to investigate the question of cheap transportation. >11 It needs Is to regard the rights of the farmers which are In their own hands, and that they be not Imposed upon by tboae whose hands take not bold of the plough." This ended the Interview; and, thanking Mr. Saunders for his kindness, 1 bade him good afternoon. MUSICAL AND DRAMATICAL NOTES. Mr. Louis James goes to the Boston Theatre this season. The Royal Marionnettes, announced nearly a year ago us coming to this city, will begin a series of entertainments at Robinson Halloa the 8th of .September. It Is expected that Miss Violetta ColviUe, who has been studying in Italy for some years, will make her <l?bat fir Italian opera to this country next year. Mr. Fechter's famous "sky" lias been removed ftom the Lyceum Theatre, a new stage constructed and the experiment of lighting the scenes without the aid ot the footlights abandoned. The Theatre Comtque reopens thH evening under the management of Mr. Josh Mart. Among the attractions are the Rigl sisters, Betty and Emily, the former of whom will be remembered us one of the many dancers who acquired lame in "The Black crook/' The Troasurer of the new Filth Avenue Theatre, Twenty-eighth street and Broadway, will be Mr. Jaincs W. Morrisscy, who for so many years held a like position at the Grand opera Mouse. Mr. Morrtssey will preside at the box office at the opening of three theatres tins season, the Grand opera House uext week, the Broadway the week following and the Fifth Avenue in October. Mr. Maurice Grau, the young manager. Is rivalling Mr. Daly in the number oi his enterprises. It would be thought he ha* his hands full with tha management of theSalvlni Company, but he is also interested in the French and English opera companies of which Mile. Alm6e and Miss Kellogg are to be the respective prime doune. It l? said that Mr. Banticy has been engaged lor the English troupe. COURT OALEHDAE?THIS DAT. Sctkkiir Conn*.?Nos. l, a, 9, ee. 83, 88, 95, lot, 102, 10?, 121, 122, 126, 133, 186, 141, 147, 148, 150, 162, 164, 166, 167, 160, 109, 178, 186, 188, 189, 190, A91t IjKt, 193, 1&4, PFLEMENT. CiESARISM. "Why Not Set Up an EJjnpLre if the People Say Sol" The Danger to the Repablie Not from Grant's Ambition, bat from King Caucus. [From Ilarpcr'B Weekly, August 16.] lite discussion that Is going on in the newspapers on tnc subject of (Seneral Grant's second rc-clec Moo la at least premature. Barely six months of Ills second term have elapsed. It will be extraordinary if, during the next three years, men's nnmls do not drift into new channels and popular lanry does not crave new Idols. Few, Indeed, of our Presidents have retained their popularity throughout, their Mrst term of office. But two of the six who, bclorc Grant, were re-eloctcd were ever thought of for a third term. If Mr. Lincoln had lived and carried into successful effect his scheme of pacification the question might perhaps havo arisen in his case. But no ono thought of pressing the name of either Madison, or Monroe, or Jackson for a third nomination. Indeed, lthascouie to be almost an axloru in party politics that, in the absence of such extraordinary qualifications as were possessed by Lincoln and Grant, toe weak, est nomination thai can be made is that of the President in olilce. He has not only to contend against the public belief in tnc principle of rotation in office, which may or may not be sound and wise, but is certainly widespread and deeprooted, but, however he may have administered his office, he must have displeased flvo professional politicians lor ouc lie lias gnitliled, and ho Is thns certain to encounter a lukewarmness, if not an active hostility, among the chicis of his party, which more than counterbalances the support he can command from the enstoni Bouse, the Post Office and the Internal Revenue Department. On gen v.uu VUV.U, Ik ID null DDI Ml nunc, St [II C3oat., at least, to regard what the newspapers call "Cffisarlsm" as a practical qnestiou. But It may not be wholly frivolous to look at It for a moment as a matter ol curious speculation. Nothing in the constitution precludes the re-election of tho same man to the Presidency lor an Indefinite number of terms. In the original draft of the constitution the President was elected by Congress for a term of seven years, and was not reeliglblo. In the constitution as amended by the Grand Committee, and Anally adopted, the President is elected by Presidential electors lor four years, and Ills rights as to re-election arc the same as those of other citizens. Washington at tho close of his second term apprised his fellow citizens that ho "declined to be considered among the number of those out of whom the choice of a President was to be made," and added that "the acceptance of and continuance in the office have been a uniform sucrlAcc of Inclination to the opinion of duty." lie evidently considered himself eligible, and had his "inclination" been different would have seen no objection to a third term. Nor did Mr. Jefferson, when urged to become u candidate for the third time by various bodies of citizens and by the Legislatures of Vermont, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland. Virginia and Georgia. He declined partly on the ground of growing infirmities and partly from deference to the example set by Washington. In fact, Mr. Madison's succession had some time before been settled between the President and his supporters. There is nothing in the writings of loffTkra/t 11 av liiu . niilumnnrurioj tn alinur ttut ntthnr ?u.iv.ir>vu v.i ura i iu|i"iuiiu ? ' i>"? " <-?vuvt he or they thought a third term would have in volved a violation of the principles of democracy or a menace to republican institutions. So far as the constitution and the opinions of its (tamers are concerned, tnen, a third Presidential term seems free from objection. The bngbcar called "Oacsarism" is rather a sneer than an argument. If the President cau be elected thrice, It Is said by the ardent patriots who see a coming Cmsar in General Grant, why not lour, live, or six times, or for life v Why not, indeed, if the people say sot If a clear majority of the people vote to abolish the Republic and set up an empire who shall hinder them't Shall we, then, go Into hysterics In advance? If the people choose tomorrow to establish Mormonlsm or human sacrifices we don't see who could say them nay. Yet our wives and children need not distress themselves quite yet. Iiefore we believe that 40,000,000 of people arc goln 4 to be false to their traditions and to deny their principles some evidence must be brought. There must be some facts going to show a change of mind, some obvious signs of a distrust in freo institutions some well-marked Indications of a lean' Mug to monarchy or imperialism. Now, the fact is, thero is nothing of the kiml. I'robahly there never was a time when the general faith in; our institutions was as firm as it Is now. It would certainly require something more than the re-election of a good magistrate to office to prove its decay. Kut this ghost or Coesarism has haunted us throughout our brief history. Mr. Jefferson detected it in Mr. Adams' well brushed peruke and handsome liveries. Freneau's Gazette discovered it distinctly In Hamilton's sonorous periods and foreign reminiscences. It lurked behind Jackson's imperious commands. Poor Jenkins has bad several glimpses of It on the beach at Long Brunch. Washington, with his sterling common sense, nsed to say that there were not ten men worth listening to In all tho country who were In favor of monarchy. If Caesarlsm was of such minute dimensions then, when the Republic was an experiment, what must Its proportions be now, when tho United States Is one of the great Powers of the world, and all Europe is trying to build on Its model ? A really serious objection to the third term plan is the bias It would give to the President's policy before and during the canvass. It cannot be expected of any President that he should be Indifferent to the result of a contest In which he Is the standard bearer of his party. In practice the policy of a President, whllo running for re-election, has been too often shaped in order to win votes rather than servo tho best interests or the country. His foreign policy la apt to be more aggressive than it would be alter election. Measures of domestic policy arc likely to be considered more with u view to their Immediate effect upon the minda or the people than In the light of the permanent advantage of tho commonwealth. Unpleasant duties aro apt to be shirked. Offences committed by popular men controlling votea are frequently overlooked. Acquiescence In the follies of the hour is often feigned. Few Presidents, pending a canvass, would surrender a Mason and Slldell or suppress a Fenian outbreak. Some would even go so far as to justify au Ostcnd manifesto or the bombardment ofOreytowu. Hardly any could refuse to reward desertion from the enemy or extraordinary efforts in the ranks with office. These objections, it will be noticed, apply with equal force to a second term as to a third, and In practice a President must have extraordinary claims to have a chance of either. On the other hand, It is hardly possible to exaggerate the importance to the country of retaining the services of a faithful and experienced magistrate. The United States have not always been for tunate in their chief rulers. They have discovered that Presidential elections, like marriages, are a lottery. They have sometimes drawn rather queer lots therein. In times past, when the country I was small and isolated from the rest of the worhl, these accidents mattered little. Men blushed for tne iTeinaini, anu contained meir souis in pauenco till his tonr years expired. Hat the progress of events, and our present rank an a first class Power, have changed all this, we cannot afford now to have a blunderer or a blusterer In the Chief Magistracy of the Republic. It Is vital, essentially vital, that the Presidency should be held by .a safe naan. Small errors and weaknesses we can well overlook and forgive. But we cannot afford to make any more experiments?to elect men to the Presidency who may turn ont well, but who, for the sake of personal renown, may involve us in foreign wars, or rekindle the dying embers of domestic strife. We can bear with much for the sake of IMuitd peace and safe government, it la hard to 3 my wnaT price we could not afford to pay ratbdjf than elect another Buchanan or Johnsou. The Third Term Discussion. (Prom the New York Tribune, August e,] To a disinterested and pasBlonlesH spectator Of politics and reader of political discussions th| wonderful chattering that has been going on foi several weeks past upon the probabilities of Presb dent Grant's t?ing nominated for a third term, and In connection therewith what uas come to be called, In the slang that gains such east currency In politics, "Caesarlsm,!' must be Infinitely amual log. Started, we are half inclined to think, bp Rome one who struck upon It In tbe dearth of toplof from sheer lack of a subject of interest, or pernaprf by some superserviceable supporter of the admln< Duration who had a keen eye for the main chancer and was determined to bo first in the hold, the jangle over and about it has spread until half tbd newspapers in the country have had a hand in It. The question Just now seems to bo wild began it. On the oue hand it is charged thai the organs of the administration broached il thus early with an insidious purpose of familiarizing the people with the idea and gradually paving tlio way Tor C:e*arlsm; oa the other hand, the administration organs which have sense enough to see the effect of it, say the whole business is a conspiracy of th> opposition to drive the republican parly into the rcnominatlon of Grant, winch they are frank to say would be absurd and ridiculous, and would ondanger the success of the party. Not I the least amusing feature of this contusion o( tongues anil pens has been the eagerness with which each side charged the other with starting an unpleasant theme. While a very lew, and they the most obscure and uninflucntlal, of the administration organs, have treated the proposition to re?' nominate Orant seriously and fallen in with it, tho majority have denounced it a* an invention of the enemy, intended only to distract and divide the party in power. The opposition meanwhile insist strenuously that it is only a premature publication of a deep-laid conspiracy against the liberties 01 the country and< another illustration of the centralizing tendencies and the Imperialistic programme of tho bold badmen in power, one administration organ says the renomination of Uraut would never have beea thought of ir the opposition press had not suggested it; another says the plot Is to forco Grant's rcnominatlon "by the same villanous means" by which it was accomplished before?which means, we suppose, that Grant is to be abused and slandered to such an extent that the party will be obliged to renominate and re-elect him as a certificate of confidence in him; and still another says "tho party will iiominute and elect him if it pleases" and "ask no odds" of anybody. Some truth and some nonsense in all this. General Grant may or may not be a dull, cold-blooded uirsar. uc personally has given no Higns or It yet, whatever may be the plans of other people for him. He is pretty much the same as when he waa elected last year, with the same love of ease and repose, the same distaste for pnblic business and the same readiness to accept what comes. We do not believe ho is a dangerous man in any suelr sense as lie has sometimes been represented. Ha > Is not a conspirator nor plotter. Whether or not his notions of government and his methods of ad' mimstrutlon are of ovil influence and example and calculated to establish unwholesome and dangerous habits of political thought and conduct Is quite another question, which need not now be discussed. Hut the fear, If there ba any, of his personal ambition leading him to attempt tho rOle of Ctcsnr is, we believe, groundJess, Indeed, it Is well enough to remember that the danger to free government Is not likely to arisa from the ambition 01 Individuals so much as from the Blow growth of pernicious systems auO the development or mischievous and short-sighted policies. It Is by no means certain that President Grant will not be renominated lor a third term, though It is supremely silly to undertako to forecast so re* mote an event, uue has only to recall the amazing changes In the standing or prominent politicians during the last nine months to bo convinced of the uncertainty of political reputations and tho futility of conjecture as to the probabilities of conventions and campaigns three years away. It takes short time in the rapid whirling of our kaleidoscope to turn everything upside down and bring out new and startling combinations. Had the developments of the last session of the last Congress been brought to light ono year ago the Presidential election would very likeljr have resulted differently. What changes, perhaps eipially unexpected and strange, tnc next tnrea years have in store lor us It Is impossible to guess. If wo might judge Ironi prcseut indications, we should say uot only that President Grant's renomlnutlon is far Irom impossible, but that it Is not entirely out of the range of possibilities that It will be the best nomination practicable (or the party, and perhupa for tho country. He was nominated last year not because of his special lltness or his success in administration, or, as the nonsense of the campaign ran, on account of bis groat services In the war, for which he had not been fully puiu. lb wua nuuyi/ uvouuac iiu uuo ui uio aspirants for tlio succession felt strong enough then to make a light lor It, and tliey preferred to give Orant four years more, In which time each hoped to strengthen himself sufficiently to go Into the next convention with a hopeful backing. There has been something of a fatality among statesmen since then. The list of aspirants has been some* wbat thinned by Crf-dit Moblllcr exposures and back-pay follies. The conditions now are pretty much the same as those which last year forced the renomlnatlon at Philadelphia, but no one knows how long they will continue. Meantime it is to be observed that, while there Is a great show of virtue over tho back-pay business in Indignant resolutions of State conventions and warm dcnunciatlosa by party organs on all shies, there Is a marked tenderness toward the President, who Is the chief sinner in the matter. No one denounces him by resolution or otherwise. We upprehend no danger from Crcsarlsm. Our peril is not, we repeat, frum any one man's ambition. It comes rather from the disposition to enthrone the caucus and make the party supreme. That done and the party ruled, as Is possible, by a gang of unprincipled demagogues, and we shall have not, perhaps, mcsarism, out sometniag infinitely worse. ART MATTERS. Novcltltn at gcltana'. It Is hardly time as yet to expect any very great number of novelties In tho art stores. More than one of the picture dealers, who have things which are both good and new, keep them astutely stored away until such time as a full city and a stimulated public taste shall remind them that the hour for appreciation has returned. At Sehans', No. 749 Broadway, several fresh works, worth attentive consideration, are on hand. One of these Is an allegorical subject, by Landscer, entitled "Tho Font," and executed for Queen Victoria. A number of sheep and lambs are represented supporting a lont, upon which appears a figure of the Saviour's head, and above which hover two doves. "Great, fcxpectatlon" is after Lejeune, and la both simple and sweet. It represents a boy fishing, intently watched by several other children. The varieties of expression embraced Id the gamut of admiration are his off with great felicity. "Romeo and Jaliet," after P. F. Dicker, ana "Music Hath Charms," after Thomas Faed, are also among tno novelties, and have, not undeservedly, attracted a great deal of favorable comment. At an nonr when almost every studio is vacant, whei tno auction centres arc closed and dealers generally are In a stare of n 'a"<* nhvuMi it Is refreshing to know thai 'there Is atlcast one place in the citjr where novelties arc to be seen. BOABDIHO HOUSE RUHN&B3 IN A TRAP. On Saturday morning three runners, named Petct Lee, Aloyslus Chrlstorn and Peter Feltman, bailing ft-om 60 West street, New York, were arrested by Officers llanrahan and Aldoretta, in floboken, while attempting to take men irom an Italian brig, lying in the stream. The sailors bad been paid in Havre, ami this must have been telegraphed to the boarding bouse. The accused were Drought before the Recorder, who fined them $29 each. They had already succeeded in getting one seaman away fr<*m the vessel. Wheu discharged they i cauiQ buck to New York la the rowboht Saooht.