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The Shadow of Old Earth on Cynthia's Brow. Total Eclipse on Saturday Night. illustrative diagrams. Between the evening of the 24th and tho morn ing of the 25th o f October the people of this coun try are to behold a total eclipse of the moon. As this coincidence occurs only once in eighteen .years, aud as the representatives of science and the press have both been mate concerning its ad vent, the facts given In this sequel I believe will be accepted with no little interest by all. HISTORY OP ECLIPSES. An eclipse is an obscuration of one of the beavenly bodies by the Interposition of another, either between it and the spectator, or between it and the sun. The first total eclipse of which we 1 have any knowledge? that is, the first recorded, occurred in the year 720 B. C., and was visible at Babylon. The occurrence w as the occasion of great alarm, and, indeed, before the dawn of science, eclipses, both solar and lunar, greatly affected the mlnas of tho Inhabitants of the earth. Tho ancients failed to comprenend them within the order ol nature and regarded them as pre sages of dire events, while at one time in Rome It was blasphemy, and punishment by law, to talk In public of their being due to natural causes, in ancient times when the rays of the moon were obscured the people turned oat and mado a groat disturbance with drums and brafr.n Instruments, their Idea being that the "Quoen of the Night" was in affliction, and that by making the noise they did they frightened away those who were tormenting her. According to some, Luna, wnen in eclipse, was in the pains of labor. According to others she was suffering Jrom the arts of wicked magicians. AH barbarian tribes held peculiar notions con cerning eclipses of tho moon. The Chinese Imagined that all obscurations of the sun or the moon were caused by the attempt of immense dragons endeavoring to devour thera, ana accord ingly, whenever eclipses occurred, they would as semble at street corners, and, by beating upon gongs and kettles, strive to frighten the monsters off. On acconat ol these popu lar superstitions many parties better versed in science than the common throng ?which surrounded them, by predicting the coming of an eclipse accomplished many events which we of to-day regard as authentic and historical. By the fortunate occurrence of an eclipse Thales brought peace between the Medes and the Lydians, and by predicting an obscuration of the celestial orbs, Columous, on March l, 1604, at Ja maica, procured provisions for himself aud his com panlons, after every other effort to secure such provisions haa failed. THE RANGE OF ECLIPSES. ' Stars, planets and satellites of planets may suffer eclipse, but the principal eclipses, however, are those of the sun and tho moon, called solar and luuar eclipses. The transits of the lower planets over the lace or the sun are partial solar eclipses; but solar eclipses, properly so called, are those caused by the Interposition of the moon between the sun and the earth. Regarding the eclipses of the moon, it has been said, ana truly said, that they are caused by the moon passing through the rnrtb'u abaJonr inothPr assertion of equal Importance and truth Is that lunar ocllpses hap pen only at full moon. They do not happen every full moon because the moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic on which the centre of the earth's Bhawdow moves at an angle of 5 deg. 9 mm., nearly. It may be loolish to remark that in case the Queen of Night moved on the ecliptic there would be an eclipse every lull moon, but from the magnitude ; of toe angle of inclination of her orbit to the eclip tic an eclipse can occur only on a full moon, hap penlng when the moon is at, or very near, one of | her nodes, or, in other words, when she is at the \ points where her orbits intersect tho ecliptic. Therefore an obscuration can take place only when the centres of the circle of the 1 earth's shadow and of the moon's disc approach within a distance less than the sum of their ap parent semi-diameters; consequently, except when near the nodes, the moon, on whichever side of the ecliptic she may be, may pass above or below the shadow wlthoat entering it the least. The I moon's average diameter is known to be 31 mln. j 25.7 sec., aud from the Xautical Almanac we may ascertain the exact amount of the shadow for any hour, its variations all taking place between the values of 29 mln. 22 sec. and 33 min. 28 sea "TIIE MOON ITSELF." The poet Butler would havo us believe that the moon is made of "green cheese." Another poet greater than Dutler says: ? Oh, awor not by t'le moon, the Inconstant moon, Ihttt monthly chtngtn la tier circled orb! And so It has been that the moon, with a certain class of people, has fallen Into great disrepute, and simply on acconnt of her natural phases, when contrasted with theme of the great luminary from which she borrows her light? the sun. -'All lunar eclipses are universal, or visible In all psrts of the earth which have the moon above their horizon," say the authorities, and no doubt the authorities are correct. All lunar eclipses, more over, are everywhere of the same magnitude, with the same beginning and end. It is this univer sality of lunar eclipses that leads people to im agluo that there are more eclipses of the moon tnan there are of the sun. The fact is, however, that the latter is more often eclipsed than the rormer, U e., rhere are more eclipses of the sun than there are of the moon. A sun's eclipse is only visible to a part of the earth, whereas a lunar eclipse, as just stated above, is ?lsible wherever the moon can be seen. The con sequence is that there are more eclipses of the moon visible at any particular place than of the sun. The reason why the solar eclipse is visible to only particular portions of the earth is, because being causcd by the moon's shadow, it is only to I be seen wnere the moon's shadow (alls and the ! moon's shadow is very much smaller than the ! earth. "ECLIPSICA.L" CONSISTENCY-. A peculiar fact about eclipses aro that they ap- ' pear in regular order, once ouly in every eighteen ' sears and eleven days; this fact was discovered by the ancient Chaldeans, and the period is called ' the Chaldean period. Therefore, the total eclipse 1 which we shall witness on this corning Satur- ! day night too* place eighteen years ago, in October, i8i?. The total eclipse of occurred upon October 13, ol that year. It was not quite total, the uioon's edge being about one-flve-hun <lrsdth part or its diameter outside of the shadow. By refcrrinir to the large figure at the Head of this article it win be seen that at this time (IN74) tho moons edge is about one-twentieth ol Ha diameter within the edce of the shadow. At each return of eighteen years It will pas* uiore and more near the centre of the shadow, until finally it will pass by the southern edge of the shadow and cease to be total, in other words, i.ooj years hence the eclipse will cease to be total. OCR ECLIPSE. On Saturday night a bright, sun-lllumlned Bcreen will be l assed across our midnigiit Arma ment; will be blotted out iu mid-heaven, and emerge Into light again before reachlug me west cm sky aud all lor what? To prove to us that the great shadow of the earth is really there in the right; that the mighty cone of shade, based I on trie circlo of the world, rising through the air i and through space, Is ever poised in the night heavens, aud wan 8 but a screcu ou which to fall A DIAGRAM OT THE LUNAR ECLIPSE. This figure represents the path of the Moon through the Earth's shadow, entering npon the right and moving toward the left. The portion of the Moon'B centre is shown for every ten minutes during the whole eclipse, and the position of the Moon at the four timeR separately declinatod in the figure, 1 to 4. By means of this figure the appearance of the Moon at any other moment may be readily ascertained by drawing a circle to represent the Moon with the centre at the point corresponding to the given time. But to correspond with the position in the heavens the Moon'6 axis, which te perpendicular in the figure, muat be inclined as upon the smaller figures, by turning the top of the paper toward the right to make Itself as visible as sunset shadows on a western wall. With such a screen covering oar night sky we should see the world's shadow, like a black sun, travestying the motions or that luminary? rising as he set, setting as he rose? In mid-heaven at midnight, and running high or low as he ran low or high. 13 ut, with such a screen, there would be no night. Illuminated by bright sunlight every where except at the BOlitary spot where the earth's shadow Jell, the uitihi sky would be as if tilled with full moons. Bo perhapB It is as well, on the whole, that the only screen we have Is a small one, and one that seldom wanders into that por tion of the heavens pre-empted, tor the nonce, by the earth's shadow. Our satellite thus takes much less time than we can consume when "through the shadows of the world we sweep into tie younger day;" but it must be recollected that we traver se the cone at lis base, where it la 8, Q<? miles across, wnile the moon on Saturday night l.aa but about 5,000 miles to cross, and plunges through it at a speed of nearly thirty miles a minute. ABB WE TAPGHT ? Now, quxre, in so hactnied an occurrence as a lunar eclipse is there anything lelt to be learned? anything not thoroughly understood, the consid eration ot which may ra;lonally occupy our minds while observing the phenomenon? Unhesitatingly yes; and It Is this: The ex pression "blotted out, ' used In the first para graph, does not* as every observer will testily, correctly represent the itate of things ; and here is the wonder. The moon is not blotted out. She is there, plainly visible in the midst or the total ity, her disc lit up with a lurid glow that enables one still to trace the more conspicuous markings of her suriace. Whence this light oit of darkness ? There are but three possible sources? the moon, the earth, I the sun. The self-luminous history of the moon | was long ago completed, bxposing her materials | four times as lavishly [four times as much suriace in proportion to her volume) as our own planet to the action of ber atmosphere and the cooling lu | Quences of space, she ran the cycle of planetary I me cuons of ages before the earth had entered upon its organic history. Her hungry elements, gaping with their fourfold mouths, drank up her meagre atmosphere, and, subsiding Into the apathy of sated oxides or the stupor of hopeless, unsatisfied affinities, left ber fourfold, radiating surface naked to the chilling embraces of tho "cold inane." Prodigal that she was, she literally burned her candle at both ends, and, In the matter of atmosphere, she laid up nothing lor a rainy day. she floats in her orbit? the cinder of a burned up world? white with the salt-lncrusted floors of dried up oceans. No Jlte, no sound, no motion, nave the erashless fall of warping precipices and the Qndrtfttng snowtlakes of the "cosmic dust." The ruddy eclipse light most, therefore, derive Its existence from some source other than the cold, pale planet It suffuses, and we are left to select between the earth and sun. The mild "earth light" which illumines, and olten renders dimly visible, the dark body of the new moon is, however, unavailaole for exp'.alnAg the vis ibility of the moon's disc in cclipse. The bright stde of tue earth is, in the latter case, turned completely away from her. To her the sun has set, not behind the hills of her own hori zon, but behind the huge planet which figures in her firmament, and which we call the earth. Slowly he has sunk from. her view behind the "ragged edge" or the dark planet, leaving her, not in darkness, but in the twilight, or rather partial sunlight, of his disc, still partly visible by refrac tion above (around) the planet's edge. We earthiles know that this refraction Is capable or making the sun visible to us when his whole disc is really beiow our horizon. Bat our lungless lunarian, looking across the edge of the earth's apparent cisc, enjoys the refractive use or this atmosphere twice as compared with him who is immersed la It. THE TOTAL VEIL. The total eclipse of the moon, which, with proper atmospheric conditions, we are to witness on Sat urday ulght. will begin at 11 at which hour the moon will enter the penumbra. The effect of the penumbra will In all probability be nearly lndis cernable, as the moon's radiance alter the penum br.il shadow has passed over tt will be nearly as brilliant as before. At 12:50 P. M.. however, the j moon will begin to enter the shadow, thus moon at ten minutes to one o'clock on Sunday morning, ojtober 25, just after the commencement of the eclipse. It show* the edge or the shadow where It is first seen. The direction of the moon's axis is e'.iown by the line marking Its north ana south poles; and the arrow represents the direc tion of the moon's motion, the shadow remaining relatively stationary. After this hoar it will be seen that the shadow silently creeps npo? tlie moon's broad surface, and the observer, if he Is patient, will notice the circumstance Illustrated in the following diagram:? whloh represents the appearance of the moon at two o'clock, Just before the eclipse bocomes total. In this fl(nire nearly the whole moon is covered l?y the shadow, and that nortiun of the moon will not be visible In the heaVens. All that will be seen will be the short crescent. After the moon has been totally eclipsed It will begin to emerge gradually from the shadow, when, at the honr Indicated in the cut, it will present the following appearance:? Until Anally the shadow will hare almost srone, the appearance of the moon durtng the last moments ol the eclipse being as follows:? The eclipse of October 25 is the first total eclipse of the moon visible to us since 1356. The eclipse will begin at 11 o'clock and 48 minutes P. M., at which hour the moon will enter the penumbra. The proper or discernab'.e eclipse will begin at 12:50 A. M., and the eclipse will be total at 2 o'clock and 4 minutes, Sunday morning. The middle phase of the eclipse will occur at 2:21 A. M., the end ol eclipse at 2 :38 A. M., while the moon will leave the shadow entirely at 3:50 A. M. During the eclipse, the moon will present a somewhat peculiar appearance to us. The pennmbral shadow, ad stated above, will somewhat dim its radiance. Unless one were upon the qui trtve for it, one wonld not Know when the pennmbral shadow had fallen. Sometimes in phases of total eclipse the moon is entirely in visible, but ordinarily it is of a dull reddish color, like tarnished copper. Upon December, 1833, the color changed to a bluish green as the eclipse passed oft In March, 1848, the same phenomena occurred, which Sir John Herschel said was caused by "the accidental absence of clouds over a large portion of the earth's atmosphere, grazed by the sun's rays at the time." Exactly how our total lunar eclipse will conduct itself Is at present a little difficult to determine : but, as it Is an event which occurs only once in eighteen years, and as one needs simply a pair of opera glasses to thor oughly discern it, it will, no doubt, be viewed by the anxious eyes of thousands. UNHERALDED ECLIPSES. And, now that we are confidential about the moon, let me mate a revelation. There will be three lunar eclipses next year not in the alma nacs. When our great astronomers, Jayne and Holloway, furnish you their inevitable calendars for 1875, you will probably find therein a solar eclipse set down for April ana another for Sep tember, but no lunar eclipse, neither these cal endars nor their creat prototypes? the nautical almanacs of Greenwich and Washington? will hint that on April 20, and September 15, and Oc tober 14, 1875, there will oe lunar eclipses. Eclipses, However, there will be. At seven minutes and thirty-nine seconds past eleven A. M., New York time, on the 20th or April, 1876, the full mooa will be more tnan half immersed in the earth's penamora. At 51 minutes and 54 sec onds past 7 A. M., New York time, on the 15th of September, 1875, the foil moon will be Immersed about two digits in tbe earth's penumbra. At 37 mlMtes and 43 seconds past 5 P. M., New York time, on the 14ta of October, 1875, the full moon win ne immersed more than eight digits in the earth's penumbra. On two of these occasions the moon will be on the other side of the world; but, on the evening or October 14, those persons here who have facili ties lor viewing the rising full moon will probably observe a faint BBadlng on her southern side for sometime after rising as the twilight dies out. If so, they will hare seen an eclipse not set down in the books, which is something In tola century where ? 'all's known.'' "YOUB MOSEY OR YOU* LIFE!" Exploits of the Long lilaad Hlghwtf men. Two well known residents of Flushing, George H. Lott and William Smith, visited Jamaica on Tueeda y In a carriage and started to return home in the evening, wnon they reached the ascent of a hill on Flushing, near Hillside arennc, within the limits or Jamaica village, three men, wearing masts, suddenly sprung from a clamp of husties at the roadside, and one of them attempted to catch the horse by the head, but the animal shied anti thu* prevented the villain from seizing the bridle, while auother ?trucK at Mr. Lott'* head with a sluugshot or a stwne tied in a hand Kerchief, but fortunately hit Mr. Lott on the shoulder in stead. Almost In the same moment Mr. 8mlth drew a pistol and discharged It at the one who at tempted to stop the horse, evidently wltn good effect, as the highwayman cried, "Oh, I'm shot!" nnd ni? companions hurried him away into the woods. Mr. smith then pnt the whip to the horse and the gentlemen arrived home without mrther inolestattou. A similar occurrence, out with different results and which has only just come to the knowledge or the authorities took place on Sunday evening last. Just before sundown a gentleman and his wire, while driving on tho lUflman boulevard, near Jamaica village, were stopped by two highwaymen who, witti drawn pistols, de manded the gentleman's watch and money. These were handed over, when the robbers, not yet satlsiied, also compelled the woman to give up her earrings and anger rings, and the couple wore then permitted to go on their way. Upon arriving at Jamaica the gentleman related the occurrence, but mate no complaint to tbe au thorities. This maites three attempts at highway roboery, two of winch have be?n successful, which have occurred In the same neighborhood wltain a tew daj-s, and trie* are aU believed to have been the work 01 an organized gang who have their Head quarters and hiuing place somewhere in tne woods bet wren Jamaica and Flushing. Tho authorities propose to send out a searching party to scour the wooda in ail directions. GOVERNOR DIX ON THE THIRD TERM Our Veteran Governor Speaks at Last. OPPOSED TO THE THIBD TEEM. Governor Dlx waa In the city yesterday, and left in tne afternoon lor Albany. Previous to his de parture tie waa visited by a Herald representa tive, whom be greeted with bis usual cordiality. Governor Dlx waa evidently In excellent Bplrlts, and to Judge from bis hearty and decidedly jolly appearance was In no wise troubled about the re suit of the greut and serious contest In which he is engaged. Some gentlemen who bad seen tne Governor on business, and whom he dismissed in ma Kindly maimer, accompanying them to the door, congratulated him good naturedly on tils renomlnation, and expressed the hope to see him triumphantly e ected. Governor Dtx's answer waa quite characteristic. Ue laughed heartily, and said, In his otT-handed way, "Ob, yon know that nobody can tell until alter the election WHO IS TO BE TlIK NBXT GOVERNOR." "Governor," began the Herald reporter, when the drat exchange of introductory remarks was over, "I came to see If you could give me any news about the progress of the canvasa" "No," replied the Governor, assuming a Dual ness-iike air; "I really cannot. I know nothing more about it than l have gleaned from the news papers." And he added, with a smile, "I mast refer you to the coinmns of the Herald lor any news." "Governor, I have seen it stated In the news papers that you Intend to deliver a speech in op position to the third term on the occasion of a serenade f" The Governor smiled, with an expression of in credulity. "Well, it is funny how these state ments get into tne newspapers. I don't know where the Tribune got that. I am quite at a loss to tell." "Ain I to understand you, Governor, as saying that you intend to deliver no such speech on any such occasion ?" NO KEEP OP EXPRESSING HI3 VIEWS. "Oh no," the Oovernor replied in an emphatic tone, -I have never thought of doing any such thing. I have no reason to suppose that anybody thinks I am in (avor of a third term for General Grant, and hence It would oe ridiculous for me to take such a step." "Do j on think most people regard yon as beln? opposed to the third term. Governor f" "A? " the Governor answered, "I have every reason to suppose so. I have spoken very ireety on the snoject to my friends, but as to any public declaration of my views? why, nobody has asked me for them." And after a pause the Governor added, with a good-natured smile, "That is, nobody but the interviewers." "If any respectable body of your constituents were to address you a letter requesting a public response, would you answer It, Oovernor ?" "Most undoubtedly," was Governor Dlx's reply. "If any of my constituents were to address me such a letter I should gladly answer It, stating my views as opposed to the third terra." "l)o you think General Grant desires a third terra of office, Governor t" "No, certainly not. Why tne President's friends have declared publicly that General Grant hail not the slightest intention OK RUNNING FOR K THIRD TERM. There Is Judge Plerrepont, for instance, one of the President's warm friends, who states emphati cally that General Grant does not desire a third terra, and, what is more, that even his supporters and irlcnds do not wish it." "And if General Grant desired a third term do you think, Governor, tnat the republican party, In deference to his wishes, would renominate him?" The Governor shook his head and Bmlled. "Oh, I can't say anything about that," was all the reply he vouchsafed to this question, And ne repeated, ?Oh, 1 really? I don't know anything about tnat." ??It has been stated, Governor, that your re election is considered by the republican party us an indorsement or the third term." "Oh, that's nonsense," the Governor replied; "considering that I myself am opposed to the third term. And now, will you kindly excuse mc, as I have to leave for Albany t" The reporter then shook hands with our brave Governor and left him with many thanks. THIRD TERM EXCITEMENT IN VERMONT. RCTLJLKD, Oct. 21, 1874. The third term excitement among the "outs" is alarming ttie ' lua." Bona tor Morrill, of this State, on hU way home irom Washington a few days ago. through- ticketed via Rutland, took the boat at Whitehall, saying he must go and see Senator Edmunds, at Burlington, who had the President's ear, and beg of him to nsk the Presi dent to disavow having any desire Tor a third term, or the republican party would be badly de feated and In a minority in the next Bouse. This Information you can rely ui>ou as positively true. THE BOPHfcQAN BANK ROBBERY. The Total Losi? Rew?rd Offered for Che Apprehension of the Robbers. Milfohd, N. n., Oct. Jl. 1874. The acconnts of the Souhcgan Uank have been thoroughly investigated, sod It turns out that the total loss to that Institution is $40,000. This amount, with the losses to private individuals, swells the whole amount taken to $120,000. The directors met this morning and offered a reward <* f.s.ooo for the apprehension and conviction or the desperadoes. Tne board alwo voted to resume business at once. The loss the bank has sustained will not impair Its capital ol $100,000, but it wut efTecmaay use up Its surplus. Oetootives hare discovered no trace of the thieves, who, It is believed, have gone across tJie countr / to New York. THE WEATHER YE8TERDAI, The fallowing record will show the change* in 1 the temperature for the past twenty four hoars, in comparison with the corresponding day 01 last year, a.<* indicated by the thermometer at nudnut's pharmacy, li skald Building;? 1878. 1874. 1873. 1874. 81. M f>i $0' 3:30I\ If t>? 64 8 A. M 63 40 6 P. M 53 00 0A.M 63 54 BP. M 60 56 13 M 168 81 13 P. M 6*) 64 Average temperature yesterday (>$% Ave ruse temperature lor corresponding date last year 63K APPOINTED VTGAfi-GENERAL. QCKBIC, Oct. 31, 1874. Rev. Mr. Auclalr, curate of Notre Dame <le Juebec, ha* been appointed War-General of the lioceses Kmnuuakjr and Suerbrooke. THE L011SIAXA CONTROVERSY, A Crucial Letter from Judge Black, of Pennsylvania. THE PRESIDENT COMPLETELY WRONG. He Had No Shadow of Right to Interfere. Alexander H. Stephens Disagrees with Mr. O'Conor. JUDGE BLACK'S LETTER. To tub Editor of tob Hkkald:? I have read with great interest, as well a* ad miration, the opinions of Mr. Up vera v Johnson and Mr. Charles O'Conor, on the sitaatlon of Louisiana; and I will now give you my own views i on the same subject. But having no time for i elaboration, I s ate conclusions rather than argu ments. The President can lawfully use the organized physical force or the Union to control the Inter nal affairs of a state only for one purpose? to de lend it against domestic vtolence, that In to sup press insurrection against the State government. This he cannot do unless called upon by tne Legislature or by the Governor, when the Legis lature is not in session. The constitution of the United Suites and the acts of Congress carefully confine his intervention to cases of this kind, ir lie may disregard these limits there are no others I to hold him, and his power ,is consequently despotic. The State is that which stands. Its govern ment Is "the powers that be." Its officers are those who actually exercise its authority, it is, therefore, the call of the cte facto government that the President must respond to. This principle pervades all law, municipal and International, and its observance is absolutely necessary to the preservation ol our domestic tranquillity, as well 1 as the peace of the world. IT the President as sists a faction hostile to the existing government, with Intent to drive the incumbent magistrates from the seat of power, he excites domestic vio lence and makes insurrection, instead of sup pressing it. The tacts or the Louisiana case, as I think they are universally understood since the publication of Mr. Carpenter's report, are these:? A man named Kellogg aspired to be Governor, but wholly | failed of the election. Nevertheless, he clatmed the office on grounds which were not only lalse and fraudulent, but absurd. lie had no show of a case before the proper authorities, whose duty It wa3 to decide contested elections ; but he laid his claim before a federal Judge, who made an order for his lnstallatlon.Thls order was as destitute of all legal force or validity, as If it had been made by the first negro that Kellogg might have pieced up lu the street. I taice it for granted that the Judge and all the federal officers, ctvll and military, as well as Kellogg himself, knew that it was ut terly void. It would be no charity to suppose cltner ol them Ignorant enongh to believe that a Judge of the United States Court had any authority or jurisdiction of the subject matter, or any right whatever to intermeddle with the business. Nevertheless tho marshal and the commander or the federal troops, acting In pursuance of previous instructions irom Washington, and witn the ap probation of the President himself, undertook to execute the order, expelled the officers ot the ex lstlng government ana put the pretender and his adherents into full possession of the State. Political power unlawfully obtained is always abused. The State was lnsnlted, oppressed and plundered until It became "a vexation even to hear the report thereof." To gorge the rapacity of the rulers property and capital were so burdened with taxes that a general confiscation of every honest man's lands, goods and money would hardly have been a more grievous infliction. This was borne by the body of the people so patiently that the spirit of their forefathers seemed dead wtthlu them. Their tameness was excusable only by two 1 reasons. In the first place a successful resistance was impossible while th? usurper was surrounded and guarded by the bayonets of the federal army; and second, they looked forward to the election as a peaceful remedy for their wrongs. But tins laar. hope left them wnen they saw that Kellogg I was arranging the machinery of the registra tion to cheat ttiem by a false count of the votes and thus keep them In subjection lor an in definite time. Convinced that they must rise by their own unassisted strength or be forever lalien, they resorted to the ultima ratio, threw off [ the shackles and placed the supreme executive power in the hands of the man who bad been legally elected nearly two years before. Never was revolution more just or conducted with greater prudence. Its success was complete; the baseless fabric or tyranny leu at the first rush or the popular movement; Its cliter absconded, his familiars slunk away from his ruined fortunes, and all over the State the official instruments of cor ruption yielded their places to the appointees of the lawful government. Louisiana was free and every lrlend of liberty and Justice in or outof fee State rejoiced over the fact But the President wrathfuliy determined to put the yoke back a;ain on the neck of the State. To that end he sought out Kellogg lo his hiding place ; again expelled the true Governor and again lorced the submission of the people to tho same adventurer whom he had aided before. Tne unconstitutional character of the President's first act, when he averthrew tbo then existing government and pnt Kellogg in the executive chair by mere rorce, is admitted both by Mr. Johnson and O'Conor. It would have been wonder ful, indeed, If either or them bad attempted to justify so plain and palpable a violation of the fundamental law. But they differ apparently about the President's doty at the time or his second In tervention. I concur with Mr. Johnson in the opinion that after Kellogg was In the President could not turn him out; he vrae d e facto Governor; and no matter whether he became so by fraud, or force, or accident, tho fact of possession was all that the President could lawfully see. or course, 1 dissent from Mr. O'Conor with all the cautious difference due to his great name; but If he mean* to say that General Grant had a right to pull down the de facto government or Kellogg whenever he repented his own act in setting it up, I venture to put in a denial. Remember, the President has no right to turn anybody ont, nor even to inquire how any actual incumbent got in. To overthrow one de facto government because he had wrongfully overthrown another would, in stead or atoning for the first error, only double the blunder. He cannot play fast and loose with the liberties ot a state, nor, like Pharoah, lot the peo ple go tree or hold them m bondage according as tue Lord hardens his Heart or terrifies him wltn plagoee. But I respectfully submit that this point on which Mr. Johnson and Mr. O'Conor divide is not In the case. General Grant never Intervened to protect a de facto government in Looisiaua. His last act, like the first one, waa a war against the existing authorities. Kellogg never had any title except his naked possession. That was enough while it lasted ; but every vestige of power had lett him when the federal troops took him from his hiding place in tho Custom House and placed him a second time In the executive chair. The McEnery government was at that time as | completely established as u Its power had d.ited a century back. Iv was the government <te Sure. That did not do It much practical good while its officers were prevented by the military rorce of the usurper from exercising their functions; but when the people took their business into their own hands and put their elected rulers into their proper places, then tlio legal title and the actual possession united in the same persons, it is mere folly to say that Kellogg wis Governor an Instant alter that. The lorclble reinstatement of him was ! an Insurrection sgalnst the proper authority of tile Slate as ranch as his first instalment. If I am right thus Jar, it follows that General Grant ou both occasions committed a grave viola tion of his constitutional duty, in a matter viuuy artecting the rights oi the States and the liberties of tne people. Of his conduct there can certainly be no decent pretence of Justification, and, so far as I can perceive, no reasonable excuse, unless he can nay that his legal advisers imposed upon him t>y a false reading of the*' onstitution. Mr. O'Con'ir refers to Congress as the paramount I authority, whas? recognition of the Kellogg gov ! erument would have hound tne President and all others. The opinion of the Court in Luther vs. I Borden speaks of the jurisdiction which Congress 1 has over the BtiOjeci, hut does not define It. 1 Know of no power in that body except to pre ] serine by general rules the manner in which the President shall perform the duty assigned by the constitution to him. and I ao not think that either Mr. O'Conor or Chief Justice Taney could have meant anything else, it is certain that Congress could not legislate Kellogg in or out of oflOce, and its ??recognition" would no more strengthen his title than it would add a cubit to hts stature. Those Senators were wise and fattu;ul men who refused to vote lor Mr. Carpenter's bill, because It was an unconstitutional interference with a mat ter which belonged to the people ol the s- ate ex clusively. J. S. BLACK. YOBK, Pa., Oct. 19, 1474. A. H. STEPHENS' LETTEE. | The following political letter from the eminent historian and statesman of Georgia will be read with interest:? LlIJBBTY HaLI, CB1WP0BDSVIIJ.E, Oct. IX, 1874. Mb. P. Btkdsall:? My Dbxb Sir? Your letter of the sth lust., with enclosure of Mr. Charles O'Conor's letter, Ac., was received this morning. Tonr previous letter, in acknowledgment of my Greensboro speech, was also duly received. I am obliged to you for both. I had seen Mr. O'Conor's letter, but I do not agree wltn Mr. O'Conor's premises or conclusions. The rribuneia central to the core, so also is the Sun, and tho World pretends to bo democratic, but is democratic only on radical principles. I had, however, seen Mr. O'Conor's letter published In several of our Southern papers. I do not agree with Mr. O'Conor in his premises or conclusions, lie sets ont with asserting that Grant had decided that '?Kellogg was duly elected." Now, in point of Act, Grant has never decided any such thing. After Kellogg brought his suit in the Federal Court, as he had a right to do under the abominable Enforcement act, so called, all that Grant did was to aid In the enforce ment of the Judicial process, as It was hts duty to do under the act. He had no right to inquire either into the correctness of that judg ment of the Court or the validity of tho election of either Kellogg or McEnery. These were question? he bad no right to decide, and he said so. He only enforced judicial process. Mr. Reverdy Johnson made a similar blunder; even Mr. O'Conor. He says Grant decided that Kellogg was duly elected. This decision, he says, was wrong; but, having made It, he could not correct it. On tins point Johnson has the advantage, because the truth Is they are both wrong in their premises and both quite a bote h in their conclusions. In my I opinion Grant dia nothing but extend the act of I Congress. It has been my effort for two years to keep the democracy from the great error of making an improper issue with Grant on this I Louisiana mnddle. Tne strength of the democracy i lies in the truth. What they should assail is tho radical construction of acts of congress, from which all these troubles spring, and not this man who executes the acta of Congress as they stand upon the statute book. ' The great strength of the democracy tn 1876 la an arraignment of the radical party lor ail the ' utter lailures attending the reconstruction so called, and a grand centennial slogan, arousinz j the masses irom one extent of the countiy to the I other lu support of the principles announced by i Mr. Jefferson and the Congress of tne States, on j the 4th of July, l"0. "Down with usurpations and j np with the constitution !" should be the battle ! cry in 1878. Yonrs truly. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS. THE LECTURE SEAdJN. An address will be delivered this evening be fore tbo annual meeting of the Medico-Legal So ciety, to be held at the College of Physician* and Surgeons, by R Otjdeu Doremus, M. D., LL.D., Proressor of Chemistry and Toxicology in tbe Gellevae Hospital Medical College and chemist to the society, "On the duties of nnmoers of the 1 medical and legal professions, toxicoiogists, phar maceutists and county officer* la cases of poison ing, and tbe necessity of proper legislation on the subject." An election of officers will be held ana other business transacted. Mr. Bayard Taylor will deliver a lecture on "Ancient Egypt" this evening at the Academy of Music. Dr. T. S. Lambert will lecture on "Woman" this evening at tlie Methodist Episcopal church, corner or Bedlord and Morton streets. Bev. Patrick Toner, of Towanda, Pa., repeated last nlglit, at the cooper lustitute, Ins brilliant lecture on "l'he l oets of Ireland," which was lis tened to with euthuslastlc approoatlon by a large auditory. The proceeds are lor the be no lit ol a weak and struggling church at Towanda. The American society or Civil Knsmeers met last evrntng at No. 03 William street ana listened to a valuable paper irom Proiessor Koi>ert H. I'll unto a on the caionc value of wet fuel. A general discus sion lolJuwed on tue education ot civil engineers,. ' as treated of In a recent paper by Mr. Thomaa V. j Ciarne. CARRIAGE MAKERS' CONVENTION. 1 Tbe third annual meeting of tbe Carriage ' Builders' National Association was held yesterday at tbe St. Nicholas Hotel. The attendance com I prised almost every member of tbe association. > The Convention was called to order by ilon. C. P. I Kimball, lately the democratic candidate lor Gov ernor of Maine. The association re-elected Mr. ! Kimball President; Mr. Clement Studeoaker, Vice i President; Mr. Wilder H. Pray, Secretary and i Treasurer, and tbe old Executive Committee, i That commute.* reported, through Mr. John W. Britton, us chairman, amonir other recommenda tions, a proposal to memorialize Congress lor a re l ducuon of tana upou carriage maters' materials. Ex-Governor J. R. llawley, or Connecticut, was j Introduced and urged the association to take aa 1 active part in tbe National Centennial Exhibition. ; Ue said that foreign carriage mauulacturcrs have already dsked Tor space for their work at the Ex ' Mbltion, and tlie American carriage makers ongtic I not to allow themselves to be beaten. Ex-Gov ; err. or Blglow and Mr. A. S. Gosborn also spoke in > tne same strum. The association decider \o ap ; point a committee of five to conrer witu tbe cen tennial Exhibition Commissioners. Mr. Bruton read to the Convention a letter, I drafted by tbe Executive Committee, in response I to a letter oi eougratoiation and advice received , last year from tlie Curriugo Builders' Association , of Loudon, England. ATter several sp-eches ar , raugeuu-uts were made for the collection or trade I statistics by a special committee and tne Couvea i tlon adjourned. DISCIPLINE ON THE ROANOKE. A story has circulated lately thai there is a lack ! or discipline on board the United States Iron-Clad > Roanoke, which now lies to tae North River; that ' tbe sailers are not punished if they get arunk, ' and are not provided with enough food. An in j vestigation proves alio report untrne In every par | ticular. The discipline on tbe Roanoke is perfect; tlie officers exijct it, and. as ail tbe nilors have been in toe navy for years they obey It easily. The Roanoke is regarded by sailors as a pleasant 1 place for duty, and some of her crew are shipped ' as landsmen, though tbey cave before rated as able seamen. Her officers, too. are men of high character, wuo would not permit the saiioia to be badly treated. Tt.e scandalous story is attributed to a fellow who was lately discharged irom tho Roanoke as a "skulker." THE LOST STEAMER WIN ANTS? ALL HOPE ABANDONED. No further newa has oecn recetved in ttiia city 1 respecting the lost steamer A. Wiuants, of which 1 a mil account was given in Tuesday's Herald. 1 The Coast Wrecking Company, who owned her, bave given up all hopes of ber, being under the | lnu.FOMiuu that she foundered ou the 27 th of Sep tember off Charleston, during a temflc hurrlcaud. j Tbe treasurer or the company believes that the I wreck, bottom up, evidently a river steamer, seen off Savannah by the steamer Saragossa, was tneir lost vessel. 1 ms was reported at Savannah on the | 3d of October lust. The Coast Wricking Oomnanv intend to send their steamer Lack iwanua to Key West to-mur I row to take tue mace of toe Wlnaots.