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THE EH OE COM FEELING
A Further Review of the Diary of John (luincy Adams?Social Life Fifty Yean Ago. Lafayette's Visit to America and His Triumphal Progress. THE STRUGGLE FOR THE PRESIDENCY. A Quadrilateral Contest?Adams, Craw ford, Clay and Jackson. BEHIND THE SCENES OP "THE ERA OF GOOD FEELING." The Rise and Progress of Adams as a Candidate. THE MACBETH POLICY. "If Chance Will Have Me King Why Chance May Crown Me." MEMOIRS OF JOHN OCISCY ADAMS, COMPRWINO P0R?N3 op HIS 1)ia?y from 1195 TO 1843. Edited by Charles Francis ?Y0U Philadelphia: J. B. Llppincott & Co. Iat5. We uad occasion a few duyssinoe to review lome of the questions dlacussod by Mr. Adams in mis most interesting book. We now return to tho subject, and propose to follow tbe author through that period or his career which termi nated his service as Secretary of State, and was signalized by ills entrance upon toe President.}, rue meat value of this book wilt be understood wu? .. remiuii our r.ua.r. oue or tho most interesting episodes m our history, the episode marking the cl or "the era ol good reeling" and the contest between Adams, Clay, J*ck90a ind Crawford tor the Presidency; the rallure of the Electoral College to unite upon a 'W^aUS, ind tne election by the House, and the ?f a now desilny in our politics. Ibis boon Is vir tualiy the dividing lino between tho old and the new, the past and tho present or the Republic, the period or the Revolution and what will be known herealter In history as the period ol emancipation. 80CIKTY DOB1NO TUK EUA OF 0000 FHUNO. Leior? entering upon these stormy passages let us note some aspects of social Hie In Washing ton fllty years ago. lu 1822 Charles Mathews en tertains llr, Adams and a company at Washing ton with "The Trip to Paris," and "The Diligence, in which he personated tan or twelve characters, male and lemale. This entertainment was ??wouderlul and amusiug and continually laughable." but ?'most or the hearers were weary before It was over. It Is a picture of reuiers, or of Jan Steen, imitation to admire of that which lu nature is onty despised. ' 'ihe en tertainment was injured by tue enthusiasm of the periormer ou tho piano, who was "so rapt m ectacj at the exhibition or Matnews himseir as to be never lu time for his own." Tnere was a famous dinner party on tne 2d of November, 18? which is not without Interest, seeing that amoug the guests was John A. Dlx. DU was in Wash Ington, endeavoring to lurther the interests or John C. Calhoun. Mr. Adams notes tnat at tt.is dinner there was a controversy between laze weil and himself on the subject of Tokay wine. Tazewell was a Virginian, who died at the verge or the war in extreme old ago. At tho time or this dinner he was a Commissioner under the Florida treaty. "U? perseveriugly insisted that Tokay was a species of Rheuisb wine. Alter insisting to the contrary for some time, in perfeot good humor and civility, as be still persisted, in the warmth or the colli sion I said, 'Why, you never oranx a drop of To kay in your lire1' I set this down as a token of ?elf-dlsapprobatlon for having said it." Ibis act of discourtesy made a deep Impression upon tho writer's mind, ror again he says, "l have no good apology to make to mysalf for this incivility, lor tnat Tazewell himseir ? not sparlujr or feelings In the clash or conversation, and had been much nberwiso even at this dinner, is uo Justification to me." One or the Secretary's ravonte amuse ments was swimming in the Potomac, to which habit he makes lrequenl reference. There was tome excitement as to how to properly bury the Baron Ureuttn, Prussian Minister, and tho first foreign diplomatist who had died In Washington, and much correspondence about funereal eti quette. One diplomatist proposed that Baron Mal Utz should carry tbe ribbon and cross ol the Order of the Red Eagle on a cushion before the hearse. "I advised them," says Mr. Adams, "not to carry the cushion with tne ribbon and tho cross, lor If they aid there wou.a t. danger that toe people would take them !or Freemasons." The Baron was prop erly burled, however, Oaliatin, Adnms aud south aid attending the procession, which numbered twenty-live catriages, "tho rain pouring in tor rents." on the 8th of January, 1S24. tne annlver Bury of tbe battle ol New Orleans, a great ball was given to Ooneral Jackson, newly arrived aa Senator from Tennessee, at which a thousand per auns attended. Tuis ball was the great event of the season, auo was celebrated in the newspapers in poetry and prose. At this time Jackson and Adams were unusually friendly, Adams courting the military splendor oi Jackson's name, and areaming of running for the Presidency with Jackson on his ticket for Vice Preaidont. Jackson himself was profuse In Ills own hospitalities, for w? bate a dinner party at which Clay and Cal houn and Adams attended, clay became ??warm, vehement and absurd upon the tariff" "so ardent, dogmatical and over bearing that It was exiremely difficult to pre serve the temper of frlsudly society with him. There was a visit to the theatre to see "lho Bchool lor Scandal." witn Cooper as diaries Sur face and Mr. and Mrs. Barnos as Sir Peter and Lady Teazle. This was Thomas A ithorp Cooper, ward oi William Oodwin, who had beon playing for thirty years, and m hi. day. sevsnty mw ago mauaged the old Park Tneatre. At another performance, at whicn was played "Damon and Pythias" and "Katharine aud Petrucnlo, am ns the audience wsro Monroe, Lafajette, General Jackson and Mr. Crawford. "The per. romance w.i good, but Cooper Is getting into the decline ol age." We lear it was drir.lt and high life, lor Cooper was really about utty. naere waa another dinnerparty, wiucu is not without interest, lor among the guests were Uennlson, afterward speaker of the House of Commons; and ..come a Lord Oasoryj the lamous Lord uerby. father of the preaen Karl; Whortley, afterward Lord \\ harncltjfe. su Labouchere. arterwarJ to be Lord Taunton. So thai, although ur. Adama w.ts distressed by the newspapers and beginning to leel the le>er of Prealdential ammtion. he stl I maintained to more than an ordinary degree a brilliant, aoe al IU?. There were son- lines published by a fashionsb e pott at ilia time, aud wuich sppt-are on morning or the 8th ol January, t., wulcn we hav referred, an extract irom which may i>e o n ?at now, as shoving tne social tomt er t is vailed dm lu* the era oi good leeilng:? Wand you with ih? world to nigiit ? irutrn And tair und wiit iw wiwji Kyfi thai uuai in #?.4? ol lisut, La u filing mottthi ana dtnipkti pf* * ^* Utiles at& i matron*. mala* ami m**aktft?. All .ir?* iont- i?? Mr*. Aim in*. , . jiiert tS? miit of in? m.urt. th? *loc?^; Alt men into iUii? S- the warm flanos ofipieeaara And tun only regret la, lu?t unlluu too last. Mauiiea< ?uouid uiuva oft In tto? nildat #1 a maaaura. Wend you with the worlJ to aifnt! lvs?l *n<t wf ?t and a>juth ana north, Fnrin a cuaaiaiiatioii bris'it An<i pour a ?j)ienilid orllltanee fa'th. LU* Utie ?? uaitton n?wm<i 'TU the noon of bcantv'a reIglt. Weliiter, Hamilton* are . iMsifiu l.oytl an l Miutlifri: llavne; Western Thosuafc. KaylV Miming; norland. Nature'* pn.t <j ; Yuunn Uc Wolle, all ln *m begnlling; Morgan. I anion. Hr>)?n ana l.ee Heller anii matron*, maids and madames. ill are vione to Mr*. AUauia'. HENRY CLAY AND TIIE PRESIDENCY. The Pie-utennal qucstiou grew in importance, | auU the opinions of Mr. Adaius upon hi* contuiu | porurles are controlled lur^ely*t)y his estimate or I their political sympathies or the danger of their wrputiuft from him tho diadem of the Presidency. Clay especially, who was afterward to be his own Secretary of State. and whom he was to defend In later yc&rs with an earue.stness almost pa* ihctic. Is scarcely alluded to by Mr. Adams, ex cept in hurab terms, until the exigencies of the canvass made him bis supporter and no longer his rival, on June 20, 1822, he says:?"Clay's conduct has been hostile to me and generally in sidious. From the time ol the Ghent negotiation 1 have been in tho way of his ambition, and by himself and his subordinates he has done all in his powor to put me out ol It." And a month later:?"this is a miserable plot against me de vised by Clay at Ghent, and lu which he has made a tool of Russell. Clay and Russc:i are the eagle and the worm of Iierder'i fable?Clay soars and llussell crawls to the top of the mountain." In November, li>23, Adam* accuses Clay ol endeav oi inn to sacrifice the administration to his own popularity. Still later Clay "Is the most impru dent man in tbo world." We have allusl< n to Clay's "Parisian shafts" and "his subsequent flinching from the contest whlcn he had chal lenged." When Clay speaks of his election to the Presidency as being certain Adams answers.? '?He plays brag as he has done all bis life." DANIEL WEBSTER. Mr. Webstekdces not lare much better at the hand's of the ex-Presluenu Althougn not much older than Mr. Clay he h;id come later luio Con gress, and was now serving his third term as a Representative lrom Boston. He was aiterwatd to become a leader of the lrlends ot Mr. Adams' administration; but the relations betweeu tnem during these early Presidential movements were not cordial. In January, 1624, Mr. Adams iears that the conduct ol Mr. Webster is ??equivocal and somewhat su-.plcious," but that h$ "reserved his op.nlou upon Webster's mo tives." April, 1324, he is convinced "that Webster had Jftmtively engaged to support Calhoun lor the Presidency, and was now ready to support any one else." "Caluoun and Crawford had both I taken hold of his ambition, and he had fallen into their tolls." Wo hirvo Rufus King complaining of Webster being "shy and uns<cial," mainly be I cause of King's friendship for Adams. Still later it was feared that Mr. Weoster was bclui? lured by the friends of Jackson. In May, 1824, Mr. Adaius is convinced that "Webster is to have an i ofllcj of high distinction In the eveut of Craw ' ford's election as President," and his course had presented "a combination of talent, of ambitloD, , of political management and of heartless injus tice." A month later ilila becomes the "timid, I insidious and treacherous pai tiailty of Webster." j Then came u longing to go to England as the , American Minister on tbo part of Mr. Webster, \ which Mr. Aciums thought mmtit be -gratifled j hereaiter," but not immediately, a longing, in. , deed, that was never to be matiiiod, for Webster only visited England as a private gentleman. CALHOUN AND THE PRESIDENCY. John C. Calhoun is one of the most conspicuous caaraciers in this history. The impression Mr. Adams conveys or this distinguished mau Is not that oi the austere, bltth-minued, uusclflsh patriot wnich south Carolina history has created. Cal houn's ambition is a source of constant uneasi ness. in July. 1822, Adams complains of Calhoun's partisans attempting to degrade him In the pub lic opinion, aud a coolness had arisen between them, turning relations which had once been confidential into those of simple ceremony. West Point is sustained by Calhoun because of "the patronage which belongs to tho War Department, stnd to which he clings." It seems Adams had de sired to limit West l'olnt and to reduce the ex. peiue ol the military education, but Calhoun would not permit it. At another time Calhoun is spoken of as one who "has a candidate always ready ?or everything." and who was especially profuse in candidates as the election for President drew near. There Is an Intimation that Calhoun would really like war, so anxious he is to strengthen the patronage ol his department. When tho mission to France is considered Calhoun, in nominating among others De W1M Clinton and Edward Living Bton, has "in all his movements ol every kind an eye to himself.'" January, 1824, Calhoun Is "tam pering wltJ the Massachusetts federalists for his electioneering purposes." Adams objects to tho appointment ot Mr. Dallas as Minister to Mexico in January, 1824, because he is an avowed parti san or Mr. Calhoun. There is a noto ol a con vet - gallon with b. D. Ingham, a conspicuous politician in Pennsylvania, who was alterward to be Secre tary of the ireasurj under Jackson and to-be driven out of his Cabinet, and who represented Mr. Calhoun's interests, respecting a. M. Dallas, and generally respecting tho treatment of Artatns by Mr. Calhouu snd his lrlends, "tho professions of friendship and the acts of insidious hostility." The election ol Calhoun to the Presidency Adams plslnly opposed in this conversation, mainly be cause he was too young a man. YOL'TH IN TDK PRESIDENCY. The entry in tho diary on this point is worthy of reproduction, as showing the conservative mind of tr.e writer, "Hut ours was practically more a government of personal consideration and in fluence than or written articles. There wbs in the genius or our institutions a graduated subordination among the persons by whom the governmeut was administered. Reputation was the basis or our elections. The emblem or lis or ganization was a pyramid, at the point of which was the chief, under whom men of high consider ation, though not equal to his, naturally lound thelr'places. Among the sourcos or this consid eration ago aud experience had tuelr share, and, unless superseded by very transcendent merit, a decisive share. This bad never yet been other wise under our present constitution. Not a single instance had occurred of a person older than the President of tho United States accepting office as a head of department under him. This was not the result of any wrlttea law, but It arose from the natural operation ol our system, wnat tbo effect ol such a departure from It as the election ol ilr. Calhoun might oe I could not undertake to say." SHADOWS OF TOR PAST. Between Calhoun and Jackson, Adams was preferably Tor Jackson. lie continued tuts friend ship until after bis own election, when It broke Into vindictive and angry Hostility on account of Jacxaon's treajlietous nnd slanderous accusation 01 "bargain and saie." It is curiou* to note tnat General Scott floats through these pages as seek ing an election to Congress from Virginia in the interest of Calnoun. so proud was Scott nu Virginia blood tlt.it. evidently not lorcseelug the tremendous eveuta which were to coma forty rears later, ho took pains to say tbat "nothing could ffivo him more pain tiisn to (Hirer in c pi. ion upon any subject from the people or Virginia." We have glimpses of Horace money, now living in the n:net}-?ixth year oi hie age in 1'uiiadeiphia, as Mr. Adams' candidate for the mission to France, wiille our veuerabie and illustrious towns man, governor Dlx. is present in W.:snlngton m Apt II, 1824, busily concerned about the Presi dency and endeavoring to reconcile u>? interests oi Calhoun and Adams and Jackson. bix was tneu a lively young politician of twenty-six; out he mast have been nitth in toe councils of the con trolling spirits, for Aiiatns ?ajS:?"Dix afterward hinted to laylor thai cainoun's friends wished Mm to be Seersitry oi State," a place it was .sup posed mignt be va ant. lUveruy Johnson Is pre sented at May 31, l?Ji, then hi the twenty-eliilith )ear ol his age, as William Win's candidate for tiio District Attorneyship of Ualtiuiore. Mr. Adams' objection to Johnson ie ''that no is a very young man." ANDREW JACKSON LOOMING VP. liat all tills timo tue really strong mun in the eyes of the countiy, although It does not appear to nave been so either to Aaams or Clay, or Oal houn or Crawford, waa Andrew Jacason, senator from Tennessee, in 1S3S, wnen it was proposed to send Jackson aa Minister to Mexico. tad criticism upon tho appointment was that lie might be "sometimes wo Im patient and violent." At this ttuio Jacksu* had been nominated by the Legislature of Ten nessee for the Presidency, ami Mr. Adams ex pressed trie lurtiici fear that his nomination to a mission might look like an atiempt to send him out of tho country In tlie interests of rival candi dates. Then there comes a series of attentions on the part of Auauis to Jackson, showing thui in the combinations of that time 11 was the aim of the New Enitland statesmen to niakj an alli ance with the Tennessee general, Bat the Ten nessee example reaction Pennsylvania, and tn March, 1S24, the Legislature of that State nomi nated Jackson by 1-1 votes out of 126, for election as President, with John C. Calhoun as Vice President. The gooa feeling during tins era was so paramount that notwithstanding the political quarrels, the personal lnterconrse of these chiels continued j unbroken. One of the objections |c ; nominating General Jackson as Vice Pres ident was expressed by Mr. Llvermore, who feared the etleut of his candidature In New England because or a letter to Mr. Monroe. Just published, wherein he says "he would liave hanged the three principal leaders of the Hartford Con vention as spies." To this Mr. Adams responded "I said the Vice Presidency was a station in which the Ueueral could hauii no one and in which he would need to quarrel with no one. His name and character would sarve to restore the forgotten dignity of the piaco and it would afford an easy, dlgniliod retirement to his old age." JacK?on was then in the flfty-clgnth year of his age, but two months older than Mr. Adams himself. He was not to be quietly pensioned off into histoiy as the Incumbent of a nominal and almost usoless office. Even at this lapse of flfty years, when these events and tno actors in them and the passions engendered are hushed aud buried, we can scarcely read without a smile 01 tho efforts 01 the great men of tne time to ignore the rude and lusty Captain of the West, who was to become one of the transcendent ilgures in our politics and to be greater in action and political power and in influence upon his country than the eloquent Clay, the logical Caihoun or tho scholarly and accommlRhflfl Ailam-i LAFAYETTE'S visit. Among tbe moat lu;cresting events of the pe nou was tlie visit of the lllmtrloua Lafayette, w!io came here la the sixty-seventh year of his aire to see the country he hint sirved so uobi.v lu lilsyoutu. Wnen the invitation was extended to Lalayette there was a lear lest it mlgiit be cou strued in France us "indicating strong hostility to the bourbons." The proposition to send a national irlgate to brine him wan declined by Lafayette, who bad the good sense to know what construs tlon would be placed on that transaction, and who bad experience enough of tlie variable moods ol republicanism at home to hesitate about taxing the kindness of his friends in the United States. Adams first met Lafayette in Philadelphia on the 2d of October, 1824, Tnere was a ball with inscrip tions and mottoes and painted scenery and a visit to Christ church, where Charles J. Ingersoll and Lalayette attended public ser vice. A visit to the Peters larm. now em braced in the grounds or the Centennial build ing, followed. Adams was shown a Spanish chest nut tree, the nut of which was planted by Presi dent Washington Just belore ills retirement from the Presidency. Tnere was on inspection of the Penitentiary prisoners. "Tbe contrast of desppra ; tion, malice, hatred, revenge, Impudeucc. treach ery and scorn displayed upon this collection of criminals was more remarkable from tho cnecr ' fulness, kind feehug and Joy visible In tho counte nances of the people crowding about the General ; wnerever be goes." On the 3th of October, 1824, I Lalayette was received In the liall of Indepen i deuce, toe interior ol which Mr. Adams notes "has j bsen entirely changed since tho time when the < Congress of the Coniederation mat tnere." After tlie reception La.ayetto reviewed tho children of tbe public schools, nearly lour thousand in num ber, lrom seven to fourteen years of age, from the steps of the south front door of the State House. There were addresses, banners and song, and "a tpoecu in French by General CadwaliaUor'a son, a lod of about fourteen." This procession toot up three hours In passing, during which "the Gen eral declined being seated or covered, even witb an uinorella." From Philadelphia Lafjjette continued to Baltimore, accompanied by Adams as secretary of Stato. When he lauded he was entertained In a tent ' used by General Washing ton during tbe Revolutionary war, borrowed from Mr. Cusils, of Arlington." Among those whorecoived Lafayette were CbarUa Carroll, of Ctrrollton. Celonei John E. HcftvarU, "one or the highly distinguished officers of the Revolution," and "several other veterans of t.ie same class, all deeply ailected by the scene, which was truly pathetic." On tee lOtb of Ucccmtier Lafayette was received by the House of Representatives, Mr. Clay being the Speaker. '-O. W. Lafayette's observation to me:-'What a glorious day for his latherf " on the l9t of January there was a din ner given by members of both Llousei of Con gress, attended by tbe President; "a storm of rain arterwards turning to snow." Mr. Clay made a speech about Bolivar and tbe cause of South America, "and seemed very desirous of eliciting speeches from me and Mr. Calhoun. lie told me that he should be glad to huve with me soon seme confidential conversation apon public affairs." JOHN ADAMS IS IIIS OLD AGE. There is a glimpse of tlie venerable John Adams, the father of the writer, theu closing bis long and glorious lite at (juincy, August i?, lszi, Mr. Adams writes:?"At one we arrived at my father's bouse, and 1 was deeply affected at seeing him. lie is bowed with age, and scarcely can walk across a room wlthoat assistance." a week later ho engaged Stewart to paint tho picture of his father. The artist promised that be would "take with him hit best brush, to paint a picturo of-affection and of cnriosity for future times." There was a rumor among the political scandals | of tbe oar that Jonn yuincy Adams was under tbe displeasure of bis lather, woo had made a will leaving bis son without an Inheritance. Tins rumor was brought to the attention of Adams, who, In an entry on March 25, 1824, says:?"My lather's conduct to me has been tliat of a most af icctionate lather. Uo had not left it to the disposal ol the will to bestow upon ms my portion of the es tate; he had conveyed it to me by deed irrevoca ble by lumsel:." on septemoer, 1S24, a year later, there Is auothcr visit t j John A clans*, whose , "mind is still vigorous, but cannot dwell long npon any one subject." "Articles oi news ao i of political speculation in the newspapers are read to hiOl, on wiucn he remarks with sound discern ment." The ex-Presidont was then nearly ninety years of ago. liis sight was so dim that he could ncltner read nor write; he could not w?u with out aid. and Ills hearing was partially affected. "iio receives somo letters," says Mr. Adams, "and dictates answers to tiiem. In general, tho most remargaWe circumstance of his present state is tbe total prostration of his physical powor*. leav ing his mental (acuities scarcely impaired at all." A STORY OK WASUIKOTOK, There is a glimpse of Washington tu a story toid "twice over" by trawiorJ at a meoiing of ti:? , Cabinet, October 10, li24. In tuo early part of Uis administration Washington bail gone to tbe Senate with the project ol a treaty to l>? negotiated, and waited during the delivers lions. "Tney debated it," says AJams, "and | re posed alterations; so that when Washington lelt the Senate Chamber lie said he would be damnod If he ever went titers again, and ovor sinca that time treaties have been negotiated by the Execu tive before sanralttlng them to tiio consideration of the senate." WAS PATRIC* HXNRT A COWARD f There Is a iurther story wiilch, now that we are In it Revolutionary episode, we may rescue from obiivion?a story oi Pa trick Henry wnicli is worthy oi historical lnqnlry. "On March 21, 1848," says Mr. Adams, "i called a; the beginning ui tae even ing upon Colonel John Taylor, tho Senator rroin Virginia, and R. P. Garueit, *?? member of tbe House, woo has just returned lrom a visit home. Taylor continues low in health and feeble. lie repeated to iuc tae anecdote concerning Patrick Henry, which he bad related some weeks since at my house, that la toe campaign lu 1TS1 Henry actually proposed in secret session of the Legiaiaturo si Virginia tast toe should be the 13rst to submit to Great Britain, In order that alio might obtitfa trie most favorable tvruis. Tay lor was himse.f a memoer of the Legislature, and hear i lilm move to po into secret session, tticre to make tlie proposition unit support it by an elo quent speech. It met with *ucti immediate indig nant and universal opposition tnat when tlie de uate ciosed lie had eaatig*; I Ills side und was among the most ardent and mu-t sanguine for pt-r^everance In tlie war. Taylor thinks there 14 a great exaggeration la the panegyric upon lleury by Mr. Wirt, and aavs thai Ueury bad much less eitlclent agency m Hie Kovoiuuon than many others." This Colonel John Taylor was the irieud of Jefferson, who was to die within a lew week* arter this conversation lie hid been a member of the senate In 170:2, thirty years pre viously, aud ha 1 taken an important part in the strangles or Virginia. roLincs dckino THE diu op good fkklinq. Tt.e most valuable part of Mr. Adams' book is that which concerns the election for the Presi dency in 1824. At the close or what is called "the era of good feeling" parries were in a hazy, unue lined position. The federalist* or republicans ceased tueir distinctive party quarrels; tue con troversies arising out of the war of 1812 aud the ! principles involved iu tae lormatlon of the gov ernment had grown dimmer and dimmer. Jefler ' son, wnose InUnence had been dominant for twenty-live years, was living lu ex'ieme old age < lu Munticeilo, while Adam3, ills great rival, was j verging upon ills ninetieth year at yuincy. Both, In a very tew tnotiius, were to pass lrom the scene ol their labors, their achievements and their en during renown. Mr. Monroe's administration seemed to be governed by the principle of avoid ing all responsibility, lnourriug no trouble and tiding the country ovor the effects 01 the war of 1812. Around him were daring, gifted men, am bitious for the honors of the Presidency. There was William II. Crawford, a famous name in those days, but now lost In the roar 01 noisier events. Secretary or the Treasury, a Virginian, settled in Georgia, who had been Minister to France under Madison, acting Vice President In the Senate during a part of Jefterson's administration and Secretary or iho Treasury under Monroe. Craw ford was trie representative of the Jeitersonian influence, or what remained of It, and at this time was sufferiug from an attack of paralysis or rheumatism, which made it impossible lor him even to sign the warrants of the Treasury. An I drew Jackson was Senator lrom Tennessee, hav ing won military position of the highest rank by his victories over the uritish In 1316 and over the , Seminoles lu Florida afterward. lie had Just re tired from the army, reslgnlug iho rank ol major ' general, aud was now entering uoon the political phase of his career, which was afterward to be come so remarkable aud to exercise so important an influence upon the couutry. Ueury Clay was 1 speaker of * the House and lu the lortj-seventh I year of his age, in the full possession of his ! brilliant and remarkable faculties. Calhoun. in the forty-second year of his axe, bad j attained a rare eminence as one of tne 1 coming men of the Kepublic. 'these were the | leading candidates for the Presidency. There were whispers of the nomination of?Rafaa King, ' then drawing toward tho close of his life, and re garded by Adams aa one of "the wisest and best men in public ille." De Witt Clinton was urged by iriends in New York, but New York did not have the strength iu politics possessed by Vir ginia or the south, and the ambitioua leader of the Empire State waa compelled to content him* self with lesser honors. PARTY ISSUES. It la difficult to understand the questions that animated this canvass lor the Presidency. Looted at irom this distance of time, and even with the advantage ol Mr. Adams' invaluable information, they become purely personal. There was no question to exclto the passions. The Missouri compromise settlement had so determiued the question of slavery that tnere Is not an allusion to the subject m this sixth volume of these "Memoirs," altliougn la otaer pages Mr. Adams wrote with burning and bitter i anger uj-ou* the efforts of the Southern meu to ex tend the area of slavery. The most important questious ware foreign. These never extended beyond the dUcusslons of the Cabinet. The ora i tors talked about Greek independence, and liberty In South America and Panama missions. Sow aud then Mr. Clay made shallow speeches on the tariff, but this had not assumed a tangible shape. The era of good reeling seems really to nave beeu a kind of armed truce. Monroe was to be permitted to pass out or the Presidency, aud whichever of feu rivals, by management. Intrigue or personal lAipularity, eould attain the largest number of votes was to capture tuc office. It was a canvass of passion and not of principle. raK4IDKNT MOMtOK. James Monroe, once President of the United biat?s, has become a faded memory, it is diffi cult to gather from Adams any luiprossion of the character or ability or the ex-President. Atone time, in 1833, in August, bo had an attack of cramp, and lay two hours In insensibility, and was believed to bo dying, la which event w? shoild probably bave had Daniel D. Tompkins, then Vice President, among our list of forgotten Chief Magistrates. In on3 entry we note tnat Mr. Adams thinks "the President is often atraldof the skittishness of mere popular prejudices. I am always disposed to brave them." Monros evi dently had an exaggerated Idea of the influence of European politics upon America. There are many refeiences to the "alarm and dejection" and the concern with which be dreaded com munications tsom foreign Powers. There was a scandal on one occasion about the appropriation lor furnishing tne President's bouse, and the President furnished a memorandum upon the subject, "ibis memorandum," says Mr. Adams, "enters into details ol a very humiliating charac ter, und which ought never to have been or to be required oi him." "There appears to be nothing real.y censurable in all these transections." ?'Tltero arises irom all this an exposure of do mestic aud household concerns almost as incon gruous to tuo fetation of a President of the I'nlted States as it would b? to a blooming virgin to exhibit beisoU uaked before a multitude, l'ho malignity of political opposition hss no reeling of delicacy." In this era of good feeling there wero kttuupn cabinets, aud on one occasion Adams rears tne French Legation "has access to tuo President through another whimpering gallery. Such is sue way of the world; there are winding suits In every direction." on December lfl, 1S24, Adams liss an interview with George Sullivan, who comcs to tell him th.it the President is la stralgntened circumstance* ana is anxious to have a claim presented to Congress on nis behalf before it shall decide on the grant to be made to General Laiajette. These embarrassments were occa sioned uy the pavment of money to bis brother in Kngisnd; they lolloweii him to tbe end of his lira. Alter bis retirement from tbe Presidency he was compelled to and relugc with his relatives in Kew York, where tie died in 1SJ1, ou the 4th of July, almost absolutely in want. the mnsroumar. uit-tmn grows mourn. in \ta President Jackson had really no party in Congress. Tnere wore three parties?one for crawiord, one for Clay and one tor Calhonn. Tne strengtn ot JacKsou and Adams, such as they had. key outsldj ol that t^dy. Toe flrst appearance ol Adams us a candidate arose irom the efforts or ins frlcuds iu tho North Atlantic states, in volume 6, pujto #7, us far back us lewuary, u&J, there it a note of a convention between Mr. Adams and Judge ilopklnsou, of Philadelphia, iu which Mr. Uopkinson urtfed Mr. A lams to became a candi* date. Adams replied tuai ho would take no step in advance or promote pretentions to tbe 1 resi dency. "If," ho sa.is, "that offico Is to be tne prize o; canal and intrirftu . oi partisan newspa pers, brining Uy appointments or bargaining for foreign mis ions, i have no ticket in that lottery." At tno eud ol this conversation Mr. Adams ft mark..:?"if there has ever been an ?lection of a President oi tho United stales witnout canvassing and lutr hub there has been noue stuco that or mr rattier; tltero win probably never be anotlier. The materials for canvassing aro and for some time iiuvo been plentifully offered to me and pressed upon me. I could not be Igno rant ot tne consequences of declining tnese oCers, but I cowtf not accept them with satisfaction to ! myself or with that consciousness of ngut which ' i never bave lot ieited and wuel it dvarsr to me ! man any station lo which It 1. in the power of wan or nature to raiso me." ? the MlCBt-ld POLICY." Two years hud elapsed since this conversation toon place, arid Mrs. Aduuis, wifeoi tbe Secretary, found herself a guest at the House of the same judge Hopklnsou, lu tlietr country place at uor deutowu.or. me Delaware. the Judge bad not abandoned Ills lutentton to support Adams; bu , finding it impossible 10 approacu uim on tue sub ject, addressed a coutldeutial letter to Mrs. Adams, wnichshe might, 11 she saw fit. show to her husband. This letter begins with the follow ing quaint sentencesJoseph JlopkiiUion to Mis. Adamx?Sow wo are spcaklug of Bordentoun. let me beg yoa to consider lor a moment tbat ycu and 1 are sitting wltn or without a bright moon, as you please, on the piazza looking into the garden, In famtlUr char. In such circumstances we may say many which it would be by no means proper to write to me second lady of the ltepublic, that shall be lira herealter." Mr. Hopklnsou then cjntlnues to say that >ir. Adams "is too lastldious and reserved on a certain subject as interesting to the country aa to himself;" that he "chills and depresses the kind fooling and lair exertions ol nia lrlends. Hts total indifference annoys them, and the Mac beth policy "If cnance will make niu king why clunce may crown me' w.Unot answer where little is left to chance or merit. Kings are made by politicians and newspapers. The man who sits down waiting to be crowned either bv chance or Just right will go bareheaded all his life." Mr. Hopkinson pointed out that among others Robert Walsh, tne editor ol the national Gazette, in Phila delphia, a man - of warm disposition and great ability" and willing to Bupport Aaams, feared thn? lie had been discour^ aged and checned in ms exertions. -But. Mr. iiopklnsou in conclusion, my speech is unite long enough lor a piazza chat and I wait ior your reply." ?i\ S.-you will understand I would not dare to say or write half of the above to Mr. A., but you may do what you choose with it. Mrs. Adams taking the discreet occasion laid the paper before Her husbauU, who wrote a reply on January 23, 1823, under the title of 'The Macbeth Pollc*" in tula statement, which la too long to bo republished, Mr. Adams laid down the prin ciple that the Presidency should be ???JgBoa to "tue most able and tue most worthy;" tnat the law ol friendship was a reciprocation of good offices, and that to ask or accept iriendly service im plied the obligation of returning it; that if a can didate ior the 1'res.dency asked the service of his mends und was elected he was bouud to render them a service in return, which in principle would be essentially, vitally corrupt. As to checking or dlsneartenlng Mr. Walsh he had no such purpose. His only wish was that Mr. Walsh would do what he thought was best for nisown interest. As to his own candidature it was uncertain. Ue had seen no disposition on the part ol the people In any section ol the * Union. not even in New England, to make him a candidate. The Richmond Erujulrer had pronounced him out of the combat; his career had not attracted either the federal or the republican party, because he had been Independent of party. "The ledorallsts re garded him as a deserter, tho democrats as an apostate. 'All rising to great places,'says Lord Bacon, 'is by a winding stair; and if there be Mo tions it is good to side a man's sell while he Is in the rising ana to balance himself when ne is Disced."' "I have neither," continues Mi. Adama, ? ascended by the winding stair nor sided myself in the rising." "Tnis independence of party will always in warm, factious times be mistaken and uiis-ep-escnt2d by common politicians for un steadiness of principle; and the man who acu upon it must make his account to stand or lall on broader grounds than lie within Re bounds oi a geographical subJlvlsion and with other props than political sectarianism or individual intrigue, if your ?atch ha. mainspring you will not keep time by turning round the minute hand. 11 i cannot move the mass I do not wish to trifle with the in dicator " "ir my countrymen preier others to me I must not repine at their choice. Indifference at the heart Is not to be won by wooing The ser vices that nave no tonaue to speak ior tbemselve. would be 1H aided by the loudest trumpet. Men and lust right in this country will oe heard. And In any case, if they are not heard -without my stir' I shall acqulesoe in the conclusion that it is oecause tn.y do not exist." INTRIGCBS roil TUB PKI3I0KNC*. This is the first presentation of Mr. Adams' opinions on the question of the Presidency. A year later. January, 18*4, and we have a conversa tion with Mr. Fuller, in which Adams is asked ir he would accept the nomination of Vice President with Crawford as President. "I told Fuiier% he ,ay?, "U.at I kuew something of these mines and counter mines or Crawford and Calhouu for the Presidency; they were disclosing tnemseives from d y to day more and more and there was Tot much to be discovered." A da, or two later he was informed that Craw lord had made a hid to the friends of Mr. ciar lor tbe Presidency, offering Clay the second place, and he knows that there was "can cusing and persevering effort on the part ol the tt lends ol Mr. Crawford to bring about this re .T" ?i nomination ,or tue Y,c. KMd.ncj,? say. Adams, "in co-operation with one for Mr. crawlor.l as President, could have n6 charms ior m *n ne did not despise the Vice Presidency or ? wish peevishly to reject tho second place ^ause no. ob,.in ... ir.?i" ?nt buiievo in a nomination by a c#ucus of Congress r. on tt. ?.n of J.nu.rf C.O?l R. M. JMn .on, ?rterw.rn to M Vlco tt?Wcn? n.u.r u.rtIn v., Bnr.n. 1>I0 to warn. tt.t c.'noun W J.. ???? an ,,r.n??.?? ?J "IT. ?r YlS supported as President, with Jackson for Vice President, and that Clay should have the Secre tarysbip 01 State and Calhoun have the Secretary imp of tne Treasury, "not as a bargain or coali tion out by the common understanding of our'mutual friend.." To this Adams made no response, in his diary he notes that It dis closes the forioru hope of Calhoun, wnicn is to se cure a step of advancement to himself and tue Toll Exclusion 0. craw ord, even from bis pre* offlce at the head of the Treasury. There is further conversation with the venerable Hulus King, who does not appear to be as cordial in his support of Mr. Adams aa the Secretary could wish -He bad." says Adams, "atone time during the present administration hopes of being the nexiin succession and there is a spice or disappointment tn all tais opinions." "King." he adds, 'is on. of the best and widest men among us. but bis owa amtmlon was Inflamed by splendid success In early life lollowert by vicissitudes of popular favor and hoi'?< d'ererred nntll he has arrived nearly at the nose of his public career." It w?. really at the close, for King died t*r? ? *fwr' al L. I. pr.ors and coin r?u pr.ou. Congress wan in session, and tne canvass for the Presldeucr continued without pause, Webster pretended to fear that tn the event of Mr. Adam*' nomination there would be "a general proscrip tion of federalist* from office." ( lay was confi dent or carrying eight States, which was dlemwsed as -'a same of Drag." In April, ;S24, there was a publication in the New York Patriot statin.' that Adams bad offered the Vice Presidency to Mr. Clay. and It was suggested that Adams should prosecute the publisher for libel. Adams denied that he bad made any such proposal to Clay, "yet tritnds of mine and friends of Clay, too, had oiten suggested tt to me aa desirable, nor la there any thing id it unconstitutional, illegal or dishonora ble." DeWitt Clinton seat a message to the effect that he wished to see Adams President, with Jacksou as Vice rreslient, and evidently en deavoring to lay pipes wuh the new administra tion. Adams sent a gracioua response to Clinton, although he did not entertain the highest opinion of his character, aa will be seea in previoua pages of the dury. The nomination of Jacksou, by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in March, 1324. gave tobim his prominence in the canvaas and made htm reaiiy the moat important figure in the con troversy. a month after tun tnere was another proposition of n coaiu on. Cltnton offering to sap port Adam*, provided he would be made secretary 01 State, withCaluoun secretary ol the lreasury. Adams replied that "he was not dlsnoasd to soli the skin before the animal was taken, and that while ma own aiasuon was tn doabt he should not da* liberate in bi* own mind, much less announce to other*, wti? should compose his Cabinet." Mr. C'Hil ton's political luture and power were go change ful thul he nitglit one day be as gure to lose lor at administration of winch be should be a me tube r ihe gupport oi New Yuri as ttie preceding or fol lowing duj be might obtain it. HKW VUHK FIFTY YEARS AGO. New York did not liave a much better reputa tion in those days than it ha* now. Postmastei General McLean carried a story to Adams in August to tbe effect tnat De Witt Clinton believed that the Legislature of New York would eleoi electors favorable to Crawloru. The truth wai that a majority of them voted for Adama. De Witt Clfuton said to McLean, "a number sutUcleut to make a majority win be bought, and that the same might be bougbt lor any purchaser and by any purchaser?even a foreign Power." ThU statement was made tlity years ago by no less a man than De Witt Clinton and to no less a man than John McLean, afterward to be Judge of the Supreme Court and a candidate for the Presiden tial nomination in 1856 against Fremont. Upon 11 Mr. Adams makes this strange comment:?"De Wut Clinton ought well to know the people oi New York and their Legislature. He has mmseU applied lor his own advancement to the Presb deucy so much money as to have ruined bla own fortunes. He has, tnereiore, no scruple against tin' use ol money for that purpose, and bus perhaps is lormer times bought gome of the very individuals oi whom he now speaks thus. I hope bettei j things, and believe tnat corruption has not yel I quite arrived at that pitch. That the Legislature oi New York will sell all the autfrage of the State 1 think more tnan probable, and must And satis* faction in the certainty that it will not be gold to . me." THB ELECTORAL COLLEGE FAILS TO AGREE. Clearly the contest was more and more betweea ; Jackson and Adams. We have Senator Jonnson, j of Kentucky, professing neutrality between Jack I sou and Adams, and have an expression, on the part of Clay, of his sorrow tor having opposed Adams. Tne Electoral College had voted without result. Jackson received ninety-nine votes, John tjuincy Adams eighty-four, Crawiord lorty-one and Henry Clay thirty-seven. The States tnat voted 1 for Jackson were New Jersoy, Pennsylvania, | North Carolina, south Carolina, Tennessee, In diana, Mississippi and Alabama, with scattering | votes in New York, Maryland, Louisiana j and Illinois. Adams received the votes of New England, the majority of tbost in Mew York and a few In Deia i ware, Maryland, Louisiana ana Illinois. Crawford ! was supported by Virginia and Georgia, with liva I votes in New York, two In Delaware and one in Maryland. Clay received Kentucky, Ohio and Missouri, and four votes in New Yurie. If the Electoral college In any way expressed the sense oi the countrr, Jackson certainly was the choice of the people, for his strength extended over North and South, while tha others received local and sectional gupport. Under the constitution there was no election, and the matter, there fore, went to the House. Clay was out of the can vass and the first expression we have of his atti tude is an entry in the diary, dated January IT, 1826, "Clay says his course is fixed, and he should consider the elevation of the hero Jackson as the greatest calamity which could befal the country-" TUB "BARGAIN AND SALE" CHARGE. We have looked into this diary carefully to dis cover, It possible, if there could be any basis for the charge that afterwards became one of the notorious political scandals of the time, that be tween Clay and Adams there was a "bargain and sale" of the offloe oi the Secretary of State In re turn for Clay's support of Adams as President. On the 17th of December, Congress having been In session and tne unfortunate result ot the Electoral College being known, Robert P. Lctcher, of Kentucky, .a member of Congress afterward Governor of that State, the intimate friend of Clay, called upon Adams "ostensibly about a i matter of business, but really to talk about the Presidency." Letcher was anxious to know the sentiment of Adams towards Clay. "The drift of bis talk was," says Adams, "that Clay would will ingly support me if he could thereby serve hlrn soit Tne subject of his meaning was that If ! Clay's friends could know thst he would bave a prominent share In the administration that might Induce tnem to vote for me. even lu the face of Instructions. Letcher did not profess to | have any authority from Clay for what | be said and be made no definite pro | posala. He spoke of this interview with me as altogether confidential, and in my answers to blm I spoke in mote general terms." This ta 1 the first int mation we have or any desire on tbe part of Clay to support Mr. Aaams; and the fact that this conversation took place between ?dams (a can.il.iate for election) and Letcher?an avowed and intimate iriend of clay?end tbat tbe substance of 1' was in reference to patronage and appointments to office under an administration tbat as yet bad not bean formed, is certainly a singular revelation of tbe ln:erest and feeUng in spired and ita moral tone, oy tbe canvass. CLiT AND ADAM* IX ALLIANCE. On tbo 1st of January, 1825, Letcher called axain upon Adam* and asked him if be would meat Clar for conversation: tbat the differences between Clar ard Adam* uad "given concern to some of ttie members of tbe Kentucky delegation." Later, on the same day, Clay and Adams met at the Lafayette dinner, and Clay himself expressed a desire to have a confidential conversation. This conversation seems to have taken place on the 9th or January, ltm, Sunday evening. Clay called on Adams at six, remained and spent the evening In a long convocation, explanatory of the past and prospective of the luture. He said that the iline was drawing near wben ths choice must be made in the House or Representatives or a President from the three candidate* presented by the Electoral Collere; tbat be had been much urged and solicited with regard to tUe part In thai transaction that he sbonld take, and he had not been Ave minutes landed at his lodging* before ha bad been applied to by a friend of Mr. Craw.'ord's in a manner so gross tbat it had disgusted hi in: tnat some of my friends also. disclaiming indeed to have any authority from me, had repeatedly ap plied to blrn, directly or Indirectly, urglnp consid erations personal to blmceif a* motive* to bis cause. He bad thougnt It best to reserve tor somi time his determination t.o himself?flr?t, to give s decent time for his own mneral solemnities as i candidate, and, second, to prepare and predis pose ail bis friends to a state or neutrality be tween the tbree candidates who woula b? before tbe House, so that they wight be free ultimately to tace tnat course wblcb might i.e most con ducive to the public interest. The time bad now come at which he might be cxpllctt in bis cortf. munlcation with me. and he had for that purpose asked this confidential interview. He wished me, as far as 1 might think proDer, to eatuiy him wltb regard to some principles of great pnbllc import ance, bat without any personal consideration lor himself. In tbe question to com* before tbo House, between General Jackson. Mr. Crawford and myie t he had no Hesitation In saying that bis preference would be for me." TBI CANVASS BECOME* FUKIOt'l. This i* the first intimation of an alliance be tween Clar and Adams. Alliances were made and suught In otber directions. Jackson called on Crawiord, and wben President Monroe beard ol this be waa "greatly allocked," and said it was "horrible to thine of." Calboan expressed him ?ell as neuttal between Jackson and Adams, wtnoh Adama regarda aa "contrasting singularly wltb the conduct of bis partisans." On tbe 26tb of Janaary there waa mucn excitement in tba Hoase on tbe occasion oi Clay and a majority ol tbe Onto and Kentucky delegations expressing tbelr determination to rote for Adams, "tbe effect of wmcb would be to knit tbe coalition of tbe Souib with Delaware." Loots McLane, of Delaware, a member of Congress, who waa after ward to be Secretary of state under Jackson, said tbey "would overthrow the Capitol aoonei tkan vote for Jackaon." On tbe S7ih or Janaary Rufue King called upon Adams to ezyress bis eon licence In tbe result. Cbaries Carroll, or Carroll ton, oi tba Kevoiution, and Taney, oi Uaitimora afterward Cbief Justice or tbe United Stares, ex pressed themselves lor Jackaon, much to .tM regret of Adans, wno, la making note of the faos, deth.ro* tbat be would aever b? at tbo head ol aa administration "ol prascrlptien to any party, Doiitiuai or geographical" on tbe SBtu of J a*.