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HENRY M. STANLEY
Second Letter of the Gallant Afri can Traveller from the Shores of Victoria Niyanza. EXPLORING THE GREAT LAKE. Voyage of the Lady Alice on the Waters of an Unknown Sea. AMONG THE HIPPOPOTAMI. New Discoveries and Old Inaccuracies Corrected?The Map. SPEKE'S LATITUDES. One Thousand Miles of the Lake's Shores Surveyed in Fifty-eight Days THE WORK YET TO BE DONE. Village of Kagehyi, District of 1 Uchamui, Country of Usttct'MA, > May 15, 1875. ) By the nid of the enclosed map you will be able to understand the positions and places of the countries mentioned in my last and of Borne I shall be obliged to describe in this letter. It is needless to go over the samo ground I described in my letter from Ugan da ; but, since I send you a map, it will bo but charity to again briefly sketch the char acteristics of the countries lying east between Usukuma and Uganda. Between the district of Uchambi, which is in Usukuma, and the Shimeeyu River, the principal affluent of the Niyanza, lie the pretty districts of Sima and Magu, governed by independent chiefs. On the eastern side of the Shimeeyu is Masanza, a rugged and hilly country, thinly populated and the resort of the elephant hunters, Beyond Masanza the coast is formed by Manasa and the country is Bimilar in feature to Masanza, abounding in elephants. This extends to the eastern ex tremity of Speke Gulf, when we behold a complete change in the landscape. The land suddenly sinks down into a flat, marshy country, as if Spoke Gulf formerly had extended many miles inland, as I have no doubt, but rather feel convinced, it did. This country is called Wirigedi, peopled by savages, who have little or no intercourse with Usukuma, but are mostly exclusive and disposed to take advantage of their strength to rob strangers who visit them. Urrigedi is drained by the Ruana, which discharges itself into Speke Gulf by two mouths. It is a powerful Btream, conveying a vast quantity of water to Speke Gulf, but in importance not to be mentioned in the same category as the Shimeeyu and the Kagera, the two principal affluents of Lake Victoria. SPEKE GULF. Speke Gulf at its eastern extremity is about twelve miles in width. Opposed . to the hilly ranges of Manasa and Masanza are the sterile naked mountains and plains of Shashi, Uramba and Urirwi. The plains which separate each country from the other are as devoid of vegetation as the Isthmus of Suez. A thin line only, bordering the lake, is green with hush and cane. The gulf, as wo proceed west from Urirwi, is shored by the great island of Ukerewe, a conn try blessed with verdure and plenty, and rich in herds of cattle and ivory. A narrow strait, called the ltugeshi, separates Ukerewe from Urirwi. The Wakerowch aro an enter prising and commercial people, and the King, Lukongch, is a most amiable man. The "Wakerowch possess numerous islands? Nifuah, Wezi, Iraugara, Kamossi, <tc., are all inhabited by them. Their canoes are seen in Ugoyeya Usongora and Uzuiza; and to the tribes in the far interior they have given, by their activity and commercial fellowship, their name to the Victoria Niyanza. Rounding Ukerewe, we pass on our left the island of Ukora, and, sailing past Shizn and Kiveru, come to the northern end of Rugc- , alii Strait, from where we sec the towering table mountain of Majita a little to the north cast of us, the mountains of Urimi and Uraiuba in our front. majita not an island. I mentioned to yon in one of my letters that Speko described Majita as an island, and that I, standing on the same spot, would do so likewise if I had no other proof than iny own eyes. As wo approach Majita wo see tho reason of this delusion. Tho table mountain of Majita is about 3,000 feet in altitude above tho lake, while on all sides of it, except the lako side at its base, are low brown plains, which riso hut a few feet above tho lake. It is the same case with Urirwi, Uramba and Shashi. At a distance I thought them islands, until I ar rived close to them. On the northern sido of Majita tho brown plain extends far inland, and I do believe a great plain or a series of plains bounds the lako countries east, for we have views dis tant or near everywhere. In endeavoring to measure the extent of this plain I am com pelled to think of Ugogo, for, as we traversed its northern frontier we saw each day Btretching north the barren, thorn-covered plain of Uhumba. On leaving Iramba wo came again in view of a portion of it, more recently covered with water, under tho name of the Luwamberri Plain. As wo jour ney through Usmaow wo saw from many a ridge the plain extending north. That part of tho plain lying between Urimi and tho lake is, of course, drained by the Luwam berri, the Mwaru and tho Duma rivers, and discharged into the Niyanza under the namo of the Shimeeyu. But northeast of the Shi meeyu's month imagine the land heaved into a low, broad and lengthy ridge, forming an other basin drained by tho Ruana, and still anotber drained by tho Mara, and again an other by tho Mori, Ac. If wo ask the natives what lies beyond tho immediate lake lands V I C T O R I A NIYANZA. cf the Newly Explored Portions of the Great Central African Lake, from a Chart Drawn fcy Mr. H. M. Stanley. we are assured briefly, "Mbuiga tu," "Only a plain." From Majita north we sail along the coast of Ururi, a country remarkable for its wealth of cattle and fine pastoral lands. It is divided into several districts whose names you will find marked on the map. THE EL DORADO OP IVOKY 6EEKEKS. Molunu and Shirati, low, flat and wooded districts of Ururi separate this country from Ugeyeya, the land of so many fables and wonders, the El Dorado of ivory seekers and the source of wealth for slave hunters. Our first view of it while wo cross the Bay of Kavirondo is of a series of tall moun tains, and of a mountainous projection, which latter from a distance wo take- to be a promontory, but which on a nearer view turns out to bo an island, bear ing a tall mountain on its back. At the northeastern extremity of this bay is Gori Iiiver, which rises northeast near Kavi? no important stream, but one that grows during the rainy season to large breadth and depth. Far east beyond the Niyanza for twenty-five days' march the country is one continuous plain, low hills rising here and there dotting the surface, a scrubby land, though well adapted for pasture and cattle, of which the natives have vast herds. About fifteen days' march east the people report a land wherein low hills spout smoke, and sometimes fire. This wonderful district is called Susa, and is situated in the Masai Land. All combine in saying that no stream runs north, but that all waters come into the Niyanza?for at least twenty days' march. Beyond this distance the natives report a small lake, from which issues a stream flowing toward tho Fangain. GOHHl'S NOOK OF REFUGE. Continuing on our way north wo pass be tween tho Island Ugingo and the gigantic mountains of Ugeyeya, at whoso base tho Lady Alice seems to crawl like a mite in a hiige cheese, while we on board admire tho stupendous height and wonder at the deathly silence which prevails in this soli tude, where the boisterous winds are hushed and the turbulent waves are as tranquil as a Rummer's dream. The natives as they pass regard this spot with superstition, as well they might, for tho silent majesty of these dumb tall mounts awe the very storms to peace. Let tho tempests bluster as they may on tho spacious main beyond this cape, in this nook, sheltered by tall Ugingo isle and lofty Goshi on the mainland, they inspire no fear. It is this refuge which Goshi promises the distressed canoe men that causes them to sing praises of Goshi, and to cheer one another when wearied and benighted that Goshi is near to protect them. Sailing between and out from among tho clustering islands, we leave Wategi behind, and sail towards two low isolated islands not far from the mainland, for a quiet night's rest, and under the overspreading branches of a mangrove tree we dream of unquiet waters and angry surfs and threatening rocks, to find ourselves next ttorninjg tied to an island which, from i?s peculiarity. I have named Bridge Island, though its native name is Kihwa. A NATURAL BBIDOE OF BASALT. While seeking a road to ascend the island to take bearings, I discovered a natural bridge of basalt, about twenty feet in length by twelve in breadth, under which one might repose comfortably, and from one side see the waves lashed to fury and spend their strength on the stubborn rocks which form the foundation of the arch, while from the other he could see his boat, secure under the lee of the island, resting on a serene and placid surface, and shaded by mangrovo branches from the hot sun of the Equator. Its neighborhood is remarkable only for a small cave, the haunt of fishermen. From the summit of Bridge Island the view eastward tukos in all Masari as far as Nakidimo, and discovers only a flat and slightly wooded district, varied at intervals by isolated cones, and northward, at the dis tance of twenty miles or so, finds the land makes a bold and long streteh eastward. Knowing, however, by experience that the appearance of the land is deceptive, we hoist our sail and scud merrily before a freshening breeze, hugging the coast, lest it should rob us of some rarity or wonder. UNDER THE EQUATOR. At noon I found myself under the Equa tor, and four miles north I caftie to dis colored water and a slight current flowing to the southwest. Seeing a small bay of suf ficient breadth to make a good river, and no land at its eastern extremity, I made sure I had discovered a river, which would rival the Shimeeyu; but within an hour land all round revealed the limit and ex tent of the Bay of Nakidimo. Wo anchored close to a village and began to court the attention of some wild looking fishermen, but the nude barbarians merely stared at us from under penthouses of hair, and hastily stole away to teN their wives and relatives of how an apparition in the shape of a boat with white wings to -it had suddenly come before them, bearing strange men with red caps on their heads, except one?a red man, clad in white, whose face was as red as blood, who, jabbering something unintelli gible, so frightened them that they ran away. This will become a pleasant tradition, one added to the many wonders now told in Ugeyeya, which, with the art of embellish ment inherent in tho tongue of the wonder ing, awe-struck savage, may become in time the most wonderful of all wonders. rUBSUED BY HIPPOPOTAMI. Perceiving that our proffered courtesies were thus rudely rejected, we also stole out of the snug bay, and passed round to another much larger and more important. At its extremity a river issued into the bay, which, by long and patient talk with the timid natives, we ascertained to be the Ugoweh. In this the hippos were as bold as the human savages were timid, and to a couple of the amphibious monsters we had to induce the , Lady Alice to show a swifter oann in than the savages of Nakidimo had shown to us. These hippopotami would afford rare sport in a boat specially built for killing them; then they might splinter her sides with their tusks, and bellow and kick to their utmost; but the Lady Alice, if I can help it, with her delicate skin of cedar and ribs of slender hickory, shall never come in close con tact with the iron-hard ivory of the hippo potamus, for she would bo splintered into matches and crushed liko an egg before one could say "Jack Robinson," and then tho hungry crocodiles would leisurely digest us. The explorer's task, to my mind, is a far nobler one than huntingjiippos, and our gallant cedar boat has many a thousand miles to travel yet before she has performed her task. WHAT THE LADY ALICE HAS YET TO DO. The yet unknown expanse of the Victoria Niyanza, northward and westward and south westward, invites us to view its delights and wonders of nature. The stormy Lake Albert and tho stormier Tanganyika, though yet distant, woo us to ride on their waves; and far Bangweolo, Moero and Kamo londo and the Lincoln Lakes promiso us fair prospects and as rich rewards if wo can only bide the buffets of the tempests, and tho brunt of savage hostility and ignorance till then. Shall wo forego the vantage of all this ripe harvest and acquisition of knowledge for an hour's fierce pleasure with the simple but full-muscled hippopotamus? Not by my election or consent. Let the admirers of the Field, Bell's Life and the Spirit of the Times call it faintheartedness, or even a harsher name, if they will. I call it prudence. But I have an adventure with a hippo?a cow ardly, dull-witted, fat-brained hippo?(I can abuse him savagely in your columns, for his brothers in Europe, thank fortune, do not read tho Telegraph or tho Herald, without fear of a civil or criminal suit for libel)- to tell some day, when I have no higher things to writo of, which will warm all your young bloods; and I have had another with a lion, or I should say a herd of lions, just as exciting. But these must remain until I camp under the palms of Ujiji again, with half my work done, and my other half still undone. Let us pass on, however, to our subject, and tho place where I left off ?namely, cowardlike, running away from a pair of bull hippos. I am not sure they wero bulls either, though they were hippopotami, sure enough. A NARROW ESCArE. We flew away with a bellying sail along the coast of Muheta, whero we saw such a dense population and clusters ot largo vil lages as we had not seen elsewhere. Wo thought wo would make one more effort to learn of tho natives tho names of some of these villages, and for that purpono steered for a covo on tho western shore of Maheta. Wo anchored within fifty yards of the shore, and so lengthened our cable that but a few feet of deep water separated us from tho shore. Homo half-a-dozen men wearing small land shells above fchsw olbnws and a circle round their heads, came to the beach. With these we opened a friendly conversation, during which they disclosed the name of the country as Maheta in Uge yeya;'more they would not communicate until wo should land. We prepared to do this, but the numbers on the shore increased so fast that wo were compelled to pull off again until they should moderate their excitement and talk. They seemed to think that we were about to pull off altogether, for suddenly appeared out of the bush on each side of the spot we had intended to land such a host of spears that we hoisted our sail and left them to whet their treachery on some other boat or canoe more imprudent than ours. The discom fited people were seen to consult together on a small ridge behind the bush lining the lake, and, no doubt, they thought wo were about to pass close to a small point at the north end of the cone, shouting gleefully at the prospect of a prize; but, lowering the sail, wo pulled to windward, far out of the reach of bow or sling, and at dusk made for a small island, to which we tied our boat, and where we camped in security. COASTING ALONG NDURU AND WANOANO. Next day wo continued on our course, and coasted along Nduru and Wangano, and sailed into the bay which forms the north eastern extremity of Lake Victoria Niyanza. Manyara, on the eastern side of the bay, is a land of bold hills and ridges, while the very northeastern end, through which issues the Yagama River into the Niyanza, is flat, The opposite coast to Manyara is that of Mu wanda and the promontory of Chaga, while the great slug-like island of Usugnru, stand ing from west to east across the mouth of the bay, shuts the bay almost entirely in. At Muwanda we again trusted our fortunes with the natives, and were this time not de ceived, so that wo were enabled to lay in quite a stock of vegetables and provisions at a cheap rate. They gave us all the informa tion we desired. Baringo, they said, is the name applied by the people of Ugana to Nduru, a district of Ugeyeya, and the bay on which our boat rode the extremo end of the lake, nor did they know or had heard of any lake, large or small, other than the Niyanza. I described the coast from Muwanda to Uganda, and my visit to Mtcsa, with my happy encounter with Colonel Linaut de Bellefonds, of Gordon's staff, at some length, so I need not go over the same ground. FROM U8UKUMA TO THE KATONGA RIVEB. The day after my last letter was written I made arrangements with the King of Uganda, by which he agreed to lend me thirty canoes and some 500 men, to convey the expedition from Usukuma to the Katonga River. With this promise, and ten large canoes as an earnest of it, I started from Murchison Bay on April 17. We kept company as far as the Katonga River, but here the chief captain of the Waganda said that he should have to cross over to Sesse, distant twelve miles from the mainland, and the largest island in the T.ako Niyanza, to procure the remaining twenty canoes promised by Mtosa. The chief gave me two canoes to accom pany me, promising that I should be overtaken by the entire fleet before many days. I was impatient to continue my survey of the lake and to reach Usukuma, having been so long absent from the expedi tion, during which time many things con trary to my success and peace of mind might have occurred. SFEKE's I.ATITUDE8 CORRECTED. I took my observations twice a day with a sea horizon?one at noon for latitude, and one in the afternoon for longitude?and I am sorry to say that, if I am right, Speke is about fourteen miles wrong in his latitude along tho whole coast of Uganda. The mouth of the Katonga River, for instance, according to his map, is a little south of the Equator. I have made it by meridian altitude, observed April 20, to be in latitude 0 deg. 10 iniu. 0 seos. north. Thus it is nearly with all his latitudes. His longitudes and mine vary but little; but this is eusily accounted for. Ihc longitude of any posi tion can be taken with a chronometer, sex tant, and artificial horizon with the samo accuracy on land as on sea. If there is any difference it is very likely to exist in tho error of tho chronometers. What instru ments Spoko possessed to obtain his lati tudes I know not, but if he found the alti tude of the sun ascending above (W> deg. he could never obtain it with an ordinary sex tent except by double altitude, and that method is not so exact as taking a simple meridian on a quiet lake, with an ample horizon of water. But there are various methods of determining one's latitude, and Speke was familiar with many. My posi tions all round the lake have been determined with a sea horizon. When near noon my plan wur, if the lake was rough, to seek the nearest island or a quiet cape at tho extremity of a bay, and there take my observations aa deliberately as though my life depended on their accuracy. THE MAP. But this task was, indeed, a work of pleas ure for me, and I have found a rich reward for most of my pains and stormy life on this lake in looking at the fair extent of white on my map, with all its bends, curves, inlets, creeks, bays, capes, debouchures of rivers, Ac., known by the name of Victoria Niyanza. Any errors which may have crept into my calculations will be determined by compe tent authorities on my return from Africa, oi on tho arrival of my papers in Europe. Meantime I send my map as I have made it. The Katonga is not a large river, and has but one mouth. The Amionzi River empties itself into the Niyanzi about eight miles W. S. W. of the Katonga. Uganga stretches to the Kagerah, situated in S. lat, 0 deg. 40 min. On the south sideol the river begins Usongora, extending to S. lat. 1 deg. South of 1 deg. is Kamiru, extend ing to S. lat 1 deg. 15 rain. Thence is tlwya, a country similar in en? terprise to Ukerewe's people. Beyond Uwya is Uzinja or Uzinza, called by the Wanyam wezi Mweri. RETURN TO KAOF.HYI. Uzinja continues as far south as Jordan's N ullah, and cast of it is Usukuma again, and one day's sail from Jordan's Nullah we pass Muanza, which Speke reached in 1858, and brings us home to Kagehyi, and to our camp, where we are greeted joyfully by such as live to mourn tho poor fellows who, in my absence, have been hurried by disease to untimely graves. I must be brief in what I have to say now 1 did think to make this a long letter, bu! Simgoro's slave, who carries this, is in j hurry to go, as his caravan has alrcadr started. J THE NEXT LETTER. My next letter must continue this fron tho Kagera River, called in Karagwe the Kitangule, and it shall describe some foul adventures that we went through, whicl caused us to appear in a wretched conditior to our expedition. Though our condition was so wretched, it was not half so bad as i. w?'\ld have been had we returned two days later, for I doubt much whether I should have had an expedition at all. I had been absent too long, and our fight with th< YV avuma had been magnified and enlarged by native rumor to such a pitch that Wol seley s victory at Ardahsu was as nothing to ours, for it had been said that we had de stroyed a wholo fleet of canoes, not one of which had escaped, and that some other tribe or tribes had collected a force overtaken us, and destroyed us in like man' ner?an incredible story, which had so won upon a faction of the soldiers, that they had determined to return to Unvanyembe, and thence to Zanzibar. But Ciod has been with us here, and on the lake, and, though we have suffered some misfortune, He has pro tected us from greater ones. We had been absent from camp fifty-eight days, during which we had surveyed in om brave little boat over 1,000 miles of lake shores; but a part of tho south-west coast lias yet to be explored. We shall no I leave the Niyanza, however, until we have thoroughly done our work. FREDERICK BARKF.US DEATH. I returned to find also that one of the white men, Frederick Barker, of the Lang ham Hotel, London, had died on the 23d oi April, twelve days before I reappeared at Kagehyi. His disease was, as near as I can make it out from Frank Pocock's description, a congestive chill?that is the term applied i' ln 'be States. Pocoek calls it "cold fits," a term every whit, I believe, as appro priate. I have known several die of these "cold fits," or aguish attacks?the prelimi nary symptoms of severe attacks of tlie inter mittent fever. These aguish attacks, how ever, sometimes end the pntient before tho fover arrives which generally fol lows tho ague. Tho lips become blue, the faco bears tho appearance of one who is frozen, tho blood becomes, as it were, congealed, the pulse stops and death ensues. There are various methods of quick ening the blood and reviving the patient. However, a common one is to plunge him into a vapor or hot water and mustard bath and apply restoratives?brandy, hot tea, Ac : but Pocock was not experienced in this case though he gave Barker some brandy after he t?' 'roIU a slight nausea and chill. It appears by his companion's report that ho did not live an hour. Frederick Barker suffered from one of these severe aguish attacks in Urimi, but bran.lv and hot tea qmckly given to him soon brought him to that state which promises recovery. THE PROSPECT AHEAD. Ihus two out of four white men are dead. I wonder who next? Death cries, Who next t and perhaps our several friends ask >V ho next ? No matter who it is. We could not better ourselves by attempting to fly irom the fatal land ; for between us and ths sea are seven hundred miles of as sickly a country as any in Africa. The prospect is fairer in front, though there are some three thousand miles more to march. We havs new and wonderful lands before us, whose wonders and mysteries shall bo a medicine which shall make us laugh at fever and death. HENRI Ai. STANLEY.