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THE COTTON MILLS.
What the Rhode Island Sav ings Banks Show. HOW ABUSES ARE POSSIBLE. Bome General Conclusions in Re lation to the Matter. Providm.vcs, Oct. 12, 1875. During tho recent Kail River strike the management ef the miiluwners of Rhode Islam! lx < ame a subject of controversy, and some harsh accusations were made against them of tyrannical conduct towards their oper T1-* *"""'2 ,h'' owners and managers of cotton mills, there should be found men of a mean and tyrannical, and, perhaps, even a cruel disposition. Is not improbable. The manager of a large factory has, necessarily, great power over the working people, and wherever men have great power they are likely to abuse it if they dare. Whether auch abuses aro more common in Rhode Island than elsewhere I am not capable of deciding, for to do so I should have drat to make an investigation, which would require many months. Those, however, who assert that the operatives of Rhode Island are "no better than ?laves," seein to me to accuse, not so much the millowncrs as the operatives themselves. No man is a slave who has tho right of migration secured to him, unless he lacks the spirit of a man, the courage and endurance which all of us need In the struggle of life. The Fall River strikor who re fuses other work and remains in Fall River ccnsummg bis savings Is an unreasonable creature, but he is not a slave. If he chooses to b? improvident, and If his im providence brings him to want, and if want thus brought on compels him by and by Jo accept distaste ful terms, propoeed to him by his former employers, It seems to me he Is in fault, but he Is by no means a slave. In the same way, If anywhere in Rhode Island or elsewhere in New England the factory operative is uncomfortable and submits to permanent discomfort or wrong, ho has himself to blame. Ho cannot be called "a slave," for ho has the right to go elsewhere and do something else. It may be difficult forwhim to do this at the precise mo ment when he becomes dissatisfied; but in this his case is no worso than that of millions of his fellow citizens, who, if thev arc sensible people, toil and economize until they have saved enough to enable them to mi grate or change their employment, and until they see an opportunity to do so. THE SnODS ISLAND COTTON MILLS. In general the operative in a cotton mill in Rhode Island has what seems to me one advantage; the mill owner is usually accessible to him; he can reach him with complaints and remonstrances. Ho does not Serve a stock company, but individuals, who. In tbo majority of cases, live near the mill, and exercise more or less oversight over its 'management. It is tho custom, toi^s here as ?Isewhero In New England, for the millowners to build upon their own prftperty houses for the occu pation of the operatives, which are let to these at what is acknowledged to be a low rental. In the newer estab lishments these houses are usually very comfortable and much better than could be obtained elsewhere at the same rental. In some of the older establishments the bouses are not as good; hut tho tendency is to build better. The Fail River Labor Journal complains that at some mills the regulations made for the conduct of the opcr tlves who occupy such houses aro arbitrary and op pressive. PoRsiblv this is true in some cases; lean lmagiue a whimsical manager or superintendent, with a propensity to interfere in men's lives, exercising his authority in an unpleasant way; but if he should pnsh his regulations too far, he would run tho risk of losing his laboring force; and bo will not do this, because the pecuniary loss which results from a "disorganization of tho force" is too great to be borne. Tho security of the operatives lies just there. It requires months of care -and expense to thoroughly organize the force in a mill, to make all work harmoni ously together, to weed out tho tncapables and got the right person in tho right place. When this work Is once done, it is nothing less than a calamity for a force ?o trained to be broken up, and a millow nor will rather work at a loss, as many all over New England are now doing, tnan to stop bis works and thus lose the poopls be bus trained. That, nevertheless, tho mill owner has great power over his operatives is undeniable. Here is an lnstanco which shows it. Last winter smallpox broke out In one or the Rhode Island manulacturing villages. It was at a timo of the year when the opera tives, mostly French Canadians and a merry people, are accustomed to visit from village to village, having dancing parties and other frolics. The physician who was called in decided that it was absolutely neces sary to Isolate the village in question, and to vaccinate all the people. The millowners made known the neces sity to the operatives, and threatened to summarily dis cbarge and eject from their houses every one who evaded vaccination or who transgressed tho temporary quarant.ne. Tho result was that the disease was checked at once, and, if I remember rightly, but one man was taken with smallpox after the order was given, and he was discovered to have evaded vaccina tion. Of course, while in this case tho authority exer cised was for the good of the people, I agree that it might also be usod tor bad purposes. But if It were, It would be resented, and tho people would tn time re move. Therein lies, I think, their sufficient security. Tax sa vises desks. In one respect, I think an abuse Is possible, and has In two notable cases happened. It is more or less the case that the mtliowners are also the controlling mana gers of savings banks in the State. Where this is tho case, their mismanagement as millownera may lead them to borrow the savings banks' funds to help them out of straits, and it may happen that the failure of a mill may involve the failure also of a savings bank, and the loss of their savings to the operatives Two of the savings banks of Rhode Island are now winding up their affairs. They were involved In the Sprague failure, and In just this way. The mouey in the hanks was borrowed, I am told, to help the factories, and the end is a loss which ought to have been avoided. Of course the tomptation to borrow the funds of a bank which ts thus controlled Is very great, and the evil Is not necessarily seen by the depositors In time to be averted. I do not know what the law-making power can do to prevent such s connection ; but tbo.se who undertake to advise laborers as to their interests should certainly warn them not to invest their savings In a bank which is controlled by their employers. nomas mow tiik ckksus or 1875. The census of Rhode Island has just been completed, and fortunately nnder the supervision of an uncom monly Intelligent stalosman, Dr. Snow, of Providence. Some facts and figure* which I have taken from the as yet unpublished tables tell the general condition of Rhode Island tn an Instructive and, to me, ex tremely Interesting way. For Instance?With a population of 268,239 souls Rhode Jaiand has, in this y*r of hard times, only 480 paupers, an increase of 36 over the year 1873. Providence, with over 100,000 peo ple, has but 98 paupers; Woonsocket, with 13,678 peo ple, has but 8; Pawtucket, with 18,464, has but 0; Lin- ( Colo, with 11,568, has but 6; Cumberland, with 11,614, has only 7. Burrillville, a seat of the greatly depressed woollen manufacture, with 6,349 people, baa 9 paupers; Westerly, with 6,408 people, has but L The State oontaius 65,945 families and 38,876 dwell ing houses, of which only 1,363, many of tbera (arm bouses, stood empty when the census was taken. Yon will notice that for tbo whole State tho average is less than on# family and a half to the dwell,ng. In Provl denco the average Is higher, but still only 1 62 100 t? tho dwelling. This shows a tolr degree of comfort among the populat on of the State The returns of th* savings bsnka confirm It and surprised me tub as vinos sasas deposits. In December, 1872, the total amount of deposits in Ihirty-stx savings banks was $42,683, 638; an increase during the year of $6,293,000. There were at that time $8,664 depositors, of whom 11,070 had over $1,000 each, having 76,904 depositors of less than $1,000 each. In December, 1873, thirty seven savings hanks had $46,617,183 deposits and 93,124 depositors, of whom 13,106 had over $1,000, and 14,653 over $500 and under $1 ,000. In round numbers the depositors of amounts ?nder $1,000 had increased during the year by $,000, ?bU iWe wars no .166 iluMUSHf B ?' Lhl"> The increase in deposits in tbta year?1872-3?wa.? only $4,033,614. Tills was a year of I..ml times, but the in crease was still handsomely above tbe mere addition ol aix per cei.i Intereit to the amount of the pravioua year. Ill December, 1874, the total deposits were $48.771,6(11, and the depositors 98.359, of whom 13,521 had over 1.000; 14,884 over $500 acd under $1,000, und 60.954 depositors had less than $50u each. That ts to say, during the year 1874 the dep.n iters of over $1,000 had slightly increased by 415?narneiy, the depositors of between $500 and $1,000 ha.! also slightly increased by 231, and t he de positors having less than $500, the greater Dumber of whom are probably mechanics, laborers and servauu, had increased by 4,591. In this la;>t year the savings banks deposits of tho State amounted to an average of over $105 to each depositor and to over $18S per head ol the total population of the State 1 am aware that such figures as these from the sav ings banks returns have but an tndetlnite value, but put together with the small pauper population and the absence of strikes, of which there have been none, or almost none, during the year, and tbo con siderable incresse of dcposi^rg 0f less than $500 each, it looks as though thero could be but little absolute want and suffering in the State. Most of the nulls, in fact, are at work, and the factory population, which consists largely of French Canadians and Irish, Is earning wages, and at rates of pay whicb enable at least the un married to lay by money If they wish to. Many of tbo mills keep stores, and n running over hastily a number of "pay envelopes" which 1 found in a manufacturer 8 ( counting room I noilced that not a few of the opera tives trade out the greater part of their pay. I am told that they are not generally provident; and this is prob- i bly true of the factory population everywhere. In some of the towns there are co-operative stores, i and hero and there one hears of "sovereigns of indus- j try," societies whoso object Is to buy at wholesale, i through an approved agent, and thus save the profit of the middleman. 1 am told they flourish and are sue- j cessful. > The necessary expenses of an operative consist of course of three elements?shelter, food and clothing. I Under the factory hoase system In Rhode Island and . Massachusetts house rent is usually no higher now than before the war, where the house is owned by the com pany- The owners purposely keep down rents. , Houses off the mill lands?as at Fall River?cost more, because tbey come undor the general law of competi turn. Food is, except in the article of meal, nearly as ' cheap now as before the war. Clothing is cheaper , just now. I am told that the relation of prices to wages enables unmarried women to lay by more now than be fore the war; but families do not do quite as well, thero being still a difference against them in the cost of food. It was remarked to me by several persons that the lac tory population had?In common with the rest of tho country?got into the habit of spending more money during the war, when everything was inflated, and that they were but slowly and reluctantly returning to the old economics, which is but natural. Tho trades unions do not make much headway in Rhode Island, and this, they say, is mainly because there are but fow English among the operatives. Tbo greater part of them are French Canadians and Irish. TUB Fl'Tl'KK PROMISING. The conclusion which I come to aftor an attentive though necessarily brief survey of the cotton Industry is that It has an extremely promising future, which will be realized as soon as general industry revives. That the mill owners are somewhat too apt to complalu of high wages, when they would do better to ener getically seek a wider market and use skill and enter prtso In trying to adapt their goods to a foreign demand. That when trade is very dull, as it is just now. It is not a good time for operatives to striko. That as soon as industry and trade revive factory wages are likely to rise, becanse there is not, I believe, an actual surplus of operatives if all the mills wcro working full lime. That a lively demand for cotton goods would ut once develop a scarcity of at least some kinds of operatives, and hence a natural and Inevitable rise In their wages. And finally, that we are still in this industry in this country at the point where wages will rise or fall not by the arbitrary intervention or motion of either mill owners or operatives, bat by tho natural and sufficiently quick operation of the law of supply and demand. The mill owners conld better afford to pay higher wages if they had a full demand for their product than they can afford to pay the present rates at the present time of depression. They cannot afford at any time to oppress their operatives, because these would leave them. Tbey can better afford to work withoat profit than to stop, because if they stop tboir machinery deteriorates, a great part of their expenses continues, and tbey disorganize and lose their trained laboring force. If those propositions are correct, as I believe tbey are, there does not exist in the relations between the mill owners and their operatives in this country such a condition of unlimited power on the one side and dependence on the other as would imperil the rights of tho operatives or enable their employers to oppress them without risking losses ot a kind which tbey could not afford. CHARLE3 NORDHOFF. THE WUITECHAPEL MYSTERY. A NEW PHASE OF THE BTBANGH TRAGEDY? wainwright's BROTHER ARRESTED ON A CHAROE OF COMKJtCITY IN THE MURDER ? ANTECEDENTS OF THE MAN. [From the Loudon Standard, Oct. 6] The arrest of Thomas Oeorge Wainwright as an ac complice of h.? brother in tho murder at Whitecbapel baa given rise to speculations as to what new phaso this tragedy may next assume. Altboogb nothing war ranting any decisive action on the part of the polico appeared unt.l recently, yet almost from the discovery of the barbarous crlmo the police entertained suspicions wdb regard to this man. It is stated that the most conclusive evidence will he brought against him as to the writing of the letter signod "h. Frieake." It is on this ground, and also for personating Mr Frieake, that the accused -a a.- apprehended. Very little stress IB laid up-in the purchase of the chopper and spado. The antecedents ol Ihomas George Wainwright are rather dtas.milar from those ol his brother Henry in at least one respect. Henry HPad with his wile until the day of his apprehension, while Thomas, who is six years younger de rted his wife and children that he might cohabit with another female. This brother was married about nine years ago and shortly before that time he inherited a fortune of about ?2,000, as did also his brothers Henry and William. He then embarked in business as a furnishing ironmonger in Westminster and everything went <>n prosperously for a while. Souu after the birth of ins first child his trade tailed to -itch an extent that be had to give it up and tor a time he lived what may be termed a quiet life, iheo ho again went into business, with the assistance of bts mother, in the Mile end road: but, like hie previous undertaking, tins also failed. Subse quently ho became manager of various Arms, some tones travelling on commission, even occasionally act ing in this capacity for !,.? brother H.-nry. During all this tone le wn., not inattentive to his wife and chil dren. Tho uit,m.ite sphere of Int. labors was in a Arm in Oxford atreot, where he occupied the position ol man ie-r. About two years ago he discarded bis wife, who seems a most amiable young woman, leaving three little children entirely dependent on her for sup port. At infrequent intervals lie sent her a small sum of money to assist lo r. but no amount at all adequate to support his family. For the A rat six month* alter his desertion.ahe heard nothing of him until one day she accidentally met him with a female She stopped him, and he. after making aonie excu e, promised to communicate with tier A !? w days alterwurd this same female called on Mrs. Wainwright, and representing herself as tho daughter of his employer, wished partic ularly to know whether Wainwright was a mar ried man, as he had told her he was ruig'e. This for the time deceived the wife, hut ilie sub sequently ascertained tho truth aa to the.r relationship. Previous to discovering liiia the female called aga.n, represented herself as an a< tress and staled she would send "the man home to his wife at once," hut nothing I more wa.- heard of him until a short time since, wheu be was found living n a wetl-ftirrilshi-d house at Ful bam. Mrs. Wainwright was somewhat surprised that her husband was allowed to escape with the sum of ?1 10s. in his posso.-sion, while she had to depend for ber support upon a source to which she was reluctant to apply. To-day both prisoners will tie placed In the dock before the magistrate at Southwark Police Court to answer the several charges brought against them. PHILADELPHIA COINAGE. [From tho Boston Sunday Herald.] The silver bullion which Is now being reoelvcd at ths Philadelphia mint lor parting is mainly from ths Con solidated Virginia mine In Nevada, and contains forty per crnt of gold, fifty per cent of sliver and ten per cent of base metal The bullion la known as the dore, or silver contain ng gold. The mint Is supplied with bul i on as rapidly as is required for coinage purposes. In addition, tt.a Acsay oifire in New York supplies the miutw.th fine silver sufficient to Insure s coinage of $1,000,000 pf-r month in subsidiary silver coin. The standard fineness of the coin is made of 900 parts of P^r* J1'**1" *1"1 1|J(J parts of pure copper ailoy. The law of ls.3 has somewhat increased the weight of the suh vHSL C0Jn- *" thal lh* coins at present issued are ?? ? , ,,l4a l*>e coin issued prior to the l ^ of April. 187A, and are o&juis in enrrasnood in weight with the French ooin. At present the sub sidiary coins issued are the half dollar, quarter dollar, t?enty cent piece and ditaa. The hall dollar weighs lt&tf grain*. Tliia pieee ftartaerly weighed va grains. The quarter dollar now weighs 98.45 grains: It formerly weighed twj gram*. The new twenty cent piece weigh* "7.16 grains, and the dune weighs 38.68 grams, the latter former I)' weighed 38.08 grams. These are the only silver coins authorised ex cept ing the trade dollar, which is a commercial piece, and We ighs 4U0 grains. Since Jauuury 1. last, there has been issued from the miut in Philadelphia between $I.OoO,O00 and J.VoOU.OoO in subsidiary silver coin. Tins coin has been transferred to the Assistant Treas urer at Boston, where it will remain until surb time as the Secretary of the Treasury sees fit to commence the work of redemption. It is stated by the chief eeiner. Colonel Knowden, thai if Ute mint wae worked to ils fullest capacity it would turn out $50,000 m suinll silver coin per dteui. Durlu$ last month the mints at Son Francisco and Carson coined over 1,000,000 pieces of the twenty cent coin. THE FUGITIVE SLAYS QUESTION. THE ENGLISH PKOI'LE CONDEMN THE ACTION OF THE ADMIRALTY?NUMEROC8 MEETINGS AND INDIGNANT PROTESTS. [From the London Daily News, October 7 ] Last night a crowded mooting was held in the school room attached to the Horough road chapel, Southwark, to protest against the Admiralty, instructions respecting the reception on board Her Majesty's ships of slaves. Mr. Andrew Dunn, late candidate for the borough of Southwark, took the chair. The Rev. G. W. McCroe, in moving the first resolution, showed how utterly op posed to all the best feelings of Englishmen wero the Admiralty "Instructions," and said that it only needed the great and potent voice of the English people to be heard to have those "instructions" revoked. He moved "that this meeting, having heard und read tho instruc tions rocently issued by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in reference to fugitive slaves, hereby protests against them as contrary to existing British law; as inhuman in relation to captives und slaves seek ing to escape from the hateful oppression and horrible cruellies ol bondage, and as incompatible with the be nigu and protective principles of tne Christian faiih, and earnestly urges their immediate withdrawal." The resolution was carried am>d loud cheers, and then Mr. 1'rebblo moved, and Mr. Chapman seconded, that the foregoing resolution be forwarded to the Lords Com in Is ?loners of the Admiralty. Mr. Probble sold il thero was one thing above auoihcr winch Euglishim-u should prize | it was tho honor of their flag at sea. Could it bo hon ored, or was it worth honoring, if a poor fughive-black did not find refuge under it? Taoresolution was carried, and a vote Of thank# to thq chairman closed an enthusi astic meeting. Last evening a meeting was held liTthe boys' school room, Clapton 1'ark, under tho presidency or tho Rev. Jabez M'Kailton. for "tlio purpose of olforing a public protest against the order of the Admiralty and ol con ferring together as to the speediest possible mode of obtaining its earliest revocation." Tho room was well | tilled, and on the platlorm were several ministers i of various denominations, with a number of well known residents. Tho Chairman said if tbo order ; lately issued by the Hoard of Admiralty were allowed to become law the millions of money expended and tho ; thousands of liveB sacrificed by Ure.it Britain in carry j ing out her slave emancipation policy were simply so much blood and treasure cast Into the ocean. As a I young man, and up to within the last few years, ho had | spent his life on tho coasts of Alrica, and he could 1 solemnly assure them that tf it once got wind among tlie native traders that slaves could tie claimed from | under the British flag, then would caravan upon ; caravan be fitted out, fresh impetus would be given to i what has now become a dying trade, the exports of ! ore and other merchandise would practically cease, and the labors of Brougham, Buxton, Clarkson, and a j host of others who had spent their time und wealth in j lighting one of the severest and noblest social battles the world ever knew would be literally thrown away. I Should all else fail, the Queon, who had ever shown herself foremost in deeds of charity, must be ap- : pealed to. A BREACH OF THE I-AWS OF COD AND MAN. lie concluded by moving "That this meeting views with feelings akin to dismay the order lately issued by the Board of Admiralty rolative to the giving up of fugitive slaves, and this meeting is further of unanl mous opinion that such an ordor, if put into force, \ would be unconstitutional to a degree, and alike a breach of the laws of God and man." The resolution i was seconded by Mr. Mildred, supported by scvoral ' other gontlemen. and carried with cheers. Mr. Bovan proposed anil Mr. Turner seconded a motion "that a temporary committee be formed to act with other local committees in carrying out the objects of this meeting, and that tho present chairman act as president." A number of names of local committeo men having boon given In, the meeting adjourned with tho usual vote of thacka A public meeting was held last evening at the Good Templars' Hall, Battersea, lor the purpose of organizing a demonstration to protest against the Admiralty order in relerence to fugitive slaves. Mr. W. Ward, who was In tho chair, in opening tho proceeding! said that the ; publication or the Admiralty order had excited univer sal indignation. No one but a Minister out of bis senses j could have issued instructions which were a gross viola- | tion ol all the principles of the British constitution. If 1'arllumcnt had been sitting he had not the slightest doubt that tbo instructions would not have remained in force for one day. (Cheers) He understood that the British Anti-Slavery Society had taken the matter up, and that they would not rest until the ordor was res cinded. ("Hear, heart") On the motion of Mr. W. Hard acre, seconded by M r. Emerson and supported by Messrs. W. Bull. J. A. Giles and C. F. Billington, a res olut on was adapted condemning the Admiralty order, and pledging tin- people of Battert-ea to co-operate in tho forthcoming demonstration. A deputation was also appointed to wait upon tbo British Anti-Slavery. Society and solicit their assistance in making the meeting a success. IN MANCHEBTEB. [From the Manchester Examiner, Oct. 7.} The Mayor of Manchester (Alderman King) has re. ceived a requisition, bearing 196 signatures of Manches ter citixens, calling upon him to convene a town's meeting "for the purpose of considering the circular recently issued by the Admiralty to tho commanders of Her Majesty's ships ordering the restoration to slavery of fugitives taking refuge upon their vessels;" and In compliance the Mayor has called a meeting to bo held In tho Town Hall at eleven to-morrow morning. THE ABOR1 CUtflCS1 PROTKOTION SOCISrT. The following memorial has boon addressed to the Lords of the Admiralty:? On behalf of the Committee of tho Aborigines' Protec ' tion Society we beg to express our profound regret that, under Your Lordships' authority, instructions have been issued to naval officers commanding Her Majesty's ships of war which require them to roturn to bondage fugitive slaves who have sought the protection of the British Cug. It would thus appear that British men-of-war are to be brought under tho operation of a fugttivo slave law as remorseless as the one which formerly existed In the United States, while a branch of tho public service whicb for more than fifty years has been distinguished for its noble efforts to suppress the sluve trade, ts now to bo called upon to perform tho odious office of surren dering escaped slaves to their masters We moreover ? deeply rogret that th' se instructions distinctly recog nize the h gal rights ol slave owners, and, therefore, the lawfulness of ownership in humsn beings. Although the cases with wbicn these instructions deal are divided into three separate classes, yet we observe that ' to whatever class the slaves belong t he same fate awaits them?thai is to say, they are in every instance ordered to bo sent back to the Bhive-bolding Jurisdiction from which they have escaped. Hut even if any real 1 'distinction hail been male between the several classes we should still respectfully and ur gently protest against regulations which are at variance equally with the tradi'ions of the na tion und with the obligations of humanity. We also ask permission to call Your Lordships' attention to the fact that, so far as we can judge, these regula tions may be eniorced in the Pacific as well as In tho Indian Ocean; and consequently fugitive Polynesians who have fl <1 from loreign kidnappers will tie liable to he given up )l the latter are only able to show that their Teasels havo been properly licensed by some colo nial authority or government. Lor these reasons we beg respectfully to express tj? hope that Your Lord ships will give the public nn assurance that ths instruc tions will not li?' enforced. Wo have tho honor, Ac., CHARLES WINtiFIELD, Vice President. F. W. CHEtWuN, Secretary. Wrstmikrtrr, Oct. 1 The Bishop of Lichfield liar written a letter to the society, strongly condemning tho action of the Ad miralty. Letters have also been received from sir Powell Buxton, Sir Benson Maxwell, the Hon Arthur Kinnaird, M. P., and stner gentlemen. On the motion ol the Hon. Evelyn Ashley, M. P., seconded by Mr. Jatnes Heywood, F. K.B., and supported by ibe Hon. E. I.yulph Stanley, Mr. A. McArinur M P., Professor Amos, and other gentle men, the following resolution was unanimously adopted:? That tills meting expresses its cordial approval of the pro test against the instruct."lis for the return of fugitive slave* which have been addreieed to the L .rds ..f the Admiralty on behalf of the society ; and thi* meeting earnestly liupus that Her Mslesty'* government will lo?- re time in withdrawing i instruction" which are so uiuch at variance w.th tl.e feelings I of the country. CHESS. It was pnqios d to hold an International C'lieas Con gress at Philadelphia next year in connection with the I Centennial Exhibition, to which the most prominent ' European players were to havo been invited. In order to Insure their attendance prizes of sufficient value to tempt thsm to eross the Atlantic would have to 1 be assured them, and, as do special efforts to this pur Eose are announced, it Is lobe feared that the project ae been abandoned, There will bo a gathering of ? American players, doubtless, end If we are to give up hopes of a vlsR from such masters ts fiteinits, Bloat*, burne Kolisch, Zuksrtort and the veteran Andcrssen, still there will be interesting contests between our native players. In this regard the ; piay of the sirongc-t American players ; through tho winter will be watched with great i interest by all lovers of the game The chose season rosy bo said to have been opened by Mr. Alhcroni's visit to Philadelphia, where he was signally successful In his encounters with the players ol the Quaker city. The gentleman mentioned Is now come .ting a series of games with Mr. Mason, of this city, the winner of ths first eleven parties to lie tho victor. In London Messrs Btetnlts and Rlackhurno have ar ranged s match, which will he looked upon by common us for the chamnlonsbkB of the world. THE WAR IN LIBERIA. The Causes of the Native Rising at Cape Palmas. AN AMERICAN NEGRO REPUBLIC. The intelligence made public a few days .since to the effect that hostilities have broken out between the Amonbs-Llberian colonists and their descendants, who have established a republic on the west coast of Africa, and the aborigines at Cape Palmas, in the southern part of the country, will necessarily excite a good deal of interest In the United States for twenty .five years after the Orst settlement wae made by free negroes the colony remained under tho supervision of the American Colonisation Society, and the emigrants were con stantly reinforced by now arrivals from south of Mason and Dixon's line. Thousands of native Africans have become civil.red and enlight ened through their Influence. They enjoy a govern ment of tbelrown; they speak tho English language; have numorous churches and schools, and the Kepubllc is now rocogntzed as an independent nation by the principal Powers of the earth, many of whom, includ ing tho United States, maintain diplomatic representa" tives at the capital, Monrovia. Tho present difficulty arises, as several previous ones have, out of disputed boundaries, and the right of the aborigines to trade without restraint with tho English, French and Por tuguese who have established factories on the coast. Cape Palmas, where a battlo was (ought September 17, and fifty killed and woundod, was settled in 1834 by emigrants from Maryland, who were sent thither by tho Colonization Society of that State, Under the name of Llberian Maryland It now forms one of tho provinces of the Republic Its territory extends from the Equator several dogreos north, and very little is known of it be yond a few miles from the coast. Tho native popu lation consists of tribes called the Veys, tho Papohs, the Rassas, tho Kroos, the Grebos, the Mundlngos aud others who inhabit the country back as far as Soo dan. The boundaries north and south of Liberia have been questioned by both England and France. Lat terly, however, theso Powers disputed the sovereignty of the Republic ovor a large portion of Maryland and claimed tho right to trade with the natives who dwell below the fourth degree of north latitude, where Cape Palmas is situate, irrespective ofLiberlan customs laws. The aborigines took the same ground, claiming that these were ontirely independent and had never sur rendered or sold their titles to tho territories they oc cupy. About ten years ago President Roberts pro ceeded in a man-of-war, with a body of troops, and subdued a rialng in Maryland, and it is believed that the malcontents on the present occasion will also he put down. The claims ol? England are now principally confined to trade with natives on the northern por tions of Liberia until the question Is finally decided by the United States as arbitrator as to whether tho dis puted territory Justly belongs to Llboria or not. TUB HK1TBIJO OS MBKHIA. The Republic of Liberia, as stated, is the outgrowth of the American Colonization Society, which was or ganized in 181T under tho auspices of Henry Clay, Chief Justico Marshall, John Randolph, of Kounokc, Rush rod Washington, aud other eminent men. The idea was that many, if not ull, of tho liberatod slaves in tho United States would prefer returning to Africa, and that through thorn colonization and the Christian religion would tncreby bo iniroduocd Into that benighted quar ter of the world. The emigration to the coast of Africa was coinmencod in 1820 and has continued uninterrupt edly up to tho presuut year. The territory now occu pied was purchased from lime to time trum tho aborig ines. great numbers of whom seem to have yielded to the influence of the new arrivals of their own color. The colonists first landed at the Sborbro Islands, but eventually settled at Cape Mosunadu In 1822. The country has been prosperous, and tbo experiment has boon considered very successful. Thero nro several rivers extending for hundreds of milos Into the interior, and all along those streams and the spaces between them aro tho most productive tracts of country, stretches of beautiiul valleys, alternating with picturesque bills, covered with wild and yet luxuriant vegetation, await ing only the hand of Industry to develop Underlying these largo areas evidences every now and then appear that there are deposits of rich mlnorals. Tne rivers, with tho creeks flowing Into them, furnish almost Illim itable sources of water power. Immense forests of the fiuost timber are yet untouched aud mountains of Iron uninvaded. Coffee thrives welL Indeed, it is claimed that the quality of this article is unsurpassed. Llberian coffee commands a higher price than any of the heretofore most favored specimens. Sugar cane grows in un rivalled luxuriance; canoarood is produced in unlimited quantities; Indigo, arrowroot, limes and oranges are largely exported. Ivory is easily obtainable. The population of tbo Republic is about 600,OoO; but of this number only 80,000 aro civilizod and the descendants of American emigrants. A large number of the lnhabt tanu of the interior depend upon Liberia for ihc.r supply of Imported goods. IBDRI'KSUKNCK MS< r.ARED. Liberia declared its IndupendeDce Id 1847 and was acknowledged during the following year by Great Britain and France, which made treaties for the abo lition of the Blavo trade, and In which compact the now Republic has faithfully performed its part. Tho gov ern merit is modelled after that of the United States. There Is an elective President, Vice President and two houses of legislature. No white man, according to the constitution, can hold office. Joseph J. Roberts was tho first President. Be served from 1848 to 1866?four terms. He was succoedod by S. E. Benson, J. Warner, James S. Payne and K. J. Roye. The latter, In 18T0, while acting as President, went to Europe and there contracted a loan lor $500,000, and on his return was accused of having appropriated the money thus ob tained for his own benefit and that of the members of his Cabinet. A popular rising look place In Liberia Roye flod and Roberts, the first President, was placed at the head of the government. Roye attempted to assert his claims to tho Presidency by force and was put in prison. He effected his escape, and in making an effort to get on board an dulward bound vessel was drowned, in 1872. At the general election hold last May James 8. Payne, a native of Riohmond. Va., was elected President and S. J. Crayton Vico President. President Roberts has been on a visit to England for several months, and the Vice President acts as head of the government during his absence. TUB BOUNDARY IUHPCTB. The dispute between Great Britain and Liberia as to the boundaries of the republic has been of long Bland lug. Tho latter claims torrltory stretching on the northwest to the Galinas river, on the southeast to the 8au Pedro Itivor, a distance of QUO miles; on tho east, to the interior, there is practically no limit to its bor der. England is, of course, interested only in tho coast trade and has frequently complained of restrictive cus toms regulations injurious to her commerce which the Republic has imposed in ihe nature of Import and ex port duties. The climate ol the main land is deadly to Europeans, and factories, as mentioned before, are here and there main tallied for trading purposes in tliat region outsido the limits of Liberia. In examining the latest maps it will be observed that the Atlantic washes the four Mtales of the Republic from tho northern liuo of Guinea to the southern line of Sencgambla. Lines indi cate the particular tracts of territory purchased from tho natives at different periods. The English govern ment, however, takes the ground that it is Impossible to decide upon tho validity of the deeds of transfer, and bold they are simply ex parte documents that the abo rigines refuse to recognise. In 1803 a commission was appointed to examine into the question, and a partial settlement was reached, by which the sovereignty of Liberia was acknowledged over a territory named Sago ree. This established its authority to 8olynian River In the northwest, which appears to be some distance above the Manna River, the extromo point north that the maps show Liberiun purchases from the natives. It is the country lying between tne Muuna and Young rivers that provokes discussion. Within these limits England claims the right of trading with tho Interior uriinterfered with by the Liberian authorities sud where the demands of tho two countries clash. Five or six years ago England was ready to recognize at once the sovereignty of the Republic over the greater part of these countries, were It not, as tier government alleged, that sumo of the no- 1 live chiefs denied any cession of ibdtr territory or tliat Liberia had any claim to it; that Great Britain 1 therefore was unwilling to hand over these chiefs with ! whom she had treaties that were faithfully observed ' against their wlsbe'aud upon Insufficient evidence of I title to the jurisdiction of Liberia It was further I stated that the jusiico of these pretences could only be satisfactorily established by a strict and impartial Inves 1 ligation on tho spot into tho title deeds upon which i Liberia rested her claims and into any evldoiico against their validity than might be produced by the native chiefs Matters ron.-ilnod In this condition up to 1873, the English trading on the coast in dispute regardless of the claims of Liberia; but on one occasion a British vessol was drivon off by the Liberian officers, and for winch act England enforced satisfaction. In 1873 the lsUer Power made a proposition for A 3BTTLKMKNT OP TIIS OIPPIUULTIR*. It agreed to recognize tho actual limits of the Repub lic as comprising the coast line betweon Cape Palmes (where the present difficulties exist) on the south and ths south hank of the River Hoiyman to the northwest, but oould nut admit, without further inquiry, the claims advanced by Liberia on the lino of coast north of that boundary lying between the Solyman and.Sheban rivers Two British and two Liberian commissioners were to be appointed, whoae decision was to be con clusive; but in case of disagreement tho United 8tales %hs to appoint an arbitrator, whose judgment was to be final. It is understood that the commissioners were appointed and are now engaged in taking testimony; but It must be observed that Great Britain bring* Into question the sovereignty of a large stretch of Southern Liberian mucosat. The province of Maryland extends many hundreda of mllaa south of Cape I'almas, and instead of Uio latter point being tho southern hodndary of the Republic the true place would be, according to the maps, King George Town, near the mouth of the river Pedro. On this coast am situate the pearl fisheries, and there Is n large native popula tion who are always anxious to exchange Indigo, caoutchouc, cocoa, coffee, gild, fruits, ginger, pearls, Ac, for ammunition, arms, tobacco, spirituous liquors and dry goods. England has shown no dlaoosltlon to interfere at cape Palmas neyond the questioning of u beria to exercise sovereignty over chiefs with whom she has made treat me, and whose rights she oonsiden she is hound to protect. TUK rt2l SxPIDlTlOX TO MBKRU. The Colonisation Huoiety, as stated before sends yearly a company of emigrants to Liberia. The regular fall expedition this year will be despatched next month. Among the emigrants preparing to go at that tiuic are Kev. Andrew Cartwrglil, of North Carolina, and Kov. Charles W. Bryuut, of Mew Orleans, with their families and somo of their church members. Since the close of the year over 3,000 people have been afforded passage and established in Liberia, and thousands of others are earnestly pressing their demands upon the society for the fact lilies to enable them to remove and obtain a home in the land from whence their ancestors wero forcibly brought to this country. The applicants are mostly in families and neighborhoods, many of them being the most Intelligent and well-to-do in their re spective districts, moved to emigrate by letters from relatives or acquaintances residing in the Republic. The projoct of removal to Liberia, it is said, is more popular witli tho negro race at present than it has been at any former period. THE SrECTIiE MINER. [From tbo Santa Kosa Democrat.] We published not long ago an account of the Guerne vllle ghost. We have the following antbentio particu lars .?The scene of the appearance was at the Croesus mine, on Austin Creek, about three miles from Guerno ville. The men who work in the mine badjust gone to bed, when there was a noise at tho door, then some ghostly muBlo. They next beard in the shaft the sound of sharpening tools, the noise of the bellows briskly working to pump air In the shaft and the sharp clinking of tho pully on the whim used for raising and lowering tho buckets in tho shaft. This noiso was kopt up as if tbore was a whole force of ghosts busily employed from ten at night until three o'clock In the morning. The mouth of tho shaft could be seen from tbo cabin; but, though the noise was dis tinct, no forms wero seen to move about tho Bhaft. Tho work was kept up for three nights in succession; then there was an Interval of comparative quiet for three weeks. A day or two ago Abe Steratt was at work alone In tne shaft; the other men were above ground. Steratt was preparing to put In a shot when be heard a noise close to him. He looked up and there stood a man clad as a miner beside htm, In a space which an instant before had been vacant. Steratt asked:?"What do you wantNo reply. Ho punched at tho figure with a drill; It went through tho airy semblance of humanity. Terror-struck, Steratt ex claimed;?"If you are going to work here I want to got out " He whistled to his companions above to come down, and then said:?"Or if you want mo to work bore you must got out," Whereupon the figure seemed to vanish upward from sight and has not since been seen. Noises as above described have been beard, but the spectro miner has not since noen seen. CALIFORNIA TRADE IN MEXICO. [From the San Francisco Chronicle.] Each succeeding year snows an increasing and en couraging trado between this city and the Mexican Pacific coast. San Francisco is the natural outlet to supply Sorlhwostern and Nouthwestern Mexico. Wo have fixod and reliable communication by steam and sail with Muzatlan, Guaymas, San Bias, Manzanillo and Acapulco. The Colorado Steam Navigation Company has a line of steamers touching at tho three former ports and tho same company has six steamers plying on the Colorado River. From Guaymas goods from tins city find their way Intojlio principal cities in the State ot Chihuahua The Pacific Mail Btoamship Company des patches a monthly steamer, calling at Muzatlan, San Bias, .Manzanillo and Acajiulco, en route for Cen tral and South America, to Panama, beside tho regular lino touching at Acapulco for Panama. Fivo mercan tile houses In this city have linos of sailing vessels, which run regularly along tho Mexican Pacific coast, and. beside, lour smalt Mexican schooners are engaged in the trade. Mexico is beginning to realize that sailors constitute a vital element of society, and, knowing how deficient she is in this respect, Is opening schools to teach her young men tbo lascinating art or navigation, for lifo on tho sea, with all its dangers, has a fascina tion. Our neighboring Mexican port, Mazatlan, has a school for thlH purpose, and from it the people hope to see their sons couio forth capable of managing men-of war, steamers and sailing vessels. Strango to say, there are not probably in the whole Republio 100 Mox leans who could run a steamboat from Mazatlan to San Francisco. This is a peculiar fact In a country which has over 11,000,000 of populatioa A PETRIFIED BABY. [SU Clair Letter to tbe Albany County GomlomanJ Wo are having a very Interesting mystery here tB the shape of tbe second edition of the famous Cardiff Giant Two men living In the town of Kimball, ton miles from Fort Hudson, while out hunting, stopped to gather specimens of stone from a gravel bed In the Pine River that waa washed out from the bank near by during the freshet a year ago. In this loose bank they uncovered a stone resembling the lace of a child. After looking at it In wonder for a time they, thinking" of the doubt that hangs over the discoveiy of the famous giant, went out and brought fifteen or twentv men to witness this before taking It out It was then removed with a mass of gravel adhering. The face, chin, throat, part of the right arm, shoulders, breast, part of one arm and the whole of the other showed distinctly In perfect form, all the rest merging into a mass of gravel and small stones, cemented together the same as seen In any gravel pit. The rjght arm Is bent, the forearm Is lying across the body; tho other is bent below the elbow. The eyes are well defined and vary broad; fore head flat and sloping, nose small, sharp: nostrils open; lips very thin, fiat; mouth well defined?curve of the lips perfoctly natural; chin square; slight depression or dimple ovor the breast bone, also just above the arm where the ribs jneot. or at least Just below where they meat. Tho form of tbe breast Is perfect The skin on the surface Is smooth, not showing the marks of tools. Some call it a petrified child, and account for the great breadth of the head at the eyes by some pressure that flattened the forehead. Among lbs small stones are jietrified coral, shells, k c., such as are very common through this country. Gun you toll us what it is? AN ANCIENT WALL IN MISSISSITPL [From the Port Gibson Standard.] About eighteen miles from Port Gibson and one mile from Brandywine Springs, on tbe place of Mr. O'tjuln, tbe existence of a great number ot blocks of cut stone has boon known for an Indefinite time, and the people in the neighborhood have used them for props for their houses. Mr. James Gage, Jr., went out there a few days ago to explore and had a specimen stone brought Into town. It Is about three fret long by about twenty Inches square, resembling in shape a bar of soap. It la probably a native sandstone Mr. Gage took this block himself from beneath tho roots of a large pine tree. It formed a portion of a wall about twenty feet broad on the top, which Mr. Gage traced for a distance of 200 yards. Tho Inference that ono would naturally draw from this superficial view is that this must have been a city wall, hut deep exploration might show it to be a portion of a fort, temple or other building. Any way, its antiquity is probably immense, antedating the history of the red men. DESPATCHES IN THE AIR. [From the London Live Stock Journal.) An ocean homlDg bird, of great docility, Intelligence anikspirlt, has been found in Iceland, which flies at a speed of ISO miles an hour, and is able to find Its home over sea and land from any part of tho habitable world. A pair of these birds a few days ago brought despatches from Paris to a lonely spot In a wild and rocky part of Kont, within ten miles of London, In one and a half hours.' Press oarrier pigeons took the despatches on to the city, the whole dmtanco from l*arls to London by actual parcel mode of conveyance being done within one and a half hours. If tho experiments at present being made in training and educating them contluue successful, It is hoped by next summer to establish a dally miniature ocean mall between America and Eu rope, the whole distance to be traversed between sun rise in one hemisphere and sunset In the other. OUE OLDEST VESSEL. [From tbe Boston Advertiser.] The hark Draco is the oldest vessel In the United States. She was built at Duxbury by Reuben and Charles Drew in 1824, and now Is over fifty-one years old. The Draco was built In the most thorough man ner and of the best materials, pasture oak, and If no accident occurs may live as long In the future as she has In the past. She is 261 tons register, double deck, originally a brig, but nliorod Into a bark in 1834 She was first employed In the freighting business; then sold to P. and 0. Flint k Co. for the South Ameri can trade; next she passed to Samuel J. Bridge, Joseph Knowles and E. Tucker Osborn for tbe Aus tralian trade, and was finally sold to Mr. J. Bourne, Jr., of Now Bedford, for e whaler and has long been en gaged In that buslnese. The Draco waa well known In Boston forty yoara ago, and was a favorite vessel with all her owners, as she was almost always fortunate In making profitable voyages for them. In 1836 the Draco. In a voyage from Valparaiso to 8wansea, Wales loaded heavily with a cargo of oopper ore, passed through the Straits of Magellan, the only Vessel of any considerable slse that aver mads the passage before that time or slnoe. HOW TO INFLATE. [From the Boston Post? democratic. ] There Is bnt one way to Inflate, and Oarl Schors fully agrees with us In the faot and In Its Inferenoes; that Is, for the government to create a series of extraordinary demands. In tba absence of a glgantlo civil war It must conceive and onderiak# hnge projects?of canals, railroads, river Improvements and heaven knows not what? enterprises not needed, at immense and waste ful cost, by tho employment of corrupt agencies, for tho eake oCBMttlng these additional tens and scores of million* ItMKniaUon. And Gnrl Sehnrs is forced to come baok to our own position end admit that the surest way to etop all further apprebonslon of Inflation is to choose an honest economical and incorrant'M* govern msnk Nut m The Russian Preparations for tU Expedition to Kashgar. GENERAL KAUFMANN'S RETURM How Russian Officials Collect Taxes in Tashkent. THE EXPECTED CONFLICT-' Tashkent. July 20, 187V Tlie last year hero has been quiet enough. Ther* wore some disturbances in Rhokand last sura.nor. and we all hoped tliat w o might have a chance of another expedition, but General Kolpakofsky dared not under take anything In General Kaufmauu's absence, bcinj bound hand and foot by his instructions, and knowings at the same time, that anything which he did would b? turned against hiin by Kaufmanu's friends, who wish him no good. On the arrival of General Kaufmann, alter his eighteen months' absence, everything changed. So marfy officers wore back that the towgj seemed positively lively, and there appeared to bo* general foellng not only that something ought to b? done, but also that something would bo Uono. Gonerat Kaufmann had become down In the mouth by the aU tacks on htm at St. Petersburg, and was desirous o# showing his vigor, of proving tho purity of his adminis tration and in general of making some groat coup that would entirely rehabilitate him. TUB KXPKOTKD EVENT. What this wos to be nobody seemod to know ; bilk everybody whispered Khohand, though some of tli* better Informed hinted that matters were not all light In Kashgar. First of all, however, we were to hav? a purification of the domestic administration, and w? were given to understand that during tho General's ab sence, and under the direction of Kolpakoffcky, every thing had been going to the bad, and that while thero might be, perhaps, a certain grain of truth in the stric tures on the administration which had been published in St Petersburg and abroad, yet that this was all sub sequent to General Kaufrnann's departure for Khiva, and was, therefore, not his fault. So investigating committees were sot to work?wo call thorn hero revisions. The district of Kurama was revised, the town administration of Tashkent was re vised, and, In fact everything was revised that 'would bear revision without showing too Imd a. result. Most or theso investigating committees ar? ?till hard at work with their facts and figures, trying to show that "although thero may have hoen a few administrative Irregularities .during the past few years yet" you know the rest, and how easy ill* to cover up wrongdoing in a romote province Ilka aDUWHTRiTITB REFORMS. The only report that has yet been made Is In regard to the town government of Tashkent, where the in habitants, for a long time past, have been complaining! of the high taxes. It hns been found that during th? time or General Kaufmann's administration, that iff, Einco 18(58, the. taxes have Increased from 60.000t? 128 000 rubles, so that they now amount to more tha* three rubles a head on the officially taxed population During this time the general tax for tho ex penscs of the city government, tho amount OS! which and the manner in which it Is spent, bolng en tirely at tho discretion of the commandant of the town, bavo increased from 16,000 to 86,000. Although thero has been no effort in this report to point out abuses yet two or three things have come to light which shov* ? that onr officials hero are not neglecting to study th? most modorn methods of trcatiug the governmental funds. The official estimate of the population of I ash-, kent for tax collocting purposes Is about 42,000, men, women and children Included; for some other purposes It is estimated above TO,000, and is known to bo much more. It Is therefore plainly possible for an amount of taxes nearly equal U> tha official return to bo collected and put into tho psckcts of tho officials without anybody being the wisci; ac<1 as no rocolpU are ever given to tho natives for taxes, they may be collected two or throe times, snd com plaint is very difficult. HOW TIIB TAXES ARB LEVIED. Wo end, too, that our system of appropriation Is ? very simple one. There Is a sort of governing council, composed of natives, supposed to be freely elected by the town or district, although, or course, cboscu a?; cording to tho orders of tho commandant. This council has tho right of voting whatever money is necessary fo* tho administration and ot collecting it from the Inhabi tants. The commandant, then, merely says, "1 need so much money for the ensuing year," and the amount ts voted at once; or should there he any objection h# replies, "such are my erder. from the Governor," and the matter Is at an end, .sometimes for building a now bouse or fo< laying out a garden or for some extraordinary expense, more money is necessary. In such a case f resolution to that .effect is written out In Russian In th* book of rocords and the members of the council, one after another, are ordered to put their seals to It, with out In the least knowing what paper they are signing Afterward, to avoid all possible questions, one of the Interpreters, when he has time, writes a translation tp the native tongue on the opposite page, so that, If a? Investigating committee should come, everything would be In order. rHEFAXI*0 FO? WJJL July 31. Those who predicted an expedition to Kashgar soon? to have been right alter all When General Kaufmanc returned he agreed to the appointment of Colons Kelnthal aa the commercial agent or const' In K ash gar, but thongbt It boat before allot* tng him to occupy the post to send him there, nominally to take some presents to Yakub Khan, although really to find out how the land lay. Rcinthal was very badly received, and, In spite of the treaty, so much objection was mado to the appointment of a consul that he dld( not even speak of his apDolnlment, although that Kashgarlana seemed perfectly well aware of U, for. X presume they have plonty of spies here, and he '-hero fore remained only three days In Kashgar. On his re turn ho reported to the Governor General that Yakuty Khan bad the most hostile disposition towan Russia, and was only waiting to Improve, his troops before he mado an attack upoa us. He has received several Instalments of Eugllsh rltlcs, and has a large number of military In structors from India and Turkey, so that his army If really becoming formidable. Beside this, he has f large nnmber of good cannon and la rapidly making others. General Kaufmann, In forwarding this reporij to St Petersburg, said that he saw no way of sett liny the difficulty oxcept by arms It Is necessary, hows ever, to obtain some further Information before an ex pedition ta sent, and there seema to bo an Idea that w? may perhaps do better If wo Invade the country from the tide of Khokand rather than from the Naryn^ where the Kashgarlana havo put up good fortiflcatior to command the pasees. XXAKIXIXO THE rASSES Colonel Scoboleff, who bo distinguished himself In th<| attack on Khiva, has therefore been sent by Genera^ Kaufmann through Khokand to examine the pasaeatf leading into Kashgar. He takes an escort of Cossack* and I atd ordered to scoompany them. It la s treraen-i dous piece of good luok fbr me, lor I was not allowed t* go with the Khlvan expedition. At the same time, Mr* Weinberg, the agont of the Foreign Office, goca td| Khokand with as to ask permission of the Khan k| allow Russian troops to pass through bis dominion* Scoboleff, ever since the Khlvtn expedition, baa best* on very had terms with Kanftnann, but wan reconciled to him, they say, by an often to lot -him have command of an expedition^ How that may be 1 do not know, hot Sooboloff Is ^ good fellow and a brave one, and I somehow teel In nfi bones that the result of this will be a war In whioh 4 shall perhaps havs a ohaace. * soonouarr'n sxoLisn rsrvaht. By the way, did you hear the story of ScobnlofTf servantf When he was abroad last winter he took an Englishman aa a body servant, a man who had formerly served in the Guards, but when he got to Sk Petersburg General Kaufmann mado strong objections to the man'l nationality for fear lost he might oorreepond to tb< Tim**, and only allowed him to go on a promise that h< would never write home even to his family. In spit* of that when he got half way here he was dismissed altogether. ScobolelT felt a little sore about It, but this expedition will no doubt core all that.