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IHE CROTON SHED.
Additional Instances of Farm and Factory Nuisances. HOW THE WATER IS POISONED. The Men Wbo Foster the Abuses Along the Streams. PtSTS ON LARKS AND TRIBUTARIES. What Exists at Brewster's Station, Monkey Town uml Muddy Brook. OPINIONS OP PROMINENT PHiSiniNS. Malaria and Its Causes, Defective Sewer age and Tainted Water. INCREASE OF MIASMATIC DISORDERS. Tho second part of the Crolon shed export, as pre- ( sentod in the N>w York Hkkalu, disclose* some ot the most frightful abuses to bo found, in tho previous hi tide the \\ hitlock slaughter house?really tho first of the great nu sancos-at Croton Kails was a fair sample of what may t>? done in defiance of the Croton Aqueduct Department, so long as no law hus been enacted giving it control of the water front outside or the reservoirs. Now we propose to place squaroly before the public a group of similar offences, situated withman area of not certainly over twenty miles square. Tho starting point on th.? occasion is Croton Kails Village, aad the course is up tbe Croton River toward its sources or one of them. It will be perceived by reference to 1 the map that the section embraced in this portion of tho narrative is watered by the two branches of the Croton River?the West and Middle? and also bv a si ream only known as Muddy Brook Which empties itself into Toneita Lake, somewhat east by north ol Brewster'o Station. The west branch of the Croton River has its origin somewhere southwest of Croton Falls, and is a wretched little stream, to say the most of it. The middle branch rises among tho hills norm and west of our headquarters, and, nmugre the Ulntiug process common to the country?barnyard and plgpeu drainage?is comparatively decent. Muddy Brook is all that its name indicates, and tho lesser rivulets are beastly. R. ally no language could be too strong if condemnatory applied to the Irrigating pro cess displayed in our map, lor every -quatter and prop erty holder the country round does as he or she pleases, and makes the Croton River and its tributaries sub servient to all the purposes of farm sewerage. As will be hereinafter elaborately shown, each house, field, shanty, factory, shop and den has its dyke carefully cut through the so l to the great feeders of Croton Lake, and people in this pait ot Tut nam county caru about as much for those who suiter by thoir infringe ments of the law r.s the good folk in the region which has so recently been visited byjhe Pandora might be expected to do. >acts speak for themselves, and they will be furnished. TBK MAP. At the outset, however, the map merits flr?t atten tion. It has been carcfuiiy prepared irom the latest surveys and the Heiialij explorer's personal examina tion of every nook and corner of tho district described. It stretches on tho south from Croton Kalis to the western shore of I.ako (Jlenelda; on the east irom a little above Pordy's Station to the hills south of Peach Pond; on tbe west from tho west branch of the Crotou to the northern limit of .Brewster's -Station, and ou the north from Brewster's across to tho footing waters of Poach I'ond. The phygiquo of the regloh is mountain ous, and every hillock has its natural wnter.-bed. In tho vales on the uplands are built tho homes of tho farmers and wealthy people who own the soil, hut in many Instances don't live there, and coursing down tbe slopes are innumerable drains and ditches?tho sole method of sewerago in this part of the State ol New York. These are sloughed and poisoned by the filth and excrement uf the dwell iegs and pens through, by and underneath which they run, and finally help to sweil the- tide which flows through either branch of the Croton into the lake New York's greatest reservoir. The better classes of I tho inhabitants reside on the highlands, the worst on ' tho river s banks. The former, having means and doing business professionally in some of the neighbor ing towns or Xew \ork, or being what Is known as gentlemen farmers, ' live In commodious buildings fitted up with all the modern Improvements obtainable and available; therefore, the nuisances complained of and such eyesores to the Croton Department and tho I public at large are not 60 virulent or glaring. They Hre bad enough, however, and should be removed becaeso ! they help to increase tbe poisonous elements injected into I ourCrotun water, already more than should be borne. One word more in explanation of this portion of the *-<iter Shed. As in the previous map tho places marked with black spots ar(^ positive blemishes on tho water ' 'rout; itidee<' thev arc aggravating instances of the department's it. potency. Any man, as will be shown, ! may erect a n ill. factory or privy upon the edge of any ?feeder, and he will not t o molested. The property j owners feel sreure when they havo good tenants, and ; the Utter consult solely their own convenience. The landlords do not know much about their tonants' do- ; rneotic economy, and the tenants do pretty much as they like. We give on the map the landlords' names as thrj are known to tho authorities; below we furnish in : detail the names of the present residents and actual ! offonders. AT CROTO!* PA t.t.3 wo ha.-e already fixed the tint great slaughter house : the beginning of this batch of abuses; above it we will ! aluftv in their proper order of sequence the remainder. ' It should not be forgotten that this examination of the feeders had to be made slowly and cautiously, some, time afoot, again on horseback and always carefully. The Hk*ald correspondent started out each morning after daylight at the po.nt where tbe previous even ing's labors had concluded, and travelled up the main st'eam first and its tributaries next, noting cach plague spot as be wei t, and making careful diagrams of the same. Just above the slaughter house?Wbitlock's and the old shed wnich formerly wan called' Purdy's Old Mill"?lb, ri\ er tends northward, and is followed by the road to Brewster's Station. Only a narrow strip of grass laud separates the tic rough fur* and the watercourse nr ! on the ver^e of tbe laiter house?, or to speak more correctly, fran.o shanties and huts stand. They are occupied by ihe poorest classes of tho people and over look the dirty trenm. AI! are wretched oatwardly and nearly all cor.tr ute an equal Fh?re to the slimy deposit in the river bod. Purdy s ?W mill is onoccu pied now, th.it s to ?ay, no work scerus to be going on there. Time was, hov,ever, and not so very long ago, when men and .?iuti used tho dram which trickles down the rlopc near by to th.- central channel as a sort Of necessary. It ua* a prime adjunct to the surround in< nuifancM in those days, but it |,? ,.r<c# b,.?, vi. cant and only remans to-day as one of the places that ?av bo u-cd at any time to t utrefy the water supply Right opposite, almost, and n the western bank oftno river stands tho Rev Alb- rt Chamt-erlln's home, which cannot J-i tly be d onated s a kra\e nuisance iims much ai it, 1 well kept residence, removed several rods from tho shore and unulike those about t furnished with a ditch sewer SUM one cannot pe,* ,i by with, ut speculating a.' to where the garb?go ?? fun* . and tow the family i-t rid of th. ir slop? without dumping thorn luto the' roton River \0 loo ir th. neighborhood could satiffuuordy explain uhat berame jfihoi Cfeambrr.'in rcfoso snd most nersons believe bat I quietly found its way into the common sewer ho river Then en the r ght shore look rg north tho water, though rapid of < urrent, was mouJy and g,?on -n m ,ny pots, owing no doubt to th# stuff owned Into it by tho drains or sewers of Croton Kalis Tillage All hrough the town ol South Kan, which c tr,prises "u 118 ?ost of the villages on the eas t bank or the river shown !n the map, th<so d> kes and trenchos ' *?vo been cut aad do ihe dirty work of the farms snd ho r'.'^ 'or?,* Kftn lhf , Ui M-cksmahPrtopX ? u, Lhl p V'"Tlf rrl u'? homestead and on a line ftffc Ut luM ?i.? ? tut U- wuai J ? POLLUTION OF OUR DEINK The Westchester Stables, Slaughter Houses and Privies Which Water Works. Ara Drained Into the Groton Mead Dookmat N.Dykeman J.Ganung Haynes XSherwood H.Drew F.R.W'Mtney O.Scnoola Walter Brandis Pri Branson 8 Everett L.Brandow e a. ^ou?8^A.Pardy ?Oporo E.Fowler ? ,At\oW Barns on FaVnrs<r\ Thiel FlluriS^. Mike ScuWv^X Dwelli^ff^#\ D*ellirt|g^\ p/'vy * DwellirV^ ^"blacksmith's Purdy^StOld Mil\Vva Whitlock's SlaughterHousey^J - CROTON > * ib?Nl FALLS M.Moore J.Russell Mr?.Craft D.Schoo, JflT ravis J.Lawrence G-Ienklcla .Roscoe D.Travlj A Everett nxA*1 A.Dcafl slope above the water, say twenty-Afo or thirty feet high, and properly supplied with its drain, outhouse, privy and manure heap, each of winch drips into the feeder and adds more or less inuck to the muss below. Ten rods neitrcr Brewster's and on the very outskirts of Croton Fails village i.i?a shanty clap hoarded and dark with age. It stands between the road and tins stream, and is occupied Uy u laborer's family who have lately come there. They have provided themselves with tho regulation drain and have studi ously located their backhouse on tho very bank of the Croton Hirer. Of course this feature is unnoticed by the native, because he does the same thing h'mself and thinks it eminently propor. The slops of tho house hold, nicht soil and everything superfluous are (lung Uo?n here through the small shoot, and Mr'1 swept away by the rapid water down to the lake and reser voir. This point I.-; on the confines of THK TflOMI'MLt K8TATB, which has upon it besides three other dwellings, with their privies and lllthy appurtenances. This properly is known as belonging to the hetrs of tho Thompsons, and is let from time 10 tune in small patches to whom soever will pay the liest price for it. A tenant house, as it is styled in the country, or what we would call a tenement, is close by, witli its children, drain, bark bouse, duck pond and garbage hole in full blast. Tbo people are poor and careless believing religiously iu the uso to which they put the Croton River, and taking special care that no particle of stuff shall tlnd its way elsewhere. mike Scully's shanty Is two rods further north, and ma/ be taken a3 a model of tho dwelling houses in this part of South East. Here you have your privy, manure heap, drain, auck mire. Ac., in close proximity to the river, and Inclined that way with rigid intention. There is no mistake about Mike's purpose He means to see that all his household and farmyard refuse shall l>? laid on the bosom of our Croton water. His animals wallow and Uounder on the margin, and his privy overhangs the bluff.' Night and day and day and night fllth oozes from tho Scullys into tho feeder, and helps to render the water more poisonous Next wo liave TIIH TH1KL FAKM, which stretchos over all that part of the country on the Croton bank, a mile or two out of the village. It is owned by a lannly whose nauic it bears, and is no doubt in all respects a model of Its class. The home stead and l arns stanu in the Hold, on the right hand side of the road , but tho cattle sheds and stables are in the pasture on tho left, noar the stream, and well drained ihereby. The beasts roam through tho sedge and weeds, so prevalent hore, and the riverat this point may certainly bo termed a farmyard dit> h. It should be remembered in this connection that the reader is looking on tho highway toward Brewster's, and along this meandering course of the river in a northwesterly direction ; and it should not be forgotten that while scarcely any mention is made of weedy spots, fungus deposits, and presence of vegetable matter, they are numerously distributed throughout tho whole course in lit 11" coves of several feet square, in patches and minor inlets, but not in the statu of stagnation found near tho Nelson and Lock hart farms on Croton Lake. The places now indicated aro far more grievous and disastrous in their influences "n the character of the Croton water than any situated below 'the Kails." And now we come to IIKXKY TOMI'KIMS, whose residence stands on the left, bank ol the river, some rods inland. It is not directly so bad as some of those already mentioned, but it < ontributes something toward the general BBISanco deposit. Little streams pass from tho building and .outhouse, permeated with d< composed matter, to tho river. The liquid is vile and dense with refuse o< every description, and close by is a mire stream, which may bo characterized as tho j.rfn Cipatsewcrot toe section, it bears no particular ap pellation, but U universally known as Tompkins' Brook. Had as it is, however, it Ig cleanly when compared with the system of drainage discovered at ?KOROK WOOD'S TlAANT HOVSK, which is upiod tiy individuate not any toe Dice in thoir habits it their Furroundints be anj indication of customs. Total disregard of the purfraMS of Croton River Is prevalent flops and boW-ehold garbage are thrown into It daily, and the frivy is near enough to insure its dripping and drainage In that direction A great deal ol comment is made by the inhabitants of this district on the practices iu vogue here, and al though it Is uncles*, inasmuch as remedial measures are i ;> of riadt, it Is sufficiently indicative of what is t.c I. Alter leaving Wood's, wo come to DIMK'S coBMKH, win re are a group of dwellings on the river side foster ing and carrying >n the abuses hereinbefore detailed. The occupnnts .r > Americans, l is tm. but none the less dirty. They emulate the example of tneir neighbors, and keep their outhouses and privies drained by means of < i.t? that lead and empty themselves into the t roton bran h. They are not so bad as si n e shout them, but th?y are none tl.e le>g poisonous when we remember tfcnt they can ail the r woret fllth into the stream bound directly to the lake, Al>ofo Dean's 1 ornerand ju<t i ,uth of Bruwst r * station are two terrible pots <>ue is U)K XKWCOJIB'S tlAfftHTKR HOt'SK It Is built at the water * edge snd Is in a horrible condition. Tlie sh .nilcs which comprise this nuisance nrest tho bend of the river and oper. nto t. Krom tlie cenfral building runs a shoot to carry off the blood ; the enclosure over which it pusses is used as a cattle pou, and the killing l?l< <-k is on tl.e ! rink. Its y.ris and enclosures aro strewn with all sorts ol noisome matter. I'artc lee or unking flesh and hides, tie- n and bloody too, coverth< .pen spaovon the wa'er's edge immediately In front or tho bu'ld np. the flooring of which ha? t<een stained again und again with gore, nnd so uu n . Itlng to the visitor sa to deter one from even entering the place. The shoot through which. Iron, tho killing block and house, tho sanguine Ilui'J flown into ths writer is washed tiy Crotep River every UMir llie Jny Yfio shore is d/fed all With huge blood spots, sti I the banks for feet around aro inchot thick with the dung of beasts. The ground coating'I too soft and pulpy to bear a footstep, and not an inch of the yard is free from the refuse or a slaughter hoflse. l.iuykiil several boosts weekly here, ami-rinse the ( flooring of the shanty with tho water r.r iwn from Croton River, into which Ibv s^o?rm^? drop through the shoot shown In the diagram ? tutuaaiWluScYWHbV'a U anvlUcr iJu^htcr bvu?? which though now in disuse retains its old character for tilth, and wear* to-day even a worso aHpect than its neighbor. The river bank is coated heavily With de composed accumulations, and no effort ho far as any man in the vicinity Is awaro has ever been made to re lieve tho place of its letiil incubus. The feeder laves both, and dally carries away with it towards Croton Lake much of the nasty stuff. Right abovo thcso pests, and opposite Mr. Kvcrott's house, is a privy of ancient date, and iu high winds the bane of the sur rounding residents. Then comes HI 1.1. TILLOTSOX'S house and privy right overhanging tho river and drop ping its poisonous burden into "the Branch." Hero, too, close at hand aro the Irish settlements; Thomas' privy, Van Schoy's ranch and necessary, Waltor Branch's outhouse, Mr. Bailey's closet, and, at the foot of Marvin's mansion, a settlement Immediately con nected with Brewster's Station, and called Monkey Town. Of all tho plaoes iu the district reviewed this is undoubtedly the worst. Kach hovel and tenement house, occupied by Irish people, hangs over the river, anil all tho privies empty themselves into it. IdUlo streams run from dwelling to brink, bearing off hourly tho slops, suds and general reluso or the laborers' fam ilies. But, worst of all, at Brewster's and contiguous to I.ake Toticita is THR HAT P.WTORY of Hunt & Co. It is perhaps the greatest genera'or of poison and taint to be met with oiytlns arm of the Croton Kiver. It stands upon a small stream that is known only as the Factory Hi ream, and is about 100 rods from the Croton. Every particlo of inuck and shop garbage is (lung int.) the stream and borne down tho slopo uninterruptedly into the river; tho dye, wash and scraps meet a similar fate, and when I saw thd mouth of tho Factory Stream a few days ago it was tinged with coloring used by Hunt k Co. But at Brewstor's there Is much to describe, and It, withCarmel and tho tributaries about Lnke Ulenclda, merits a much more elaborate description than anything yet men tioned. First, we have on tho right bank of the river GAlf. BORDIN'S MILK SUMP, with its machinery and condensers, working tho year round. Its foundation was laid on the shore and Is now washed by the < roton. W'ltlnn, no doubt, all that skill could do to make the plaeij cleanly and sweet boa been done. But outside refuse and stuff of every sort fall into the river and remain there. The shop i.s built on a level spot at tho foot of a hill and as close to the stream as it can be. Every drain or ditch in tho neigh borhood must empty Its filth therein, so that the slops of the hands in the -hop finds a similar outlet. Indeed the urinal and privy are at the side <>f the dam and contribute to tho general Infection of the tributary. Certainly this part of Brewster's .Station is as bad as it could we|| be, and llie people call tho settlement Monkey Tow n out of sheer disrespi ci for its appearance and character. Th" cuttle pen at the depot is drained into ("roton Iti\icr, and nil tho sewersof the village discharge themselves there also. Bail, however, as Brewster's is. Carmel is worse. It is the prettiest village in this part of I'utnam county and stands upon the shores of I.ake Uleneida, four miles southwest of Brewster's. Tho headquarters of th" engineer stationed In this section of tho i'roton Water Department is next door to Small's Hotel and in full view of the lake. On tlio roadside, southerly from this office, are erected the dwolllngs of the well-to-do villagers. They face the main road, are fenced in and a rod from the lake. Kach has a backhouse directly overhanging the water and the family slops are doliberately thrown into It. 'fhiH Is the case for nearly a mile along the niirgin. and nothing special is-raid about it. True, the engineers think such practices are wrong, but they aro i oworfc'ss to prevent, them. Such ha- ever been tho en mm, and until leg'slation is had to abate tho nuisances le v will continue. 11m location of tho houses on tie- <J1 neida shore at Carmel is Indicated by the spots niarke I A, B, C, Ac. Thejr aro downright poisonous to Hie water which feeds the wostorn branch of the Croton. MALARIA. MEDICAL OriNI(>f.'S?WHAT LEADING PHYSICIANS DEEM THE HOUBCKH OF MIASMATIC DlSOBDKItH. Recent disclosures tnidc in relation to the defective sanitary condition of the city, and the largo and In creasing death rato from llm condition, havo been a sourco of considorablo uneasiness to the publio. Our health reports establish the fact that notwith standing the expenditure of vast sums of money for the preservation of publi (health the city has never beou since the organization of tho Health Department in such a wretched sanitary < ondition. An examination of tho mortuary records i*ovcs that deaths from tnu malic disease* havo be n almost con - t.antly on the increase for tho past seven years All tho efforts of the city officials charged with the maintenance of the public health hnve been l/uitless to arrest this stato of afru, and the herious questions now beforo the people of this city are, the causes ot the excess^ mortality, the smitary measures necos Siry to relieve the presont low Mato of the public hoolth, and the changes, ;fany, require.] hi the present mansgemoM of the Department of Health to secure a bettor and inpro 'borough administration if our health laws, and the carrying out of the improvements neces sary to placing thif city in i proper sanitary audition. In fti'iler to obtain a thorough explanation as to th'e sources of our high death rato and pre "nt unhealth fulness, the writer failed upon a pum! or of the leading physicians to ask their flews and opinions on this sub ject. A considerable number of the medical gentlemen called ui on were very reluctant to express their opln Ioni on the subject some for tho reason that they were unwilling to sec their names in tho public press, olhvu A out thtir uun of the eitluwvl of Inquiry, and, In fact, of all matters relating to sanitary science. One of the first physicians iult on thin subject was PRorisssort wrr.LiAM a. nA*Movn, and, In answer to inquiries, ho stated his willingness to give all tho Information in his power on the subject. He said:?"I bol eve, with all its natural advantages, New York Is one of tho most unhealthy citlos In tho World, and certainly wo havo tho highest death rato of any important city in tho United States. I consider that the present deplorable condition of the public hoalih is to a groat extent due to tho utter inefficiency of our present health authorities To give you an Il lustration of the ignorance and neglect of sanitary scienco and public health in this country we will take the thros medical colleges of this city. In none of them does a student receive the slightest instruction or Infor mation on these Important subjects from the time he enters until he is sent on tho world to practise his pro fession, although physicians are considered and held as the guardians of our public health." RufoKTKR?Dr. Hammond, what Is your opinion as to the presence of malaria In this city and its intluenco on the public health? I)r. Ha**oxn?My experience has been that tho influ ence of ma'arial poison as a source of disease has nover been, to my knowledge, so active or extensive .is within the past year or so. I tlnd that diseases dependent on this source, and hitherto unknown except among the poor, are becoming developed in tho richer and better oil" classes of the community. This is especially the case with one affection?diphtheritic paralysis. Nervous af fections, such as neuralgia, epilepsy, catalepsy, .spinal irritation, loss of voice, liavo largely increased, and I havo witnessed within a short time three coses of in sanity that were directly traceable to malarious influ ences. A good many ot these affections have yielded and the patients recovered under the use of quiuino aud arsenic, the usual remedies for diseases dependent on malarial poisoning. 1 And in my clinics hold at the college that the large proportion of cases of malaria^ disease are from the cast side of the city, and you know that it Is in this section that most of the detective sewerage and filled In ground n located. Diphtheria, so prevalent and fatal, Is undoubtedly due to this source. Kki'oiitrh?How do you explain the almost constant increase of mortality from miasmatic disease? Dr. Hammoxo?Well, you see, for five or seven years the ohm of discaso havo been constantly Increasing and gottlng worse. The population of the city has largely Increased, aud tho limits of the city lute expanded very littlo, producing in certain quarters overcrowding of people. The principal sourres of disease In the upper portion of the city havo been the opening of tho Kourlh avenue r ut, the condition ot tho Harlem Hats and the disgraceful sanitary state of Central I'ark. Rki'Ohtkr?Havo you directly traced the production of disease to tho present condition ot the Central Park ? Dr. Hammoxd?Yes, in a considerable number of cases, I have known of cases of intermittent f"vor, neuralgia, persistent headaches, caused by visiting the I'ark in Uie evening. A consider ttte present sanitary condition of the Park very bad, and, unless improved, will be a source of a good deal of sickness to the peoplo of this city. Kki'Ort:;i(?What means should be adopted lo secure a bett?r sanitary condition ? Dr. Hammoxk?In the first place you must disconnect the drainage of tho public water closets and urinals from flowiug into tho lakes, m<J also a considerable amount of the surface drainage from tho I'ark. All this should bo conducted into tho street seWerlge. Tho lakes and pon<fs should be thoroughly cleaned and tho bottoms cemented, so that at stated intervals the water could be run oir and tho lake's bed swept. Another great source of disease is our wrotohed sys tem of street sewerage. This Is one of the great causes of diphtheria and kindred disens s. Rkportkk?Is thcro in your opinion any need for a chnnge in tho way the Health Department .s at present managed f Dr. Hammond -Decidedly tliflre Is; the present sys tem Is a humbug; with few exceptions tho present odh nls aro entirely ignorant or all matters rolatlvo to public health and sanitary ficlcuco. Tho Hoard have plenty of power and nil the law they want to improve our present condition, but they do not know anything abotjt'he m?tlcr There should ho one Commissioner of Health responsible to tlie Mayor and having abso luto control of the nuhlic health. A bureau should be established St the head of Which should he placed a good sanitary engineer to inspect all sewering! plans, house drainage. 4c., in the city, particularly tho fenc tnent houses, !u this way and lt\ jt short time and by the strict enforcenieut of 'lio sanitary code tho public health would bo matorially improved. To show y-NI the workings of the present system. In tin beginning of lb") >ar an attempt was made by some of the Com missioners of liowtli lo idopt the plan "I omptying the ficssuooU and water Uoscts bv umstug a Ivui tubs Into tho vaults and by exhaustion emptying the con tents and carry nil tho stu!f into air tight vessels placed on wagons; in this way doing i v-ty with the old and disgusting slop jar pi in lU.tt certainly wis productive of disease, All tho scavengers in tho city were immediately up in arms, or rather buckets, against this plan. They went in a body to tho Mayor tind some of the Commissioner* and threatened all Horn of political vengeance againut tho party if | their work was taken from them. The result of the | entire affair was, tho scavengers were victorious. This entirely inoffcn<ivo plan whs ilropped, as its adoption would seriously hurt tho democratic party and vote on election day. I am a firm believer of one-man power | lor this department. Drain the swamp lauds, improve our sewerage system and bousj drainage, and the ; beneficial enot t on the public health will soon bu seen. ' Wishing the Doctor good day and thanking hint for his Interesting review of the question the reporter left. 1 DR. HTKI'HKN SMITH, ex-Health Commissioner, was the uoxt party applied to lor information on the subject. Rci'OKTEii?Dr. Smith, what is your opinion as to I the present sanitary condition of the city ? Dr. Smith?I think our present sanitary condition is t decidedly bad, but some -ections of the city are much worso than others. The death rate in the Fifteenth ward is lxit half that in tho First and Sixth wards, and is less than two-thirds I lint, ol the Kigl.th, Fourteenth anil SeveuteeiUl: wards. This is explained by the fact that I In tho 'Fmeenth ward, as a genaral rule, each family occupies a separate dwelling. In the other wards each hou-e contains any number of familiws, from three up ; RitvoaTKR?Thou you consider the tenement house system the principal source of discaso? Dr. Smith?Yes, the returns of tl>? Health Depart- j irient show that from 60 to 7b per cent of the total mor tality Is In tenement houses, and that the highest tnor tality is iu those containing tho largest number of j families. One third of tho mortality is caused by dis.- ; casus originating in or aggravated by foul air. filth and | contagion, called zymotic ill.-eases. These facts prove ! that In eerta n sections of the city. "^Wiere tho peoplo i live in their own dwellings, tho public health is as good j as that of a country town. In certain athor sections, where the people are massed t?gethor, tho mortality is twice as great as it should be. it ii'ouTKit?What are the principal sources of disease ! In the poorer class ol dwellings? Dr. Smith?It wo exclude street filth, imperfoot pavements and defective sowers, we find within ilia house conditions which create all tho elements <jf un- I healthfulness. First?Thero is no ventilation maintained, tho house : is a sealed box. Hi-contl?Tho house drains are so Imperfect that they serve as conduits for tho distribution of deadly sewer gases to every room. T.'iiril?one hundred persons living in a tightly closnd house, story above story, Boon inlect the air by tho excretions from their bod es with the most fatal ani- j mal i>o sons. j-'uurth?i'lie unhealthy habits of the poor lead to the saturation of clothing, furniture, wall3, tloors. &c., with animal aud organic matters dangerous to life. Fin.i!hj?Tho poor live in such familiar contact that contagious uiid in fictions diseases spread without tho slightest hindrance. Faulty a?are our sewers, defective hi are our methods of street paving and the removal of filth, at)d extensive as are our sources for the produc tion an I | navigation ol malaria, these sources of un healthfulness arc of small amount compared with those which are generated In the liou-es ol the poor. Uki-ortkii?'To what extent can '"rolonn" bo ex tendi d to tho present condition of thotenement houses? Dr Smith?i'heso evils cau to a large extent be reme died and In all cases mitigated by Intelligent and persist ent oll'orts ol tho sanitary "authorities. In tho ilrst placo, liouse drains can be so constructed that neither scwor gases nor gases from the house tilth can enter dwel lings. Competent sanitary cngmoers should visit every tenement house In the city, an.I whero such provision Is not already secured, the necessary change should bo made under their supervision. A system ol ventilation can be devised which will be soli-regulating and winch will securo change ol tho cnt:ro air at any dwelling every hour. Sanitary architects should be empowered by personal supervision to carry out this reform In every tenement house. The peep I o should not bo permitted to over crowd their dwellings. Only a certain uunibor of human beings can safely live in a given number of square j arils of surfaco area and in a given number of cubic foot ot air spaco. This limit should be 11 xcd and rigidly enforced. There should be a system of house to hourio Inspec tion among the poor by competent women who should by personal advice, Instruction and aid, securo a thor ough house cleaning nt least once a month, and reform the methods of housekeeping and care of children. Ukkorthk?What is your opinion of the present sys tem adopted by the Board Of Health 1 Dr. Smith?Hoards ot Health are ijenerally too med ical In thoir organization, and hence oxpen-lvo. Tho general inspect loll of n Usances ? hould be made by tho sanitary jHilico. If this was done tho number of med ical ollleers in the employ of tho Hoard could bo re duced and the physicians rolievi d of tho unprofessional work of Insyeetlngcoin'non nuisances. They could de vote tbeir time to the most important Of All studios ? the causi s of sickuc.-s a:.-i death?wjt'ch rcitilre med ical knowledge for their discovorjr and appreciation. Xo branch of sanitary work is so necessary to the suc cessful a>!nilni-!ra'.m ol health laws as that which will unfold those hidden an I as yet mysterious causes which give us excessive mortality rates (torn certain diseases. Tli? modi.ml ulem-nt of a Board ot Health thus seduced and required to perform only professional dytl': . men skilled in engineering, architecture mid otle-r branches could fie ft tided, and t!'p mast thorough ref-.rtiis could be instituted into sli the defects In cxi.-t illg hotl-?? nil I In eerg?' 'h'e1* Of roiislfeetinn TliO :io\l gentium ,n cnTfeT upon lo slate n Is views ot; (tin Important question of our sanitary coni'ltiou rnornssoR ai.oxzo ci.ap.ic, who. in answor to Inquiries on tho subject, state! as folio .VS!? In my experience mahrla lies been very prevalent along th? lino of the Fourth avenue Improvement, and I have been Informed by parties i mployed <>n this work th*i lUc '^oikuiuu autkicd a deal frwta lutciimt - tent fiver. Thli wu also the MM with people living along tho line. Another considerable source of ruaU rial poison ia tho undrained lands in tho upper portiua of the city. Ksi'ortkr?Professor, what is tho sanitary condition of the Contral Park* Professor Clark?I have hoen formed lhat visiting thf Park at night, ml particularly nailing on tho lakeii, has produced several oases of Intermittent fever. This being tho case, these ponds and lakes must be produc tive of malarial poison Kki'oktik?hat ellect has our ?owerage system on the public health? Professor Clark?'There ran bo no doubt but lhat ? great dual of the typhoid fever and kindred affections, diphtheria, Ac., is caused in this way. These low fornu of disease arc also caused by tho overcrowding of llit tenement houses. IIkpoktkk?What measures aro necessary to secure a beneficial change in our present sanitary condition and to remove all sources of malarial poisoning. Professor Clark?In the ilrst place a better system ol sewerage Is necessary. The waste lauds in the uppei portion of thv city should he Ilrst diked and drained and then filled In. My dumping roruso matter and street oleuniug on land saturated with water, you but mcrcas* the danger to the public health. In connection witlr these improvements if overcrowding tenement housef Is prevented the sanitary condition of the city will 1* much Improved. PROFESSOR ALFRED I.OOMIS, of tho University Modical College, was found at Bellcvuo anil expressed himself willing to answer all inquiries. Kkpoutrh?Doctor, what ii your opinion us "to tlm statement that malaria is the principal cause of our huh death rate? Doctor Loomis?I consider thnl tho opinion is per fectly correct, there can be no doubt that malaria trouble outers into if arly overy form of thq disease now prevailing lu the city. I never remember a time sinoa 1 hat e praclised here that we have bad so much sick ness dopendeut on unlarlal Influences. Formerly a case ol intermittent lever was to a certain cxtcut rare, but at the present time diseases that have been hitherto lookod upon as not very dangerous, have bocome very fatal, owing to the poisonous effects of (his miasm. Krportkr?In what sessions of tho city do you lliid malarial diseases c.hielly prevail ? Dr. I,ooMl8?In my private practice I find dlsenscf dependent on this trouble in overy part ol'tho city, but partii ularly on tho lino of Fourth avenue. Tho class ol diseases prevailing in this city has entirely changed within the past ten yoars Dipthoria is dependent oa our defective sewerage, and until a complete change U made in our entire health system, and the necessary remedies applied, wo will continue lu our proscnt un healthy state. nR. FRANK n. HAMILTON, of Bellevuo Hospital, was tho next person to whom application was made for information on tho subject and the following are bis views:? Among tho reasons which may bo given why Now York is less healthy than other cities of equal size art the following:?First, New York is u?t only a large aui' overci owdt d city and a commercial city, but it is a now city. It Is not paved thoroughly, its sewers, gas pipe/ and wati r pipes are not perfected, but they are being/ constantly disturbed exposlug Ibo underlying soil which is lillod with decaying vegetable matters. The cobble and rotten wooden pavements are receptacle! for dirt, and It Is Impossible to keep them clean. Se? ond, a large proportiou ol (lie population-are emigrant,' and of a class who do not know what cleanliness moans, Third, this is an eminently democratic country, k which the voice of the people is law, anywhere ii tin people waut dirt they must bo permitted Co have it, .Whoever deprives thorn of this privilege by onlorciui* sanitary ordiuancos innst expect to lose their rotes. In short it is not to tie expected that Now York wil for years to come bo as healthy as older cities and ai cities in which laws can bo more vigorously cnforcoii The people will have to be taught ilrst by pestilence perhaps. Kki'ortbr?Doctor, what is the best means of enforce Itig tho sanitary laws?by cho present system or n on/ man power? Dr. Hamilton?T believe oao Intelligent medical man, a man of good common setiso and a si Iff back and whr has no favors to ask, would d'? moro to givo us a clear and healthy city than a down men with divided re sponsibility. Khporthr?Doctor, what is tho cause of the preva lence of diphtheria ' Dr. Hamilton?All I know about it is that It comer with dirt and foul odors, and tO'^et rid of it wo muii' remove these. After a considerable hunt PROFK8SOR JA.MKS R, WOOD . was found, and, iu answer to inquiries, statod that although he was deeply I'lit rested in sanitary matter! still, without examining tho subject carefully ho woul/ prefer not to give a full opinion omthc subject. i&Ki'OHTKR?To what extont does mularial and mi asmatic trouble exist? Professor Wood?I believe that a great amount of 0111 present b.id condition, as rogards public health, tr caused by defective drainago, and in the upper poriior ot tho city tho swamp land increases the bad MMiitarj condition by producing an Immense amount ef mala rial poison. Another great source of diseaeo Is thf condition of the tenement houses. It is a>disgrace to any city, and the owners should bo held and severely punished. Tho emanations Irom defective seuoragi is an immense source of disease, and utit.il thas sys torn of drainago is thoroughly remedied, mud thi swamp lands in the upper portion of the city eff?ctivoU drained, the city will remain m its present nnhealthj condition. Wishing the Professor good day, search wca mad after DR. LKWI3 A. SA Y UK. : who was round at his* ofllce. Rispoktkk?I>r. S.iyro, I have called upon yon to gr*. your viowa as to the present condition of tut publ1' health. Or. Satiis?My views on this question are tho sami now as when I was Resident l'hyslcian lotho-city, au< aro tho same ns I .stated in my reports on this subject The present unhealthy condition of tho ciiy b) neurit ?ntiroly dun to tho wretched and deleoti.vu system i? drn;n ige and the choking up of all. tlio mu tral walei courses without giving free vent for tho escapo of ao cumulated water* By tho present .system constat* saturation or the soil is allowed and kept up?over) pip? that is laid and sewer trench mado aliosvs the es capo of malarial po son. RaronraR?What nre your vlows rogwidjug the preH em condition of the swamp lands in tho ti(i>per purlin of tho city 1 I)r. Saykk? It would bo much, bettor for tho hoalt) of tlie city, both present and future; if Mint oillcials lof this placo alono or did the work properly. Tho preset*' plan of tilling in those wot tumls is but forming frost sources of pestllonce and disease. Kvery drain that f opened, every pipe that U laid in that section in afto tiuu s will cause diseesn and death by permitting thi' escape of deadly gases, tho result ot aoimal and vegol* ble decomposition. Tuc proper plan tor this district Is to dry tho land' first !>y dyking thetu in Irani the tidb and the eoustruc tvjn ot proper drains. When this Is accomplished th. lands can bo filled in without any danger to tho publi health. Rktortkr?What Is your opinioa as to tho tonotneu.' house quof-tiou 1 l)r. Savrk?My views on this qoorttion arc contained in my report of lstjft, and time has only confirmed the truth of them. They are as follows:?At present itMMl of 1U0 tenement houses in this city aro abxolutely un til for occupation, and they uuiy l>o divided into throe Classes?First, those which, by a slight modification and improvement in ventilation, ean be made habitable, second, those that by roco-mstrifction and a limited number of tenants can bo mado healthfVil, and third, tboso which, by uu possibility, could be made so except by destruction and rebuilding. As they are now they are pestholes that breed typhoid and typhus fevers, not onltf destroying the inhabitant? within their walls, but becoming tlio sources of Iti propagation to other and more reopoctoblo parts af th? city. KkimrTBR?What changes aro necessary to iiaprovr th-f public health? I)r. .Saykk?We must have a complete and thorough chan;o in our sewerage system. Tho drainage of oui tcuoment houses, in lact. all classes of dwellings, must be iltero l and improved. The drainage of cur swatng lands must be accomplished. No other heaJth board In tlie world has more power or authority than that charged with the public health of this city. It Is no fault of the laws, but simply in carrying tlum out. DR. KllSKINK MASON was calJod on In relation to this subject, ar4 statod thai In hia practice he found malarial disorders from LUi> bosi and rlchost dwollings down to tho to lenient houso. That thero was up question but that th? present sani tary condition of tho city was very bad. Our entire system ol sanitary engineering and administration of health matters was wrong, and until a complete ch&ng* was mado wo could export but littlolmproveme t in tho public health. PROFXSSOH JOIIX p. D^UfSR, of tho New Vork 1'nlvorsity, was called on, ami silted that as to the actual sanitary condition of the i>lty he could give no opinion, but that u ihange In the present sanitary system would undoubtedly bo beneficial Tlio I'rofe-sor considered that one r.sponsible mau at tho head oi the Health Department could do more cflVctiva work, and give bottor value Iojt the money sj<onl, than la accomplished under the present system. A number of other medical gentlemen were visi tod in relation to this question, but declined t>.i givo their Views on the sub.jei t. A n udy of the foregoing statements 1 slaldishcs tho fact ot the pretence of malaria and luia-smalic. poison in thla city and Its destructive Inllueneo on the hoali.it of the people, notwithstanding tho oilorts of our health officials to deny the existence ol this groat source of disease. Wo also And that the present unhealthy con dition or tho city is dc|K.>mtent 011 three great sources for the production of diseaso. first, tho large area of umlralriod swamp lands In the upper portion of the city; s jcond, our present defecive and incomplete sys tem o? street and uouse sewerage: and, third, the over crowding of the poorer classes of the community ami consequent unhealthy and diseaso-produoing condition of lb') tenement dwolllngs. An examination of the vlowa td thcs> gentlemen proves that where these throe conditions for the production ol contagion are absent the sanitary condition ol tho district and condition of public lie,iltli is good, and thai in or ler to restore tins city to .1 proper sanitary condition these three great sources of contagion and epidemic diseaso must be suppressed or removed. No othor Health Board 111 tlm Untied Wales bus more power or law at iti buck to curry out these remedial moaxur?s an i netea s.?ry improvements. Tho unhealthy condition of the city Is not due *0 wnnl of tho noce.-sarv pow<r t<. remedy these evils, bit* eithor official ncglcct or lack of aldhiy. The present :-yst"tn ol IMBtlng al'li r dead cats and dogs and pas~iug over grave and constant sourci 1 ol dlsoas". with merely a mention ol their e^isfene-. iB their inn mi.', r?t'V '.'Uflitfsd, ati3 T the ',;>s<nl n< aitn officials are unable lo Improve our sad itory c (fiditloiip then Hi sooierachange Is made in tilt arim.'ulstrfljfou wl til's th.; bett-.r ior tho p. op!>?. T)i/i.tca responsibility menus, in a great many 111. tUr.M.*. vcrf little work, auu Ill's Hip'i-s with o;t sidcrolde force to out pica ?nl sanitary ,-yslem, an I tho S'lfgesll^ni 0^ suiuo of tho modic il ynttftnen wiiooe vU>',a publish OU this su!>J< ct, (hat tho Health De pirtiTifllt be plicM unler a responsible head, with pow r to employ a compcteni lore.-of physicians, on git)."' rs ,111: architects, is, considt ring the present man* tgemnnt of hesitii mutters, worthf of ationtive ?idcr?uvb