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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, December 12, 1876, Image 5

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A Mine of Gold, and Silver
The Great Archaeologist's First Visit
to Mycenae.
lite greet Interest wblch Dr. Schllemann's wonderful
discovery at Mycenae ben aroused among the general
public, as well as among antiquarians and classical
scholars, renders the present an opportune time to lay
beforo our readers some account of bia lormor visit to
Mycenie and, as inr as is knowu, of bis present dis
coveries. Tnc ruing of Myccmc are, beyond all ques
tion, sumo of tbe very oldosl in Kurope, and every
thing which pertains to thorn must bo of 'Inlonse in
terest to uh who derive so much of our literature, art
and science, from this almost forgotten race. To ust
at the present day, the age of Agamemnon seems so
far bacic in the dim p;<st that It is diflicult to
bolieve tint a race of men then lived who, centuries
be I ore tbo first written history, wrro possessed of
many ot tbo arts and sciences which make tifo pot
only comfortable but even luxurious. But, as Horico
truly remarks, "Vixoro lories anti-Agamemnoua," so
wo may safely conclude that many great ODd powerful
monarchs rcigued on the throne of Fclops before the
mighty "king of men" ascended It. In fact, there la
ample evidence to show that that dynasty was
founded on tbe ruins of another, nnd that tbo former
eucceodad to tbo original Polusgic rule.
Myeenm was one of the capitals of the little State of
Argolis. Tbe latter lies along tbe eastern re ico.Tst of
tbe Peloponnesus, and was, from Its position, one of
the first pans of Greece Invaded by tbo Phoenicians
and bardy sailors of Asia Minor. Besides Myccnuiwut
also Argos, a place of most likely greater sizo, but or
less luiportanoo tban Myccnro, whoro the royal palaro
was. Dr. Schllemann visited the scene of the present
exploration in 1S07, and early in the present autumn
he began tbo work which has just cuimlnatod in the
present valuable discovery.
The following loiter from Dr. Schllemann to a friend
In Lelpsio Is ol Interest:?
Myiex.e, Nov. 15.
I found below tbo three sculpturod tombstone*, of
wbleh 1 sent you the drawings, a square toiub lit!si
lect long and 11 '2-3 loet broad. The depth ol it 1 can
not yet determlna, us It has not bean entirely
emptied. It certainly exceeds 14)i feet below the sur
face of tho rock and 5d leet below the surface ol the
Acropolis, ns tl was when I began my excavations
there. Tho tomb borders on the wall which supports
tue double circular parallel rows of tombstones; nay,
tho wall goes through the northwest angle of the tomb.
This fixes their rolatlve age. When that wall wis
being built tho old tomb was evidently emptied, and I
found iu It only thirteen gold buttons (one ot them as
large as u llve-frutic piece), with splendidly engraved
spiral lines, and with the slgu which some nrchasolo
gists call tho Bvostika or Aram, from its similarity
with tho Inulan symbols ol that linnio. Thcro was a
mass of gold blades with Impressed circles or spiral
ornaments, but nothing in situ, antl scattered about at
intervals of three and six feet.
lu the second row ot sculptured tombstones I found
beneath two slabs a square ditcb 11 2-3 feet broad, 21
leet long, and cut 14>^ leet deep into tbo rock. Its
bottom reaches, therefore, to 3u feet below tho aurfuco
ot tho mount. Around tbe lour sides ol tbo to;ub is a
Cyclopean wall 5 feot high aud 2 leet thick. It con
tained bodies .reposing on tho rock. They hud evidently
been burnt; tbe bones wore cmbeddod in black ashes
and covered with a layer of largo stores. It is impos
sible as yol to determtue tho number of bodies con
tained In (his tomb. Tho bones ot one person dug up
at tbe south corner were covered with live immense
gold leaves?tbo Urst leal 47 centimetres long and 10
broad; tho second 47 ** centimetres long and 6'a
broad; the third, 66 centimetres long and ~6J, broad ;
Ibe fourth, 0o centimetres long aud 6y, broad, and the
filth, 03 centimetres long and 0broad. I'pnu theso
gold leaves woro louud five crosses, each 18 centi
metres long and'4 centimetres broad, and lormcd each
ol four gold leaves. There wore besides four gold
blades of circular form?ouo 8, tho other a t* and tho
third 2'i centimetres In diameter?and numerous
ornaments which 1 cannot hero describe.
I have uow begun to dig up tbo toinb benoath tho
(tone with tho bas-relief of the two serpents, nud
mother beneath two unsculptured stones in tho second
row. There are more such tombs in tho large circle
ol the double parabel row. I shall not leave Mycenie
till 1 have examined them all
As the wall with tho circular rows of slabs passes
through part ot the Urst tomb, and as tho second tomb,
wnicli was undisturbed, coutnlris only more auolem
baud made pottery, it seems clear thai those tombs are
far inoro ancient than the doublo parallel row.-, of slabs,
which were probably erected iu honor of tho heroes
wbo, us tradition has it, lay buried in those immense
square tombs.
Tbe treasury hns given me Immense troeble, and
though I have been working at it tor more than two
mouths with u Urge number of laborers and carts, It is
still lar from being entirely cleared out. Tho centre of
it la clear down to tbo virgin soil, ana likewise tho
threshold. Nothing of particular interest has as yet
been found there.
On the 17th of November Dr. Schllemann writes:?
I hasten to Inform you that in the sumo tomb were
found tbo calcined rematna of two moro bodies, each
with precisely tho same number of gold leaves, round
blades and crosses. All tbcsu objects have tho tame
beautiful ornamentation ot spiral Jiuos and circles. In
a day or two I shall know how many moro tombs thero
are. 1 am now oloaring the whole oircle down to the
In tbo great oircle of parallel slabs beneath tbe
archaic sepnlchral stones, which Dr. Schllemann baa
shown to bo tbe tomb of Agamemnon and bis compan
ions, he has discovered Immense tombs containing
Jewelry. Ho found In ono portion ot a tomb human
bones, mala and female, plate, jewelry of pore archaic
gold weighing five khogrammos, twor sceptres with
# heads ol crystal, and chased objects In silver and
bronze, and a great quantity ot women'* Jewelry In
gold, handsomely worked. Immediately alter com
mencing excavations at an adjoining tomn
a large head of a cow in silver, with im
mense horns of puro gold, was found. A lurge girdlo of
gold, flvo gold vasos and unmenso golden buttons wero
also found. All these objects woro marvellously
worked. Among other discoveries aro nine silver
vases nnd numerous swords ot bronze, but no trace of
Ironwork. The loliowlng articles of pure gold and
splendid ornamentation woro also found:?A helmet,
two diadems, a woman'# largo comb, a lurge breast
plate, three masks, six vases, two bracelets, two rings,
three broocbos, an Immcnso mass of buttons, leaves
and other articles, tbree Urge girdles, a silver vase, a
?tag cast In lead, with a mats of aworda, daggers, axes
and warriors' knives, all of bronxe, with twenty-live
flint-headed arrows.
The following account ol Dr. Scbliemann'a first visit
to M/ceniR and bia abortive attempt at exploration will
amply repay perusal:?
We arrived at hall-past twelve, noon, at tbo dirty
tad miserable village of Cbarratl, which occu
pies part ol the site of tbo ancieul city
ol Mycame, once tho capital of Agamvro
noo, and renowned for Its immense wealin. My
guides and tho two soldiers bau travelled on loot the
Whole way from Corinth, and wore so fatigued as not
to be abio to follow me to tho Acropolis, winch was
about two miles from Chsrvati. I allowed the in to
rest in the viilago uuill uiv return, tho inoro willingly
as wo had passed the mountains, and 1 hud no more to
fear from brtganda besides uicy knew nothing of
Myeenm, not even Ibe name, and had no notion of
tbo heron to whom that city is indebted for lu glory;
consequently they could not bave been of the loust
use tome, cither to point out the monumout* or to
stimulate my enthusiasm lor archaeology. I look with
me, then, only n boy from the village, who know tho
citadel by the name ol "tho lorl of Apauiomunn" and
tbo great treasury by that of "Agamemnon's tomb. "
Tbe celebrity of Mycenae belongs only to tbo heroic
age, lor the city lost Us Importance alter tnc returu
?i the Hernclldm and the occupation ol Argos by tbo
Dorians, but it retained Ita independence and sup
ported the national cause against tbe Persians; eight*
Mycomnns loughl and died with tho little band of
bpnrtans at Thermopylae and 400 Mycenians
and lyrhcnltns took a share in tho battle
ol Platnic. The Arglves, who romnlned neutral,
onviod the honor which tno Myccuiaua had acquired
by llieirpart In theso battles, and, besides, leafed
lest, seeing the ancient glory of tholr city, the My
cenuns would recover the hegemony of tho Argolide;
lor theso reasons they laid siege to Mycuuiu, took it
and destroyed it In 4b0, B. C.
tVlion Thueydidea visited the city, after the lapse of
acontury, ho round it in ruins, girabo says:? "My
eenm no longer exists to-day;" but ho dues not np
getr to have over been more himself, lor surely If he
ad he would have uiudc mention of Its ruins nnd lis
Ciladol. When l'ausunias visned Myccnm, nearly live
centuries and a ball alter Tbucydides, he saw a pai l
of Its lorircis, the gate wilh tho two lions, tho trea
suries ol Atreua and his son, tho tombs of Atrcus,
those or tho companions of Agamemnon, assassinated
k> JUaisthuAL those of Cassandra, of Acamainnon. of
the charioteer, Eurymednn; 01 toe ion of Cassandra,
of tClei tru, ol .Kgi.-ihtu anil ol Clytemueatrn.
As those Ingt two tombs were "a ilmrt distance out
side ilie walla, tor they |.?gi*lhus and Ciytetnnostra)
were considered unworthy ol home interred in the tu
tor.or, where Agamemnon reitcd, together with thoie
aMasstnoted wlib linn," we are obliged to conclndo
thiit I'ausuuiaa aaw all tlic mausoleums in the A< ropo
In Itself, and trial those ol .Kglslkus and ClyU mnestra
weiC Without the enclosure ol the citadel. There Dow
remain! no vesuge ol any of these funereal moou
tneuia, but thcrocan be no doubt but that they would
he iouud again If excavations ? ere made. On ILoother
baud, the Acropolu n well preset ved; and, in any
case, it li even to tlni day in much better condition
than ono would presume lo hope for, alter the ex
pression ol rausautaa:?"Meanwhile there are at ill
some remains ol the citadel/ and. anion*; others,
the gate above that of the lions.'' In tact, all the
walls ol the enceinte of the citadel atill exist; thev
have a thickness ol Irom sixteen to twenty-three leet
in many places, and a height according tot ne nature of
the around of from aixtceu to thirty-nine leeL In
several places these walls are built of immense
blocks of sioue, irregular in shape, and hav
lug between them spaces Oiled up with
smaller ones. Hut the greater part is built of polygonal
stoues hewn artistically so ns to lit togethor, the ex
tremities being perfectly jointed lor the purpose of
giving a smooth ap|icaraiicc lo the masonry. In soino
places, and uoubly in llin neighborhood of Ibe great
gaic, there is a third kind ot wall, which is lormed of
almost quadrangular stones of Iroin live lo ftllecn leet
long by three to live high and three to six iu thickness
The citadel is about l.luo leet long and forms an ir
regular triangle; it Is situated on a small but sleep
hill, between two water courses, and at the loot of two
mouuiaius ol about l.ouo feet high each. Within tho
ground rises from nil sides toward the centre, in tho
lorin of terraces supported equally on all sides by the
Cyclopean wails. 1 iouud there three cisterns and I
descended into the largest, but got out In a harry, as
it tvns lull ol poisonous serpents. The great gale, of
which I havoalready spokou, is situated on tho north
west side, at tho right extremity, where the neighbor
ing walls meet. Ike way up 10 this Is by a
passage about forty-eight feet long and thirty wide,
formed by this wall and another parallel one
on the outside, which seems to havo had no
other purpose thau the defence of this passage. This
same door is about 10 loet high am! 'J wide. It is
formed of two stones set on end, each 3 leet wide and
6 deep; across the top is a Ibird, 15 fret long and 4
deep. On this Inst stone, which iu us middle is ti loci
high, and which diminishes toward the two ends, a
triuugular stone Is placed, measuring 1*4 leet long, 0
high anil l>s deep. On this two lions are carved iu low
rciiel, standing on their hind paws and resting on a
circular altar, which is placed between them. The
altar is surmounted with a column, having a capital
lormad of lour circles, enclosed la parallel cbaplela.
According to Muller this column is the common sym
bol of Apollo Aggieur, the protector of portals.
These befc-reliuls cl ibe lions are executed with great
graco and finish, mid as they aro the sole remains of
lire plastic nrl ot the heroic ngs ol Greece, they are of
immense interest to arcturology. In tho liulel and
threshold ol the great gale mere can be plainly seen
the murks of iho bulls and hinges and in the great
stones ol the pavement the rats ot chariot wheels.
There is a postern gate on tho northeast side, seven
leet high and lour wide; It also is formed of throe
stones, hut is uiiscitlplured. Tho whole surface ol the
grouud in tho r.iladct is covered with tiles and pieces of
pottery, and, us 1 had an opportunity ol romnrklngln
the caau ot a ouch which a peasant dug, debris ol this
kind was found even lo a depth ol eighteen loot.
Therefore there can bo uo doubt of the lnct that
anciently all ibe Acropolis was inhabited, and Irom its
Imposing and extensive position wc must conclude
that it contaiued Hie ituluce ol tho family ol Alrcus.
I then turned to Hie Treasury ot Agamemnon, com
monly celled "Tomb of Agauwmnon," winch lies about
three-quarters ol a mile lrom ilio citadel. 11 Is dug tu
the sine ot a little bill, lacing a deep raviue. A pas
sage, 147 Icel long and about ?0 wide, lormcd ol two
parallel walls, each IK) (eel high and built of hewn
stones of about II leot by 2, lends u> tho grand entrance,
which is IB lecl high unit, at the lop, d wide, but its
width gradually increases, and it is ti feet at the base.
This gate is covered with ono block ol beiiulllully hew n
stone, 27 lect loug uud 4 high, above which
there Is a triangular opening or 12 leot
high and the sauiu width at tho base. Curi
osity having made me climb ibis gate 1 found in
the triangular opening some traces which conviuced
mo that stutues or little columns wero placed there.
There was tormerly on each sido ol the great gate a
column with base and capital, and enrlcbod with ele
gant sculptured ornaments, which, according to
l,eake, bad no rcsomblance to any other sculptures ot
ancient Greece, hut wblch approached the style of
carvings at l'erscpolis. in the great entry the marks
ol the bolts and hinges ot tho dours are visible, aud
on the same line with theaa marks a sories of little
round holes of about an inch nnd a half diameter and
hall an Inch deep, and at the bottoms of tbeso two
little holeswliich evidently held nails of bronze. Tho
treasury contains two chambers, the first of which is
sbuped like a cone, ot filly leot diameter and about
the snuio height. It communicate* by a door
with an interior chamber ot quadrangular shape,
which is only tweniv-one feet In length uud width,
and is ronglily dug into the rock.
This last was entirely durk. and, unlorlnnatoly, 1
had brought no matches with me. I told the hoy who
had come with tne from Charrati to go and gut some,
hut be assured mo there was not such a thing in the
village. Being convtneed that, even in tho houses of
the I'cloponncsus, ibero must be some matches, 1 told
him I would give him a bull drachma (oight ceuts) lor
threo matches. The boy stood stupcticu hdu aghast
at such liberality, hut could not brlug himself to be
lieve it ui first. Three ntnos over be asked me il 1
would truly give him "liny lefts" If he would seek
some matches; twice 1 gave him a simple
affirmative answer, hut tbo third litno 1
swore on the ashes ol Agamciuuon and Cly
leinnostra. Scarce had I ejaculated this oath
than the youngster made ofT at lull speed toward
Clmrvatl, though more than a tnllo distant Irom tho
treasury of Agamemnon, and came back hot baste
with a handle ol brambles In ono baud and ten matches
In the other. I asked him why ho had brought three
iiuoe the number of mutches 1 had told him to.
First he gave me evasive answers; bui, being pressed
on tbe point, at last admitted that be was afraid that
some ot the matches would be bad, and that he bad
brought ten instead ol three in order to guarantee
himself againat all chances and to curry o(T the prom
ised recompense when he arrived, lie *oon kindled a
Alio tiro In the chamber, making light enough to scare
tho thousands ol bats which bau established their
dwellings there, aud which mado a loud noise In their
ondeavors to escape. But, blinded by tbo brightness of
the blszo, they (ailed to find the door, aud flew rest
lessly from sldo to side of the room, annoying us
mucn, flyioz in our laces and hanging to our clothes.
Tbe great ball or dome is built of liewu stones (if lrom
thirteen tu thirty inches loug and eleven to i wentv-nvo
thick, laid on each other without cement. In each ol
these stones there are two mile hole1 containing the
remains ot bronzo nails, which have been set in there,
and, even yet, some entire nails may bo seen in tno
upper stones of this dome. These nails can onlv have
served to support a lining which extended over tho
whole lutcrior of the edifice, for, while wo might ad
mit that those bolow, say to a height of twelve feet,
served to suspend arms and other objects, It is ut
terly out of tbo question that those which we seo
In the stones at tbo top Af the dome could
bave been employed lor tbe same purpose. Besides
tho eonstraetlon of this edifice shows, even in the
smallest details, a wonderful enre nod art. Alter hav
ing dolled the ravages of time for thirty-ono centuries.
It is still in a state ol preservation as perfect as though
it wcro just built. There is ihorcloru but little reason
to doubt that it was adorned in a most splendid man
ner. So, I am perfectly suro that tho whole Interior
ol tbo groat ball was lined with polished plates of
bronze or bras*. I believe tbls the more, as wo see In
several ai.cicnt authors, that the Greeks had, at a very
early penord, ndorued tholr houses in this manner;
for we can in no other way explain tbe brazen houses
and ohamborsot which the ancient poets and histo
rian* speak.
A n>RAt.o representative wafted yesterday upon one
of tbe great classical authorities of the Jesuit Order In
this city and asked his opinion with regard lo tho re
cent dlacoveriea of Dr. Scbllemann in Mycente. Tbo
modesty of the reverend gentleman prompted him to
insist upon the withholding of his name, but be it
known as one of tho most accomplished and profound
scholars of the present day.
'?1 read," said tho venerable son ot Loyola, "with as
much surprise as gratification, la the Uzkald, tbe ac
count of Dr. Schllemann's discoveries, and I trust that
everything may turn out as the telegraphic account
represents IL Such an account is necessarily Impor
ted and has to be largely supplemented by conjecture;
but I am Inclined to tbo opinion that Dr. Scbllemanu
has, in tbla Instance, made a lar greater and more
valuable discovery than the ono made by b!m In what
was supposed lo he the city ot Troy.
"The book published by him on the latter discovery I
read with much interest, but 1 mast conless I was dis
appointed. Dr. Scbliemanu undertook to prove that
he bad discovered the city of Priam and he did not
prove It. Consequently bis book was inuch criticised
In England and elsewhere and bis conclusion* qucs.
tinned. To my mind they wero very properly ques
tioned. lie staled, too, that lie bad discovered a treas
ure larger than any royal troasurc in existence. It
turned out thai the whole collecnou could easily bo
put In ibis room (an apartment about ten feet square).
"1 think ho Manna a better chance of being right
this lune, and I will tell yon why. Every student ol
history knows that, of all tho authors who huvn writ
ten shout Greece sihce tbo beginning of the Christian
era, Pansanlas was botu tbo inonl painstaking and tho
most accurate. This is cvidencod by tbe fact that
none of his slnlernoiils have ever been controverted.
1 ain Inclined lo bcltevu that in his recent explorations
Dr. Scbliemann lias lollowed Puusanias, and 1 do not
think bo could have had a belter guide.
"Ho stales tbnt he has found treasure enough to fill
a largo museum, nnd 1 should not be astonished it this
were the case. My reason lor so say lug Is that subse
quently to the heroic age there was no part id Greece
which had a less share in her political and social con
vulsions than Argus. This was simply because she
was'prucllcally separated from the remainder of the
country. Although at only a comparatively short dis
tance lrom Atheus and Sparta, wo rarely hoar of her
having bccu mixed up iu the political or social broils
which came alter the neroie period, which may ho said
to have ended with the (loath of Agamemnon. Bounded
tu tho extremity ol the Peloponnesus by two deep gulls,
and ; operated on the laud side lrom the rest ol the coun
try by high mountains, she was, as it were, solitary.
Consequently, whatever may have bean left In tlie
shnpe ot treasure ut the death ol Agamemnon would
stand a bitter chance el being proscrvcd here than in
any other part ofGrocce, and I am therefore inclined
U> think that in this caaa. If Dr.dtchliemaaw has foL
lowed raussnia- bo has (track no excellent load, the
Importance ol winch raimol l>e overrated."
**po you !or.-ce any oilier re-uii* beyond the mcro
acquisit on of triaanro irom tins discovery f" saiu tUe
aileutlve interlocutor ofiho venerable ecclesiastic.
"I do," replied tho scholar; "1 fee In It, II true,
the subversion ol much nunaenre lhai has been writ
ten, not only bv professed historian* like Nlobuhr,
but also by many ol our modern p.-oudo-scieuiiltc
men. The former wanted to persuade us tnat all
uucicnl bt.-lory was a mytb dow n to tho building of
lite Cloaca Maxima by Tin qui tuns bupcrhu-; and the
luticr scvin auxious to make us believe that wo bavo
come irpm a race of savages. Discoveries like that
which Dr. tkdiliemaun purport# to have made will
upset all this nonsense, and I em. therefore, auxh >us
that ah tbut he has stated by telegraph may be luoru
than lioriie out by the result.
"But of course w? shall hare to see what tho amount
of treasure discovered by Dr Schiicuiunii really is. I
IVn uuab more -anguine in tb-scasu than 1 was in that
of his Trojan discovery, lor tne reasons I have staled.
"Apropos of this mutter," said the lather, "I may
tell you that one ol our Order has received a lotior
lrorn Cosuola. in which he stales that be has completed
his excavations tu Cyprus, and lias gut together a
moat marvellous collection, lie give* no details, but
simply slates that the collection ol treasure and
antiquities is one ot the most wonderful in the world.
We do not know whore Ceauola is at present, but no
doubt he and his treasure will soon be hc.ird front."
willum ci'llsx ntiir'i vtxws.
A Hrralp reporter culled yesterday at tho residence
ol Mr. Bryant, in Sixteenth street. A ring of the bell,
and tho door was promptly opened.
??Ves, Mr. Hrynul is at borne," and in a moment the
reporter is ushered luto a spacious parlor, while tho j
servant carried his curd to Mr. Iiryant, with a request
to be granted an interview. It was promptly granted.
"I bavo called, Mr. Bryant, on behalf ol the Hkkald,
to ask your opinion in relcrcnco to tho discovery ot
Agamemnon's tomb, by Dr. Scblolmatin, as you will
doubtless have noticed through the despatch In Sau
day's I1khai.ii. "
?'I have not bad time to think much about It, but it
Dr. i>chhemann lias rcal'y discovered >ho tomb of
Agamemnon it is vory important."
"llien tou uro not quite satisfied that the tomb dis
covered i? really thai of tho Grecian leader?"
"It is impossible to lorm a correct opinion on that
subject without knowing upon what proof Dr. Schlie
matin bases his hcliul that the tomb in question Is
that of Agutuomuou. It must bo very diiUcult
at this remoio period to decide whether or
not tho objects found belonged to the
Grecian loader, it is, however, carious that they
should have been found in tho place wh'ch tradition
has pointed out as Agitmotnnou's tomb. But 1 cannot
undertake to express an opinion us to whether that
tomb found by Dr. bcblicmunu is really Agamemnon's
unit! more precise information has been received Iroiu
tho explorer. I lire of opinion that It will lie dillicult
to prove tho identity of the relics, hccnu.-c at the time
of the siege of Troy the me ol letters or tablets was
very rare. In ull the Homeric poems 1 can remember
only one Instance in which lei tors or tablets are ro
lorred to. Then It vens in tho case ol a prmco
who sent a messenger with a scaled tablet
or letter to another prince. Tins tablet
was bis own death sentence; It was a recom
mendation to put the messenger In bome dan
gerous place, where ho would be likely to be killed.
There Is no other relorcnou to lablois that 1 can recall,
and it In Homer's limn writing was ro little used there,
at a much earlier period Its uso is still less probable.
Dr. Schlicninuu, 1 think, docs uotsaythnt ho lound
any tublcts or engravings with tho oilier objects, and,
without something ot tho kind, It will be very dillicult
to estaolisb the identity ol tho treasures found as be
longing to Agamemnon. Poems in these early days
were not written, bm wore committed to memory and
repeated to the modulations ol the harp."
"Then you think that these relics may bolong to a
later ago?"
"It is possible. I belicvo that Dr. Schllomann has
found the tomb ol sotno great king, but one wbo prob
ably lived luucb later than Agamemnon. However, it
Is best beforo deciding to watt until l)r. Schliemann Is
heard from and exhibits Ills proofs. It seems to luo
unlikely that engraving iu brass or writing with a
stylus or a pen could be preserved for so long a time.
The letter publisliud as sent by Dr. Schliemann to tho
King of Greece?If it was written by him?bears evi
dence of haviug been written in a moment of exulta
tion, probably immediately after ne found the relics.
He was evidently excited by the success attending bis
researches; but it must be very dillicult at tins remote
date to say whether these things really belonged to
"Shou.d Dr, Schliemann bo able to prove Hint tho ob
jects found really belonged to the period ho claims,
what would be the efleetr"
"It It should turn out to be true it would bo a com
plete restoration of tho Homeric heroes. You know
tlnit sotno very leurued men bud como to look upon
tho whole story'ol llie sioge of Troy as fabulous. If
Dr. Schliemann can prove tbut the tomb he lound is
that ol Aguuu'tnuon ne restores to history nil tho
cuaracter* ol Hoiuer, at least those iu tho Iliad. Tho
Odyssey is moro purely Imaginary, because the events
there rolalod aro supernatural."
"Will it not also have a great effect In encouraging
research in Greece?"
"Yes, no doubt; people will begin digging over the
whole country lor lost treasure, much as they rushed
to Calllornta when gold was nisi q'senvered there.
They ougut now to look lor luo tomb ot Achilles, at
Ithaca. Ho is known to have been burled thero, and
could his tomb be lound it would provo strongly cor
roborative of Dr. rchllemann's discoveries. Mr.
Bennett la so enterprising perhaps he will send some
one out to verily tlieso discoveries."
Mr. Bryant here signified that he had nothing far
ther to say on tho matter. Tho reporter withdrew,
loan king tho venerable poet lor his patience ami
General di Ccsnola, after being solicited by a great
number of editors to arrlto them an account or bis dig
gings iu Cyprus, was dually induced by tbo editor of
the Loudon Academy to publish bis letter on tbo sub
ject In tbat paper. It is published In the last number
of the Actuiemy, and as we here In New York have
taken sucb a lively and substantial Interest lu DI
Ccsnala's excavations, nls letter cannot latl to be en
tertaining. lie says that bis diggings begun in 1S66 In
an amateur way, but that bo bcoaine infatuated witb
his work, and, like a man running down bill, could not
stop had be so desired. lie commenred bis
explorations near I^arnaca, a modern town
built upon the necropolis of tbo ancient
city of Kitium. Here at different periods from 1600 to
1876 bo discovered more tban 2.COO tombs, most ot
wblch dated from 400 B. C. to the beginning ot the
Christian era. Ho also tdentllled tbo site of two torn
pies, one Greek and one 1'bccuiciao. In the ruins of
these temples ho discovered sotno of his choicest
specimens. Ho next visited Dali, whero be opened
some 15,(JtX) to nibs, w&icb yielded thousands of terra
cotla vases. From Dali he went to dig at Golgos;
there bo discovered its burial place and two ictnpics.
What he found hero ho considers among
(ho most Important of bis discoveries. This
is the collect iou just purchased by the
Metropolitan Museum. It Is tbo opinion
ol General d! Cesnola tbat no other place in tbo world
can present, us does Cyprus, sucb an agglomeration ot
all tbo different styles ot art which have now for many
centuries ceased to exist. From Golgos bo went to
Salami*. bnt found, altera few months' digging, that
there was nothing there 10 warrant the continuation
ol bis explorations. From Salami* bo went toward
Cape I'ciadium, and lu ita immediate neighborhood
identified tbn site ol tbo city ol Lcucolla. Ho discov
ered a temple hero with many fragments of statues
of Creek art. At tbis place bo found a rock
caravan containing petrified human bones In
large quantities. This caravan could only lie ap
proached lroui the sea, and was very dangerous.
Alter discovering tliositeot the cities ol Thooni, Car
pnssta, Aphrodisntra, Atlc-Achicou, Lapetlius, Soil and
Amino1, he crossed the mountains and dug his way, so
to speak, to Curium, where tne diggings were lluirhcd.
In 1872 ho carried his treasures to London, where
they created the wildest enthusiasm among autiquarl
ans, the engraved gems round in the treasure
rooms at Curium being counted among tho most
important discoveries ol tlie age. General di Cosnula
says in conclusion thai the result of his last throe
years' excavations surpassed that of the preceding
once, and he thinks that the discovery of the site ot
Curium, with the Idenuiication of the great temple
ol Apollo Uylaiee, and the discovery ol tho treasure
chambers of another unknown temple may serve, in
tbo hands of scholars, to reconstruct the ancient his
tory of the Island and lo throw no small light on that
ol ine world. General Cesuola denies tho statement
that he Is continuing his diggings ut Cyprus.
rnorosED visit or ameuican prelates to
Very Rev. G. H. Dosno, Vicsr General ol tho Catho
lic Diocese of Newark, stated to a Hkkai.p representa
tive last evening that the report of a proposed visit ol
Most Rev. Archbishop J. Roosevelt Day Icy, of Balti
more, and Right Rev. M. A. Corrigan, ol Newark, to
the Holy Father at Komo, was true. They start on
Wodnesday, In the Algeria, unless something very un
expected should arise to lutorfere. The arrangements
uro all made looking to tho departure of both prelatos.
The moving cause m the oa.se ol the Archbishop Is tho
vital necosslly to tiin health ol a change of climate and
complete relaxation from the arduous labors of ins
exalted office, dime his translation from the dioceso
of Newark to the arclnlioco?t ol Baltimore Archbishop
liayley's health baa been rather low. Last summer
he, like Cardinal McCloskey, went out among the
Grange Mountains in search of health, but the good
eflcct was only temporary, umi finally eminent phy
sicians of Baltimore alio Newark decided that a Euro*'
pcan trip would alone be likoly to bring him perma
nent benefit.
As regards the Journey to Rome of Bishop Corrigan,
it will bo to oceordsuco with a rulo ol the Holy nee,
which requires that evory bishop shall ih ike n de
cennial visit to i be Holy Father. It is more than a
decade since the diuccsau ol Newark lias fulfilled this
duty. Bishop Bayley was in Home In 1870 nttendlug
the Kcuwenical Council, but that visit was apsrt Irion
the ten years' decadence. On Friday last a circular
letter was sent out to the Cathoito clergy of Newark
announcing tho Intended absence ol the Bishop, and
was on Sutuiny cumtnunicued to tho people in the
various polishes. During the absence of the Bishop
the allatrs ol the diocese of Newark will ho adminis
tered liy the Very Rev. G. H. Doxnc, V. G. In the
archdiocese tbo same duty will devofvu upon the Very
Rev. Dr. Audreuil, V. G. The prelates will bo absent
till Aoril or Mae next.
The Swelling Tide of Poverty at the
Tombs Police Court.
Their Stories of Enforced Idle
ness and Want.
Tho Indication! point to an uncommon slato of dis
tress ibis season among tbo working classes. Tho
number of "vagrant*" that have b.-on seut up to the
Island since tbo lirsl blast ot winter visited us lias been
about 800. These are cases of absolute want nnd
vagrancy, of men and women who had no ptneo
whereon to lay tbelr heads, who worn not tramps, but
honest people seeking work and despairing of getting
It. II the condition ol things at this moment be such,
how must it be along through January, February and
March, with, perhaps, unusually severe weather, an
unsettled political muddle and a consequent stagnation
In all brauches ol trado and business. Cases of private
distress must, uo doubt, bo many. Thcau hnvo to be
sought out through benevolent and cbaritablongenclos,
for It is such poverty as shrinks from the public gazo
and prefers to suITer on !u silence nnd concealment.
The polh'o courts aro ihe plnoct where the cases ol
vagrancy, cow fast multiplying, are to b* soon dally.
Chiol among tbeso Is tho Tombs. It Is in tho midst ot
a poor and tocming population, nnd it is ihe best
known of any othor. Tbo unfortunate and poverty
stricken have all board ni It, and they throng its cold,
stony steps and its dismal and repulsiro corridors and
chambers through all the hours of tho day. Court is
held lu the morning for throe hours or so in a gloomy
room, a story above tbo street. Tboro is a number of
hlgb-b&ckcd benches, where men anil women with one
complaint or another, or who are thore as witnesses or
as vagrants, pass tho dreary timo till their cases are
disposed ol. Drunken people, In all stages ot misery
and degradation aro momentarily brought in from tho
prison cells, and tho atmosphere of the court at such
times Is heavy with a sad and unwholesomo breath.
When (he cbanco Is presented sotno poor devil whoso
loot havo iranipo'l tho city's pavotneuts lor mrnt.is in
search ol employment, who has slept the night in sta
tion houses and passed his days without knowiug tho
luxury or a wholo meal, rises up and goes forward to
the boucb. Tho J udge is quick to d'.tcct who tho man
Is and what ho wants, and ho Is promptly committed
on his own voluntary application as a vagrant to
Rlackwoll's Island. One cl these cases will be of a full
grown, stalwart man. whoso head is bowed with hon
est shame as ho moves forward among the criminal
and uncleun to beg the bread of public charity. Illit
erate and rudo as bo may bo, the fooling o(
manhood in htm Is lor tho tlmo ovcrcomo
at tho consciousness of bolng hordod with tbo vllo
and degraded of bis species. Then llicro is an old
man, with his fadod and Ibroadbare garments be
speaking a hard struggle with pitllots poverty, who
applies to tho police Justico to bo "committed as a
vagrant," and his voice Is weak and husky, his cheoks
are polo and wan, and his legs aro scarcely ablo to
sustain him; but the Justico (it Is Duffy) speaks to
blm a tew kindly words, tolls him to cheer up and that
a good ttmo Is yet in store for him. Then thcro aro
some halt dozen women, but, un'iko tho men, tlioy
are a sot of unlortanato creatures who brought pov
erty on themselves by drink, and who have m a do uso
ol the public charity time and again.
It is lound that many among the vagrants are sent
hero from other places on ttie plou that they belong
originally to New York, in casoa where they happeu
to come hero us omigracts and land at Cnstio Garden.
CommisMonor Cox, one of tho Commissioners of Char
ities and Correction, sent back to these places and
authorities who were awanpioos to saddle their poor
on N'ew York thirteen vagrants, und will continue to
return thorn when be flnds they have any Irionds In
the places whore they couie trom.
Thirty or forty ol these poor men yesterday bad
themselves voluntarily commuted for vagrancy und
wers RMigucd to a rootuy coll in the Toiubs. Keeper
James Tiun spoko to a lew of them In Gentian and to
tho rest English, ho that all understood him, wheu he
told them what the writer desired lu know. Thero
wero two or three thcro who were dressed with toler
able decency and comlort, but the great majority had
clenriy woru their clothes and slept in them lor quite
a tune. A few were old uieu, hot not to old as to Po
past the ability to labor. All of them told the one
plttlul tale ol no work to do.
William Seeckliardi, a man of about forty years, ?
lithogrsph printer, out ol a situation for thrco mouths,
said:?"You see, 1 loose sll my vsnilly, und ahtist as 1
do so I loose my Job. Efcrytlugs den goes 10 do very
dyvil wit mo. 1 sells hero and Bells dcre and sells my
oio coat, and no work gums to me, aud I liaaa to yum
hero, and I veel pooly had? ynas, pomy bad?hut I
might veel vorso only I know dore's vorso cases don
mo shoost here."
William Cutter, agod twwnty-six, said:?"I am a
marble polisher, und have been off und on In Boston
lor a few years. I got out of a situation thero a lew
months ago, and when I went to look for relief they
shipped mo olT flown here. I hud no place to come to
in this city und had to pick up a lodging and a living
about tbo streets tbo host way 1 could "
Patrick English, a stout, sturdy, low-sized man, of
about thirty-Itvo, said:?"1 come nil the ways (rotu
Chicago to look lor work hore. 1 was out of work
thcro lor a month, and they lowld mo thoy couldu't
give meuny help, but they would send along here, an'
signs by they packed ine oil', an' sure It was I thought
I was cumin to a tluo city, but the dlvlt a thing I ex
pect I'd get to do here in a twcl' mouth, though 1 can
work with any man of uie size and ago In Ainunky."
William Mhepberd, aged twetity-two, camo from
Whitehall, lo the oorthern part ol tho State and spent
a month looking for work Ho said:?"! hated to
give up It there was any chance at nil of getting sorao
tlnug to do, but It wua no use, and I had lo como in
here, but Commissioner Cox promises lo send me
homo." bhepherd was the most comfortably dressed
ol any of the crowd.
Jobs Smith, aged about twonty-four, said:?"I havo
biu out jest two mouths. My business is canal boat
man, but tha caoals Is gitlin' used up bad and tbero
hitlut no nse for a young teller like inu lookin' lor much
ol a Itviu' out o' them."
Jatnos Gahngtirr, old Rlvlngton street, said:?"I am
out ol employment lour months. My business is wail
papering, and lately It hoa got to bo a poor business. 1
tried bard for work In other ways, but somehow thcro
was always peepio ahead ol mo. and I cooldu't get a
thing to do, and 1 have been compcllod to come lo
Henry Harding, aged twenty-four, said:?"I came
hero from 1'inladolphia abcui'two months and a half
ago, and 1 have been looking lor employment as a
barber ever since, but no use. Is busbering a bad busi
ness? Yvs.lt has got down put'.ylow. There never
was so many sciubu la It, ana some of them work fur
next to nothing."
Martin U'Hay, a man with a comical eye, answered
the question as io where ho lived by saying, "Bedad. 1
live nowhere, bekase If 1 could you wouldn't see me
here. No, in troth; tho O'Days, tf they lia-l their
rights, would live In a bouse of their own, and live on
tho 1st ol ine land bojides?Una is il thoy could. Tunes
bad, you say? Well, II tliey could be worso 1 supposo
we'd have to fan laailicr limn wq'ro fastio' now. I'm
a laborer by porlcsaion and I'm out of work a month,
but wid tho blassin' o' God we'll bavo good, alsy limes
when Tilcien'selected."
Murk Conway, a yeneralde, large-sized man, sald:
"I have been a ilrcman for foriy-Hvc years, but I never
saw [bit slate of nllairs before. 1 was ten weeks and
three days in liellcvuo Il'Spifn! and 1 nave been seven
weeks out ol II, without getting anything to do. Tho
limes, Sir," qonlinued the old man, with leeling in Ins
voice, "are very hard on the poor who have to do the
Imrd work ol tho world. Help us If you can through
tho IIkrald I lived at No. 133 East Thirteenth
Michael Moran said:?"I liavo no address in this
world. 1 have lately como from tho Homoeopathic
Hospital and 1 am four nioulhsoul of work "
Cain MansDold, ol No. 18 Roosevelt street, said :?
"I hove been laid up most all summer witu the
rheumatism. I'm a ninaon by trade, and thero was a
ttmo when money was plenty and I had my share of
It, hut those tiinoa aro tha h irdoat dial ever cunto on
us; there uro lots of men like me in the mason trade
nnJ other trades, and 1 don't sod what they're to do
no more than these men here tins winter."
William II. Mason, .No. I8U Geecnwicli street, trunk
inakor, said bo was out ol work lor two months.
Jacob Weigirtncr, a Gorman, with only n lew
words of English, n laborer, said ho had no home, and
had boon out ot work for three months.
1'oicr Callahan, No. rO Yandewater street, a tailor by
trade, had done nothing lor two mourns.
Patrick Nellns, having lost one leg, had donn noth
ing lor ihree yenra, was compelled to live on charily,
but lound even that hard to get not, except from me
In speaking with a number of the unemployed men
walling in the Tombs to bo sent to Blackwoll's Island,
considerable information was elicit- d at to the con
dition of the extremely poor men who arc out ofein
A carpenter said:?"During tho past month I was
twico without eating food lor tliree -lays at ? tlmo. 1
drank two glusso* ol ulc, to w hicti 1 was treated. I
knew of one whole workingmaii's family of six to bo
without lood an entire day."
Another canienter said:?"I have walked the streets
At# nights. I did set like solas to n station bona
anion? Ibe bummer*. My last quarter went for a meal
luo '11ys ago. I turn 1 lived on a smoke ul tlio pipe. '
A tuinwruiter.?'?! Ban lived ior three week a ou a
little Money I borrowed ironi my si-lcr, who m I vin;
out. I could uoi borrow again from Iter little earnings,
and thought 1 miitlit aa well go to tbo Island llrst as
l.i*i. It will corns to lliuusanUs of workingnien before
Ibe winter la over. "
Another atoiiei'Ulter:?''Have lived a whole week on
a cup ul coflbe and some bread once every two days.
1 did not go lo where 1 pot it until 1 was almost lam
tshad. 1 ?lcpv In tbo Station house every night "
A mason a nd:?"Alt'r lour months ol idleness I
thought I might ss well go Drat as last. The men
around town ars starving."
A blacksmith said: ?"I pave all I hud to a relative,
who nas u latgc lantPy, and mads up tuy mind lo go lo
the Island and wall."
Said ii waiter:?"I have been out of work nine weeks,
and have been living on ihu charity ol iriends lor
three weeks. Thought it better to go, a-lucre was no
chance of employ meul."
jcmi ntrrrv's vikws.
Judge Dully was called on at I ho Tombs and naked
by Ibo reporter lor In* vie** on the condition ol too
working ova. The Judge has, of course, an abundant
opportunity of observing ibo claaa of men who apply
lo iniii voluntarily to he sent iii the lata ltd. Kuril, or.
moio, ho lakes a great Interest in the workingman a
utiluriuiiuio condition al this tune, and lit anxious to
have nu opportunity ol giving Ins services m any way
lliat would lend to bring ilicm relied in 111.'present
emergency. On the reporter slstiug the object ol his
visit, the Judge said:?
"The dcstnmiou among the working classes of this
city Is r.ady alarming Kor some week , past I havo
had daily ahnnuiuit proof of it. It Is a pitttul thing lo
sco the condition io which our woikiughKu arc
i reduced, and, worse than all, the prospect
i hoioru iItem lor itio winter promises to placo
I the in, as a body, In far worse circumstances than
! they uro even in at the present time. I have soul bun
died* ol*thoiu to the Island lor shelter. These men
would not socle Ihu help of an almsbou.-e il there was
any cart lily chance lor them to tiro bv honest labor.
As yon know, tor tho past three yours tboy novo been
gradually becoming poorer and poorer. At this time
we see then, after some four or nvo mouths of stag
nant trade, reduced to alumni absolute poverty. Ilow
many thousands of ibom thorn are in this city hungry
! who do nut get a morsel ot food the whole day long
(Sod only knows. As I hum said, they are daily com
ing oelora the police magistrates, ask lug, voluntarily,
to ho sunt to the Island. Soma unys I uave had liny
of them belorc ine, not a few of them com tig tu sheer
dcsperuliou to tell me how completely lonnrn the.v
are and then smug airajr, not "willing still
to become tho inmates of nn almshouse. Hut. of
couise, when liuiuvr mid cold sting too bitterly, they
have to sink their manly pride and accept tho only re
lict loll to lliotn. 1 have .pleat.onod theso men us to
thoir condition. In nearly every Iusuimc they had
boon out of work lor several months. Not even an oc
casional Job had they got.
A Gl.00.tf Y OfTLOOK.
"The little savings they bad been able to lay by nnd
the assistance mends or relatives had bcon able to g'tvo
them were all exhausted. Hut worse than all, alter
ovcry ollort had bcuu made to got work, and after every
chaucn for iho coming months had been carefully can
vaasud, tho terrible conclusion had to bo reacho'd that
there was to be an Idle winter.
"They have told mo that for the great bulk of tho
worktngmco thuro is not tbo remoiest chance tor work
tins winter. 1 have questioned them as tc what they
knew of tho condition ot ihu worktugmcn with whom
tboy am acquainted, and their roply Is mvuriabiy that
among the working classes as n uholn their condition
la next to destitution. Men of lumpy iiavo sold aa
much ol the household I'urniluro as was salable, and
the tools ol tbo mechanics nrn pawned lor tho litilo
sums that can be rinsed ou them. All tho men who
have coma to this Court for relief thus tar huvo been
young, strung nnd healthy, willing and ublo to work.
You could sco iu their faces that tlicy hail
been sullorlng from want. I havo noticed that
every cold day increases tho number of ap
lleants, and. If wo uro lo Ituvo an increase
III this way what may we expect when the bitter win
ter days and nights are open us 1 There cau be no
doubt that each day will add during tho winter
mouths hundreds to tbo list of tlio utterly destitute.
Since ibore will bo no work lor the men it follows that
there must be an absolute want in tboir families."
"Havo yon had mothers boiorc you asking for tho
committal ol rlielr children to tho Institutions ?"
"Yes, a uumbcr of thorn. llut I have had to deal
with worso than even that. So great havo boon tbo
hardships endured by tho poor people that families
havo beon disrupted, wives separated from their
husbands, daughters Irani their parents. This
mistortuco lias been more extensive than you
would at llrst Iraaglno. I havo had numbors ol
marriod women brought boloro tno charged
by the polico with soliciting men in tlio
streets. I have had parents hero In court socking
to reclaim their dauclitors who hud rimdu tho llrst
plunge Into stiamo. When I inqairod into those cases
I found that poverty was the cause. There was do
work and no nroad, and then came recriminations and
family troublos, and little by little the desperation
thai drove tbo women into tho streets! TUis learlul
condition of these poor people surely calls lor help.
It sncms to me that relief cannot oome too soon to tho
workingmen and their famllios."
"Hut how Is this relief to he got; Is it to come from
too city or irom private sources 7"
"I think that tho Legislature should make provision
for a case like this, or that tbo city should supply
work. Out tho legislature cannot now moot the
emergency, and i do not see any prooability that tho
city goveruuieut will take action, Perhaps' an excep
tional distress like tho present would best be met by
the charity or the wealthy. It would lako a largo
fund to meet tho want that even now clolnut attention.
1 have no doubt there are many gentlemen In this
community who would give generously to suvo tbo
workiugmen and their families from the starvation
that is awaiting them. Wo shall have a torrlblo win
ter in this city unless some movement is speedily
inaugurated by which the thousands of uiioinplovoil
shall receive sucli assistance as may be absolutely
uuedod to sustuiu life."
The terrible destitution of tho family of Honry
Woodason, of No. 9), Frankfort street, ha-a been rou
dorod more intense by tho sudden prostration, from
want of loud, of tho husband and father. A charitable
lady, whose attentian was called to tbo case by a par
agraph in Sunday's IIkkald. yesterday paid a visit to
tbo uofortunatn family, dosplto tho inclemency of the
weather, and afforded them relief Her descrl'ptlou of
the miserable conditlou in which tho poor man was
found was hoartrundiug. It la hopod that others will
do something to alloviato the terrible condition of
this unhappy family.
A meeting ot uolegatos from tho various charitable
Institutions ol Brooklyn was held at the Polytechnic
Institute Inst evening, Thomas S. Narrig in the chair,
with the view of uniting all the societies una general
plan for outdoor reliof during tho winter. The session
was mainly occupied In receiving tho names ol persons
who volunioored to assist In visitations and distribu
tion of relief.
The regular monthly meeting of tbo Now Vork Asso
ciation for Improving the Condition of the Poor was
held yesterday ariornoon In tho Bible House, Howard
Potter in the chair. After tho transaction of tho usual
routine business tho Treasurer reported a balance in
tho treasury of $0,400. Mr. John Browne, the Secre
tary and agent of the society, reported that the work of
the socioty for tho winter had fnirly commenced,
but that up to noou yesterday they had only received
23J applications for relief, and that more than ouo
half of theso applicants were regular professional bog
gars, who mndo It a point to eke out a precarious sub
sistence by going from one charitable Institution to
another and seeking aid. A caretui investigation of
tho entire question of wli.at was called "dcstiiuto
working tnen" had been made, and the agents of tne
society laded to tlnd that there was any such wide
spread distress as was commonly reportod, oat that,
on the contrary, tho prospects lor tho winter were, on
the wbo'o, vo.-y cheoring.
Tho great problem to solve was bow to dlspnso of
tho vast army of vagrants and "rounders." Tho re
spectublo poor could be taken care of tr tho charitably
disposed portion of the community would only sustain
the directors of the various benevolent boards.
Mr. i'heodore Koosevolt, ouo of ttie members of tbo
Slato Board of Charities, called, and hud a pri
vate conference with tho Board. The cntiro
session was secret, but a IIkkald reporter was
Informed that Mr. Roosovelt bad been Instructed to
oilor the Hoard $20,000 to aid thorn lit their work, pro
vided thai the city authorities should havo a volco In
Its distribution, it has always been tho policy of tho
association to avoid accepting any public lunds, and
tho offer was roiorred to a committee, consisting nf
Messrs. Howard Potior, K 0. Boned ml, George W.
Abbs, Robert II. Minton and Rutherford Siuyvosaul.
The meeting then adjourned.
To tub Editor or tub Hbrat.d:?
To my mind the problem of how to meet the desti
tution which Is in our midst is moro difficult
of solution than any that concerns tho cltizon at this
hour. In your Issuo of Thursday, nod again on San
day, an oxtieme cose of sieicncta and waul of food was
noltcod, and since yostcrday one of St. Paul's clergy,
a visitor from St. John's Guild aud two young ladies,
and as I write this, two other ladles, generously giv
ing $7 anonymously, have thus placed these
uniortunalo people beyond tho immediate dan
ger of starvation. They are without em
ployment or tho laintest prospect of employ
ment. Just before I commenced this tho wife of a
tnoohanic out ol employment, feeble from wnnt of
food, came to mo witu the statement that bor husband,
her.-eif and three children had been without food sinco
Friday last, except a little oatmeal, and entirely with
out llro in thoir apartments since ibaltlme. and almost
without bedding, us that bad been placed in mo pawn
broker's bands. Her husnaiid is wuhout employment
or the prospect of nny. How people ol whom these
two cases are ttpes aro to be warmed and ted this
winter Is a grave question. Can tho Herald load iu
soma movement 7 We want a leader. *
The thirty-seven Poles who arrivod at Castle Garden
from Gal icia, Austria, last week, aro still dependeut
upon the charity of the Commissioners, and are
likely to remain eo ell winter if It Is not dccidod to
send them home. Yesterday morning the men were
forced by Colonel Coonan to clear on tho suow in tbo
Inside corridors of Custle Garden, and in tho afternoon
they wcro sent to the Island, where* they will await
the notion of tho commissioners. The fnllowinn letter
! from the Secretary of State Charm#* <ilap*?#a of the
Ciiic 00 t?r m? thej are concerned, "UU l lie Commit*
! siouers muai now help itiemaelrva;?
Static Bo and or CHARVTfR*. *
ALniwr. H. V . Dec. tt. 'rt7?. <
! H. J. J ufsoi, Secretary CiHiiri?i??ioo?ni ot Knigrntioa,
i New York ?
VouriorimiiuicKtloQof the Tt!? ioit In reference to cer
t it., ?*mUr*n mmiUc. I* wt liand I he aci <#f 1H73 r?g*rii'
In. State (i?mt*er? \*?? 1 ot tk^i. n itetf t?? *|?pit |o emijrr.inii
I ii'lluvr ?t th. f? rt of New York, n r h ire the (Minuet Loir
ihUtute .<p'>ro|>r uu'ier the act been tnade to meet
j too ?equiiv ji?'HU ??f thin cl**?. u* tho cane ot
per*??h? wmm specialty c mttdod br ststute
to your iiounl If, therefore. eiitlsrante were
i t c lve?t and pro *? led tor under tic act. the appropriation
would m?om Im? exhausted and this Boat*! would tie at help
h 4* in the mattwr a? 1- now yonr comtiiioi"Q. In most of
toe counties, as I hiu inform en, th *uih<?r4ti** for the timo
beiiiK are providing for mck and disabled etuierauts tne
sums as I ?jfore the orir?'*i?Uattoti of your hoard TUU would
sfiMii to be the only cor ran t? pursun in the matter until
nun* le^ii-littiie fit on i* Itad upon the subject, either by
tiiu.Maio or fedcrul government. a* seems probs >le soon
to occur. Yours very truly, CH.VitLKS tl. IiOY f.
Secretary of the Board.
George Kllen, Jacob .Schuttcr, Lewis Volar, W.
JJu Ischiu mu, Carl llrodu and George Kroener, all
ubli'-boUioil and by no means evil looking men, en
tered tbe first precinct 1'nlico Court of Newark and
begged the magistrate in iho name or bumauity t<
commit them mine l'eint<Miti?ry for throe mourns
each. Tl:< v bad, luey declared, trumped Irom plane
to place, city to city, anil town to lowu vainly looking
lor employment. I heir rrquoat waa granted, aud
tliey were uuiy eomutliled.
Business men and the reading public never appre
ciated tun last mail service more than when it waa
abrogated by the refusal of tbo present Congress to
make an appropriation for its coniiuusnco. The lata
I'ostmasicr General, Marshall Jewell, labored hard and
earnestly lor its establishment, and, having perfected
the system, saw his brightest efforts overturned by
ono tell blow. Not only have morcbania suflerod by
this discontinuance of rapid mail communication
South, Kust and West, but those who patronize newt
papers have boon Inconvenleuced by not receiving
tlic.r Journals within twenty-four hours as soon as by
the last mull.
Tbo action ol Congress has roused tbo mercantile ln?
tcrosl, and owing to their clamor a clause was inserted
into iho Appropriation bill last summer ompowering
tbe President of the United .Slates to appoint a com
mission to investigate the subject and report tbe re
sult to the present Congress. In uccordanco with
th.s provision Prcsideul Grant appointed Messis.
Gardner 11. Hubbard, ol Massachusetts; Frank
\V. Palmer, ol lll.uols, and Daniel M,
Fox, ol Philadelphia, a Postal Commission
for Hits purpose. 1 h'-.e gentlemen nave been attend
ing to men iinties ovor since, and have visited this
cny, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, Cincinnati, SSL
I.oui.s, Chattanooga, Atlanta, various cities in Texas.
iiU lll'i VilUttU||V/V(,-*| it ? ?i?n ? ??, ? ??? >UWJ VI.IVIl ? U SV*AB|
look tbo overtatiu route to California via Omuiis, sad
In California paid particular atteuilon to San Fran
cisco, Sacramento, Los Angulos, Sic., where they mada
diligent and thorough inquiries, not only into tbe fast
mail service, but also in regard to all other postal ear
vice by railroads, all delivery service by carriers, city
deliveries, Ac.
Mr. Tliomas M. Vail, General Superintendent of the
Hallway Mail Service, from tbo department at Wash
ington, was in this city yesterday, and states that "the
very friendly spirit in which the Commission has been
met by all the railroad oglcials ibrougbout the country
and the facilities a (lorded tlicm for a proper Invesiign
tiou of iho uflnirs connected Willi the postal service
leads turn to believe Unit there is every indication ol
the tavorablu action of Congress on ilielr recommends
lions. fhoir report will not only recommend a resto
ration of tbe lust rami, but lead to a more harmonious
altitude between the department end railroad compa
nies. Tbo latter have always claimed thai Iho rates of
compensation by Urn governmeut have nut been suffi
ciently remunerative, consequently the department
was nevor nble to obtain Urst class service on lbs
truuk ro ids until the time of Iho establishment oi
fast mail trains."
The railroad mail service in this country and that ol
Kugiuud cannot bu compared in anything likou parallel.
In tlto latter tlio railway companies uumo a rato ol
conii-eus-iiiou. which, II uns.iiiflaoiory to iho govern
mem, is doiorm nod by a commission, whose decision
is hiuding on all parlies. The L'uuod Stales govern
ment pays lor transporting the mails by weight, and aa
the second class matter, such as newspapers and peri
odicals, is very bulky, the railroad companies maka
more money by carrying this species of I might, to tba
detriment ot letters, which are lighter material.
In Mr. Vaii's opinion tbe government should own
tbo cars that are lilted up for this service, so that in
case they are taken oir one route tbey can be placed
on auothor. At tbe same time the government rhonld
pay for mail carriage by the space occupied and by
Mr. Vail has been negotiating with the Pennayl
vanla Railroad Company to replace the fast train
ou tliclr road, lie bus succeeded in making auch ar
rangements that ou Monday next the flr?t train will
start ironi Jvrany Cltv at twenty-live intuules paslloui
A. M., connecting with the boston traiu ol tho night
previous. 'I'll 11 train connects at 1'hihutelplHa with all
tho routes leading Iroui tlmi city ut eight o'clock,
arrives at llarrislmrg at twelve M. aud at WasmngloB
at ouo I'. M., and thereby gives l'cnnaylvunla, Mary
land and Virginia the turlicsi possible aocomraoda.
lions. At hull-past eight A. M. a fast train starts foi
SL Louis, bearing with It a postal car, which connocU
nt Columbus with the postal car lor Cincinnati, Indian
apolis and the West, and makes close connection
through to Now Orleans. This is an Important im
provement, as tho delivery of iIiih mail is only lonr
hours slower than tho old Untiled last mall linoa lately
abol lulled.
The ruilroad companies stand ready to restors lb#
fast mail service if the government will only pay
them a Irving price for tnsir troulilo. Many dcfecta
which hnva no -n fouud out through tho lato teat,
wnieli, alter all, was only an experiment, and sug
gested many improvements, can he easily remedied,
and which the companies agree to repair. Besides the
half-past eight A. II. M. Louis express train the Post
OtOce Ucpartmcul will despatch a postal cur with the
six o'clock P. II train, which makes tho same con
motions as that ol the morning.
Mr. Vail speaks very enthusiasticnlly of the energy
of Postmaster (.euoral Tynor in cuiinccllon with the
Increased facilities ol' fust malls. General Tyner
dening it of tlie utmost Importance to ths mercantile
community that mail matter should travel as rapidly
as possible. He also takes into consideration that the
public genorally should receive their newspaper* at
tbe earliest possible moment, and slier next Monday
the Now York journals will he delivered all through
Pennsylvania, oast of the Susquehanna River, Mary
land and all points in New Jersey by noon of the asms
Another popular arrangement Is being mado by Mr.
Vail, and that is 10 lurllit.ato correspondence between
New York and Philadelphia and ricf vitrna. He pro
poses 10 station n man at the Uortlandl street lorry In
this city and at the Market street depot In PniladeU
phla, whose duty will bo to receive letters up to the
departure of the express trains, which have no postal
car attached. U.v ibeso means an early delivery of
letters thus sent Is amplT secured, and greatly assists
the sender in saving a Journey and delay at the respec
tive) post olllcos. Tne regular mull trains have recep
tacles lor pasting letters as usual.
The work at the Post uilice yesterday was un
usually heavy. Owing to tbe storm on Saturday a
number ol trams were delayed, one mail from tbe
West, via the Krie road, due Saturday evening, arrived
yesterday noon. Tho steamer Wesor brought thirty,
seven sacks of letters and sixty-seven of newspapers,
all ol which wore distributed uad sent out In the shed
apneo of twonty-flvo minutes.
Notwithstanding the considerable number Ol Jewish
temples on tno east sldo of tho city below Grand street,
nnd several smaller plucos of worship In tho upper
stories of buildings an Kast Broadway end CaUutrlDO
street, it Is In contemplation to erect a large synagogue
In the lower part of the Sovonth ward. Tbo con
grccaitous aro now very much scattered la
ibis locality, and It is thought desirable to
collect the several ducks and unite them under the
esre of a learned and ex|ierloucod rabbi, who will do
voto all his time und labor to ibetr spiritual wolfaro.
Tbo peoplo all live in tho ncignoorhood and are en
gaged successfully In business. They aru punctual to
tlielr atleuunnce at services, and seem to be sealous In
the faith. But at prcsont tbo division Into small knots
und soparato organizations docs not sevm to work
satisfactorily. As many as (our or live places ol wor
snip aro In one block, and, of course, they can have at
liest only lliu services ol a reader. Mullicteni meant
can be raised lor tbe object In view, end if no un
toward circumstances ariso tho construction ol the
proposed edifice will not long be delayed.
Tho rcmnrkahio fact In connection with this enter
prise la Uiat all other denominations ore going up
towo, following tho drill of population and leaving
tlioirold ehnrcn sites to bo occupied for commercial
purposes. This tranaier has been in progreaa for ser.
oral years, and still further depletion of the tteld
south or Fourteenth street promises to go en nn.
checked. It is to he remarked, however, lhat there are
no signs ol (ailing oil in the residents of tho Seventh
and Tenth wards' On the 01 her hand, there la rea
son to believe that they are Increasing. There
are several (lourisulng German congregations In the
district, but it Is ihougnt the number might be larger,
and It Is not Improbabio several missionary chapels
will bo established there at an early day by uptown
societies. The Hebrews constitute the greater share
ol the now comer", tne oast side, it seems, having
been found a desirable quarter lor lb* prosecution ol
their industrial purs .its. 1'horo have been a
few exceptions to tho rulo above men
tioned. Trinity parish recently opened a new
chapel on tbe llowery, and not very long since tne
Kedompl-inai Fathers consecrated a magnificent
church (Ut. Alphonstis) on bouth Fifth avenue, near
C irml street. Tne contemplated synagogue is, bow
ever, intended to supply it permanent want, and Itstg
Dlticant ol tbo tact that tbe oast side, below Grand
street, Is to remain lor a long time to come a centre of
population, despite the demands of busluoan Interests,
which have made mien inroads on tho west side fronx
Canal street to Madison aauiura nnd MfMi 7

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