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The Savant of Gotha Applauds
the Herald's Work. A SCIENTIFIC BISMARCK. Solving the Problem of a Thousand. Years. AN ANCIENT TRADE ROUTE, Uniting the Lualaba, telle, Kubuoda, Bahur Kuta, Babar Kulla, Ayah aud Congo. ARABIAN DEPREDATIONS Dr. A. Potermann, of Gotba, In his "Geographical Notes" lor Novewbor, prints mo following very Inter* estiug article on the discovery ol the sources of the Gougo by Mr, Stanley, the Ukhxlu-Telajraph corre spondent:? 1 ho American newspaper correspondent, Henry M. Stanley, is the Bismarck of Alrlcan exploration. As Prince Blstn irck united the various Gorman princi* Palities and built out of them a great aud poworlul empire, so has Stnnloy united tho disjecta membra ot Aim mi exploration, adapting them all as a framework III tho strucluro ol success and, by Ins untiring ouergy, set at rest tho theories of u thousand years. I'ne ex ploits ol a Co'umbos, a Vusco do Gain a, a Mugulnaens, U ito buck only a lew hundred yours; the knowiedgo ol Africa reaches buck Into antiquity aud the most ruiuote periods ol history. One Airlcun rivor ulone; the Nile, was tho special object of exploration and Investi gation of the tuioieuts for thousands ol vears. But lu the eurllest hums of which wo have any record tho d.lllcultios ol African exploration wore proverbial; tho sources of tho oil blessed lile giving Nile remain hiuuun oven to tluis day, and the saying, "Caput Wili quu /ere," agltuted mankind two thousand years ago. In the time ol Ovid, suggestive ol facts then unattainable und problems insoluble, which wore left to the achieve ments ol ruodoru scieuco. Whatever Claudius Ptolemy and other ancient gavans aud the classio schools ol antiquity knew ol tho Nile afld Its sourcos, or whuteVor tho extent of their resoarch aud their conjectures, this much is cortaln, their knowledge novor extended to the Congo, which now for the first tuno, thanks to Stanley, la shown upou tho map In the light of Statsloy's discovery, howevor, it Is un doubted In my naUid that the Arabs have had a knowl edge ol the Cntigo for some hundreds ol years, per. baps as eurly as tho dato when Columbus first crossed tho ocoan and tbsooverod the New World. RTA.NLXY UN1TK.S ALL HIS FRAOXKKTS. II tho courso of the Congo had been directly west ward, as Cameron assumed the Lualaba to be, straight Irom Nyuugwo, Stanley's discovery would not be hull as interesting or important, it would have been sim ply to lollow out Bismarck's "mainline." Stanley would on.y have to lollow the Lualaba to its moutn to give tho Congo a soairco and unite the results or pre vious exploruiions-euMt aud west, omploylug tho data supplied by Krapl, Erburdt, Kcbinanu, Speko. Burton, Grunt, Baker, Uugst aud Livingstone, with thut from Tuckny, the Portuguese and tho Catholic mlsaionaries, collected during several centuries, the latter bomg morely the IuculenLs and trifling observations ut self tucrillciug, Indigent men who subordluatod everything to the work ol education and spreudiug tho lufluouco ol Christianity. A slugle Uorroau traveller, Homrlch Barth, has done more lor the map ol Atricu an i added more to our knowiedgo ol the country tbun all the Portuguese more hauls, the l ortuguoso government and the Catholic missions to gether during the umo they havo held sway in the dis tricts along the Conga tat an ley had also to unito the researches to the south by Llviugstouo, Cameron, Ladlslaus Magyar, Poggo, Monieiro, Gumitto, Rod riguez, Graca and tho 1'omboiros, wttb those to the north by Du Challlu, M irclio, Eavonguau do Brazza, Bartn, Nschtigat, scbwciulurth, Browne aud tbe oldest Arabian truvoilors?u work of gieat difllcnlty. Bis bold, determined march carried him lar beyoud tbe extreme points ol research made by our greatest AlriCHU explorers. With oue masterly stroke ho unltod all these dugecta membra, wovo the odds and ends of previous researches and ellorts lor thousands ol years into one compact, valuable web. GKKATKST AMO.NO T11K OKKAT. In this way Stanley has doue more than all tho scl ent lie exploration ot muor Alrica lor the pust thirty years; he has done moro than all tho European travel lers, dating buck somo eighty yoars; more than all tho Arabiuu travellers, who havo traversed tlie in terior lor upward ol a thousand years; more than all classical uutiqulty, nud, iinully, Stauley has dono more to Investigate and oullghtcn us ou the geography aud Ulterior of tho vast Aincan contluout than all the millions ol natives evor could tell or knew ol their owu country. Bis work is unparalleled in the whole history of discovery in tho world. LIVIXC.STONK RKWILUKHKD AMI TURXKU lfACK. When Livingstone arrived at Nyungwe, endowed with nu iron constitution, energy and endurance; having, niter surmounting tho greatest oiistacles, crossed tho whole continent irom south to west, auu from west to east, followed up the courses ol a hundred rivers, dis covered und examined gigantic lakes lu all directions, lio there met with the tirat serious check to his unsur passed wanderings. Ho could go uo further. He found hunsell against a dead wall, as it wore. Nobody would accompany him; nobody knew anything what ever ol tho lur stretching regions of Equatorial Alrica. As tlinid, superstitious seamen sometimes dread to enter upon what aro to them unknown und perhaps unu .vigable seas, so Stanloy lound at Nyaiigwo thero wore neither whites nor blacks who b id tho courage to undertake a Journey with him to tho mysterious Equatorial roglons. Not even the Arub bunds, which woro armed to the teeth, bud'evor aared to venture lar in Hint direction. None had boon moro lliun n lour days' journey up the river. None ol tho natives could say whore tho mighty river, 9,000 loot wido, led to bovoud a dietauce of thirty miles Irom their own village. 01 the naturo and appouraiico ol the land thoy wore utterly ignoranu Columbus bud at least somo indications that thore was land ahead ol him, lor the idea prevailed that ho wits heading lor Cathay. Stanley thought to reuch Sun Salvador, tho capital ol Congo, In the west; b... ho nod no i.iea whether bis northern Journey to tho Eqnatoriul country would lead to Burin's Bahnr Kubunda, Nsch tigut's Bshar Kuia, the Bunur Kulla ol the Arabs, ss reported by ilia traders and slave hunters (ravelling between Wn.lul and D.riur. Livingstone remained nearly two years, 18H9-71, In N'yaugwu, Bamnarre, aud in the victuily ul mo Lualaba, with tbe view of billowing up tho course ol the stream, which was cou Sldered by uo tncana Impossible. But ho could obtain neither canoes nor oursmon (or the Journey, though hooflered some Arab merchants the sum of gil U00 sn<l all tho goods he had remaining si L'jijl il they would lot him have leu men io accompany bim north ward. Falling to obtain tho assistance und material needed he wa.- compelled to return east without Carry, lug out bis protect. CAMMKON ALSO DISMKARTKKKO. Three years lator, August I, 1871, Cameron renchcd Nynngwe, having the same object in view as Liviug stone?viz.. to penetrate tho secrets ol Equa torial Alrlca. But he was equally ansusccas lui. Meanwhile the Arabian slave buntors bad conquered the country immediately to too north, thoroughly subduod the natives and held possession ol the territory, so that the poor blacks ware inclined to regard the newly arrived Iricnd only In tbs lignt ol another enemy and refused to help bim, because they feared bo simply wished to carry the work ol death and destruction further Inland. Cameron therelore had to return sontb on August 28, oncer the protection of a company ol slavo traders. Vho complete ignorance ol tlie Arabians aud natives ?1 Nysngwe concerning Equatorial Alrlca led Came ron lolnlerthst the Lualaba flowed directly westward, wnile Livingstone believed that it went northward, bow far theso diverging views wers tho result ol prs RAPID TRANSIT ELEVATED ROADS. Maps Showing tha Routes of the New York Elevated Railroad and the Gilbert Elevated Railroad, with Their Branches and Connections Between the Battery and Kmgsbridge. Commencing on tho south side ol Harlem River at Klngsbrldge, tho lillbert Elevated Railway goes thence along River street to Eighth ave nue; tbcnee along Eighth avenue to 110th street; thence along 110th street to Ninth avenue; thence along Ninth avenue to Fifty-third street; tbeuce along Fltty-thlrd street to Sixth avenuo; thence along Sixth avenue to West Third direct; thence along West Third street to South Fifth avenuo; thenco along South Fifth avenue to Canal street; thence croesing Canal siroct into West broad way; thence along West Broadway to Chauibora street; thence across Cbumbers street tuto College place; thence along College place to Murray street; thence along Murray street to Church street; thenco along Church street to New Church street; thenco along New Church street to and across Morris street; thonco through private property to Bowling Croon; thenco around Bowling Green into Reaver street; thence along Bouvor stroot to Pearl street; thence along Pearl Btrect and New Bowery to Division street; tbonce along Division street to .Allen street; thouco along Allen street and First avenuo to Twenty-third street; thouco along Tweuty-tblrd siroct to second avenue; thence along Second uvonuc to Hnrlein River; thence along River streot to Eighth avenuo. Also a connecting hue through and along Chambers street lroui West Bronuwny to Chatham street; thenco through Chatham street to Division street. Also an extension Irom tho junction at Fifty-third street through and along Sixth avenue to Fllty-niuth street. Along tho lino (rum Chambers street up West Broadway, along South Filth avenue, to whoro the nearly completed structure has lor some tlmo spanned tho avenue (rom Houston siroct to West Third(formcrly Amity), around into this streot and up to Its junction with Sixth avenuo, and slurttng again Irom tbls point up Sixth nvcnuo as inr as Forty-second street, the work In its various stages Is being carried on with great vigor. Atone place tho foundations are being dug over ten feet in depth below tiie sidewalk, and at another, where the ground is not tlrm enough, piles are being driven to bard bod, and crowds stand arouud watching the tailing ol the heavy rum on (be bund ot the pile, gradually, drop after drop, driving it slowly to. Again, in anotbor spot, the foundation atones, with concrete where necessary, are being laid above the piles, with the lour long rods passing Irotn nuts and washers np through them, and around which the bricklayers lay tho brick foundations, which riso soino eight to nine leui to near the sinew.ilk, brick by brick, Inclining gradually inward from the size of the two foundation stones together, which m no place is leas than six toet square, to lour feet nnd six inches square at the top. Tbo dimensions of the foundation bases vary at different places, being more substantial at tho points where the stations are to be. Tlieso loundulions boing laid, the rods still extondlng sovorul inches abovo them, the largo iron ousiings, weighing a ton each, in which are tho sockets Into which the teet of the columns are to no placed aud at the lour corners of which are holos lor the rods to pass through, are hoisted up and let dowu along ttio rods until liioy rest upon the content on the brickwork. They are thon bolted down by mean-, ol screw nuts fitting on to the inch and a naif rods. The castings are some two leot In height, with strengthening tlaugos trending down from tlio exterior ol the sockets, which uro grooved to tit tho flanges ot tho column and winch reaches in depth to near the bottom ol the casting. Insertion ol the columns Is tlio next work. These are about one loot in diatnetor on the division o! the lino bclweeu Chambers street and West third (formerly Amity), being larger nt tho statious; uro circular in form, with six vertical flanges, aud are composed ol six wrought Irou pieces ot tho length ol the column, In the central aud principal part forming segments of tlio circle, aud with ball flanges perpeudtcular lo Its plane, tlio thickness of tho sogmcntai, part being nearly throe quartcrsof an inch. The six parts, the flanges of which aronoltod together at short Intervals, form the column. Thesosix-flanged columns, which uro used on this part of tho line, are considered as being very strong, and are constructed under a patout bolonging to the Clark k Kcoves Iron Company, of Phaeulxville, who are con structinR under contract aud under supervision oi lu ruiiroad company's engineers Una n irt oI the road. The column* are hoisted by uiouns of derricks into their sockets, in which they are caulkod tight with a mix ture of iron rust and concrete, anil the Interior o! the column after it is up is tilloil with concrete, thus fur ther strengthening it From their circular form and the vertical lines made down tlieui by the flauges the columns look much slighter than they really are. ihe columns, which average In height some four teen leel, it has beeu calculated, when the super structure has been completed, will not be subjected irom the stationary weight and the moving loads of the trains to a strain of more tnnn tour thousand pounds to the square iticli of cro-s section, which is about one-hull of that which those ol .-miliar strength are calculated to hear, so that the margin ol sutety is lurge; in fict, much larger than is usuul In bridges. Tho engineers say tiicy would stand u working strain ol inoro than double that to which they sre to be sut^ecled. I ho spoclllculious rcquiro that no part of the structuro shall be suhjocted to a greater Strain than fl.ooo pounds to the squire inch ot cross seciluu, lu tcnsiou or compression. The foundation-', accord ing to the specifications, are to bo so construcied that the pressure on the baso shall not exceed a,000 pounds por square toot. The columns aro distributed along the lluu at distances apart varying from forty :eel to nearly s xty, depending, of course, on the width ni too streets to which tho cross beams will span. In crossing Canal str-'Ol tin y will bo sixty foot apart. They aro placed ucur the corners ol ouch street, and tho blocks spacod with ilium 10 suit. According to the specifications tho wrought iron used by tho contractors lor tho columns must be the best kind put in American bridges. Each piece Is tested thoroughly iietore it goes Into tho shops to be wrought iuto u section for the column, and these latter are afterward also thoroughly tested. The condition of tho work along trio lino nt present is about us follows:?From Chambers street to Worth street tho excavations for the toe nebulous aro being ag, tli-< Inundations an- being luul ami the socket ousting placed. From Worth to franklin street the columns are erected ut (llllereni points along the line, they havtug been placed us they happened to come Irom the contractor's w.irics. Above Fruuklfn streot the fouirdatlous and HocKot castings are all In place up to Canal street, and along.South Filth aveuilo they are all finished up to Houston street, where the completed part oi the structure coming from Franklin street ends. Aloug Mixlh uvonuo the foundation* are being excavated for nud mid. and at Forty-second street six columns are up, three on each side. I he longitudinal girders connecting thorn and the crossbeams over the avenue aro m pl.wio and the 'douhlodccker" of the Sixth uveuan roud passes calmly uud safely under tliein. Commencing at Twcsuv-secon I sireot the superstruc ture is also being eroded, working down town, and six pillar- aro up, lour being connected i>v the longi tudinal girders uud hv Uiu crossbouins, on which the rails will rest. The columns here are placed clu-e on the outside ol the tracks oi the Sixth Avenue Kuilro.nl ncd tbo IraiiiB will run just over them On the West Ilroudway and South Filth avenuo suc tion lit re will be stulious at Chambers, Franklin uiid Or.ilid streets. 'I be contract lor tho lower part ol Sixth avenue Is in Ilia hands ol tho Kdgwniuor Iron Compauv, nud tho upper purt Is under cootrict to the Keystone Com pany l'hu columns on llresu divisions aro ol a sguaro see,lion, being cumposoil of lour pieces bolted togethur. During tho excuvuiiug along tho lower division a complete skull uud a portion ? rt one were f jund In tho cellar of u cooper shop lit West Broadway, between Worth nnd Thomas streets, uud on Friday, iu an exou vatlou lor u louudatiou In tho sipiaro botweon Cham bers uud lteuilo streets, two cannon balls woro louud, one a six pounder uud the other a unrty-two pounder, uud near them au old New Jersey cent, 17SI1. They wore about eight loot below ground. Some old silver coins wore ulso louud lu au adjoining excavation on the same day. In addition to the completed portion from Sixty first street nnd Ninth avenuo to the Intersection of Grocnwtch street nnd the Bnttery, tho route ot the Now York Elevated Railroad will be from the latter point to, over and across Battery place to tho edge ol ibe liatury and State street; thence over, through and along tho edge ol the Bat tery and Slate street to Whitehall street; thence over, through and nlong Whitohall street, to and connect log wtih tho South terry, Hamilton nvenue ferry and Stalen Island terry, and from the Intersection of Stale street and Whitehall street over nnd across Whitehall street to Front street; thence over, through, along Front street to Cocntlcs slip, thuDce over, through, along ajid aoross Coentlea slip to the Intersectlou ol Cocntles slip and Pearl street; thrnce over, through and along Pearl street 10 Hanover square; thence over, through and along Hanover square and 1'ear! street to John strct; thence over, through and along John strcol aud Burling slip to, over, ulong and across South street to uud connecting with the Fulton terry; and Irom the intersection ol John street aud Pearl street, crossing John street, over, through and ulong Pearl street and Franklin square to NcwUotvery; thence over, through and along New Bowery uud Chatham square to the Bowery; tbenco over, through and along tho Bowery to Third aveuno; thence ovor, through and along Third avenuo to East Thlrty-lourth street; conceived notions that tho Nile was directly north and the Congo directly west, It Is Impossible to sty, but It is certaiu that when Stanley arrived at Nyungwo In October, 1876, nothing was known ot the course of the stream thirty tnlles away. HTAMLKY IIK KIPS TIIK AKA US, Alter quoting several passages from Mr. Stanley's letters, where tho explorer gavo his reasons lor undertaking the journey into the unknown regions, and the stories told htm by Arubs and others to deter bitn, if possible, from proceeding Into Equatorial Africa. Dr. Pelermann proceeds:? Having these Itless Manlcy, with a wonderful strength ot will, determined to follow the course of the river at all hazards, wheresoever it might lead, whether ho waa to he aided o* abandoned by all. His idea was apparently to uiake a short cut ncrors tho African coutinonl and strive at San Salvador, in tho neighborhood of tho lower Congo, from a tnoro westerly routo, six months after leaving Nynugwe He no longer considered the question of tho Luelaba as Livingstone had done. ?Mv opinion is ihul the Luaiaha cannot bo tho Nile, despite Us northern courso," lor ut Nyungwo tho stream was extremely strong, so powcrlul Indued that it exceeded the volume of the Nile by two-thirds. The deiails ol tho Journey have been tnudo known through tho daily press. The geographical data in the letters and despatches nboul Hie Congo inlorui us, In brief, that tho Lualuba-Congo takes a northerly courso from 4 dog. south to 2 dog. north latitude, and Irom there runs northwesterly nnd westerly. Living stone was right when ho looked lor the Lualab* k'i deg. north Irom Nyungwe, and Cameron wus wrung in looking lor it lu tho west. OXS Kit KK WITH MANY SANK*. When Nnchngul was lu Ihu Soudan, in 1872 3. bo followed a large stream, the liubar Kula, south Irom Uarlur aud Wadai; also went over it where it went from cast to weal, and shows It on his map to bu between 4 dog. 13 mm. and 4 deg. 2d nun. north latitude, and 23 dug. 43 in In. anil 23 deg. longitude cast from Grouuwicli. Snhwelnlurth went from there (Nachtigui's Miri), one and one third degrees further south, and it is not impossible, therefore, that linhar K ill ? extends still lurtner south, perhaps to 8 dog. or 3 dog. 3D mm. north latitude. Tho Mohammedans of that district, who carry sword and lire even as fur as the Equator, always avail lUem sclv a of tho gretl wator sources lor travel, all going in a northwesterly direction, wtne.li How Into a large stream running westward from the llutiar Kula. They reprcaoul It aa being larger than the .iclinri, full of crocodiles and rbinocerll, and divided in Its courso by numerous inhabited ialauds; hut It is not connected with the Scharl. "I have no doubt," says |>r. Nuclltigal, "that the Unhar Kula 1 explored is identi cal with Uarib's Kubaiida aud scbwciulurlh'i Uelie, hut titers is still a question as to its tietng the upper course of the Scliaru" Twenty yours previous?viz., in 18?2?Dr. Birth reported sn Immense struma in the samo locality. ax ahahiax zxrLORatios. That Uarth's Kilhauda Was a rIVer similar to that described by tho Arabs, prominent auioug the hun dreds of large streams that water the Soudan, is proved by the recitals ol a curtain Journey made to It by Arabians. This joiifuoy was uouorlakon by some thorn e ovor, through and along E ist Thirty-fourth street to nnd connecting with the Thirty-fourth street lorry; nnd Irom the Intersection of East Thirty-fourth street nnd Third svontio crossing East Thirty fourth street, over, through and along Third nvonne to East Forty-second street; thence over, through and aloug East Forty.second street to and across Fourth nvenuo to nnd connecting with the dopot known as the '-Grand Central." occupied hy the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Com pany, lha New York nnd liurlcm Railroad Company and tho New York, New llaven and Hartford Railroad Company, nnd from the Intersection of East Forty second street and Third avenue, crossing East Forty second street, through, over and along Third nvenuo to East Nlnety-sucond street; thence over, through and along East Ninety-second strool to and connect ing with tho Astoria ferry, and from the Intersection of Third avenuo and East Ninety-second street, cross ing East Ninoty-eccond street, over, through nnd along Third avunuo to East 12Uth street (there connecting with tho lerrien, having landings at or near Harlem ltridgc); thence ovor, through and along East 120ih street to the Intersection of East l'-IUih atroct and the Harlem River, over and along the llurlem River to First avenue; thence over and across toe Harlem Kivor, connecting with tho depot of tho PorlchoHtor brunch of iho New York. slavo hunters from llurlur, in tho year lHg-J, and Iiarth's faithful guide, a learned and remarkable felaul, Fuko Sambl, a resident ol Fuyo, In Saul hern Soudan, was one of the party. Fuko was not merely acquaiutiyi with the history nnd geography ol Central Africa, but was well read in classical litera ture ana understood nnd read 1'lalo and Aristotle. This learned and intelligent trnvollcr nny well l>o con sidered trustworthy It he could rol sic tho details ol the Journey to tho great river to Dr. B irth twenty eight years alter it took place. According to Fake's description the river beyond or to Hie west ol tbo Kubauda win so wide that it was dllfleult to see men who were standing on the opposite shoro from wnere thoy stood. I he expedition was not In a condition to cross tho largo river, hence they were compelled to return to the Kunsnda- in their raids tho Arabs usually allow no obstacles to slaud between tlicui and their booty, and nro well acquainted with tho rivers anil lakes ol Central Africa; It la therefore noteworthy that the great river ol Barth and Nachllgsl was to them coinpirativoly lamiliar and lormed a boundary line beyond which they did not go. They declared It to bo Iruui two to ten miles, or 10,000 to 60,000 feel across; it so it Is Identical witn Stanley's river. Iho Inhabitants of the shores and Islands were represented as "very brave and warlike," lor Fake's lighting men were eventually driven hack. SCIIW KIN ft! HTIl's CULLS. Scbwelufurth makes his liver, the L'rlle, Uow Into the Schari, u matter that Nachligal seriously doubts. According to the latest exploration there is no rivor between the Bihar Kuta sod the Ncliari into which the hollo could llow. Moll Weiul'jrth states that the Kivcr Uelle is only kOti ten wide, while the Mcliari, where It joins the Balscbikam at liugoinun, a< cording lo ilarth, Is Irom 1,200 to l.boO leet wide, tending to establish tho ideiilily ol the Bihar Kuta and Kuhanda as Stanley's river, only that it Is from 10,000 to 5o,000 teut wide. Tne Uelie may tic a h>rk of tnc Kuta, but noes not llow into the Kcliari again. When sellwcill furth reached toe Usllo, Match 10, 1870, ho wrote: "I his was, then, the mysterious, much-talked-ot river, which (lowed to the west, and of which rumor, hearsay and the stories ol the Nubians wore so ireqiient as to enlist my Interest during the cuilro Journey from Kartoutn. The Monbimu iind this was curroborutcd by the Nlamuiain of the Karma country, declared tho Uelle was many, many days distant In an cast northeasterly direction; Hint nt ouo part it was so broad that the trees could not he seen on iho opposite side, and that there was nothing to ho *oen hut sky and water. Thoy also staled that (he people ol tho lowlands dressed in white clothing, and, as la Nubia, knelt down upon the earth and prayed. It was evident, then, that Mo hammedan* dwelt in the vicinity ol thelellu, atid the distance was a twenty days' Journey iroin Southern Ba.irmi. Nuchtigal gives us somo useful information concerning these districts. If Hciiwniiiiarth reckons it a fourteen days' Journey Irom Beui-Bakir to the Uelle, to 3 deg. north latitude, a twenty (lays' journey would ho 4 13 d<g, and bring us Irom Munsi to 24 dug. or 23 deg. east longitude from Greenwich, or about to the meridian line between Ibtrlur and Wadai and to Hauh'a Kuhanda. When Hrhwnlufurth asks, "If the Uelle Is not the Seharl, where does tbo Schart sot" mo retor bun lo Nachll. New Hiiveu and Ilartlord Railroad, and Irorn tlio In torsei t.on ot Third avenue aud East 120th street over and across Third avenue and ovor, through aud along East 129tb street to Lexington avenue; thence overr, through and along Luxlngtou avenue to Kiver street and the H .rlem lllver; tbeoca over, through and nkrng River street and the southerly shore of tho Harlem River to and roiuirciing with the railway of the New York nnd Harluiq Railroad ami Fourth avenue; Usance over, through and along River aireet to Kingsbpldire, with a hrarich aud turnout from the intersection of New Bowery and Chatham square, ovor und through and along Chatham square to Chatham street; throce over, through and along Chatham aireet to 1'ark roar; thence over, through aud along 1'ark row to Tryou row, there to connect with the railway to be laid owor the East River llrulpo for cars to ho operated or [un polled bv steam ; thence over, through and along, or in Iront ol and uround Tryon row to the 1'ark; th' Dce along the 1'Hrk, nnd over, through and along Cantre street to Park street; thence over, through and along 1'ark street to Molt fitrocl, crossing over Molt struct; thence over and through the block to Iloyor street, crosstug over Dovor street; thence over and through tho block to l'ell street, crossing over Pell street, over, through nnd along l'ell street, and Intersecting the route hereinhclorc tlxed and deter mined, over, through and along the Bowery. And gal's connecting streams Auka-dubbt, Ituhar-ol-alilna, llahiir ' l-a/.rew, Iluhar Kuta and Bahar-el-Ardhe. The "mysterious, much talked ol rlvor*' ol Srhwcln furth's slave hunters was, indeed, not the (Jello, but the groat river into which it flows?tho Kiibutida ana Uahar Kui i?winch is so wide that "nothing but sky and water" could be seen irom itj shores, and where the Mohammedans, "dressed In white clolhMig," wore, mid perhaps still are, in possession. THIS St'CK 1SLAHUO. Fnko Satnhl spe>ks In Ins linos report of a tree called kuuibii, which grows on the hanks ol tiie rlvor Kubandu. .Scbwninlurlh also speaks ol the kumba tr?'#. lie says:?"It is tbo Nuiuntniu name for a very tlory fruit, similar to the M ilguetta proper (xitopia /Ktkiopfea), (rout wlilcn the pepper corn has aorivod its name, was considered in the Middle Ages a costly luxury, and is probably 'he same us the H tbh-eKSi'liin (Selim corns) wblolUbo natives or Morocco dealt In loi g bofore blncK pepper became known. 1 urn glad to say the Nubians ol the lur south deal Id this pepper as it product now." imiiwsK's ncscaipyioK or tub kplla. When the English traveller, W. U. Urowoe, visited oa-tcru Soudan and the capital ot Oarlur, in 17!'il? and until Nacitllgal reached Darfar in IH73, he was the only European who had been there?he hoard news ol the gro it river in the south similar to thai told to B irth, schweminrtb and Nuchiigal, but it w?i neither erodilod nor rigtitly understood. "I"?wii in tho southern districts," said Itrowne, "wlioro tho stave traders ol Wadal and Darlur gu to letch slaves, is the Bah'ir Kullt. The leading arllclo of trade there Is salt, twelve pounds ol wlncli Is demanded its the price ol a male slave. For a lemulo slave three pounds nioro is nske I, lor, strange to say, one pound Is ask'd lor tho eyes of tho slave girl, one pound lor her nose aud one pound lor her ears. When copper is the standard ol value, lour rnials ol salt were considered equal to two roials ol copper in all comninroial transactions, lloddiir, a rough kind of Yennliuu glass, pearl anu tin are valuublo. From the lutier rings and oilier orna ments are made. The natives ol Kttlla aro dc-crthod as being nlack In some places, In oihars red or copper colored. They have a nasal language, which Is very simple and o isy. They have Idols. They urn vory clean, as liiey may well ho with such a superalMin dnncuo! water as they have in their country, and arn extraordinarily honorable and prompt in nil tltelr dealings w ilit the slave traders. They have limits on the river, which, as In England, are sometimes pro pellud by sali, sometimes by me oar. The hutivea are olten plundered and are punished severely lor any violation ol the law, especially a slave who .illernpls to escape. In the Kulln district, where the traders visit, there was loriuurly a king, ol which there Is now but a I mil truce, the place luting governed by whatevor chiellalii lots tho most influence lor the time being. "The kumha, or spice tree, is found In aurh abun dance that juu ran buy loar or live nihl, or pocki, of pepper lor ono pound ol salt. I tie irons are ao lurge, In eoosequeuco ol tho moisture and lerwliiyol the soil, that canoes can Da dug out ol uio trees large enough to carry ten men. The slave deelors of Darior toll roe th it tho natives nl Wsdal fisr K mln are constantly overrun and plundered, lor the purpose of securing with a siding for a turn arouad, commencing at tlio lutr r.-uctlou ol' Coentlcs Klip uud Water street; thenco over, through and along Water stiect to Whitehall Street; thonce over, through and along Whitehall street to and Intcrsectttng tlio route herslnbolore tlxed and dutertnlnou ul tlio intersection ol Front street and Whitehall street And also u route of connection be ginning at the lnii'i'sectiotr ol Ninth avenue and West Ninety second street, over, through rud along West Ninety-second street to Kig.hih avenue; thenco over, through and along K'ghAh avenue to River streot and tho Harlem Jfivor; thenco over, through and along River stfeot and over and along tho Harlem Kivor, over and crossing the Harlem Itivcr at or near tho High Bridge, to und connecting with the New York, Boston and Montreal K ulwuy or tho depot thoreol and to and connecting wiln the Spiiyton Duyvil and I'ort Morns Ldlr.tad or the depot thereof. Notk.?This Is tho route prescribed by tlio Rapid Transit Commission, hut tho company, under a pro viouh charter, Inueud to run from tlieir present tor lulnu* on Nnuh avionoo, at Sixty-llrst street, up thia avenue to West IJoih street; thenco over, thiough and along Wcsi 110th streot to Eight avenue; thenco over, through and along Eighth avenue to the Harlem River, as the commission proscribes. The dotted line 10 tho cut shows tlio route htld down bv tho uuinmlssloD. slaves, und that they aro living gradually extermi nated. '? TIIB llllt TK OP TilS3PK, RUIlSBItr, Nt'KPKK. Until Itrownc's mapap(?' ir<d, giving Uie route from Wadal and llurfur to the groat river in ihu south, to tho It iliur Kulla, tho route ol tride, robbery and murder In Africa win not known, and people at ono IInan made tho Unbar Kulla run into L ike C/ad; at another tiuio lu the Niger; again, into the Caiubar or Cainerun, or olso It was altogether separated Irom tlio river system ol Central Africa. Hut with the aid ol tho laicsl maps tho mystery is cleared up. Tho road from Warn (Wadat) wig via Hehera rib, Risclitd and Bads lit it I; that I rem Kobo (Dar ter), via Dur Tomurgo, (in la and llah ir Mirt, The road irotn Wadal over IL cbl l and kitlumal to tho liahur Kulla, on Browne's map, waslrom ton to olevon degrees. LSy the latest Sl ip ol thai country, by Nuch tigiil, to the Bahar Kut i ts ahout the same. Browne's road Irom Harlur over fiwimrke, bin la ami liuiiur Miri to Ihn llahai Kulla was between eleven and twelve de gross. Nachtigal'n road Irotn this place to the llahar Kuta was tne sumo, llelnrich it irtu and K.tko Mamhi, Ilka Browne, observed I ha abuiidancu ol the kuiuP.i ana the cheapness ol the spice. STAXLICY'* KIVKK U?RU h.SOW sr. From all tins there seems to ho no doubt tliut the Mohammedan* have known ol tho grind rivar, winch .Stanley has traversed, Irotn a v< ry remote dale. Tho wamh runts ol the A rain in (lie s?udsn uata hack to the earliest uays of Isiitiu, during a tlmu u.l years or more, nuil during afi tills time tbev have ? onlmeed in tlieir cluiraclers ul sjavu hunters and slave dealers, We know lor certain lh.it Islam lias hold swny In Harlur lor live hundred years, llrsl aesum lug control ol and finally dispossessing the ahoriginos. Indeed, it is not improhaultr the Arabs liavo carried on their trading and plunder even to the Congo itself and that it wits only the strength ami warlike character ol 'tho inhabitants along its bank* thai caused them to nr.ike ItHiir boundary In Central Africa at uhout il or 4 deg. north latitude, because ill East Africa they hold sway a.- far as Capo Dolgndo, to 11 deg. south latitude and lu West Airioa evou to tho Atlantic Ocean. Til* "gt'MIIA." The Irult of tho kuinha has long boon regarded In Africa, us well as In the k .si, as trio Iron 11 III us I condi iiicnl and a useful medicino. It hccarno a very ex ponsive and much desired drug In the regions of tho great lakes mauy years ago. Probably lu Ihu Middle Ages It was as much sought alter as II was by our apothecaries toward the en l ol the last century, when It was known as /riper AXkwfUum, aud w?s, perhaps, carried over Hlaoley's river. Krom whatever point tho spico islands ol tho ancient cbnnnul ol Wudo commenced, the spice was carried undoubtedly to llsa .Soudan, particularly to Wadai and llarlur, over tlio trade route ol the great southern river. Ihe directnai ol Ibis channol ol Vt'ade Is shown to have been, lor a hundred years certainly, as welj dcllneo and as little changed as lbs route from/, .n gioar via Unyaiiyembi aud Ljiji to Nyengwo. Tho Kulla Is and was always cstlrd tlio "groat water," sa being dietlncl irom (tio-otbcr large rivers of Kijusto rial Africa. what nrtxi.BT has vonn. With Nachtlgai's Bahar Kuia we lose tho trace of tb* rre.U Central African stream* until wo come t# Tucmtjr'* Cou.o, which i* identical wtib Ihomsa Wog.a's Ayah, atxty-eight day*' journey from Celsbsr. how iloe* 11 happen that In recent map* we lo*e ti|fitl ol the Congo where Tuckejr Ittt off? B-Ciuas it was the only knowledge we had ol the upper course ol the Stream, and It is only in the light ol Stanley i brilliant march and hi* exploration*, uniting " at ,'ia various poii.u we have discussed in tho loregoin?, that we ascertain its direction to ho Iroro 4 ileg- sou'*1 latitedo to 'J dog. north, tlion northwest, lien west vie Baher Rolls, tho Kubiodaand the Babar Kuia to Tuckey's Point, in 2 d.-g. north latitude, thence running in a southwesterly course to n* mouth. Until Stauloy caiue uowu tho river no ono could question or deny the accuracy ol Tuckey's lacl.^. MUSICAL AND DUAM ATIG NOTES, The Brooklyn Schubert Otuh give their second clas sical soiree December 19 Koho Kylluge Oils an engagement during Christmas week iu c h.cugo. under tho Maiiagemeut of Mr. Jaiues Dulf Mr. C. W. Barry begins the perlormance ol an en gagement at Wood's theatre, in Brooklyn, on Decem ber 24. l'he first concert ol the third season ol tho l'hiitmr monic Society ol Staten Island, during ilio past week, tttiracttotl i* laobiuu'iUle au uouco. During Christmas week "Sharps, Flats and I Natural," a comedietta oy A. D. Cordon, will b? played at the Perk riieetre, Brooklyn. I he Florences are apparently ooing nn excellent business iu Muskuchuse.l*. Due ol the l.ow ii pipers says lite house w is k. g. I,?-crowded J irn lull. l.otta, iipporied by tuo Park flioatro company, un der the muuugemcnt ol Mr. Henry K. Ahhoy, will-.p pear at the new Park Theatre, Brooklyn, In Zip aud Musculo during tho wn ok. Mi.-s Julia Jefferson makes hor Hrst appearance "on any stage" at Wood's Theatre, in Brooklyu. on Wednesday olternoou, December 20. tier rOle will be ihai ot Adrioiino the Actress. J ihn Brougham's best piuy, "The Bed Light,' will . ho brought out at tho Chestnut Street Theatre, Pblla. dolplila, this week, with a *.roug cast. F. 1'. Mackay plays III* original rC /* ol JebOSapli it Sharkey. The eugajteiuant ot Charles F. TUoruo, Mlsa Fanny Moraui, Idu Vernon and Maude ll.trilsou ul. Baldwin s TUeuire, -uii Frauoisco, has beou ronowed lor an ad ditional lour weeks in cons ipieuo,) ot their succ as. Tho new play, "Tuo Exiles," is said to bo the Itioat' rical si rsalion ol "the Hub." I lie Ho ton I lieaire shows llie sigu ol "stnudtng room only" holore its doors during every perlormance, which is something rare. Miss Marian nil Gibbons, a young ijiak arena, will deliver u lite lecture, on "Wtiliuin Penu and His 1'iuies," at the Friouds' Meeting House, in Kuthef lord place, corner ol Sixteenth street, to-motrow evening. Elizabeth Von Stamwltz, tho Cernian tr.i;cdtcnno, will inako hor IH-1 appearance in Philadelphia litis week, opening at the Arch Street Theatre iu "Lady Jane Grey," in which Vou Stamwltz assume* the part of Mary Tudor. To-morrow night a testimonial concert will be given lo Mrs. Louiso Oliver at Steluway Hall. She will be assisted by A. K. Sloddart, baritone j Sefior Cuuzaio NuntZ, pianist; Cuaiies Werner, violoncel list, and a strung quar tot John S. Ciarko. tbo comedian, roopons tho Kirullys* Albatnora, Iu Philadelphia, wulch lie has recouiiy purchased, on Curlstmas afternoon, appoariug In -'Dr. Paugloss" aud "foodies." The pretty llltlo theatre is beroulior to bo kuowu as tho Broad Street Theatre. J. T. Ziuiwermau is lo t>?j Mr. Clarke's manager. The oilorts of tho heirs of Mr. C. M. Barras, the au thor ol the-'Black Crook," to prevent the perform ances of "Lulu" lu Philadelphia, wore uusucees-lul. Tho courts upuold tho latter play aud decided that thero had been no plagiarism whatever. "Lulu" is realiy u much bolter play, in both a literary aud spec tucuiar scusu. Modjoska commences hor engagement at tho F.Dh Avenue Theatre ou Saturday evening, December 22, plays iu Philadelphia ou January 2S and in Washio;;. tou on February 4. Her Ural Hppeuruuco here will no in "Adrteuiio Lccouvrcur." Sue ?? said to be an actress ol great euet'gy with a dguro that is lithe, supple and g luce tub t he three baby shows lu Philadelphia aro doing as well us could be expected. The colored baby-show at tho Museum Is unique aud Is well patronized. Mr. Meade's lulautoriutu, at Concert Hal', la by lar the largest ot the three, and Mr. lli.cheoek's nursery, at the Collosouui, has hardly got into running order, a f three uro lo bo continued this week. 1 he art critics ol mo various journals st-om to ho remarkably unanimous iu their opinions ol tuo ad mirable painting of tho "Venus Anadyoiusue," latolv brought lor exhibition to this city. As to Its author they very pronerly disclaim auy attempt at deciding ujiou u point which cnrolul rosuurch mid compirison iu Europe alouo could decide, and which possibly even those may lull to ascertain. Dunuruury is to be kept ou Hie stage at tho Park Theatre every eveuiug uolil December 21, when "David Derrick" will lake In* place, in conjunction with "A Regular Fix." Mr. iSoinorii's larowdl beucfll Is Uxed lor Friday ovcuing, January 4, wuen he will appear as tho Crushed Tragedian Inr Hie lust lluio. l ho engagement ol Johu T. Raymond at tula theatre cominonecs on tUo 7th of January. A charming musical maiinde look placu on Saturday at tho College ol Music ol Mine. Gazzaniga-Albitoa and Biguor Albncs, III West Pourieeutu street. Tho pur. loruiances were principally coudueted by the pupils, aeverel ol whom allowed a rare proficiency in the in terpretation ol dithcult works, boih vocuily auu itsiru mentally Notlilugoau be more Haltering lo x con scientious teacher lUaii the applause that tosl.lies tho succ -us ot his or her ellorts us illustrated in the im provement ol those who are undergoing instruction. Mr. A. O.ikey llall will repeal hi 11 .-ton iud Wash, inglou lecture, "What Will the Verdict Be?" ul lb* Brooklyn Adadctny ol Mu.Dc to morrow evening. The advance kale ol seats is large, and a great muiiy ladles and gentlemen will doubtless cross the lorries lo hear him" In both Boston and W ashington ho mndo .one hippy though diremnoi ted remarks lor local appro elation, and it is not impossible Ihat in h. . wn in. unliable style nu will nuke some perl allusions in Brooklyn tb.it will bo relished in that City ol enure ties. AS a mailer or dramatic Interest wo subjoin the full casioi "Fazio; or, 1 he Italian Wile," which Is U> ho produced at the Ftlib Avouuo lheaire lo-nighl, and add. lor comparison, lite cut of the same piece when ,i was played Oy Julia Dean llayuo leu years ago:? JJriMUiwiii/, lSdi. t' ftk Avenue, 1*77. Bianca .1 una ii- m. Mary A idefsou. . i,. Kua niriier. Annie l-.dmondsoo. .Mi?* Hlilidell. 1 ?bulla lliyiio. ,...\t. E. nticriUan* J. ii. .Mudiey. it ii t oVo ....John Moore. T'.ni Whill n. Tue Duke I. H. Jack. l..org. H.duletea AUrio Mr. Bcnkman. Mr Lunar. t'hdarie H K-.CSW..1L 1 ?????* l . ,. Ua dr. Jiirdau. II .rry l.wyorlte. TliaO'iuru... Mr. Peck He, Itert A, ling. ADionio. Mr. qulel-in. Uooert Ds'ton. Pico. Mr. Ucesm.tO. J. Del."*. CHUKOU FAlua. Tho ltdiee' felr, In an of the but ding ol the new Church of St. Paul the Apo-tlo, Kilty-ninth street and Ninth avenue, will l?> opened tins evening, in tho rweillh regiment armory. Fort) tilth street and Broadway, aud continue Op< n until Januury L General George II. Mm ollao win form illy open the ?air, and Mr. John McKeon will make the oration el the' occasion. Every endeavor Use been made tc make this lhe moat attractive lair ever Witnessed it I he city, i lie Pupo h.s presented the lair with a .ml ol silver and gilt iru.i kmves, on wltlrh Hie Pontillca arms are besutllully w. rkod in enam I, end the P.til ui Esthers aro llie recipient* or a gr'ul numh -r ol ..rui n ol V ?iue seldom ? en at t church Isir. I no ladles connected Willi the Ctiuieh ol the Holy Hei-ulchre nav. lor aome timo been ... lively em i.ioten in collecting materials lor a mir in aid of the , nurcn and lo morrow (Tuesday) they will Beready o, M-eelVe llieir Irieinl* .iud patron- I no lair will open at one P. M. in Hiu suud,.. school room of too church, which is loeaytod in -oveuty lounlt l,,lrceE rout Kuurtn nvenue, ?ud coniiuue until mm- o i lock on Krtd i) evnning Beside llie display ol laiicv arti cles, rslreshmealM ami inu-io will lortn lut' rostiu/ loature* oi tho entertainmonu A CllUiil II UOUt.ED. The Dmch Reformed Church on WyokolT .treet, near Third aveiio<s Brooklyn, was rob ?-d on .* uuiday ?light Ol a tebl# end p?*uo cover, also a clo k. I he noor boxes were demolished, hut as they contunud no money the burgisr. hud ilie.r Work lor nothing. An entrance was g.iued througu a roar winuow winch was leit uuhtsloncil.