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The New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1840-1920, December 03, 1878, Image 3

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Seaond. Session of the Forty
fifth Congress.
Criticisms and Commendations of Ref
erences to Itie Smith.
Wood, Garfield, Ila le and Cox
in Sharp Debate.
Cipher Telegrams To Bo
Washington. Dee. 2, 1878.
The Message is received with general but mild ap
proval. Some people complain that it is a very unex
citing document, but the general opinion is that this
is one of its merits. The soft money men are, of
course. Irritated at the passages relating to the cur
rency. The Southern men. almost without exception,
Are satisfied with the President's reference to the South
And are disposed at this time to grant the money
asked for to defray the expenses of trials lor violation
of the election laws. It is probable, however, that
there will be a lively discussion on this matter when
ever it comes up. Mr. Stephens, of Georgia, this
evening expressed to a Herai.i> correspondent what
eocms to be the general Southern opinion of the
Message. He said:?
T'pcro the whole I think very well of the Message.
Of course, I differ with the President upon his rtnan
cial poliey. The Message "upon the subject of South
ern outrages was not different from what I expected,
t think, however, very exaggerated accounts have
reached the President as to outrages in Kouth Caro
lina and Louisiana, and when the facts come
to be Inquired into it will be found that
a grest deal of tbe newspaper statements
sre totally without foundatiou. How it really is 1
do not know. One thing, however. 1 would say:?
If there have been any outrages or violations of law
they ought to be redressed. I am a law and order
abiding man. The maintenance of the majesty of the
law is tbe only hope of tbe preservation of the rights
bt a free people. Government*. in the last resort,
may be put into two classes?the government
of laws an<T the government of arms?and all
free people ought to eeo that the laws are executed
and enforced, otherwise they must in the end have
a government of arms. But I think in the Smith
generally the election? were as free from illegal in
terference as in any part of the United .states. In
Georgia I never knew or heard ot a more, quiet elec
tion. If in any of the recent elections to
Congress State laws have .been violated. North
by Houtli, the proper remedy ought to bo en
forced through the State judiciary. If any federal
law has been thus violated, the wrong should be
righted through the federal judiciary, and as it is the
duty of the Governors respectively to ace that fho
State laws, as expounded by the Stat" courts, are en
forced. so it is the duty of tbe President to see that
the federal laws, as expounded by the federal courts,
sre enforced. But mi>st of those questions, it seems
to me, properly belong to the House of Representa
ivee, which is the sole judge of the election and
ualihcation of ita members.
Mr. Wilson, of Wtat Virginia, old be wv a life-long
democrat, but doubted Uie proprietyoT"rriHoUTngTBe
Miangt for the suggestion!) abont the eloctiona in
Boutb Carolina and Louisiana. As long as the
act of Congress ia on tbo statutes ho said it was the
flnfy of the President to see that the law was exe
cuted. The fact that Mr. Hayes called attention to
_rlection frauds in South Carolina and Louisiana and
not to frauds in New York, spoken of by Mr. Wood
to-day. cannot be considered an effort on Mr
Hayes' fart to suppress any information as to New
York elections, as bis attention was not called to
tbem. Mr. Wood himself said there had been no pub
licity given to then.
Mr. Williams, of Michigan, democrat, thought that
loo much space was devoted to intimidation in the
South. He thought the President should have re.
terred to intimidation at the North. In his district
there were 2,500 employes in shops who were com
pelled to vote as directed by their employers, other
wise they would have been discharged.
Judge Mayhcn, of New York, democrat, disapproved
of the reference so strongly to Southern outrages.
In bia opinion it was done as a lever in the elections
in 18*0.
Judge Reagan, of Texas, said that the reference to
Southern matters was jn?t what he expected.
Among the topics referred to in the Message which
attract the attention of thoughtfnl members of both
houses are the information that a new commercial
treaty with Japan baa been framed and that measures
?re pending for more intimate commercial relations
with South American States; the suggestion that In
diana shall be enlisted as an auxiliary military force
on tha Maine, which would, in the opinion of compe
tent cxprrts, be one of the moat important and bene
ficial measures for civilizing the Indians at a
small cost; the recommendation to relieve tho
pressure of businosa on the judicial courts, aud I he
business on the federal courts and tbo Supreme
Court, by the creation of ? number of additional
circuit judges or by some other means, a relief which
the judge# and the members of tha bar know to be
very necesaary, ami the recommendation to construct
a new tJoagresaional library building. The mere
politicians evidently ted fantt because the Message
deals ao much with the material interests of the
?ountry. but on that bead .the people will not agree
with them.
There is aornethtng frightfully tedious and monot
inona about the folly of some of the democrats. They
iegin anew precisely where they left off before. To
day. for Instance^ when the Meaaage Bad been read in
Uie House, Sir. S'ernande Wood, lu the capacity of
leader of tha Bouse, dragged hie fellow democrats
into a quagmire, and. with tha help of the previous
question. left than sticking there. It (earned to Mr.
Wood judicious to arraign tha President for the ex
tremely moderate views of the Message on the South
ern elections. Ha thought a great deal too much had
beta said of what was of no consequence, and declared
that tha extreme or rsd'ral wing of the republicans
had captured tho President and made him vacillate
in bis policy toward the South. Mr. Wood aniseed
tnd startled the whole House, and delighted the re
publican! a? much as ha diagusted moat of the demo
crat*. He gave Mr. Oerlteld the opportunity to make
t judicious and extremely effective rejoinder and Mr.
Halo toe chance for a neat partisan appeal, and
whereas, before he spoke, the extreme republicans had
been disposed to gtowl at the Message and to quarrel
with the President, Mr. Wood's remarks brought
them all together.
It must be aald. to tha credit of the democrats, that
At 1c.ist three quarters of them aat In their seals Ailed
with indignation and disgust at what thoy ?aw to be a
groea blunder, and If Mr. Wood bad not, by the use'
of the previous ?]Uoat|p>>, stopped discussion affer
Mr. Cox had adroitly done all he could to cover
up the mistake that had bean made, Mr.
Wood would have heard some plain language*
from his own aide. Several democrats aald after the
adjournment that If tbey had had a chance they
would have aald precisely what Mr. Garflcld said ou
the questlou. aud there ia not tha least doubt that at
least throe-quarters and probably seven eighths of
the democratic aide were entirely content with what
Uie President aald about tha South, The Southern
men particularly were well aatlsffad, and would have
toted et onoo tho additional money asked for in tbo
Message to carry on tlie election trials. They ivy,
very s< usihly, that those trial# before f< ilor?l courU
will demonstrate to the country accurately, not only
how much. but how little, disorder and wrong was
committed anywhere in the South during the recent
canvass and election. Tlicy are confident that in this
way the exaggerated partisan accounts will be showu
to be largely false, and that regular trial according to
law ia tho best and only way to make the truth kuowu
in the North, and they are not afraid of the truth.
but .Mr. Wood does not stand alone. In the Senate
Mr. JJcck. of Kentucky, means to-morrow to preaeut
a resolution demanding of tho Secretary of the
Treasury the reasons why ho lias not paid the inter
est on the public debt with the silver dollars as far as
they would go. Thus by Tuesday evening two prom
inent democrats will have succeeded in reviving two
of the questions which are most dangerous to their
party au<l most disturbing to the country. Mean
time Mr. biaiiie, not to be behind Mr. Wood, to-day
brought in a resolution for a Congressional investi
gation of the Southern elections. This can have, of
course, only a partisan purpose, for tho whole matter
is already under Judicial Inquiry, and if tho facts only
were wanted it would be sufficient to await the result
before the courts.
There are signs here shewing that leading men in
both parties think it useful to their selfish ends to
keep alive the Southern question. Some democrats
think this the only way to make sure of the Southern
States for their party in 1RS0, and some republicans,
011 the other liaud, believe that they cannot keep the
republican party alive until that tirno except by get
ting up end keeping up a new quarrel and alarm
about the South. Thus t]pso party leaders naturally
play into each other's hands.
At the desire of the Judiciary Committee the House,
last Juno, fixed on tlio first Wednesday of the pres
ent session for the consideration of the committee's
report aud bill on the distribution of the Geneva
award. Tho report, drawu up by Mr. Knott, the
chairman of tho committee, is thought an able docu
ment. The bill which accompanies it favors none of
the claimants, but semis them all, the insurance
men, tho war premium men and tho exculpated
cruiser men, alike, to tho Court of Claims, with
the right to appeal from its decision to the
Supreme Court. This ought to be satisfactory to all
classes of claimants, and it is to be hoped that the
pasaage of the bill will remove the interminable dis
pute fpom Congress, where It, has taken up valuable
time fior the last six years to no purpose whatever,
except to array members against each other on tho
demand of some constituent who has a personal In
The government holds the money only ss a trustee,
as lias always been confessed, and the nature of the
different claims is such that only a court can decide
between them. There is some hope that Mr. Potter's
bill, which passed Jhe House at tho last session, will
become a law before the 1th of March. That bill re
fers all private claims whatever to the Court of
Claims, and its passage would relieve Congyss of an
immense mass of work for which it ia unfitted and
greatly diminish tho lobby.
Washington, Dee. 2,1878,
The members of the Potter Committee held a con
ference to-day in the room of the House Committee
on Military Affairs. The cipher telegrams were dis
cussed, and it was agreed that the matter ought
to be thoronghly investigated. Then the
question of the authority of the com
mittee to enter upon such investigation with
out further power from the House was canvassed.
No formal vote or action was taken, but it was de
cided that tho original resotntion empower#! the
committee to go Into everything connected with the
Presidential election of 1878. Upon this view of the
question the members determined to inquire into the
cipher business, and a meeting of the committee will
be called for Thursday to take formal and definite
action in this direction. All the parties, both demo
crats aud rapnhbeawa. who can throw ajyr light on
the cipher despatches will be summoned to testify.
Congressman-elect, Murcli, ot Maine, delivered a
speech to-night before the National Workingman's
Assembly, au amalgamated body of the labor
nniona of the District of Columbia. He ad
vocated the proponed national- convention of
delegate* from all the nniona of the country in Wash
ington next March and expressed the belief that it
would prove a success. Mr. Murrh has organized a
union of stonecutters since bis arrival here and is
taking an active interest in the labor organizations to
wbicli, he says, lie principally owes his rooent suc
cess over Mr. Eugene Hale.
Mr. Cox, of New York, and Mr. Springer intend to
introduce in the House, this week, resolutions look
ing to tha better protection of naturalized American
citizens in Gerfnany. The purpose of the
resolutions is to terminate the Bancroft Treaty
made in 18<W and restore the old treaty.
Under tie Bancroft Treaty a German citizen of the
United States who returns to bis native country aud
remains two years becomes subject to the German
laws in regard to military duty, while the old treaty
protects him in all the rights ot an American, no
matter how long he may remain in Ger
many. provided he docs not renew Lis
allegiance to that, country. The Bancroft
Treaty was made for ten years, and provided that
after that time either country might abrogate it by
giving one year's notioe. The resolutions prepared
contemplate giving Germany this notice through the
proper channels. This subject has been brought to
the attention of several Congressmen by petitions
from naturalized citizens who have, while visiting
Germany, been forced into military service.
Washington, Dec. 2,1878.
onEXKBAnans in secret session?thk bal
The greenbarkers held a meeting at the Metropoli
tan Hotel this evening with cloeed doors. They claim
sixteen members In the next Congress, who will act
independently, not Joining ult/icr party in caucus,
and that this number, as a balance of power,
%!1 enable them to decide the Speaker
ship and claim the clerkship and chair
manships of important committees. They say
that either Bering, of Ohio, or Kelly or Wright, of
Pennsylvania, would be acceptable to them as
Soaker, and that their preferences ' are for a demo
it. They propose to maintain in Washington an
office for thn distribution of political information,
but do not, as has been stated, intend to start here a
greenback organ.
An adjourned meeting was held ia this city to-day
of the members of the Central Executive Committee
of the national party, at which an address was
adopted signed by Peter Cooper, T. H. Murrh and E.
K. Pierce, of Maine; G. Do Lamatyr, of Indiana;
Samuel F. Cary. of Ohio, and others. The document
is of considorablo length, and appeal* to all sections
as parts of tha great body politic likely to
be affected by the same causes. The party data* ita
origin from the nomination of Pater Cooper for the !
Presidency in November, 187ft, and claims to hava
Increased its vote from the 83,840 polled for Itim to
1,260,000 in the recent elections. The jwrtincnt ?|Urs
firm is theu asked, "Can any doubt that a party
which has developed such strength snd growth in
two yeara can so perfect its organization as to elect
the next President t" The people are warned that
their republican government is in danger, and soma
very fell designs sre attributed to the "money
power." deferring to the banks, it is tsid, "The
power of evil of these creations of the law, which
i have sesumod io break an 1 annul the law, must l>e
! crushed." Agsin, referring to tlie motiej power, tho
I sddross ssys: ?
| That Insidious power irf at this moment seeking to
i array the pe?p)? in a wicked ana ruinous contest on
I Lie idea <'f a solid North against a solid South, well
knowing that such ? contest is a nier>' pretext and
'over for ilieir real purpose, which is tbo continued
nupreiafccy of the money power sn<l the further ruin
ofthe people. We, therefore, urge upon you to or
ganize Into the national party at once, in every school
district, city, town and ward! and place yourself iu
communication with t'.iie Central Executive Commit
tee, to the end that justice may be established and
prosperity restored.
WasHiitGroit, Dec. 2,1878.
In the Senate Chamber, for an hour before the body
wan called to order, the time was devoted to aoeial
greetings among the Senators and their friends. The
galleries wore well filled and the floor was crowded
with visitors until the time for clearing it, a few min
utes before twelve o'clock. In the general appearance
of the chamber there was no noticeable change, ex
cept that the Senators' desks had been newly pol
ished, the carpets cleaned, fee. Bouquets were placed
upon the tables of Senators .Anthony (B. I.), McDon
ald (Intl.), Ingulla (Kansas1, Lamar (Miss.), Coke
(Texas), Bruce (Mlt-a.) and others.
Promptly at twelve o'clock Vice President Wheeler
called the Senate to order, and Rev. Dr. Sunderland,
the chaplain, in a lengthy prayer, referred to the
yellow fever epidemic of Inet summer and the sorrow
it hud caused throughout tho land. He returned
thanks to Divine Providence for that spirit of a great
brotherhood which had risen from the plague. He
invoked the Divine blosaiug upon Congress, the
President and Vice President of the United dtates and
all our rulers, aud prayed that as Congress had this
dty been brought together in safety, all might l>e en
dowed with strength and wisdom for the responsi
bility and task before tbrm.
Mr. An rnovT, (rep.) of R. I., submitted the usual
resolution providing that, until otherwise ordered,
the hour of the meeting of the .Senate shall be twelve
o'clock uoon. Agreed to. Also directing the Secre
tary to notify the House of Representatives that a
quorum of the Senate had assembled and was ready
to proceed to business. Agreed to.
Also a resolution providing for the appointment of
a committee of two Senators to join a similar com
mittee. of the House of Representatives to wait upon
ttie President of the United States and inform him
tliat. a quorum of the two houses had assembled, and
that Congress was ready to receive any communica
tion he might bo pleased to make. Agreed to, and
tho Vice President appnintod Messrs. Anthony, of
Khixle Island, and JJavard, of Delaware, as such com
Mr. 8AT7KDKBS, (rep.) of Xeb., submitted a resolu
tion to print the testimony taken by the joint com
mittee appointed to consider the feasibility of trans
ferring the Indian Bureau to the War Department.
Laid on tho. table, to be referred to the Committee on
Printing, when appointed.
A number of petitions and private bills wero pre
sented and laid on tho table, to he referred to tho
committees hereafter.
Mr. Hakbis, (dem.) of Tenn., submitted the follow
ing. aud gave notice that he would call it up for con
sideration to-morrow:?
Whereas the epidemic which ha* recently prevailed In
large districts of several of the States of the Union hoe
been so destructive to human life and the interests and
prosperity of the whole country as to make It tbe subject of
the gravest public concern and ite prevention in futnre an
Important duty, to the end that ite return may he prevented
se far as prompt and decided action .can prareut; therefore
Kesolvad, by the Sen.it?, the House of Representatives
concurring. That a Joint select committee of four Senators,
to be appointed by the President of tba Senate, end tiro
Representatives, to bo appointed by tho Speaker
of the lieuse, lie ronatitnted a committee ta in
vest Ic ate and report upon the beat means for
preventing the introduction and spread of epidemic dU
uasos, especially yellow ferer ana rholern, within the
limits or the-United States; thai mild committee be sl
lowod a rlerk. and, if in -the eenree of Its investigations it
is found necessary, a stenographer: and tliat ssiu commit
tee have powor to send for persons and papers, to employ ?
exports and scientists, not to exceed seven in nninber, and
send item to and by a sub committee to visit tbe recently
infected localities for the purpose of obtaining the fullest
anil most accurate information and that said committee
may report at any time during tbe present session of fen
greee, by hill or otherwise.
Mr. Latus, (dem.) of Miss., submitted a resolution
of similar character, jtroviding for the appointment
of acommi ttoeof three Senators aud three lt-prnsen<a
tive.e and seven experts to make the inquiry.
Mr. JCt scriH, (dem.) of La? submitted a similar reso
lution providing for tbe appointment of a joint com
mittee, consisting of flee Senators and fire Hepnyenta
? All of these resolutions were laid over to be consid
ered together.
Mr. Morrill, (rep.) of Vt., presented joint resoln
tions recently adopted bv the Vermont Legislature in
opposition to the Silver bill passed at the last session
ot Congress, and requesting Senators and Represen
tative* from that State to nse all honorable efforts to
liave that bill no modified aa to lcasen the evil effects
sure to follow therefrom. I-aid on the table, to be
nfiinii to the Oofntnttfiee on>Finance wnen qs
Mr. Bkck. (item.) of Ky., introduced a bill to pro
vide for the retiring of the trade dollar and for Its re
coinage into tho standard silver dollar. Laid on the
table, to be referred to the Committee on Finanne
when appointed.
Mr. Morrill also introduced a hill pmendatory of
title 4H of the Revised Statutes of the Uhited States,
so as to authorise tho purchase of foreign built strips
by citizens of the United Htates. Laid on the table, to
be referred to the Committee on Commerce when ap
Tao Vie*. Pjiksidest laid before the Senate the cre
dentials of Justin H. Morrill, re elected United Htates
Senator from Vermont for six yean from Msrch i,
1*79. Read and placed on file. Ho also laid before
the Senate tho proceedings of the meeting of the
National Academy of Science, held in New York Mn
November last, in regard to scientific surveys In tne
United State*. Laid on the table, to be referred to
the Committee on Appropriations.
TUK TRVlir. Intlat.AR.
Mr. Voobhxfs, (dem.) of Ind., submitted the fol
Kesnlrril,' Thst tlie Uammittee an Finance be snit is
hereby Itwti acted to Inquire into the nspedieney of making
the trsiia SolUr, authorised by section l.S of the net .??
I'.ingress of February, I*7.1. a legal tender tur all debt*,
public anil private, an.l of presiding for ita rvcoinnge into
the standard dollar of dlU.'u grain*.
Mr. Kdmumus, (rep.) of Yt.?Let that lay over under
the rulua. It was ao ordered.
At ten minute* to one a message was received from
the House of Representatives by Mr. Adam*. Its
clerk, announcing that a quorum of that liody had
assembled and was ready to proceed to business.
Mr. Blaine, (rep.) ot Me., subraittod the follow
Rosiitood. That the Judiciary Committer he instructed te
inquire and report to the Maate whether at tho recent
election* the eoaitltutiotiel right* ?>f American citizens
wet s violated In any of the ritAte* of tbo Union , whet tier the
rlglr of ?iifTragi of oltifene of the Dnitod State* >r ef any
ca*s of ?nrli clttrens was denied or abridged hr the ncfinii
of t lie election ofiicers of eny State in rcfiieitig to receive
their votes, in failing te count them, or In teeelrlng and
counting fraudulent ballots,' in pureaaneo of a omspirary
to tnahe the (awful vote* of sncll cltlten* uf no t-ffecl,
hoi! whether ench cttlten* were prevented from exercising
tho elective franehine or forced tJ nee it against tholr
n i*!|cs br.vlolcneo or thrests or hostile deraonitrntions of
iinnod ntea or ottirr orgaaisatIons,ur by aay other tuilawfal
turoas or practice.
Kc-oWod, Tliat the Judiciary Coainiittee he fiather in
structed to inquire and tnper: whether it is withiirtho eetu
petency of Cengrea* to provide hv additional legislation for
the niorr perfect rsrArity of tho right of suffrage to citisea*
of the batted Plates in all tbo States of the baton.
IfcHolved. That la prosecutiag these 1 anntries the.Iadi
ciary Committee ehell hare the right to sead far paravae
and papers. ,
After the resolutions had been read tho Viris Parnr
dunt asked what "houliroe done wah them.
Mr. Tbl'r.wsn. (dem.) of Okie, and others?Let it go
over under the rutae. So ordered.
The Senate then, st five minutes to one P. M., on
motion of Mr. Tri-kma*, took a mess for three
quarters of an hour.
Upon reassembling the committee appointed to
wait upon the President of the United Htates reported
that they had discharged that duty, and the President
reported he would communicste with Congrsss in
writing immediately. Soon afterward Private Hrert
tary Rogers delivered the Message, and it wan read by
Mr! Uorhnm, Secretary of the Senate. Senators gen
erally paid close attention to the reading of the docu
The reading waa completed at twenty-ftve minutes
past two P. M., and It waa ordered that the Message
lie upon the table and be printed.
The Vice PsRSinxsT lsiil before the Senate the an
nual report of John J. Knox, Comptroller of the Cur
rency. Ordered that it lie printed.
Tho Senate then, at half past two P. M., adjourned
until to-tuorrow.
The only Senator* absent to-day were Mesera. Bar
nun:, Cockrell, Conklitig. Gordon, Hoer. Jones of
Nevada, Kernan, Me trim on, Patterson, Plumb, Her
gent, Sharon, Spencer and Whyte.
Washington. Dec. 2, 187H.
The sessten ef the House was opened with prsycr
by thu chaplain, Rev. Mr. Harrisou. at tho conclusion
of which the Speaker stated that this was the time
fixed by the constitution for the opening of the third
session of tho Forty-fifth Congress, and directed the
roll of members and of Territorial delegatus to be
called. While the roll was being called the members
availed themselvea of the o]q>ortunity of greeting
each other and renewing the acquaintanceship of last
session. Orest cordiality was evinced on ail sides as
congratulations or expressions of regret on the ivault*
of the lste political campaign were exchanged. The
galleries were crowded with spectators.
The result of the cell showed that there were 229
members present, and thereupon the credentials of
two member* elect?Mr. Bailey, to fill tho vacancy
caused by the death of Mr. (juinn. of New York, and
Mr. Majors, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of
Mr. Welch, of Nebraska?were presented snd ac
cept! d without question, ind the osth of office?the
Iron-clad? was administered to Messrs. Bailey end
A committee oi (hres?Messrs. Atkins, Cox and
Garfield?was appointed 10 join a like oonimittee of
the Senate to wait upon the President and inform
him that Congress was in session, and then, at
twenty minutes to one o'clock, a recess was taken for
one bout*.
At the expiration of the recess the President's
Message wu? haudi.".! in by his private secretary, Mr.
Rogers, and was thereupon read by the Clerk.
When the r< adiug of the Message waa ended Mr. j
Wood, idem.) of N. Y? rose and moved that it be re- i
ferred to tlie Committee of tho Whole House and Dr- |
dercd printed. But first lie desired to make some
comments upon it. Although, as a whole.thcdoc.u- .
rneut was highly satisfactory, yet tbere were some I
references in it which should be m?-'t at the earliest
practicable moment. He referred to that part of it
relating to the Sourbeni States. He (Mr. Wood) failed
to see (what the President saw) any disposition in the
South to a\oid or to annul in any degree tho
recent constitutional amendments. Uc failed to
see any indication in the South, at any election, at
any time, under any circumstances, for a series of
years,of un unwillingness to live in entire amity with
the w hole country in regard to t he laws or to obey
the government. He regretted that the President,
who had commenced his administration with such a
noble and patriotic position, a* against the military
despotism exercised by his predecessor, should now
indicate a change of policy. He had watched with
interest the course of the edniinistration in order to
see-whet her the President Would be forced from the
Tuauly and noble position taken by him. He knew
that there was a wing of fhc republican
party dissatisfied with that position, and it
had boon a matter of interest to tho
whole country to know whether the Presi
dent would continuously maintain his attitude.
While the President expressed his views in v rry mild
and very decorous language, yet he indicated unite
cloarly that the condition of things in the South was
not satisfactory to hiiu. The President had referred
especially to the elections in Houth Carolina and
J.oulaiaua. H# had been able only to single out two
Stctos, and only two isolated instances in those
States. That was an indication of vacillation on the
.part of tho Executive, and it was only because it was
such an indication that lie (Mr. Wood) felt it bis duty
to declare that this was no foundation for the allega
tion of wrong to the South.
It was to be regretted that, while the President's
eyes were open to the Congressional elections iu
South Carolina and LouWiftna. they were closed to
what had occurred in the city of New York on the 5th
of November, where, 4.bio legnl voters were dragged
to prison by a government official, where hundreds of
them were plunged into the vilest dens as common
prisoners, nnd wlirre (besides those who had been ar
rested) in.tvai other voteis liad been intimidated, thus
making a difference of at least fifteen thousand votes
in the city of New York in tlie last
election. The President had not seen that. (Ironical
laughter on the republican side.) Tho republican
jiress of New York had not told that to the President,
but it had pointed hiiu to the South. Ho (Mr.
Wood) regretted that tho President had thought
proper to lend his nigh position to the reiteration of
misrepresentation, originated for him by the republi
can press. He regretted it as an indication. He had
the ulghcst regard for the President, liellevlng him
to be an honest and patriotic man: It was n matter
of profound regret that the President should permit
himself to be an instrument in the hands of an ultra
wing of the republican party.
SErET or me. oAnriEi.D.
Mr. Garfield, (rep.) of Ohio, replied to Mr. Wood.
He characterised it us very unusual to interrupt the
ordinary fortu or proceeding (which was simply to
refer the President's Message and order its printing)
by debating any of its suggestions, and he thought
the V'nd of suggestions made by the gentleman from
New York are still moro unusual. The exact language
of that part of the Message with which the
gentleman found fault was not. in liis (Mr.
Garfield's) mind, but the gentleman's language
was very plain. He (Mr. Wood) criticised
certain references in ??he President's Message
as to some disturbances in the course of a federal
election in several States, contrasted that with what
he. chose to call the noble beginning of the adminis
tration in favor of self-government, and said that the
President bad shown vacillation, because bo bad
seen fit to refer to disturbances in a federal election.
It Ibo right of a Slate to attend to its own local con
cerns undisturbed was in any way inconsistent with
the right of tlio national government to attend to
national elections, and if that was what the gentleman
called "vacillation," he hojied they should all "va
cillate" in that way.
He (Mr. Gar field) had never made himself a particu
lar advocate or defender of any administration for lb*
vacillation or want of vacillatien, but If tho gentle
man (Mr. Wood) could make no better case against
the aimlnistratton than he had made, he had not very
well opened the ball "this winter." That 'cntlcmau
could not see that there had been any db rb- -ice in
matters of election?(after a pause)?m pi m hia
own State. (laughter on the republican side.) He
(Mr. Wood) lisd seen some signs?if not
of disturbance, at least of "vacillation,"
in the city of his adoption and in liis State, but they
were not such instances of "vacillation" as the gen
tleman would have brought up In discussion.
(f.Hughtcr.) It did not signify that the gentleman
nad not seen any disturbances la the uational election
elsewhere. If the President had seen tnom it wan the
President's duty to say so, and the President had
said SO in his Message. If the President had seen
th-m and had not suiri sn he would not only have
been gwttty of negligence hut of a positive
fault. Tn? President had r.-fcrred to it modestly.
He had invited the attentiou of Congress to it.
Did the gentleman object to having attention pointed
to it ifi that way ? Hod he or any gentleman on the
other side any reason why he did not wish the atten
tion of Congress pointed to the elections in the Ronth
ern States t For his own part he welcomed such a
celling of attention. Tho President ought to bo
thanked for it by the gentleman from Now York, ?s
it afforded an opportunity to him to havo this "vscll
lution" examined into closely.
Tie (Mr. Oarlleld) had had the impression made on
hia mind, from a somewhat caretul reading of the
public journals, that a very considerable illegal
disturbance. had taken place in some of
the Southern States. Ho had oven heard it
stated that hold, open and acknowledged in
timidation had been employed, notably in
South Carolina and in districts where there had been an*
overwhelming majority of one political party no sign
of any such majority had appeared at all. This might
1)0 an exaggeration; if so it was one that was scattered
broadcast through the public press and one which a
Congress so notable as the present one for Investi
, gating all chances of wrong doing should investigate,
lie supposed (this sarcastically) that his friends on
the other side would welcome fhe Prcaident's sugges
tion as exactly in the line of their conduct hitherto.
He hoped they would not attflc investigation. (Laugh
ter aud applause on the repnblicsu side.)
Mr. Wood defended the position he had talcen, and
repeated his expression of regret that the President
had picked out two cases and duenuxl them of sul'
ttcieiu importance to present theui to the world in
his annual Message. It was an indication that the '
ultra wing of the republican party was forcing the
hxocutivc to aid It in displaying the bloody shirt?
(sarcastic laughter 011 the republican side)?so that
the party could hold on to its ill-gotten power and
continue that poser by the plunder ot the Treasury.
si-EKc.it rnou Kvnr.xr. malic
Mr. Hale, (rep.) of Me., condemned ths attempt
on the part ot the chairman of the Committee on
Ways and Means, the leader of the democratic side of
the House, to belittle the subject matter which the
President had fittingly brought to the attention of
Congress. A British Ministry nad been often hurled
from power for pcrtulttlug the violation of the rights
of a single Brinish subject, either at honte or abroad,
and yet the iTCsident wae blamed because bo called
attention to the deprivation of thousands of Ameri
can citizens of their rights. The question would not
and shonld not l>e allowed to he put down in
that way. The President hud hwucstly and earn
estly done in the directkiu of conciliation
what many of his party friends believed in lust ire in
withdrawing the troops froaithe South, but iu which
other of His party friends sustained him, aud mi the
heels ot it (here had tuken place iu South Carolina
and 1'lorida and other Myiithrrn Htates what tne
president had call ad the attention of Congress to. and
now it was all-gist Ug the gdCtleinan trout New York
that the President had lieeu drsgootn d by the radical
a nig of the republican party into the course indi
cated in bis Message, and that that wing of the party
was likely to control the administration, lie would
tell tho gentleman that ou the great fundamental
doctrine of the protection of the citizen in all his
rights there was no radical nor cotiser ra
the wing in the republican party, but there
wan one party in tho land uuited to a man on the
proposition that tho American citisrn?North, Mouth
and everywhere?should l?e protected in the exercise
of hia constitutional rights. (Applaure.)
ausstrr cox To rna uaevt.
Mr. (.'ox, (dcm.) of N. f., declared himself tin a tone
o( peculiarly feigned surprise) delighted to see his
iriend fmui Maiue, uml wondered that that gentleman
hod not complained of some of the vacillations in the
state of Maine >uid Blaine. (Laughter.) His colleague
(Wood) should not 1m censured ny the gentle
men from Ohio and Maine ainiply bccanse he
had expressed his regret that the President had lieen
purblind for certain purposes; that he could see
things in Mouth Carolina and Louisiana, but could not
see tn? monstrous tyranny of his own olBecr in New
York who had called in question the naturallcatiou of
uO.OUO persons from IH&i t.) 1*7?. Had those gcntle
lueu failed to remember how the "tape worm ticket"
ot caiitornia hail been run by the Navy Yard ? Had
tin y denounced the "tape worm" politics? Not much I
He (Mr. Cox) was not respnhstble for the opening of
tMa debate; but he shrank from no investigation into
any election, North or Mouth.
Mr. Towns*:!!), (rep.) of N. Y.. mads seme remark
which was not heard by Mr. Cox or the reporters;
but at which some members around hliu laugh-d.
Mr. Cox noticed It and said he did not know what
they were laughing at, hut it was possibly for want of
Mr. Tdwnsem) said In had been making a remark
about "cipher telegrams."
Mr. Cox retorted that that wae another of the ?? vacil
lations" of the other elite; that there were "vacilla
tions" all over the country; but that with all these
??vacillations" the old ilenioeratte party wonld have
the next Menate and the Houae also.
The discussion, which wsa animated, hi re closed,
uml Mr. Wood's motion to refer and print the Mes
sage was agreed to.
Sir. Run hum, (rep.) of New York, presented s mo
mortal of Messrs. Paulding. Krniblo k Co.. of Cold
Mprlng, V V., In regard to ordnance tor fort titrations.
The Military Actiu my and tho Fortifications Appro
priation bills worn reported by Mr. Durham, ot hen
lucky, and Mr. Hskcr, of Indians, and notice was
given of early u tlou on them.
The House then, at tv quarter fiat three P. ML, ad
journ od.
Conservative Utterances in Regard
to the South.
Recommendations Growing Out of
the Recent Epidemic.
Detailed Statement of the Operations of
the Treasury Department.
Changes in Existing Financial
Legislation Opposed.
Our Moral Duty Toward the
? Wakhi.noton, Dec. 2,1878.
The following in the President's Message, forwarded
to the two houses of Congress to-day:?
Ff.ixow Citizens or the Senate and House or Ret
n wsentatives :?
Our heartfelt gratitude is dne to the Divine Being
who holds in His hands the destinies of nations, for
the continued bestowal during the last year of count
less blessings upon our country. We are at peace with
all other nations. Our public credit has greatly im
proved and is, perhaps, now stronger than ever before.
Abundant harvests have rewarded the labors of those
who till the soil, our manufacturing industries are
reviving, ami it is believed that general prosperity,
which has been so long anxiously looked for, ia at
last witbin our reach.
The enjoyment of health by our people generally
has, however, been interrupted during the past season
by the prevalenco of a fatal pestilence?the yellow
fever?in some portions of the Southern States, cre
ating an emergency which called for prompt and ex
traordinary measures of relief. The disease ap
peared aa an epidemic at Hew Orleans and at other
places on the Lower Mississippi soon after mid
summer. It was rapidly spread by fugitives from
the infected cities and towns, and did not disappear
until early in November. The States of Louisiana,
Mississippi and Tennessee hare suffered severely.
About one hundred thousand eases are believed to
have occurred, of which about twenty thousand, ac
cording to intelligent estimates, proved fatal. It is
impossible to estimate with any approach to accuracy
the loss to the country occasioned by this epidemic
It is to be reckoned by the hundred millions of dol
lars. The suffering and destitution that resulted ex
cited the deepest sympathy in all parts of the Union..
Physicians and nurses hastened from every quarter
to the assistance of the afflicted communities. Volun
tary contributions of money and supplies, in every
needed form, wore speedily and generously famished.
The government was able to respond in some measure
to the call for help by providing tents, medirlnes and
food for the sick and destitute, the requisite direc
tions for tbo purpose being given, in the confident
exportation that thin action of the Executive wou'il
receive tho sanction of Congress. Abont eighteen
hundred ten's and rations of the value of abotit
$25,000 were sent to cities and towns which applied
for them, full details of which Will be furnished to
Congress by the proper department.
The fesrful spread of this pestilence .has a watered
a very general public sentiment in favor of national
sanitary administration, which shall not only con
trol quarantine, but hare the.sanitary supervision of
internal commerce in times of epidemics and hold an
advisory relation to the State and municipal health
authorities, with power to deal with whatever en
dangers the public health, and which the municipal
and State authorities are miahla to regulate. The na
tional quarantine art, approved April 29, 18(78, which
waa passed too late in the last session of Congress to
provide the means for carry!ug it into practical opera
tion daring the past season, is a step in the direction
here indicated. In view of the necessity for tlio most
effective measures, by quarantine and otherwise, for
the protection of our seaport# and the country gen
erally. from this and other epidemics, it is recom
mended that Congress give to the whole subject early
and careful consideration.
The permanent pacification of the country by tbe
complete protection of all citizens in every civil and
political right continues to be of paramount interest
with the great body of our people. Every step in
tbts direction is welcomed with public approval, and
every interruption of steady and uniform progress to
the desired consummation awakens general unreal,
ness and widespread condemnation. The recent Con
gressional elections have furnished a direct and trust
worthy test of the advance thus f*r made in the prac
tical establishment of the right of suffrage, secured by
the constitution to the liberated race in the Southern
States. All disturbing influences, real of imaginary,
liad beeu removed from all of these State*. Tlic three
constitutional amendments, a hick cioifcrred freedom
aud equality of civil and political rights npon tlie
colored people of Ihe South, were adopted by the con
current action of the great body of good citizens who
maintained the authority of the uatidnal government
and tbe integrity and perpetuity of tbe Union at such
a cost of tcosiire aud life, as a wise and necessary em
bodiment iu the organic law of the just results of the
war. Tbe people of the former alaseholding States
accepted these results, and gave, in every practicable
form, assurances that the thirtocnth, fourteenth and
fifteenth amendments, and laws passed in pursuance
thereof, should, in good fa.th, bo enforced, rigidly
and impartially, in letter and spirit, to the end that
the humblest citizen, without distinction of race or
color, should under them receive full ami equal pro
tection In person and property and in political lights
and privileges. By these constitutional amend
ments the Southern section of the Union ob
tained a large increase of political power in
Congress and in tbe Electoral College, and tha coun
try justly expeeled that elertiocs would proceed, as
to the enfranchised nu-c, upon the same circum
stances of legal and constitutional freedom and pro
tection which obtained in all the other States of the
Union. The friends of law and order looked forward
to the conduct of these elections us offering to tbe
general judgment of the country an important oppor
tunity to measure the degrre in which the right of
suffrage could be exercised by tbe colored people and
would be respected by their fellow citizens, but a
more general enjoyment of freedom of suffVag') by
the colored people and a more just and generous pro
h ctton of that freedom by the communities of which
?hey form a part were generally anticipated flian the
record of the election discloses. In some of those
States in which the colored people have been unable
io make their opinions felt in the elections the rc
snlt is mainly duo to influences not easily measured
or remedied by legal protection; but in the States of
lioulstana and South Carolina at large, and In some
particular Congressional districts outside of thoso
States, tho records of tbe elections seem to compel
the conclusion that tha rights of the colored
Toters have been overridden and tboir par
ticipation In tha elecUona not permitted to be
either general or free. It will be for the Congress for
A. which these elections worn held to msks lack exam-,
inittions into their c induct as may be appropriate to
determine tliu validity of the claims of members to
their seats. lu the meanwhile it becomes the duty of
the Executive and Judicial departments of tin govern
ment. each in its province, to inquire into and iihnlah
violations of the laws of the I'niti-d Sntes which have
occurred. 1 can but reppat what I said in this con
nection in m.v lust Message, that whatever authority
rests with nic to this end I shall not hesitate to put
forth, and I am unwilling to forego a renewed ap
ical to the legislatures, the courts, the executive
authorities and the people of the States where theso
wrongs have been perpetrated, to give their assistance
toward bringing to justice the offenders and prevent
ing a repetition of the crimes. No means within ray
power will be spared to obtain a full and fair invest!'
gallon of the alleged crimes and to secure the couvio
tion and iust punishment of the guilty.
It is to lie observed that the principal appropriation
mad-- for the Depurtment of Justice at the last session
contained the fallowing clause
And for defraying the expenses which may be in
quired lu the enforcement of the act approved Feb
ruary 'JH. 1*71, cut it P d "An act to amend an act ap
proved MayilO, le?o, entitled au act to enforce the
rights of citizens of the United States to vote in the
several States of tlic Union and for other purposes,''
or any acts amendatory thereof or supplementary
It is the opinion of the Attorney Genera! that tha
expenses of these proceedings will largely exceod the
amount which was thus provided, and I rely con
fidently upon Congress to make adequate appropria
tions to enable the Executive Department to enforce
the laws.
I respectfully urge upon your attention that tha
Congressional elections In every district, in a very
important sense, aro Justly a matter of pn
'liticisl interest and concern throughout the
whole country. Each State, every political
party, is entitled to the shorn of power which is
conferred by the legal and constitutional suffrage. It
is the right of every citizen possessing the qualifica
tion* prescribed by Isw to east one nuintimidated bal
lot end to hare his ballot honestly counted. So long
as the exercise of this power and the enjoyment of
this right are common and equal, practically as well
as formally, submission to the results of the suffrage
will lie accorded loyally anil cheerfully, and all the
departments of government will feel the true vigor
of the popular will thus expressed. No tempo
rary or administrative interests of government, how
ever urgent or weighty, will ever displace the aeal of
our people in defence of the primary rights of eiti
zenship. They understand that the protection of lib
erty requires the maintenance, in full vigor, of the
manly methods of free speech, free press and free
suffrage, and will sustain the full authority of gov
ernment to enforce the laws wliirh are framed to pre
serve these inestimable rights. The material progress
and welfare of the States depend on the protection
afforded to their citizens. There ran be no pears
without such protection, no prosperity without
peace, and the whole country is deeply interested iu
the growth and prosperity of all its parts. While thi
country has not yet reached complete unity of feeV
ing and reciprocal confidence between the com
munities so lately and so seriously estranged I feel
au absolute assurance that the tendencies are in that
direction aud with increasing force. The power of
public opinion will override all political prejudices
and all sectional or State attachments in demanding
that all over our wide territory the name and char
acter of citizen of the United States shall mean oue
and the same thing and carry with them unchallenged
security and respect.
Our relations with other countries continue peace
ful. Our neutrality in Contests between foreign
Powers lus been maintained aud respected.
The Universal Exposition held at Paria during th*
past summer has been attended by large numbers of
our citizens. The brief period allowed for the prepa
ration sud arrangement of tbo contributions ot our
citizens to this great Exposition was wollsinployed in
energetic and. judicious efforts to overcome this dis
advantage. These efforts, led and directed by the
Commissioner General, were remarkably successful,
and the exhibition of the products of American indus
try was creditable and gratifying iu scope and charac
ter. The report* of the United States Commission
ers. giving Its resityts in detail, will be duly laid be
fore you. Our participation in this international
competition tor the favor and the trade of the world
may be expected to produce useful and important re
sults, in promoting intercourse, friendship and com
merce with other nation".
In accordance with tliu provisions of the act of Feb
ruary 'JH, U!7?, three commissioners were appointed
to an luturnstional Conference on the subject of
adopt inn a common ratio between gold and ailvor, foi
the purpone of establishing, internationally, the its*
of bimetallic nifiney and securing lixity of relative
value between those mends. Invitations were ad
dressed to the various governments which had ex
pressed a wilUngue?H to participate in its delibera
tions. The Conference held its meetings in Paris, ia
August last. The report of the commissioners, here
with submitted, will show its results. No common
ratio between gold and Kilrcr could bA agreed upon
by the Conference. The general conc.usion was
reached that it is necessary to maintain in the world
the monetary functions ot silver as well as of gold,
leaving iho selection of the use of one or the other of
these two metals or of both to be made by each State.
Congress having appropriated at its last session the
sum of $.-1,500,000 to pay the award of tho Joint Com
mission at Halifax if, after correspondence with the
British government on the subject of tho conformity
of the award to the requirements of the treaty auvl to
the terms of the question thereby submitted to tbe
commission, the President shall deem it his duty to
make the payment, communications upon tnese
points were addressed to the British government
through '.he legation of the United States at London.
Failing to obtain the coneurrcnce of the British gov
ernment in the views of this government respecting
the award, I have deemed it my duty to tender the
sum named within the year fixed by the treaty, ac
companied by a notice of the grounds of the pay
ment. and a protest against any other const run ion of
the same. The correspondence upon'this subject will
be laid before you.
The Spanish government has officially announced
tl;e termination of the insurrection iff Cuba and tbe
lestoratiou of peace throughout that island, confi
dent expectations are expressed of a revival of trade
anil prosperity, which it is earnestly hoped may prove
well founded. Numerous claim* of American clti/cns
for relief for injuries or restoration of property bava
been among the incidents of the long continued hos
tilities. Some of these clsims are in process of adiust
ment by Kpuiu, and the others are promised early and
careful consideration.
The treaty made with Italy, in regard to reciprocal
consular privileges, has been duly ratified and pro
No questions of grave importance have arisen with
any other of the Kitropean Powers.
The Japanese government baa been dee irons of a re
vision of such parts of its treaties with foreign Powers
as relate to comuier ???. and, it is understood, has ad- .
dressed to each of the trsaty Powers s request to cpen
negotiation* with that v iew. The Hutted States gov
ernment I ism been inclined to regard the matter favor
ably. Whatever restrictions upon trsde with J spaa
arc found injurious to that people cannot but affect
inlurlomrly nations holding eommeii ttl intercourse
with tbeui. Japan, aftor a long period of aerluaton,
has withiu the part few yrars made rapid strides in
the path of enlightenment and progress, and, not un
reasonably. is looking forward to the time when her
relations with the'nations of I'ur<q>o and America
shall be assimilated to those wlth-h they hold with
each other. A .reaty looking to thin ?nd has been
made, which will ho submitted for the consideration
of the Semite.
After an interval of several years the Chinese gov
ernment has again sent envoys to the United Hlate*.
They iiave been received, and a permanent legation
is now established here by that government. It is
not doubted that this step will be of advantage to both
nations in promotiug friendly relations and removing
causes of difference. The treaty with the Haruoan
Islands, having been duly ratified and accepted ou the
part of botli governments, is now In operation, and a
surv ey ami soundings of the harbor of Pago-Pago hava
lieen made hv a naval vessel of the United States,
with a view ol its occupation a* a naval station, if
found desirable to the service.
Since the resumption of diplomatic relations with
Mexico eorrcspondvnee has be.-u opened anil s'.lll con
tinues l?ef ween the two governments upon the various
questions winch at onetime aremcd to cudanger their
rclatious. While no formal agreement lias been
reached as to Din troubles on the border much has
l<een done to repress and diminish them. The gjfee
tive force of United states troops on tbe Rio Orandr,
by a strict and faithful compliance with instr,lo
tions. has done much to remove the sourrea of
dispute, and it ia now understood that a ilk*
force of Mexican troops ou the other side of the river
is also making an energetic movement against tha
marauding Indian tribes. This government looks
with the greatest satisfaction upon cv?ry evidence of
strength tn the national authority of Mexico and upou
every effort put fortli to prevent or to punish incur
sions upon our territory. Heluolant to assume any
action or attitude iu the control of |tlirse incursions,
by military movements across (he border, not im
peratively demanded for the protection of the iivon
and property of our own Mtlxens, I shall take tha
earliest opportunity consistent w ith the proper dis
charge ot this plain duty to recognise the abllltv of
the Mexican government to restrain effectively viola
tions of our territory. It is proposed to hold next
par in international exhibition in Mexico, and it ia
belie red that the display of tho agricultural and man
ufacturing products or the two nations will tend to
better understanding and increased commercial inter
course between thnir people.
With Brazil and the republics of Central and South
America some steps have been taken toward tha
development of closer commercial intercourse. Dip
lomatic r? latioas have lieeu resumed with Columbia
? nd with Bolivia. A boundary question lwtwcrn tha
Argentine Republic and Paraguay has been submitted
by those governments for arbitration to the Presf
d< nt or tb" United Ntstes, and 1 have, after careful
examination, given a derision upon it.
A naval expedition up tha Amazon and Maderia
xivara haa brought back Information valuable both tor

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