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EDISON'S ELECTRIC LIGHT.
The Latest Advances Made in Per fecting the Invention, AN ELECTRIC METER. British Scientists' Opinions on the Practi cability of the Light. Another important advance toward the completion j of the electric light ha* just been made in the Mcnlo . Park laboratory. After days of constant work Mr. j Ellison has at last succeeded in perfecting a suitable , apparatus for measuring the quautity of electricity | Used. This v r.v necessary appliance, which is to the | electric light what the una meter is to gas. has hitherto been one of the things iucoiupletcd. Before hitting upon the present device Mr. Edison had tried quite a number of others, but all seemed to lack one or an other necessary dement. A few days ago he branched off in a new direction and soon was gratified at find ing that he hod alighted upon just what he had so tong been looking for. Constant experimenting on the new apparatus since then has proved it to be all that the inventor desired, and he has accordingly taken steps to have it put on ted. 1 .earning .his fact, u Hkkai.o reporter yesterday paid a visit to the laboratory to ascertain from -Mr. Edison the exact state ot the light, tie found the great in ventor seated at a long wooden table, on wluch were promiscuously scatter'si a dozen or more scientific books on heat, light and electricity, eight or ten cells of battery, a new and costly spectroscope, a mam moth electro-magnet, a number of vials containing rate chemicals, four or five curiously shaped small brass mac inn en, and two of his in struments tor the testing of the electric ligbt. into the latter were run wires, which proceeded front the battery. The inventor was sitting with his chin resting on his hands, his elbows on the table. His eyes were concentrated on the littie mechanical device before hint. Oblivious to the movements of the half dozen or more assistants working on all sides of him he sat fosr fully five minutes steadily eyeing ilia ap paratus. 1 ni ring the interval the reporter had an excellent opportunity for taking men tal notes of his appearance. lie was dressed in a blue flsnuel start, with eoarse pantaloons and ooat, the whole spotted here and there with what appeared to be chalk moras. The elbow of his coat was varieiptied with a huge blot of nitric acid, as though In a fit of abstraction he boil leaned his arm into an op vn jar of the chemical. Au old Kossuth hat, with whitij finger marks, rested lightly on the back of his head, as though pushed there by the refractory front locks of his hair, which stood up defiantly. ? SCIENTlKtC hat. Sudden? y the inventor moved buck war u. and ?nalchlnff from his head his Kossuth held it over the little insf.rument before him. Then he peered long ?nd earnestly under the liat. The result seemed satis factory. as when he returned it to his head his oounte<aan<e was Illuminated with a self-satisfied smile. He theu renewed his gaze on the light. In a few wi&utes he had again covered it with the chalk n.arkrrt Kossutli. At this juncture one of his attendants jogged his elbow aud said, ??Mr. Edison, here s a Ukhai.o man." "Kb?" ?aid the inventor absently, still holding the Kossnth ovai' the globe and stopping in the act of peering beneath it. "A reporter from the repeated the attendant, in a voice thst sounded like a roar from the megaphone. "He would like to see you in rcierence to the light." Then the attendant turned to the reporter anu apologized for the roar. "Mr. Edisotn is pretty hard of hearing, you know." "Show llim up," answered the inventor, mechani cally. again diving under the Kossuth. "fiVhat part does your hat piay in the electric light. Pro feasor ?" asked the reporter as goon as he caught th? inventor's eye. "My hat! Oh, ah, yes; I *<?;" said the man of ?cfieuce looking at his much muled Kossuth. "1 was Jc st watching the effect of a small battery on the ??'iectric light. By holding my hat over it I can ace When it begins to get red hot. I.ook?you can see for yourself. By shading It with the hat, so. you see these few cups of battery make a dull red light." Aud the inventor accommodatingly held the Kossuth for the reporter to personally obm-rve the experiment. "There's a good deal of experimenting about this ?lectnc light," continued the Professor as he n turned his hat to his hewf and switched off the battery. TUT EI.RiVIUC METKJt. "Ia it true that you have perfect'"! a machine for Dettsariug Um current," naked the writer. ? Yea," replied the Inventor, wiping hi* smutty liaud* on h;* already begrimed trousers, "I have Just applied for a patent for it. It wan one of tlie detail* that hadn't ban accomplished. It work* splendidly." "Soinetlilngln the nature of a gss meter?" observed the reporter. ' ??Wei,, ye*. It anew.T* the snipe purpose." "How .? it to be us??d'/" The inri ntor planted hi* feet on the bench and leaned back a* h?- answered:?"On* will 1* placed in ?very bonne where the light i* used. It register* in fallibly th quantity of electricity eoxi.-u uied. using for the pur]>o*e out thousandth part of the quantity consumed in the nonso. It i* a simple eontr.vaiiee and . jme* up to all uiy expeetati rne." "Th?u it pushes your luvoutiun a ui*iderably lor ?wanl?" "Weil, yes, so far as the detail* are concerned, I ?appose it does.'.' A* ACCOMn.ISIli.D FAIT. "Will you tell me, Professor. the exact condition of the light at the present time ? I* it nearly com pleted ?" a-kmi th> reporter. "It la all completed now, *o far a? the principle 1* ?oncernod," sn??>r?l the inventor, pron ptly. "It is Bow only a ijU'-ttti.'n a't to cost, but one thing you can ?ay?it I* es table iied beyond doubt that it i* cheaper thxr: pee." "I?o vou mean to ?ay that at the pr-e nt time at could he jilaced iu competition with g;i* ?" "I do. It ia a U tter and a cheaper light. At th.* moment iny experiment' are all tending to the qaeetion ot cost. 1 am sal u-thal that th .- ie*t can L/o Very much reduced, and when I arrive at the mini mum point in my U lief then the public are vrclron.o to It." "In* low, a* compar- u with the cost of gaa, will th* elm trie light lie.' asked the reporter. "The difference is great?Very crest; but the corn par. son can letter be told later on?in a few weeks, perhaps." "B it there sr scientists who *tiil assert that the current cannot be transmuted in th* man ter you M>. ' "Kola** ' answered the inventor, smiling. "The ?rieutiflc tnen who My it has- their asw-'tion on a weii-known rub- ot ? 1> ??trie li.ht, which ia tnat the intensity of the light flbefwases to the *.,u*re of the current, in. this ilmy readily tigdim aa euorieoii* lo?* in the wWt?-dlvision, hut, tortunately," eontinued the inventor, after a pause, *? h>* taee a*- iut* I ? broml-r smile, "their ia another law which i* not know n to tie-e scientific gentlf IJB, which law, if eerWnn condition- sr. brought alxmt, i ompeusatss tor the in** so tainud by the first law. These con dition* an- evrMdingiv difficult to obtain." "Have yod obtained them t" inquired the reporter. I have," an*w-r"d the inventor. "Why, 1 wa* MHrVlnllM long ag< ." continued Mr. Kdlson. "for tuakiiig uu a'serUou about thetransmiauouof pow, . . ?ti'l now I And that two of the leading scientific mm of the day issca up iny -tiuioent. The gentl-mcn I refer to are of the very highest aiitliority. They ar,<* lrr. HietiifU* and Kir William 'J icuison, ..f Knglaml. i have only just read th - new*, havu.g to-day i? eivdd It from a scientific frii nd in sh*|ie of.?written report, ot lie proceedings st a meeting of tie- Institute of Civil hng.ne, r? in Loudon." After turtlier cunver sat.en Mr. fidisoti < ousentrd to allow the reporter to take a copy of the report in question. He prefaced this consent with the remark, "I consider the opin ions of Messrs. Ml mens and Thomson oi great im portance in refer, hi e t, the matter; fully a* itu portal t otanytiiing thus tar asui on tl,e "Ub-'.ct." Thciollow.il'., i-t opv of Urn reporti ng-* Acntaw tug itu.MIi. Or. kiemen- dsaired is add a lew ebpluuMten* with rof ?rear- t? tie- tran?u?MMhin of citric pe . -i to e di-taaco, wheltisr Isr the grwiui ttoa ?l light or n#i i is eroiiticitou ef fsivw Ttis paper ?i*ift that the weight .f th* ' Oliili c Mr fwM teiresa# as tbeagsare oi th* sisiaDuc; out that propositi**, ?Jthoujfll true la ileoif w? I It It were o rapted. I? 1* to *?"' rfh'SliSI litis Willi regard ml OS C?w?r "i traws editing for ? to a Ii-imcs ling per ipa h-lf a ?!'. In order l? I't -he ip. ,i offset out of a dynamo , ,e trie reach lite. there oto'iihl n* no f xlerual rt ?? >?- sedtng the re-lsiwnio uf the >lie n llis otsrhlse llittn rto it l ie hoea f" hi I no. oai'iawai to Incrrsse tu* rnaistaaM of tlmnstlilki to ,h>,i? tnon oio. elm, otherwise the r ? a loss ot . ureal through the heating of the coil It, thoroforo there wa-n in- iiiewitg one ohm rostMbaeo there oaaht to h? - - umlintor ft si. -mil ?tag i ho sower, either to the iglM or in tl * *. tro msgoeile ? ngino rot i Ace* iling olio nil tl if tn-fet I of going one en - ? *? doelrtii tv gs two e lis* it w in'I he noroooory, Ir-i ot sii l? employ s cotuisstef two# the long h no' tli-i Coiolsi.tor weals gl-o two ulllos losUtan - aiel weal 1. tiiersfoi i?. 'ieetroy nin i> of the e'lsel tohr'ng II hai k to oho eo n ncnetaac*. it wouJU he -saiy lo Put ilnwti s ?e< sd wire oi to double the ores uf the Br-t . bad li the' ra?? there won d be a wire id twlre "?? length sad two# th* ore*, therefore fowl time- (lot Wi -he noil fear limes the co-t. Tti*- pointed to an in crease in the cost and In the weight ot tbn eiiiMlu* tor ii the wtUAiS ralius of the die ISMS. Wet one ?irrsmatasr* U*o been lost sight of in this rat eslanon. that l aving two* the a aa to Hoai Willi, a second geueiemr coo Id be pit vm, snd eiectrleu, eaeagh to work two ligliM MM I"- Will Mil oigh tbe doable urea to ? denble dlelnate II.* ?inn sot that was d nO the rnadector WW* Mtrmaeed. for tile p.* sr w*? trsnemltted oale Is ike prop-nd Ion nt Hi" ih ?mate ef th* length, bet tbat w?? not oiieegh The sine, trie co mi tie tor did ant radiet tbdlUotion ef eien ririiy in Hot edit" meaner a- * pipe ro-?eted tb>' flow of llgnid iiir o It It; heteaobsiW r,-?iefe#? wee aa ahei'a rvei-lsnrd f"t ? larger ee weil as fed a emsiler current bowleg through It, Which rweKMries cri eali iaereaebd be* rise of nwnpora tare m th ciMnno urr I his rts* ot teWpetotnro wae Sept dswe br diesipaiioe el hset lioui the tot. ductor, or ctmsidttrintf that the turgor and doubled conductor would four timet th<- amount of surface for the diealfof U<**t than the single and ?*hort con duct It %v? a!o ho cupablo ?if 1 i .iu uui;t i-uf f.oir vitu.t tin* ii i.nrfit *?f oYeirioal otii'MUi. It Bil?ht. tUcrof???>*. he suiit tii.it t wa* !??? ilrmvr to titt'i-mit ? Icctro-motive ftocc to ilie vtcoHtor than to the atuuiier distance. a*- regarded w :i?t and cost td conductor?n result which seamed startling, but which lie iieverthclcn^ vcu.ur<d put forward with coimidurablo confidence. In uniting the two iouger conductors into one. the surface would, howeeor. bo increased onlv in the ratio of K2:I: Therefore the ndative transmitting power between the louger and shorter conductor would, strictly speukirg.be iik reused in the ratio of 1 .2 or 1 :2.s3. and the louger conductor would be dearer tliuu the shorter por uuit of electro motive force transmitted in the proportion of 4 -.2.^3. PRACTICABILITY or TBJC KLKCTRIC LIGHT. Sir William Thoiu*oit said Dr. Siemens hud just brought forward an idea which appeared to him to ho quite new and it" great practical importance; namely, that the elect rie light, if thoiowere a sutYicicnr number of lamp*. could 1h* pi olticed w Ith ?H|Qitl ccon >my at a greuter and u; ?? -mall liistance. H\ wn> of illustrntiou he WOIIhi suppose tile cost dt* a central station dispoiisiug by -HAJ michitnw tin* ete? rlc current to 44JU lamps each at the distance of one mile. Taking those *P?> miles of wire arid putting thorn in a line having 4?*? engines in series, and putting Uic4<*> lamps ut short diutauces from one another, without any change of circumstance*, the same effect would be pro duced at -444J miles as at one mile. The question of the heat developed iu lite wire was, as Dr. Siemens had remarked, the fundamental question with reference to the quantity of metal required to communicate the etlcet to a distance. It appeared to him that the mod practical way of producing the re an It would be to put the wire iu the shape of a copper tube. TRANSMISSION or POWTtR. Having a copper tube with h moderate amount of copper in ns sectional area and a current ol water flowing through it. with occasion.;! places to let it oil, and places to allow water to Ik* admitted for the purpose of cooling, there would be. without ait\ injury to the insulation, a power of carrying off boat practically unlimited He believed that with au exceedingly ? numerate amount of copper it would bo possible to carry the electric energy for 1H0 or 200 or I.OHO electric lights to a distance of sea eral hundred tuilos. The economical and engineering mora! of the theory appeared to be that town* henceforth would be lighted bvroa! burned at the pU'e mouth. Where it was cheapest. Tin* carriage expense of electricity was nothing, while that of coal was some times tin* greater part of its cost ; the dross ut the pit's mouth which wu formerly wasted? could bo used for work ing dynamo engines of the most economical kind, and in that way he had no doubt the illumination of great towns would he reduced to a stuall fraction of its present expense' Nothing con id oxcecd tlie practical importance of the tact to which atieniiou huu been called that no audition was re quired to the quantity of copper to develop the electric light at a distance. The suute remarks would apply to the ti an-n;ifiiou of power. Dr. Siemens had mentioned t<? him in conversation that the power of the Katie of Niagara might be transmitted electrical ly to a distance. The idea seemed as fantastic as that of the telephone or phonograph might have seemed thirteen months age. but what was chimerical then is gu accomplished fact now. He thought it might he expectc4 that before long towna would be iflumitiitted at night by an electric light produced by tlit? burning of coal at the pit's mouth or by ?i distant waterfall The power transmissible by the machine* was simply sutlicienl for working sewiug machiues and turning tallies, out by putting together a sufficient number any union tit of horse power might be developed. Taking the case of the machines required to develop I.U(JL> horse power, he believed it would be found com parable witii the cost of a 1,UU0 horse power engine, and he need not point out the vast economy lo be obtained by the use of such a fall as that of Niagara or the employment of coal at the pit's month. JERSEY CITY BANK TROUBLES. THE DIRECTORS OF THE MECHANICS AND IA BOREHS' BANK SURRENDER TO JUDGE MEE HAN?RUN ON THE PROVIDENT INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS. Eleven of the directors of the Mechanic* and La borer*' Bank, of Jersey City, who were charged by James J. Furey with conspiring to defrand the de l>o*itors, last evening surrendered themselves tb Judge John Meehan and were admitted to bail in the sum of $5o0 each for their appearance at the present term of the County Court. With the exception of the ex-president, John Halliard, the di rectors became surety for one another. Mr. Halliard's bondsman was Mr. George L. brooks. The directors who wtre bailed were I)r. T. C. O'Oalla ghau, now president; James W. Donelan, secretary; John Halliard, ex-president: Pat rick Sheerau, Police Commissioner Matthew Monks, Henry Carroll, John Miller, James J. Reed, Patrick Meehan, Owen "Pi W. McDonald and A. J. Dittinar. None of tbcm expressed themselves in re lation to the complaint while in court, except Messrs. McDonald and Bheeran. The former threatened to prosecute Mr. Fnrey, the complainant, if the lajv ntTorded hint any opportunity to do so, and Mr. Hheeran was indignant that a complaint of such a serious nature should be entertained by any Justice against citizens who were so well and favorably known throughout the county as they were. He threatened to put an end to all measures proposed for the relief of the depositors. The majority <bt the directors came into the court room with smiling face* and left the court room apparently in the same humor. The directors who failed to appear are Mes-rs. H. N. McKay, George P. Brock. Patrick Cong don, Jeremiah Sweeny, Robert Smyth, James Cartin and James Mttrphy. The charges against the directors will be presented before the Grand Jury which meets to-day to serve for the December term of Court. A feature of the affair is that two of the directors arc members of the Grand Jury. The directors will visit the Chancellor to-day to learn his decision on their reqant to allow the bank to continue, chancellor Runyon will also be waited upon l>y a committee of depositors representing those who desire the appointment of a receiver. Aj.Altmcn DKJJpiUTOBS. The reports of the difficultn? of the Mechanics and laborers' Bank have given rise to doubts of the sol vency of other hanks In Jersey City, and yesterday quite a run of depositors began at the Provident Ins titution for Havings, corner of Washington and Ply mouth streets The institution has always been re garded aij one of the safest, and the fears of those who presented their books yesterday, with e demand for their money, were greatly allayed when the amouut was promptly handed out by the teller, Mr. E. W. King*land, Cotiuty Collector, who is secretary and treasurer of tho institution, when spoken to by a reporter at his residence, did not know how any rumor affecting the standing of the bank eould have got abroad nnlerj through the f :rt that Ltn-oln Lodge. I. O. O. P., on Saturday last drew their money lrom the bank and made the tact public. GENERAL HARDING'S NEW PURCHASE. [BY TELEGRAPH to TWH HERALD.] Nashville, Tenn., Doc. 2,1878. General Hurtling bw iu*t completed the purchase from Lord Falmouth, England, of the rheatnut hone Torn, by King T >nr, dam V align# r. own brother to King< ruit. Tom In *ixteen ami a half band* high, ireneral Harding pay* for lux purchase |7.ouu in caxli. loin in to he shipped from England on the Hteamer H< Ivetia for New Vork on Wedneeday (to-morrow). HORSE NOTES. The trotting announcod to come off at Fleetwood I'ark ye*terday aft. ruoon wm poatponed on account of the rain ntorm and the heavy condition of the track until thin atteruoon, weather permitting. Mr. D. Swigert, Htockwood Farm, Spring Station, Ky., bought at Commissioner'* sale at Versailles, Ky., the brown mare Alii, aeven year* old, by imp. Aila tralian. out Of Mollie Rogers (dam of Jack Hardy), by imp. Sovi-reign, and bay yearling filly by Imp. Buck den, and weakling bay colt Alexis, by Laser, out of All*. Mr. Swiw rt owned one-half and bought the re maiuiug bait a* above. Tbe speed of trotter* baa la-en rednced nearly six hen eeronda in tbe mile In the la*t thirty-eight year*. In l*4o Dut liinan - ri - orti wax i; 2*; in isfio Lady Suffolk * wax i re. in lsnuFl- ra Tempi-* wa? i : lu in 1*70 Dexter a wan 3:17**; in 1*70 Uoldaaiiih Maid a was '2:14, and ilii- year Earn* reduced it to 2:lit'.. ttarua and the pacing home Sweetxer ba>i a race at Chii o, t'al., on the iitd ult., for a pur*t of $l,Utm, with an iux.de xtaku of fStJU if tftHlfttt .Maid n tune of 2:14 o should he iieaten. 1'bere waa a stiff breeae blowing from the north which told againot ?peed. Hweetxer won the nr*t beat in 9:18, the nee ond and third beata being won by Maru* In 2:1-1 and '2:1*',. Tin proprietor of the Agricultural Park, Sacra mento. <'*L. liaa offered a purae of f:l.i*m u>r a race of four mile beat*, to come off in October, 1*711, free tor all boraca now owned In t'aliforula, Oregon end Nevada. The first horse to receive 12.UUU, second ?700, third 83O0. Mold- Mccarty barred. Mubecrlp twin* to clone August 1-I with ibe proprietor, hor-e* to be named ten day* lietore tbe race, five or wore to enter and three to atart. FOOTBALL. A match game of football between the Sophomore ?leratio of < olunibia College and Stevens Institute will ho pliiyed on the ground* of the St. (ieorge'a crfc ket dab, Hoboken, to-morrow afternoon. STORTING EVENTS ABROAD, The third day'* work in thl* Inten-eting competi tion closed with the following score:? Mil**, f.npt. Mil". cum flia 21, stmton 400 u I 11 in 6m? 4 white :?*4 o tndrew* VJO 0 Evan* d<*> ?> I.e. Btff l>i K'-eti (r-t.)l*tl Terrent 4' ? ?'4 Markham.iret.i 77 B't High-HI 4 .-7 ,t , Phillip* . .fret.) *4 7 i lfoyetine, bf Awaken, out of tfpollne, after winning tint Avon Plat# at Warwick oil the IWfli tilt., Wu* pn ?? ? liaeed bj i notaui Machell for 22t) gulii-a*. A few Week* ago i ttujranna we* aoM for "a tenner." 1IARTIN TAYLOR IN TROUBLE. Martin Taylor, who figured laat week a* a complain ant again*! > ertain police officers, whom, he alb-ged, bud conspired to tamper with the ballot boxes, of which be lia I the key*, in the Interest of Surrogate A. II. Datb-y, uf Klnga county, was arre-b d yesterday The complainant In the i a*e i* it man named (FlJoknall, who piibli*be* a weekly p*per in brooklyn. He alleges that tile a# Hted during the late campaign obtained front him ffW worth of pnpers with intent to eheat and defraud. The defendant pl<*lei not guilty, and waa admitted to ball lb the autu of il.tfJU to await vxamluauou. TEMPERANCE. Grand Union Hall. Seventh avenue, lietweon Thirty fourth and Tliirty-lfth street.-,, was the scene of Francis Murphy's sew departure in the teapuwu'i movement ill this city, beg in uing \ csterilay at noon with a gospel temperance prayer meeting, 'file hall is miserably adapted for the purpose, with wretched modes of ingruss and egress and little or no ventila tion. In the evening it was packed to suffocation and the atmosphere was stifling. The-Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, Jr.. opened the service with prayer and af terward made a tow remarks cordially welcoming ilr. Murphy. He particularly requested thst there should lie no such demonstrations of pleasure or up plause as the clapping of hands or the stamping of feet. "This is a Gospel temperance work," lie said, "and the work .must lie thoroughly and religiously done. Let there be no lletitiuus excitement, no re sorting to political tricks. This work is religious, not secular." Dr. Tyng then announced that tool lection would be taken up. Mr. irtlrphy stepped forward and in a tow well chosen words said he was glad to tic culled to this jsirt of the city, and thanked Mr. Tyng for tie-cordial manner in which he had extended the right hand of fellowship. Just here the long passage way leading to the main room wits packed, arid a great deal of con fusion and noise name from tliut direction. Mr. Murphy was rouqieiit d to stop two or three tilues, but he took it. as he takes everything, good uaturcdly. "Keep quiet, boys; now. bo good," hu said. A Voice?"X can't get out. "Then stay in. ir you can't get out," said Mr. Murphy; "that's all there is about that." "Oh!" (Vimparstive quiet having been restored. Mr. Murphy talked for a I Mint twenty minutes, and then announced that as it was evident the accommoda tions w? re hiHUtheiaat for the multitude who wished to atteud the meetings during the week, an overflow meeting would be liuitf every eveuiug in the Methodist Fine Tabernacle in Thirty-fourth street, between Sixth and Seventh avenues, and that he would guarantee to be at both some tiuie during the service; but he could not tell which he wo u iu be at tirst. When signers to the pledge were called for, hundreds pressed forward, among them being several ladies. One of the incidents was thst of an old man who led up to the reporters' table liis little sou, not more than six years old. After the lit tle fellow had registered his name it bystander, with an air of mock sympathy, said to the father, "Poor fellow; docs he drink very hard?" Among the signers to the pledge was the policeman assigned to duty at the hall. THE HELPING HAND. The meeting to inaugurate tho temperance revival in the Helping Hand Church last night was of moder ate size, but full of enthusiasm. Mr. J. B. Gibbs presided, and paid a compliment to the Hf.rald for its interest in aud aid to the temperance cause. He made a tow remarks and introduced Hev. W. B. Atliiek anil Messrs. Williams, Parker and Haud, who also spoke briefly on the relation of tem perance to the Christian Church and to the moral and social condition of the community. This even ing tho Hev. Dr. Ouyler, of Brooklyn, will be the principal speaker, aud during the rest of this week and next Hevs. J Hyatt Smith. W. C. Steele, Lindsay Parker, Dr. Talmuge, J. Udell, of Brooklyn, aud Hevs. H. S. MrArthur, R. B. Hull, S. Merritt, A. H. Moment. F. Marling, Dr. Newman, Dr. Corey and others, of this city, will deliver addresses. Miss Creigh closed the exercises last evening with a solo on "Scatter seeds of kindness." EXCISE REFORM, A NEW LAW PROPOSED FOB THE REGULATION OF THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. A draft of a new Excise law, to be presented by the Law and Order League to the State Legislature, has been prepared by Oliver Cotter, the Brooklyn agent of that society. The bill requires each applicant for a license to have his application approved by twenty-five respectable citizens, who reside in the election district in which the applicant lives. They must certify as to the good charac ter of the person seeking the license and cannot again Intercude for any other applicant. In making application for license to sell ale, wine and beer, the applicant must furnish bonds lu the sum of $100, and sureties must justify in twice that sum on real estate. The licensed dealer will be liable for keeping a disorderly place or any failure on bis part to atrictly observe the law, and his bondsmen will also be responsible for him. The fees for liquor, ale, wine and beer are fixed at not less than $180 or more than $300. The lowest grade of license will not be less than $50 or more than $100. No licenses are to be issued to druggists, grocers, minors, women, or uliun, felon or unpardoned criminal. Druggists may keep five gallons of liquor, to be used only in prescriptions or on the certificate of a regularly au thorised physician or surgeon. Boards of Excise, of cities throughout the State, are empowered to appoint a general inspector and assistant inspectors of excise. The Chief of Police and cap tains shall be inspectors of excise, in addi tion to their other duties, and shall report the result of their inspections and investigations us such to the Excise Board. No liquor of any kind will be allowed to be sold in a barroom on Sunday. This clause will do away, It is held, with the pretences now indulged in by many liquor dealers or selling temperance beverages on the Sabbath, whereas they really "put a stick in it." Xo credit shall be re covered by law for any quantity of liquor under five gallons sold in a barroom. This provision will, it is believed, do away witli the barroom "slate," on which ruinous weekly accounts are kept for workingmeu of tippling pro clivities. Wholesale dealers in liquors or alee are liable to a heavy penalty for selling to unlicensed dealers, upon conviction of thuir knowing the same to is, unlicensed. The hoarils of health arc authorised to establish the standard of purity for wines, aloe and liquors to bo aold. The standard is to be published in all tbo papers of the cities in English and German, like flue im posed upon persons for selling adulterated, poisonous or deleterious drugs in liquors, is or six months' imprisonment in the common jail, or both, at the discretion of the Court. The bill proposed in cludes the Civil Damage art, provides for the con tinuance of the licenses now in force till the date of their expiration, and repeals all laws conflicting with it. The three beds system is also done away with. RARE FISHES FOR EUROPE. The Ethiopia, of the Anchor line, which sailed on Saturday, took out some queer freight. In a number of tanks upon the upper deck she carried a collection of rare fishes as a present from the Aquarium in this city to the institution of a similar character at Rothesay, Scotland, under the patronage of the Mar quia of Bute and Lord Glasgow. The collection com prises some specimens which will, it ia thought, prove entirely new (o ichthyologists on the other side of the water. There were some gar pike, which are exceedingly scarce, a number of catfish, several hell 1 tenders, from the Alleghanies, a tew Hart/ Moun tain sole* and some marvellous eiolites from Mott o? creatures that have never been Seen in Europe. A number of fine Canadian frogs accompany ttie fishes. The shipment was brought about through the efforts of Mr. John Macdonald, of this city, who is a native of Hot beery and uti cntliusia-tic amateur ichthyolo gist. He suggest)*] to Mr. iteiehc and Mr. Butler, of the Aquarium, that a present of that kind would bu very acceptable to their Scottish brethren and secured from thorn permission to take possession of any ! specimens in their establishment beyond the number of five. The fishes were caught and the cxp. use in- ! enrn-d In buikiiiiv tanks and getting them on board the steamer waa defrayed by Mr. Macdonald. A nutn- I Iter of persons interested In fish culture were on board the veasel to see the finny curiosities off. The consignment was made to Rrovost Charles Duncan, of Rothesay. It is understood that the present will be reciprocated in kind. THE BRIDE OF DEATH. A sadder death baa not recently been chronicled than that of Miss Mary W. Underbill, of Oyster Bay, L. 1. The young lady?who came of an old aud much r- pec ted family of that place?was an orphan, and hal recently lnherit<-d a fortune estimated at fgOO^NDl Hhe was betrothod to >lr. Solomon Townscnd, Jr., son of ex-Congressman Towns end, who was ? member of the Constitutional Convention of 1H44. Many invitations hud been issued for the marriage, which waa to lmva occurred in this city on Thursday, Deogmbcr l'J. A week ago to-day, Miss T'nderhtll took a ride in Central Ta-v, on Wi dn 'sday she wa.s well enough to address two hiiu | ilred invitations to her wedding, but on Thursday ? i Thanksgiving 4M$?waa taken ill and died. Tho j funeral took pin e yesterday, Rev. Dr. How ard Crosby I officiating, assisted by tin Met. Mr. Vandewntcr, of | Oyster iiuv. Mtss Underbill bail a large circle of friends and adaaircra; and Mr. Towiiseutl has wide I spread -ympathy in liia ls-ri avenient. TIJH HOWARD WifE MURDER. An inquest was held yesterday in the ease of Mary I Howard, a colored woman, who was shot by her I jealOWS husband, George Howard, at No. i>Tl East I Eighty-first -troet, on tl??> 3bth of Oltober. Tlicjuiy I found tliat deceased came to her d -atii by a pistol 'shot wound lu the bratu at ttin hands of (h-orgc ; Howard, death taking place at the Ninety- ninth Htn- t Hospital on the t>I Hit. The ussaasln made good his eecspe and has not been arrested sun . DU.ilNKSH TROUBLES. | Evans Jr. Levy, manufacturers of artificial flowers, made mi assignment yestciday to Jacob H. Isaacs, with preference* to the amount of ft,.'Aid TV Clint Rondibush. petroleum broker, made an | assignmeut jrcaterdsy, Without pMfojeutaM, to -lumen I R. Brown. FINE ARTS. the biiooki.yn' Kxinnnnw opening MflW" TION I.AST H\ ENIKO. The opining ot lho thirly-seventb scml aimuai exhibition of the Brooklyn Art Association drew together in tUu Acudcuiy of Music and adjoiu. lug art naileries last evening a large and representative assemblage of Brookly uites. The Academy was, as usual, floored over on a level with the stage, carpeted, and a band of music, surrounded by plants, played for tbe benefit of the promouudcrs and those wbo, after having finished their examination of the pictures, filled tic dress circle seats and those of the balcony. On our second (our around tli - picture gui lt-nee iv.- noted a number of eartvases not mentioned in our first article on the exhibition. Among tln se iu the Art Association gallery .arc Keusett'a "Newport Cliffs" and Luuwig Blunt I large "Bowling Alh-y;" a charming and early little George Iunetts, "Belawara ltiver:'' Wtliniey G. Middletou's Scpteiuber Morning in Burgundy;' U. Bruce Crane'a striking "LookingKaaward. Long Island:'' Percivul de Lure's pleasing ?'Harvest Flowers, " Arthur Parton'a "Loch Awe and Ben Cruu.hau, with a carol igly sttulh d and excellently w 11 painted r.wk loregronnd?hung, by the way, on the Kocnnd line, over a very interior ' canvas; a solidly painted, life-like mid spirit nolle head of an "Italian Boy," by Fodor Krekt'i S. s. Carr's "For My Teacher.'' which gives reason to iume top Is-tter work l'roui the artist: Clinton OgUvie's "The Boo not ltiver," A. S. Roorback's pretty little "Gleam and Gloom." Humphrey Moore's dashing and clever "La Manola," Kastmun Johnson's "About Hight." S. G. V. Benjamin's "On the Breakers." ami u deli cious. strongly, yet most subtly painted bead of a "Milanese Lady" by Pagliano. In the small cabinet room there is a flue little portrait, full of character and broadly touched in, by Stanley G. Middletou, A lurge and glaring study or picture - for we hardly know what the artist meant by it? called "After ihc Dane*." is by F. H. Boggs. whose other work, we are glad to say, shows much promise. This four il'aliturUUr is utterly devoid of any good quality, and hangs in tbo small room con necting the two large galleries. J. 1). Whittaker's life-si/a figure. "The Forbidden Book," iu the ie-s no bly room gallery, is well posed, has a good light effect and a well painted costume. CITY NEWS ITEMS. The dry gopds store of Michael Hartigun at No. 59 Catharine street, suffered by fire yesterday to tbe amount of $700. Judge Hilton last evening called upon Inspector Murray aud w as closet, d with him for some time, but the latter declared ihut there were uo law devel opments in the Stewart ease. ? The depositors in the defunct Bowling Groeu Sav ings Bank held a special executive meeting a few days age aud adopted resolutions calling ou thu receiver to wind up the ufi'airs of the bank us soon as possible. ' A lire on the first floor of No. 1US Broome street, yesterday, destroyed $500 worth of Jacob Goldsmith's furniture. $600 worth of Nathan Weissman's and damaged the building to the amount ot *1.000. A verdict by u ertroner's jury of death from burns and asphyxia'was rendered yesterday in the case of Charles MeGralu, of No. 01 Prince street, who was burned to death iu his room by the explosion of a kerosene lamp on the 7th ult. At a meeting of tbo stockholders of the Gallatin National Bank, hold yesterday. 24,000 of the 30,000 shares being represented, it was decided to reduce the capital stock from $1,500,000 to #1,000,000. This deci sion takes effect ou the 2uth inst. The house No. 72 Sullivan street, which is occupied by Reveral colored families, was yesterday partially destroyed by lire. The bulhliugs about it were also scorched by the flames, and about #500 loss is sus tained by the owner of the bouse itself. Captain C. W. Jones, of the schooner Irish, while pasoing through Chatham square yesterday Ul an ex press wagon, had a valise containing his ship's papers stolen. He reported tbe case at Police Headquarters, and offered a reward for the valise's return. Miss Kv a Dickers, in. a colored ludy, very foolishly attempted to whit u ruxor ou George Haywood's leathern lined cheek, at No. 51 L Thompson street, the other night, aud was detained at Jefferson Market prison yesterday by Judge Otterbourg iu default of #1,000 bail. Joseph Spencer, sixty-two yearn ot aye. who ha.s been employed as a watchman iu Lillieutnal's tobacco manufactory, No. 'I'll Washington street. for the past live years, was touuil dead iu hia chair by tin- ungi iteer, Nathaniel K. Lynch, about lialt-past six o'clock yesterday morning. The bark Monrovia, bound for I.Iberia with thirty steerage and flvo cabin passengers, did not leave port Seateiday owing to the storui warnings of the Signal ureau. Every tiling is iu readiness for the start when the wind blows fair, and the captain expects to weigh anchor to-day. The Young Men's Democratic Club met last even ing at the Hoifiuau House and elected othcers fur the ensuing year. The ticket headed by Townaeud Cox for president was elected, the vote oil presideut being Cox ii3 and Van Wyok 30. The contest was between the Tammany aud Auti-Tamiuany members of the Club, aud the ticket elected waa supported by the lat ter. Eugene Funk aud Alexis Siefert occupied the same room in a lodging house ou Jbc night ot November 28, and the following morning Eugene awoke to find hia companion gone together with #48 which had been taken from his trunk. Alexia waa arrested in Ktuplctoa. S. 1.. on Saturday last, and was yesterday held by J udge Kilbreth, at the Tombs Folic# Court, in default of $1,<X)U bail for trial. A coroner's jury yesterday in the caee of Caspar Helm, of No. 6?>1 West Forty-second street, found that lie came to his death by injuries accidentally re ceived by being crushed between two coal cars, on the Kith of October, at the Metropolitan Gas Company's works, on the coal track toot of West Fortieth stfeet. They censured the company for not having a man stationed there to keep the track clear. Frank Howlaad, the young man who was arrested a few nights ago in West Farms, while riding at a braack neck speed to this city, was yesterday ar raigned iu the Harlem l'ollce Court. It was estab lished that the horse which he rode had been stolen from the stable of his employer, Mr. Jeremiah Slater, a farmer of Greenwich, Conn. Young Howlaud ad mitted the tliett aud waa turned over to a Sheriff to be taken bis k to Connecticut for trial. August liauinan was found iu the basement of No. hs William street or Sunday evening, having in his pos aessiou several boxes of cigars, a clock and some money, officer Motion, of lh< First precinct, could not get. any satisfactory explanation from Bauuwn of how he became possessed of the property and arrested him. At the Tombs Court yesterday Emanuel Cautro, who lives at the above number, identified tho prop erty as his and accused Dauinan of stealing it. Tlie latter pleaded guilty aud was held in tl.'sm bail to answer. Mrs. Mary A. Livermore delivered a lcctnro last evening, belore a largo audience, at tho Ketoruied Church, Thirty-fourth street, between Eighth and Ninth avenues. Itcv. Carlos Murtyn presided. She chose as tiui title ot her discourse tlie words, "Con cerning Husbands," but her remarks seemed to have much more reference to wives, their virtues and their grievances. Ann ricau husbands, she thought, were the l>est the world lias yet seen, she censured, in very strong terms, the laws prevailing iu regard to women in the various States. HUBUKBAN NOTES. Upon a further hearing iu Newark of tlie case of the government against George W. Coolbutigh. a cigar manufacturer clinrged with Illegally Using cancelled stamps, bail was taken yesterday in $ 1, Vs> by Com - mission', r Whitehead. Lorenzo McCoriuick, of No. 20.r> Academy street, Newark, was arrested in that city last mgut aud re moved to Jersey City, there to answer h bulge of I seduction and bigamy pretcrred against hiui by Mrs. I Emma W ilsou, ot Jersey City. ! In the Newark Second District Court yesterday the spectacle was witnessed ot a son suing his mother. ! Jan ice G'Neil claims that Inn mother owes liim fan tor work iloue "it a house she owns, but Mrs. U'Neil | denies tins indebtedness and says that -lames owes j her ubnilt for boaisi. No declstou yet. 1 The will of the late Maria L. Hubbard, who died I from the effects of poison at Gravesi mi. L. I., in Juno I last, came up before Sjurngate Dailey, of Kings j county, yesterday for argument. Kate Hotter and ( buries N. Folt'-r testified th it they were Witnesses to a will maun by decease t subsequent to tbc one now ill contest. 'J lie case was further adjourned. Tbc counsel for Thomaa Draper, the oilvgua burg lar. obtained a writ of certiorari yesterday from Judge Gilbert. Supreme Court, Kings county . to re view the j roceedings lu-ld previously as to tlie sur ; render oi Draper to the Muaeaohusstts aiuhuritioe. ! He is accused of complicity 111 tiiu Northuiaptou j hank robls ry. The cam will be heard next mouth. Kar'y on Hun day morning John D. Van Wagoner, u tanner, of l.lua, V J., discovered his outbuildings to be on fif. H<- qul 'kiy aroused ins lamll.v, all of whoiu ist to work to rescue the tattle and horses. Willie Die "tie i were thus engaged Mrs. Van Wag oner returned to the lio use mid ion ad a disci urge i employe ransaektiig the pluce. lie iteil on sight of her and now parties are searching fur him. Mr. Van Wagoner's loss is severe. Charles N. Phillips, of BJdgcwood, L. I.. wtiilo in the Niagara Hons-, ul> mat six months ago, had an al | (creation with three lucu, who beat htm terribly ami then carried him In an insensible condition to his 1 horn.'. Phillip* died of liis injuries last Friday. | (iiron' r Carroll das notified and the Jury found that | tho dec us'd came to his d?ath from injuries inflicted at tl h?nd? "f some per roll orpeiwon* unknown. Mrs. Clara Murrl ion, ot Port be iiniund, H. L, whilo driving on llie Morning Htar road, iu the town of Nortlitieid, With a companion, on .Sunday afteruuon. was run swiiy with, in buggy be lag overturn'd. #V."hell pu ked up she was in nil uucoiis ious ditieu. Having su daiued terrible iiijuries about tho head. The uuiurtuuate buly died at bar residence ut about right " i dock in the cveu.ug. iter companion escaped with slight injury. Mrs. .iloirisoii was well known m the village ot Fort Iticiiiuoiid ami highly esteemed. The Hoard of Huiiervisors of Queens county met at . CoUOty Treasurer t aril's office, iti Flushing. juste*, l day, aod t? gun tin annual audit of his accounts. The j wur debt, to lis paid next year, is gSH.iaVi. 'I lie ' county owe. ff.Vf.issi on il? new colli t bouse and hits paid fis t,.148 M to the stale IMsl'tflllW during t lift past year for l>ai k taxes. The W|ilMlii fund is in a j mild-Hi d rondltien. K avy lissses having UorMlMi on loans on hou'ls und inert cages. Ths coons will be I askisl to detei mine the responsibility for these losses. inmhom mm nil. A Novel E\]M)sition at the American Institute Building. TONS OF BUTTER ANI) CHEESE. Ex-Governor Seymour and What He Knows About Dairy.ng. The 1,900 persona who attended the opening of the International Dairy Association at tlie Auicrlmn in stitute Building, Third r venue, Sixty-third and Hixty fnnrth streo's, found themselves rtnght alnmt the waist in u sort of iron trap an they entered one by one. It was not pins ant, but one was leassnrcd when told that it tyun v patent registering stile. Or.ee iuside an apparently limitless expanse of butter anT cheese met" the eye. To the left, upon tables stretching tlie entire length of the hall were spread cheeses of every known shape, size and flavor, until one began to wonder whether there were people enough in the world to eat it. There wore 1 he mighty round tlruyere, the luscious Roque fort. the toothsome fruimtnftlr Uric ?in short, cheeses representing the best efforts of every country in that line. From the chalets upon Alpine mountains, from the sunny provinces of France, from Scandinavian flelds, lour lying Holland farms, from fresh English dairies and Italian valleys and far Western prairies the product had found its way to those pine tables for the inspec tion of the curious. On the left were displayed, on similar tables, butter in firkins, butter in tubs, in pots and cakes and packagi s and boxes and other receptacles of every possible size and shape. It Beenied that there was enough to butter 'the whole surface of the earth?if it were spread thin and kept out of the holes. In tho mi Idle of the room rose two big pyramids, each thirty feet high. One of these rested upon a base of ten cheeses, each weighing 700 pounds. Above these are tiers of smaller cheeses, round, pineapple and other shapes, the whole surrao.unted by a llttlo flat patch of gra.s on which stands a stuffed Jersey cow. Tho other pyramid is made of 400 cheeses, weighing in all about twenty thousand pounds, all of domestic man ufacture. On the platform that extends around the walls inside were ranged all sorts of appliances and machinery for the preparation of butter and cheese. DAIRY APPARATUS. Everything was patented. There were patent milking pails without number, patent tanks, patent vats, patent churns that swung or whirled, or turned with a erank or moved with a lever or ran on a track; patent skimmers, cunning contrivances for snatch ing up lumps of butter and squeezing them six ways at once into some cunning shape; pat ent receptacles to pack butter in, and, alas! patent coloring fluids to give it tlie ad mired golden tint. The variety of contrivances for making cheese was simply bewildering, and to a novice utterly incomprehensible. There were no patent cows, bnt there was a patent contrivance for milking the animals, emptying four teats at once. Beside* the appliances and machinery tor actually Working the two great prndnuta to which the fair is devoted there were a multitude of others more or less directly connected with their manufacture?knives that might be used for cutting butter, scales for weighing it. salt for pre serving it, muslin to cover it. steam and dog power machines for churning ami rolling it, and a thousand others the use of whieh the reporter could not even gut sa. On one side, in a row of stalls, about thirty flue specimens of the milt animal?to the preparation of whose fluid the whole of this vast machinery was devoted?silently chewed their cuds. The spare set apart for the illustration of the man ner in whieh butter and cheese are made was not ready last evening, but the preparations will all be completed this morning and the machinery iu full running order. When some half-dozen selections had been per formed by a good orchestra, President Poison intro Mr. Franklin Kdson, president of the Produce Ex change, who. in a brief speech, welcomed the patrons and exhibitors to tbe city of Now York said hoped it would result in profit to them and also to the body he represented. The exports of cheese from the United States, he said, aggregated 194,4."iO,UOO pounds during the last seventy years, or an average of 2,778,000 per year. The production of butter, he said, has been enormously greater than that of cheese and is estimated to have been, during the last year, 1,000,000.000 pounds. At the close of bis address he introduced ex-Gov ernor Horatio Seymour as "the champion of that in dustry and a resident of this State." Governor Sey mour spoke substantially as follows:? RX-OOVF.ItJtOB bKVMOUIt'M ADDBICSS. When wu walk the streets of this grcst city and see its varied forms of wealth wc feel that this show of farm, products represents but an huml-e item of this continent's resources. But if we look more closely at the-causei- of our prosperity we shall find that it has much to do, not only w ifh the welfare of New York, but of many States of this Union and of the adjoining provinces of Canada. It represents an industry which gives life to commerce and activity to trade. We have heard much of late about capital, and of the wealth and power of banks and their influence for good or evil upon the condi tion of our country. Many look upon tin 111 as subtle, dangerous powers. The sum of their united currency is about three hundred mil lions. Tliut is less titan the vsluo of the butter and cbcese made in this country each year. :t all tbo banks of this city should be rubbed out It would not cause as much injury as a season's loss of dairying. This exhibition is not the result of dull toil that has worked out its routine of the drudgery of labor, it is one that tells of what lias been gpiued by intelli gence, science and industry. This is on international exhibition. It is a ehallt uge from American to Eu ropean farmers. 1 have le eu asked to speak to this audit nee. not bemuse I have any skill as a dairynmu. but for the reason that I have ts-en placed where I have learned much about the hiatory of that pursuit, and what 1 may fairly call the statesmanship by which it has bis-n lifted up from an humble to a great productive Interest. When I made my home on a tarm I was askisl to act as President ,,f the American Dairymen's Association, 'litis was made up >/t tnem liers from most of the Northern, some of the Southern States and (.'auada. They hold an annual parliament, at which they discuss all matters pertaining to their pursuit. I accepted the place with a complacent teelitig that 1 could In- of use to them as I hail been in many deliberative bodies: had presided over large assemblages and had made numerous agricul tural speeches. They paid men of skill to speak to them about the laws ot animal tuid vegetal.In life, the course ot trade, tie- habit- turn tastes ot the people of other countries with whom they dealt, and the his tory of dairying in all part* of Europe. No univer sity ill our land ban had the banc tit at a wider range of lectures upon such topics. He who speaks to tUi-iu to be heeded tuust know what hi; talks at-out. I have burned all my agricultural speeches, of which I was so proud. iti arLt* or uwirlllrtMI. Proceedings thus marked by a wise liberality, the orator said and by a search for knowledge and a sharp scrutiny of <-<<st, bring out valuubln truths. The reports of their meetings and debates wi re hi tight for ut ionic utitl abroad. Ho described at length the nianitt r in which th-ee meetings were conducted, the organisation of boards of trade through witch ileal< ra in the English provinces buy directly from the utaunrai'turers in our towns nu cable reports of th* pri -es mid without the Interven tion ol luindlcnicii. In order to ileal in this way tln-y have beru compelled to study the rise uud full of the currency, l>ocauso when a pound of cheese has Ihh-ii bonglit at fifteen routs of our money and hus l*s u sold tor less than twelve In tin- money of the workl. awl the buyer haa made a profit, all the parties to the sab- have leuriicd fust what our money is worth. Ii our legislators, he said, knew as much about it the inierestHof tlieeountry would sutler less, lint it is not alone in the use ol science lu making ami in a know-lodge of political economy in selling their products tliiii thev lake tin- lead. Mark of their , conventions and boards ot trade an-facts which an- ' ot mots- interest and vaiin- than those winch have I been Minted. It an Englishman hud been told a lew : years sill )- that wc should aend large amounts of j eh -so to London hu Would have felt It its u slur upon I English civilisation. To-lay ww ioul down British | steamers (I wish they were ours!) with out dairy products. It is trite mat we do not make all >>f tin- ; Uncut varieties, tor tlwy are too rosily to Us profitable I In general trade. But this exhibition ia a clutlh ugo troiu Canada ami our country to KugWud and all ti.o 1 world besides to ci[nal Ih- tu In the varieties^huro dia play-d. "t,smm is rtwfi" 11 e have gained our foothold In British ami other tnarkeia by better methoils of making ami by availing oursolves of tie natural advantages ?l .-heap ami f- r II la'lamls. Whet) We look over the list of dm- exports ?ve see that we have turned the balanceof trade In our favor by the use of what we have beyond other people rich Soils ami varied climate, and pi-xlm--' tiuiis. Bieru tacts have dnvun ?a from artificial and speculative way* of gettiug wealth. We now turn nffi thought* to honest industry, and we liegiu t<> respect ? be kiiirl law tliut we must earn <>nr bread by the sweat of ?tr brow. All lulmr is pint,v. lint w?- seen ti? work mo-t i-iOKci) lij (lod'w *hk when we plough 1111(1 sov.' with tin taitu that lie will increase, u'nl w ii.11 from thi! lira in we reap from "lis fields ami from the green pasture* which elotlie the hill* ami valleys we guin the food which feces our people, or which we s.tid to meet the w ants of our fellow men iti other lands. Our statistics show how much of out viist e .ports come from tlio sod, and how from their nature they meet the first great wants of humanity. HOW THK NEW SYSTEM WoltKS. The speaker then hrletty narrated the mauuer in which the prAetit factory system of cheese making originated in this State and its wonderful extension throughout this country and Cunadu. 1'nder tliia Idnn, lie conttnued, the fanners take their milk to the factories, and the miiuuiit is credited to each. \\ lieu it is made up and sold the proccc Is are divided rutubly uinong theiu, less the cost for making. Each has uu interest ill the concern, and knows the mar ket price of his cheese, and us that varies he hams thocuuHCH. if the prices got by liis faidory are less than those paid to others the ltiuker loses credit for skill. This excites the factory man to excel if lie can. As the farmers tuoct each day at the factory they learn about their comparative sin - cess iu the managi-nitiit of (loir farms, und tl.is incites all to efforts of industry ami intelligence. Beyond (his there are itlfiuetu-es that touch tlieir houic habits. Nothing is more Imnlc t > tie tainted then milk. The lei J impurity about their cans will evolve the germs which will destroy uot only it* value hut a'l w.tb Which '.t is tuixeil at the factory. Tlie farmer w ho is careless not only subjects liimscli aud others to loss hut his family to a disgrace which is keenly felt. This system also throws light mi what makes the strength of law*. If any one put* water in his milk all his neighbor* will Is- losers, for lie wdl get an undue share of credit upon the book* of his tactory. Water wili not make cheese. Wo know that when milk 1* sold out of the country into cities water is apt to gee into it. und suspicion ot thi* ylo'.-s not miciii to hai'ui the soller very muidi in thw eyes of ids neighbors. ITS MORAL IN U'ENVr. Kvcti the deacon can use the pump somewhat for various specious reasons, tor his neighbors are n<>t interested iti the matter. But it is very different when water Is put into that which goes to the cIleus* factory. If thi* i* done all are up in arm*, and ha who is convicted of tile offence is lowered in the eyu of his neighbor to tlie level of those wdto steal, tio is thrown out of the association: audit is hard for him to outlive the disgrace, legislators can learn from thia that flic force of laws depends upon active interest for their entorcemont. It will be seen that every feature of this system, from the care of the herd' to the sale of the butter or cheese in our own or foreign markets, tends to diff use order, moral* and in telligence throughout the communities in which it is practiced. Dairymen have brought here proof* of the value of what they make, as tin y think their use may increase when their merits arc tnado known. The wholesale price of cheese is now about nine cents per pound, it t* sold at retail for nearly twice thut sum. Till* great profit, so inueli beyond that usually made upon articles of food, is due to tlie fact that dealers in thia country sell so little that they need great profits upon the aiiioiint. If its use could be increased tenfold competition in sales would cut down the price to the consumer. With a view to make it* value known ta the p..blic, as well as to benefit the army, General Sherman lias ordered a trial to be made by tieneral* Macfccly aud Haines, of the Subsist once Department, our farmers are under great obligations to these gen tlemen for the interest they havo shown in a matter which not ouly concerns the army but the general welfare. It is believed that their reports will prove thut great saving can lie hud in the co*t of living by the general use of au article at once cheap and nu tritious. A LITTLE "SPREAD." Dairying lia* become the loading agricultural in dustry in the .Middle und Eastern States, and is rapidly extending over the Northwest and Canada. Tue ex tent of country over which it has spread brings to our notice other features of our agriculture. Those who study its progress sec that it is arranging itself into grand' divisions, and statesmen look to the inter course between these as the sure bond of union. No division can lie cut off without harming all, u* you harm the living man when you sever one of hit limbs. Agriculture on this scale cannot exist iu Europe. No nation there has our wide scope ol territory or varied climate and production*. The same difficulties would lie met should they attempt to follow in onr footsteps thai were encountered by the distinguished head of our system of weather reports when he visited Euroim to extend the points of observation. There was no country tlicre large enough to hold a storm. It* front would get out of the borders before its and could get in. The only exception was liussia, and that doer not have our varieties of climate. To learn a* wc do each Jay what gTeat atmospheric waves art rolling toward us from tne Pacific; what storms raga along the Itoeky Mountains: what calms rest upon the plains of the Mississippi, and how some tempest which shook our homes tne day before is now dying out on the northeastern coast, is a kind of Intelligence that cunnot be had elsewhere. There is something in the varied products of our continent, and tueir movements across its vast spaces, which is akin to this und which In wajs somewhat alike give u* in terest and iniulligance by their constant instruction iu great lac-t*. Ol'U COMTOStTK CIVILIZATION. The iaterconrse growing out ot the grand division* of our agriculture add strength to our hopes of a high civilization, which sprite from the tact that a oolu moa language will be lifted ou thin broad continent. This intercourse and common speech will give to literature iiud the art* it wide field and to thoa? who aervo the Republic ample reward*. It will alao aid m assimilating tbc different lineage* of our population. The basis of Amerl<*an civilization will be English iu it* nature; but it will be relnforcad and liberalized by the intlueiicv of variotu nationalities. It* sterling qualities will be inadeuiore robuat by Oeruian siurui ncss, !*? warmed by Celtic blood, and refined by citizen* front Southern JCuropc. At the outaet sum* ennt uaion grow* out of these varied, and at time*, conflicting elements; but the product will be a mora vigorous race, more geni-roua and enlarged view* of civil and social organization*. TWO sTKIUXO VACTH. Our exports during the two fiscal year* ending July last were more than fl.aflO.OOo.tNW. Nearly all of tbia came from t lio earth?raised oy those who till ita soil or delve in its mines. There are two striking facts, unparalleled in tlia history of our export*, wuich should give us unusual courage. Heretofore we havu ouly looked for market* in Europe when war or faiuiuc afflicted it* people, and when these made demands for our prodm e the carriers upon railroads or water routes have put up their chargus ho that they havu taken the largest share of the gain. Curing the past season, although prices for food have fallen, we luvc sent abroad mors than ever before iu the history of our | country. While all our Inland routes of commerce havu been overloaded with graiu and provisions, they have never liecn carried at so low a price. This proves thit wo have renclusl a point iu production and transportation which givc? US a pla c ill the markets of the world whieh we e*u hold without the sad thought that it ts due to th? miseries of our fellow meu. These fact* should givt oouttdeuco to men of busiuuss and of labor. Thia ex hibition i* or itself an omen of better day*. We hav< struggled long with evil times. Iu vain have we tried nil the schemes und devices engendered by diNcontctil and distreMH, but ut lcugtli we liuve planted ourselves upon the Hdil, and, like Aula us of old, We begin to fed the new life coursing along the vein* ot com lnerce and the strength in tbc muscle* of labor which mother earth ever gives to her eluldreu when they seek from her ahuu.'.uuec and pros]M-rity. TOO MANY NAME8. Detective Wood and two other offlcers brought f well dr-s*cd woman and a stripling to Essex Market Court yesterday and asked Judge Wandell to rcmami them until to-day, ho as to obtain aulttclent evidetici against them to tuuke out a g<u d ease. The otheeri told Judge Wandell that the prisoners, who gave their names to tin; Court as H&rah E. Hales, Philadel phia, and Edward A. Fuller, of -Sew York, were really hotel thieves and confidence operator*. Detect I va Wood smilingly assured His Honor that the woman was the person in whoso stead Miss De Kulb had been arrested ou Friitsy last. Ths olHeer ut the St. Denis Hotel, Mr. (tillotl, declared to tin Judge thut lie recognized the woman a* one who had registered us Mr*. c.arkc at the St. Denis a short titoe ago. Ami the boy will the liul who cuiue to thut house us her son. He hod admitted to the offlcers that the woman aiul lie had Mtoleu two dresses, worth 9113, from a rootu adjoining theirs in the hotel. They hooked them through ttie fanlight und pawned them. Yesterday I he pair were arrested ut the Con llueutal Hotel, in this city, where the woman had registered as Mrs. lirooks. The offlcers declared thai they cun prove that she registered at the Ashland House as Mrs. Fuller, at the ttrauil Union us Mr*. A. E. Driggs, mid that she had, under several other allures, defrauded and robbed livery stable keeper) and hotels. The Judge remanded the woman and boy until this inoruing. JAKE'S CHRISTENING PARTY. "Jacob He** drunk 1 You dou't mean to say, oiticer that you found 'Jake' Hess lying on a stoop, unable to budge, at three P. M. yesterday?" said Judge Wan dell. ut Essex Market Coujt, yesterday. "It's the cold truth, Yer Honor," replied the police man. "Dear! dear! Who'd have thought It? What liavr rou to say for yourself, Jacob lies* ?" inquired Li is Honor. "] vas Imt a christening bartv, Hliudge: und vou kuow bow dot vaa meinsi if," remarked Jacob confi dentially. "Your own christening party, ch. Jake?" "ITaw, dot s mjr own! Cud, Hhudgc, it only hap pen* v Uttoe u year." "Oh. vou h ire a christening party once a year, oh?" law! Hliudge! l>ot s it. I'm! de|| drill voting frlleraaiid gals dan.law! | ea.i t danee ineittsalE No. Dot ft in it Turin piznt ha! Ho I drtiik mo moiiio pier it nil schnapps, und don't cam a damnation sonic dings a bond dot lloiiHtcal f.s.lishl.ss. It |* a Oerwau custom to drink bel dot christening!" "la that sot Ha! ha!" laughed tin. Court. "Hhw! haw! haw! Yaw? Dot's *o, Hliudge, you untsoli lar'.b" V"w 1 "aw! haw!" laughed iu ? I days in prison to rejoVer froin that Ocruiau custom, Jacob," said Judge Wauddl laughing. * ?ocli! Du bebe! Va* 1st da??" oxclaiuie 1 tho now thoroughly sombre Jacob as he was led ewav.