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Instructive Review of Lord Bacoas Remarkable Career. A WASTED LIFE. How Shame Overtook the "Brightest, Greatest, Meanest of Men." SENTENCE OF THE LORDS. Bright Thoughts on the Life cf Wordsworth. Llf E AND TIMES OK BACON. Aw Account ok the Like and Time, ok Fkaxcir Ba con. Extracted froui the Edition of his Occasional Writings by Jame* Spcdditig. (J vol*., pp. 709 and 7<>7.) Boston: Houghton, Uagoud ,v Co. 1818. This work on tlie Ufa aud Utile* of Lord Bacon, comprised in two well filled and well digested volumes, 1m the abridgment of a much larger work which appeared in England under the editorship of Mr. Upending between the year* 1861 aud 1874. The philosophical, literary ami profeasional works of Ba ton may be aaid to have been first published in a iliape worthy of their excellence and historic re nown, w h?-n between the years 1857 and 1859 three English scholars, Messrs. Bpedding, Ellis and Heath, divided among themselves a critical recension of so much of Bacon's writings as go old he properly classified under these heads. After this task had been successfully completed in seven copious vol umes, which were reprinted in this country with Mr. Spudding'* "sanction and aid," in fifteen vol inies of reduced size, it still remained to edit the ?occasional writings" of the great Chancellor and philosopher?that is to say. his letters, speeches, iracts. state papers, memorials, Ac. Taking this part of the work under his exclusive control, Mr. Hpudding has not only collected and set forth Yh#*e writings in their chronological order, but has also accompanied theru with biographical and historical commentaries, which make them a history of Bacon's limes as exhaustive, and almo:,t as voluminous, too, as thd endless work af Professor Mssaou on the "Life and Times of Mil ton." The Boston publishers of the present work, having recently gathered into two volumes the most essential of Bacon's philosophical writings, have Itidged that a large body of American readers would tike to possess in manageable shape, a biography of Bacon which should "present the result of the most thorough criticism and inquiry, and include so much of contemporary history as is needed to give the life its proper selling. '' It is on this theory that the task of condensing Mr. Speddiug's seven volumes Into two has been undertaken by an American editor Whoso name is njjt given), with Mr. Speddiug's sanc tion, and what is much more to the American read er's purpose, with the benefit of Mr. Speddiug's revision. The text of Mi. Spedding remains in these volumes unaltered. It is only the arrangement and scope of his edition which have been modified by the compiler. With all our natural prejudices agaiust such rrWrijMoi'i and compends. we are obliged to admit that the work of the editor has been faithfully and skilfully performed. The life of Lim.'<<u Is here told with a minuteness of detail that is abundantly ade quate to portray a full length likeness of the man in all his aspects and in ull his relations, while for the fidelity of the portraiture the reader has the best possible guarantee in the tin squalled research and praiseworthy candor which Mr. Spodding has brought to the appreciation of a gr,-at name and the exposition Of a momentous chap tor in the history not onlyof England but of thscivll iasd world. Of books which treat ou the life and character of Biu-on there is no lack in English litera ture. Kawb-y and Mallet and Basil Montagu and Lord Campbell aud Lord Macauley among the dead; Mr. Hepworth Dixon. Mr. Gardiner and others among the living have essayed, some with passionate objur gation and some with passionate eulogy, to tell the story of a career which, for blended light and shadow, is almost without example in the annals of biogra phy. Shakespeare ha* limned tor all time the tace and tiguro of another Lord Chancellor who, before Hac-ou, bad "sounded all the depths and shoals of honor;" only to stumble and fall, like Bacon, in "the ways of glory." but the clooda which obscured the brightness of Woolecy have come to aet-m mild aud beneficent m our eyes a* compared with the disas trous lustre which still waits ou the name ami lame of hie groat successor. Heine in one of his vivid stan zas has bewailed the wretched fate of the princes and popes whom Dante has damned in his Uifsruo.' For all such criminals after the poet has passed sen tence upon liieni in his "swfnl triple rhymes" there is, says Heine, no Hedeenu-r, -u-eing. ss we do. that time does but seal the brand of that eternal shame which it is the prerogative of genius to stamp ou the brow of its victims. In like manner It cannot be doubted that the reputation of Bacon will suffer for ever from the terse and epigrammatic line in which the English poet lias struck him off. in profile, as "the aitu it. brightest, meanest of mankind." The antithesis is sharp, as sharp as the "lethal arrow" about which Virgil ^ings; but for this very reason it still continues to stick in the side of bacon, and we suppose will $ver continue to stick there, doing his fame to death in the eyes of all who, for one reason or another, shall be inclined to accept tha compendious doom of Pope as tin solemn, irreversible award of authentic history. Yet perhaps In ail the mixed Chronicle of human glory and human shame there la no man whom it is loss easy to dismiss with a single satiric touch spjiended to two superlatives. The colossal figure of Baron atill rises before ue like the image seen in vision of the Hebrew prophet?its head of fine gold, Its breast of silver. Its legs of Iron snd its feet part of iron and part of clay. We can but wonder how it caino to pass that mire and dirt should have been mixed with the lower nature of a man so rasplehdcut for the baauty and strength of the element which compose I his higher parts A modern tier man writer has given us an interesting book ou whAt he calls Hie "unlgmstical men" of history; but. surely, there never wss su< h s riddle ss the character "f Be. i n. If the popular < on eptl, ,n V it 1* assumed to lie just snd trno. 'J hat a nun so wise could )>e so foolish, that a man so bright could be so stupid; that a man so mean could be so magnificent as Bacon is commonly represented to hava beau presents a problem which rails for something mure than the p. rftinctory treat in- nt It lias too commonly received at tiie hamie of His biographer and hiatoriap. The antithesis In tbo fortune* of l.seoti was inexpressibly grest, when we consider the height to which he reached and the depth to which lie Ml; hut when we have penetrated to the "true inwardness" of the man we rfliall find that the antithesis in his charac ter is sa great ss It seems to be. And it is for tills reason that the biography of Mr. Mpeddtiig lias s value In our eyes beyond that or snv similar work. It gives th ? facts in Bacon's life and character with sti n\-< mhtr and a naturalness whi> h make him an "intelligible form," with the eh incuts in his nature unequally mixed, it may be, but still not so unequally mixed as it is oommou to suppose. Most of those who have written about Bn< on would socio to h ave upon the reader's iniu?l the imago cither of a "laultl"** monster," of a inonstr ?? of Inultinuss, or, worts than all, of a mounter so strangely compounded ol both as lo be an luipoa.-tble creation. The narrative of Mr. Basil Montngn ami of Mr. Hopworth Dikou read* like a page torn from the Boilandist "Lives of tha Saints." L"rd Campbell, ss in his ofher "Lives of the Lord UhancrUnrs,' is nothing if not critical. In Macaulny's brilliant sketch we have the likeness of a Strang" aud unearthly living who "is hslf swine's hoof, half angle's wing." lint in the portraiture of sir. Sped dlitff wa disearii the picture of a men endowed with great intellectual gift*, playing a great part on the high stage jf Ur.tisU politics at a most critical period iu the history of England, discharging all his duties v>itit a single dye to the good <>f hi* country, aut luatetl by high purposes for "the glory of the Creator unU the relief of mau't estate," and yet, from a osr tuiu coarseness ill the fibre of hie nature rather lhau lmm niorui obliquity or with au>thing like con scious depravity, yielding to the ovds of the time mo tar a* to ruceive gratuitica from the suitors iu his court, The anomaly become* conceivable aud uot uuiiatura! iu the auslysis of Mr. Spudding, and while nothing in Bacou's career is here act down iu malice, as nothing is extenuated, we are able to construe to ourselves the consistent pattern 01 a fiesh-and-blood nntit who fell below the decencies of his place aud the high level of hi* owu moral aud intellectual ua ture, not because he was thoroughly base, but ilo calise he lacketl that "chastity of houor which feels a statu like a wound.*' It is a curious Duct, as acrvtug in part to explalu the obscurity which lias brooded over some of tlia dark poiuts iu Bacou's evil destiny, that it 14 not until within the last eight years that we have hern iu a position to read the utinda of the men who sat iu judgment on the Chancellor when ar raigned before the House of Peers by the Coiutuoua. Tho publication by the Camden Society, lu the year lttTn, of Elsing's "Notes of the Debates" had during a part of the session, gives us some new insight into tbix stage of the proceedings, aud if we do uot learn from it to think any more highly of Dacou we uiay at b ast learn from it to think a little less highly of the j udges by whom ho was condemned. That Lord Bacon ! was justly condemned on ihe charges upon which he was impeached ws do not dispute. To dispute the fact I would be to dispute the frank confession of Bucon himscif. For It should bo remembered that he was not convlotod on and after the trial, but on bis owu "confession aud bumble submission" In pleading guilty, ttricUita, to "a groat deal of corrupttou aud ueglect," as evi denced by tho twenty-eight specifications which were adduced against him. To the committee of twelve sent to acquaint him with the reception of his "full and iugouuouK confession," and to ask him whothcr he admitted the genuineness of his signature attached to it. and whether he would stand to it or uot, ho re turned for answer, "Mv Lyda, it in my act. nty hand, my heart.* I beseech your Lordships, be merciful to a broken reed.'' Writing to tho Earl of Buckiug ham a few days aftor his conviction, he said:?"1 ac knowledge the sentence just, and, for reformation's sake, fit," while adding that he conceived himself to be "the justest Chancellor that had been in the five changes since Sir Nicolas Bacon's time." To his friend and biographer, Rawley, he said, "I was the justest judge that was in England these fifty years; but it was the justest censure in Parliament that was these two hundred years." In turning from the conduct of Bteon as a nun, to consider his rank as a philosopher in the intellectual world, we need say but little. By the consenting voice of that world he holds s foremost place among the choice and master spirits of humanity?among men like Moses, and Plato, and Aristotle, and Jesus of Nazareth (diviueat of men, because more than man), and Augustine, and Justinian, and Greg ory the Great, aud Charlemagne, and Lu ther?men who have organized the advanced and progressive thought of the human race in religion, philosophy, law aud polity not only during their own days, but in all the coin iug generations of hnmauity. The two elements which most distinctively color and differentiate the civilization of modern times as contrasted with tho civilization of antiquity, illustrated in Greece and Home, are the Christian religion and modern science, and it is no irreverence to say that the Teacher of Galilee was not more decidedly the founder of the former than the expositor of the inductive philos ophy was the harbinger of the latter. It is quite true that Bacon was not the first expositor of the in ductive procesrof reasoning. That process is very clearly unfolded in the posterior anslytics of Aris totle; but about the process considered as s fruitful method of research iuto the mysteries of nature the Greek philosopher has not a word to say. It is for want of discriminating between the inductive pro cess (common to all men! and the inductive method (as first formulated by Bacon > that Macau lay in his brilliant essay haa been tempted to disparage the historical and philosophical value of the "Novum Organ am." There i? something sublime in the early vision which Bacon bad of the great work he was called to perform for the world by initiating a new method of research. The vision dawned npoa him while yet a student, fifteen years old, in the University of Cambridge, and from that day to the day of his death the vision never forsook him. Nurtured by his pious mother in a rig orous Puritanism, and bred by bis father in the at mosphere of Queen Elizabeth's Court, ho could not fail to cherish a lively interest in the cause of the re formed religion and in the welfare of Kngland at that crisis in British history; bnt ever blended with these two objects was this third grand ideal?that the for tunes of the whole human race might be redeemed from the barren logomachies of the Aristotelian phi losophy snd placed in tbe way of a never ending im provement by an amended theory of knowledge, and a wiser application of hnuian Industry. We can dis tinctly trace in the pages of Mr. Hpedding how the "Oreat Inatauration" grew beneath the hand of its author: how its plan was definitely settled in the year 1605; how, four years later, the "Bodargutio Philoso" phiaruin," "the most perfect pioce, perhap*, tor form and execution that Bacon left behind him," had re. ceiv?l its finishing touches: how all that ever was done of the "Novum Organuui" appearod on the tilth of October, 1G20, snd bow, at last, be was surprised by death with the ureat work atili on his hands. In the th itty -first year of his age he wrote to the Lord Treasurer Burghley that he "had taken all knowleilge to be his province.'' Twelve years later, committing his thoughts to s sheet of paper by way of "medi tation," be wrote that he believed himself boru for tbe service of mankind, and setting himself to con sider in what way mankind might be best served, he "found none so greet as the discovery of nsw arts, endowments and commodities for the bctteriug of man's life." Was it auy wonder that a man, sus 'tsined by anch an unfaltering trust in the high des tiny to which be hail been appointed by Providence, should have pierced through the clouds in which his sun was doomed to sot and should have sought by anticipation tbe auroial dawn of the fame which was awaiting him ? And hcuco it was in dear presage of his philosophical renown that wheo he came to write his last will and testament, after bequeathing his soul to Ood and his body to an "obscure burial," he bc qui atbed his name "to the nut ages aud to foreign nations." There aro many other points in these volumes upon which we had proposed to eminent, but we Dave already greatly exceeded our limits. We can not, however, forltear to advert to tbe traces of euphuism every where visible in the letters of Bacon, professor Henry Alnrley has well said of that lit erary alto. tation, winch was so fashionable-with tho wits of B**on's day, that it "gavo strength to the strong aud weakness to the wuak." To the reader who lias not maue a study of the eupuuistlc cult which prevailed so widely In Europe during the lat ter half of th. sixteenth and the earlier part of the seventeenth cent.iryf we fancy that some of Bacon's letters will seeto to have be,-u couched in the ex tra raganey of s pedantic diction, hnt when it is re membered that the 'WtlUi cWin, on the Spaniard* called it, was then the badge of a geutleiuun and scholar, we can si e why itetiould have been affected by llacou, especially win n writing to .Isiui * I? that pedant among prim cs and prince aiming pedant*. W? should uot omit to say, in closing, that thtiwe volumes arc as rich in illus trations of Bacon's times n they are full iu the memorials of his life. The pictorial career and sensational character of the Kurt oftSMSi; the roman tic heroism and tragical cud of Mir Walter K th igh; tbe high parts playe 1 by that spoiled cliHd of for tiiue, the Unite of BuokinghuDi, arc all hern told, not simply in their points of contact with the tUo of Bacon, bnt also with an amplitude of hiitnrical sur vey and a whurpm as of critical Insight which, for us at least, have shod am li valuable light oil some ob scure places In Hie annuls of James 1. We may in stance especially Mr. Hped ting's elucidation of tho mm h mooted questions raised by the execution of Mir Walter Raleigh, un eltictdattcn WlHcfe to most readers will bo as novel at it Is luminous. a moo ha phi': wrnuY or wonrwtyohTH. WuUSfimtS. A Biographic /Esthetic Mtudy. By Ueorgo A. Calvert. Boston; Lite k Mhepard. 1878. Principal Hhalrp, the anthor of that charming little trrstlsc the "Poetic Interpretation of Nature," does*but cxpfe** ilm iiRpifaiioii of gvuuitic Woffdf* wortliians when ha call* for an edition of Words worth's entire work*, in which the poems shall be printed in the exact chronological order of their com position, accompanied with those eunotationa which the poet himself dictated in the latter days of his life, with regard to their origin, suggestion and sig uiticance. Much en arrangement is not only essential to a right understanding of the poems themselves, but ia indispensable to any adequate appreciation of Wordworth's poetical art considered in the suc cessive phases ot its development and in the pecu liarity of its genius. Until such an edition shall be published this little work of Mr. Calvert, in which the salient points of Wordsworth's life are treated in connection with the wetlietic study of his typical poems, will lend a use ful contingent by way of helping to explicate the psychology which uuderlisa the remarkable produc tions ot the great philosophical poet of England. Al though Macauluy could not stand "The Prelude," and blurted out bis iuipationcc at its "raptures about mouutaius and cataracts," its "old iiioisy philosophy about the effects of sceuery ou the mind," Its "old crazy mystical metaphysics," and its "endless wildernesses of dull. Hat, prosaic declamations;" although Jeffrey greeted "Tho Ex cursion" lu the Edgnburgh Hevitm with the exclaims tion, "This will never do!" and opened his mordant critique of tho "Whito Doo of Rylstone" by mildly conceding to it the "merit of being the very worst poem ever Imprinted in a quarto volume;" although Byron never ceased to utock at tbe awaiting quantity of lake water which Wordsworth waa in the habit of mixing with hie Ilippoorene, and although Shelley was alw ays in doubt, down to the day of his death, whether Wordsworth was more detestable for his pedestrian poetry or for his upostscy from tho red republicanism of the French Revolution of 1180, the world has none tbe less oorne at last to recognize iu tho bard of ltydal Mount a genuine rule* whose right to tbe poet!* garland and singing sob* has been ad judged by the irreversible sentence of public ad miration and public gratitude. It 1? a* much by design as by tbe accident of con temporaneous publication that we affix the uotice of Mr. Calvert's "biographic and assthetic study" of Wordsworth to the more extended review of Bacon's 1 ift- and times as portrayed by Mr. Speddlng. There is a very important sense in which Wordsworth's view of nature, considered aa the source of high poetical and moral inapiratlon, may be regarded as a natural complement to Bacon's view of nature, regarded as the kingdom which man was to occupy and subdue under thq lead of science. If Bacon was sent into the world to be, aa he phrased It, the minister and interpreter of nature for purpoaea of human utility oud human amelioration in the arts of practical life, it is not too much to say that Words worth was raised up to be, as Matthew Arnold haa written, ?a priest to ns all, Of the woniler an?l bloom, of the world. Which we see with his eyes and are glad. And all a*ntlictic natures, we are sure, as well aa all true lovers of the higher moralities of tty human soul, will concur with Dr. Hhatrp in the opinion that the spiritual element whieh exists both in nature and in man, aa that element has been interpreted by Wordsworth, offers to cultivated minds our surest antidote against the exclusively analytic and micro ?copic view of nature which, at the behest of a me chanical theory of the universe, has become so -'tyr annous over present thought, and the end of which ia universal disintegration. ' The theory propounded by Wordsworth for the high interpretation of nature in the walks of poetical art waa hardly less original than the method pro pounded by Bacon for the interpretation of nature In the walks of practical art. Poeta before Wordsworth had written about nature, hut between the descrip tive poetry which gives n. glints of natural scenery, or which makes such aceuery ^ back ground of humau passions and actions, whether in tragic or epic verso, and the poetry which finds in nature the well-head of a perennial Oaataly and the source of a perpetual growth In morality as well as knowledge, there la the widest possible interval. 1 ho poetry of antiquity, in the classic age. and Home, however rich it may be in other besutios of form or substance, ia utterly destitute of this crowning grace. Neither in Homer nor iscbylus, neither in Virgil nor Ovid, is there the slightest trace of what Mr. Buskin calls "tha pathetic fallacy"?the illusion bv which the poet feigns that nature sympa thizes with man in his deeper moeds of Joy and sor row Just as little do the claaalc poeta bring the in terpretative power of fancy to bear on the phe noraena of the visible unirerae-that power which kindles in the reader'a aoul a new and keener senM of the outer world. And lacking theae phaaes otthe philosophical imagination they lacked, of course, that ultimate phase of the -me poetical art which i. seen in elegiac strains pressed -from the heart of sensitive aoul. by what Wordsworth call, "the heavy and the weary weight of all this un intelligible world." Thi. last aspect of nature may be most clearly seen, perhaps. In the "poeta of modern doubt," like Matthew Arnold or Clough. and would atom to be begotten by the union of poetical sensi bility with the latest forma of scientific necessitarian ism The spirit to which we refer finds expression, for instance, in such lines as the following from Mat thew Arnold:? Know man hath all that Nature hath, but more, < And in that more lie all his hope* of good. Nature is cruel, man ia sick of blood; Nature is stubborn, man would lain adore; Nature is fickle, man bath need of rest; Nature forgives no debt and fears no grave, Man would be mild and with safe conscience blest. This "still sad music of humanity ' takes its pre ludes from the poetry of Wordsworth: it strikes the keynote to many of Shelley', protoundest strains and ( comes to a "full diapason" in the poetry of "modern doubt " Lucretius was the descriptive poet of the philosophical materialism which prevuiled in Rome during his times, but In ail that Lucretius wrote we find i... clear-voiced coho from Nature of the moral and religions problems which haunt the human aoul j to-day. "OUATOBV AND OttATOKH. ' i OwiroRT and Orators. By William Matthew., 1 I D author of "Getting On in the World. Chicago: U. C. Griggs h Co. 187P. It i. a curio it. fact, attested by the history of all the highest human art..?hat as soon as men begin to write about them it is a certain sign that the arts themselves have begun to decay. Huch is the noces *ary relation between the crititial and the creative faculty of the humau soul in It. bigbe.t energies that the former faculty finds the vsry conditions of its ex iatcuce in the products of th. latter. It is not until Homer has written his "Epos" and Hophoclea ha. curried the drama to Its highest de v. lopaieut that Aristotle roines to explicate the nature and laws of epic and tragic postry. It is not until th. orators have "fiilmtncd over Greece" that rhetorical teacher*. from Gorgia. to Theophraatus. o^n their ochoole to instruct the ingenuous youth of Atncus in the art of oratory. It is not until tl.< eloquence of Cicero has becomes tradition in the Roman Forum that tfutntlHau appenrs with a book of Institutes in his hand designed to teach the first principle of the art which needed not "the rhetorician's rules." while as yet the forces of a strong clvU and political life were fluent in the body politic of Homo. It Is fit ting. therefore, that Br. Matthews, after remarking on th. power and place >f the orator In the history of tho world, should raise and discuss the qusetiou whether oratory deserves. In this present age. to be numbered among the "l-oat Arts." Outside of the Fine Arts, which, in their genesis and development, may be said to Obey laws peculiar to themselves, It it a favor ite theory of ours that there sre very few. If any, arts which deserve to be characterized as "lost." What w. call "lost arts" arc not so much arts which havo le . a lost from an Incapacity to master thorn, as arts which hevu becu superseded in the pfogress of society. Tbs "survival of tho fittest is .doctrine which holds squally true In tho artistic au.l In tho animal world. Tho aria which have perish. <1 from the face of tho earth would reappear if the human race should r. lapse into the ptiyeiral. Intellectual or moral conditions which gave to thoso m?s their | motive and natural environment. .*??< ?'d timpori ahum', in the striking phrase of Ci.-ero. ' aud thi* would seem to bo very much the opinion of Dr. M it thews In tho interesting slid Instructive ' work before us. lie Indorses the saying of another, that if the ancient oratory were in dcnsandnoW.it would wake from tho sleep of a,nun years without the aid or tho rhetorician. "The truth Is." b<- adds, "it i? to the very superiority of our civilization to that of the ancients tnat the revolution in oratory and the apparent diminution of its Influence are owing." insomuch tuat. instead of UmvntluB. we should rather Hjofe* that "we live uo longer on thai voti'auiu toil which iu former ages produced fiery orators in inch abundance." The Justice of this observation cannot be doubted* Every change in the constituents, implements and agencies of a civilization works a change in its centre of gravity. The modern journalist stands in the boots of tbe ancient couciouator. If Demosthanea were alive to-day be would tlud liia bema in the me tropolitan newspaper of the widest influence, and in stead of shaking the Arsenal with his thunderous oratory would seek, with much "expense of Palludiim oil," to pen a terse aud well-couaidcrcdeditorial leader upon soiue topic of high concern that might chance to be uppermost in the public thought. Doubtless, as Dr. Matthews argues, the "fourth estate of the na tiou" can never do the entire work of the oratory, but the work of the public speaker is greatly modified by the power of the press. Iu proportion as knowledge becomes intensive its possessors resent the arts of tlio orstor as an insult to their understandings. Iu proportion as knowledge becomes extensive the orator must despair of moving the masses by sppetla ad dressed to popular passions. Clearness and precision of statements take the place of "rabble-charming words" which once may have had, as Dr. South says, "a sort of wildtire wrapped uy in tbeni," but wbich are emptied of all power to charm the cooler Judg ments and more prosaic natures of this modern age. The reason why that most bril liant of modern advocates, the late Rufus Choatc, failed to mako on his times an impression equal to an extraordinary talent and unequalled forensic ability must be sought in the fact that he never fully comprehended the oratorical temper of the epoch in which ho was living. He appeared among us like oue born out of due time. He was a Hypcridcs come again, but he was a Hyperides without an excitable Athenian populace before which to sway the wand of his enchanting eloquence, and without a Court of Areopagus before which it was always safe to display tbe arts of the special pleader. Honce the credibility of tbe tradition that when, once upon a time, he was flashing tbe corruscations of his Asiatic eloquence in the face of Judge Shaw, that ornament of the bench, impatient of the pyrotechnic display, put a sudden extinguisher on the rocket-like oratory of the great advocate by interposing tbe petulent ejaculation, "All very tine, Mr. Choatc, but what In heaven has it to do with this easel" Turning from these general considerations on tbe power and influence of. the oratory, as also on the re lation of the orator to different phases and states of civilization. Dr. Matthews proceeded to discuss the qualiflestions of the orator; his trials; his helps; the teats of eloquence; the use of personalities in debate; tbe several classes of political orators (Eng lish, Irish and American); forensic orators and pul pit orators, closing his treatise with a plea for oratori cal culture. Under each of these heads he has written on the principle laid down by Hume, that "criticism is nearly useless unless the critic quote innumerable examples." Hence each chapter of his work swarms with illustrative anecdotes culled from every field of histoty, and is almost tessellated with apt quotations firom tbe walks of literature and art. In making these selections Dr. Matthews shows that he is guided by a taste which is as delicate and just as the rsuge of his reading Is liberal and wide. That iu levying contribu tions from so many sources be should sometimes slip up inaccuracies of statement ought not to be a matter of surprise to the most critical reader. It is rather a matter of surprise that such slips of tho mind and pen are so fow. But it is a mistake to speak of Mrs. 8eaton (to whom one of the best of Webster's criticisms is said to have been addressed) as Webster's "landlady at Washington." Always a leader in Washington society from the position held in it by her husband aud because she adorned by her own virtues, Mrs. Seaton was at the period indi cated by Dr. Matthews the wife of tne Mayor of Washington. We believe it is a solecism in speech to use "novitiate" as synonymous with "novice," yet such is the dialect of Dr. Matthews in describing "the agony of a confused noritate" who moved the sympathy of Kennedy in bis "Life of William Wirt." Mr. W. K. Dreg, tho author of "The Creed of Christendom," is treated by Dr. Matthews to a super flous "g" at theend of bis patronymic, which,, as it is, would seem to be abundantly supplied with that lot-, ter. But Dr. Matthews, who everywhere shows liis classical culture, will remind ua that such slight blemishes are covered by a familiar dictum of Horace in the "Art Poetics." HOLIDAY BOOKS?WHAT THE PUBLISHERS ARE DOINO POR CHRISTMAS?LITERATURE FOB OLD AND YOUNO. The day* of gorgeously bound ChrlatmM annual h are paat. The "Fountain of Pearls," "Hook of Beauty" and other highly colored and elaborately illustrated volumes that lay upon onr grandparents' centre tablea are no more. In their place the pub lishers give tis elegantly gotten up volumes to be aure, but volumes whose contents we may peruse with proftt as well as pleasure. A year or so ago Harpers gave us Dort's "Ancient Mariner;" Apple-, tons, Le Croix's "The Eighteenth Century;" Hcrib ner A' Welford, "Spain, India and Italy," all exiwu sivo and elegant books, prepared especially for the holiday trade. This year, however, there will be very few new Christmaa books for grown folks, while the held of children's books is more extensively covered than usual. The publishers eittadr beliove that the times will not admit of a great outlay in the matter of costly, books or that the taste for such volumes is dying out. As a rule they will satisfy themselves with republications of the holiday books of former years, tliougb a number of bouses will follow the old custom and give something new for tho holidays. Harper ts Brother* offer i*> new holiday book, hut they call attuntion to Miaa Jennie J. Young's "Cera mic Art" as a volume handsome enongh for a holiday present and point with pride to their editions of etaudard authors. Charles Carleton Coffin's story of "Liberty" is sufficiently attract! ve to please any boy and Miaa Virgytia W. Johnson's "Catakill Fairies" will never eesse to interest the girls, Mr. Prime's "Pottery and Porcelain of all Tlntes and Nations," a useful aud beautiful book; "Contemporary Art In Europe," and that dulightfnl collection of "Songs of Our Youth," edited by Mrs. Muloch-Craik, will be woloome visitors to many stocking*. D. Apple ton It Co. s most elaborate holiday book Is "American Painters," a volume containing biograph ical sketches of tifty American artists. With eighty throe example.; of their works. Tho Turner Gallery, containing l'JO engravings from the works of J. M. W. Turner, a rare and beautiful collection; "Pottery aud Porcelain, from Early Times Down to the Phila delphia Exhibition," by Charles Wyllys Elliot; "Poet aud Paiuter. or Gome of Art and Mong," containing ninety-nine steel engravings, sud the complete poet leal works of William Culleu Bryant, a book lull of new interest, arc volumes to attract the lovers of the beautiful in art and poetry, while those looking for more solid reading will And it in "Tent Work in Pal estine" and Gelkle'a "Life and Worda of Christ," with twelve engraving* on steel. Bcribntr A Welford have made handsome provision for the holidays in "Hwltxerland, its Mountains aud Valleys." Between four and Ave hundred engravings illustrate this volume, which will prove equally at tractive to those who have vieited the "playground of Europe" and tho.ee who propoao to do so. Ths descriptions are grouped around certain central points. Tho people, as well as the grand scenery of this country are depleted by ths artist's pencil, and the letterpress la in kcepiug "with the subjects. This volume is a fitting eompauion to "India" aud "Spain," which preceded it. A holiday edition of Miss Mitford a "Our Village," profusely illustrated; Goethe's "Faust," translated by Miss Swanivick and Illustrated by ltetzacb, sud Jari|uemsrt's "History of Furniture" ars among tho books offi-red by this firm, A Christina* brochure called "The Hound Table An* nnal." with contributions hy Violet Fane, Whyte Melville, Uuruand and other popular authors, but whoso chief attraction are lour graceful sketches by Georges Pilokett, representing the reigning London beauties?Mrs. laingtrey, Countess Dudley, Mrs. Corn wullis West aud tho Marchioness of Ormonde?as tbo four seasons, is imported by Hcribner A Welford. Charles Hcribuer's Sous have made no espesiSl holi day book, unless we except "The Poet ami His Master," Which will be ready very soon. Clarence Cook's "The House Beautiful" still holds its own and will bo found us attractive this year as it was last, bcribner k Co. offer handsomely bound Volume* of S' l ihii'r't .V'inlhli/ and SI, Xichnlat. G. P. Pn I nam's Hons have prepared a beautiful edi tion of Bryant's rmmt famous fOtm, **Tha?topsls," with an uetK'.ial view to the holiday tralc. It ia illustrated with designs drawn aud engraved by Will iam Linton, who illustrated the cojupauiou volume, 1 he Hood of Years." "Thuuatopajs" may lie had m her bound with "The Flood of Warn" or separately. rtiauatopaiK ' wun written when Mr. Bryant waa sev enteen yearn ot' aye, the latter poem when he was sev eiity-niae. "Apple Blossoms," published by this firm, is pretty enough for a Christmaa present. The au i tors are two little yiris, u ho beyun to make verses at the ?yo of four years, and who are yet in their teens. J. W. Bouton has not published any holiday hooks, but he has imported a great many, and oilers volnmea oi L Aft uud The J'orlfblio aud raru hooks of etchings, besides Milllam Blake's works and extra illustrated books. OUT OF TOWN. Houghton, Osgood Ac Co. have nolhiug so flue as "The Hanging of the Crane" or "Mabel Martin" this year, but they offer "The Schoolboy," Dr. O. W. Holmes' poem read at the centenary of Phillips' Aead eiuy, Andover, Mass.. June 10, 1878. Dr. Holinos has | written few bettor poems than this. It is full of | humor and genuine feeling. The illustrations are bv APPkton Brown. Wand, Merrill, Sheppard and Hithcock. Bayard Taylor's new poem, ''Prince Benkaliou." and Mrs. Cella Thaxter's "Drift Meed" are appropriate holiday books, though not published with that intention. Huberts Brothers offer their last year'a list, and a very attractive ono it is, for the approaching holidays. - ra. Jameson's "Memoirs" will be likely to find holi d*> buyers, for it la a moat entertaining book, and readers do not care for fancy bindings. Henry T. Coutes, of Philadelphia, offers the "Fireside Encyclo pedia of Poetry," a volume, a comprehensive collec tion of the poetry of the English language. All the poems are arranged under headings according to sub jects, which addB to the value of the material. (TIILDUBN'S BOOKS. And now we come to the children's books. They arc plentiful this year, and firms that have hesitated to tempt the old folks hold out the strongest Induce ments to the children. From Houghton, Osgood k Co. we have u handsome volume of "Mother Goose's Melodies," in which the biography of this famous old lady is given. The writer says that she waa hot a myth, and gives Boston as her birthplace. The illustrations are by that rising young artist Alfred I Kappes, aud are illuminated on gold after the manner [ of English toy books. Our old favorite receives kind treatment at Mr. Kappes' hand*, and the children are sure to be delighted with all they find here. This j same firm publish T. B. Aldrlch's translation of M. de la Bedelbere'a charming story of "Mother Michel," under the title "Story of a Cat." TheMrawings are by L. Y. Hopkins, and aro very amusing, particularly the one on the back of the cover. Scribner k Wclford import "Aunt Louise's Golden Gift," an elegant | v?lume with illustrations In colors on gold. It is for i vciy young children, and contains such nursery i songs as "Little Danie Crump," "Hush a By, Baby," | "Childhood's Delight" and "Tottlc's Ilhymes." Messrs. Macmillan k Co. announce Mrs. Molosworth's J new story, "Grandmother. Dear," with eight illustra tions by Walter Crane. From George Roullcdge k Sous' wo have received "Every Boy's Annual,'?' a capital book for boys just entering upon their teens, full of boy life and bustle, and "Every Girl's Annual," a bright book for girls of the same age. Theso two volumes are made up'from kvery Hay-* Magemne and Hrery Oirl'i Maya tine. The prince of baby books is the "Baby s Bouquet," Illustrated and arranged by Walter Crane in his usual delightrul manner. Mr. Crane is at his best in this exquisite little volume. "Polly, Put the Kettle On," and other old-time tunes are given in English, French and Ger man. Another Walter Crane toy book is the "Children's Musical Cinderella," told in familiar words to familiar tunes. "The House that Jack Built" Is comically illustrated by R. Caldecott, as is also "The History of John GUpiu's Famous Ride to IVare." "CncPj joe-s stories': is a collection of talcs for boys and girls of ten and twelve years of age, redolent of fairies and other of childhood mys teries. E. P. Dutton k Co., whose publications are among the best for children, send ns "Little Heigh bors," by Emily Huntington Miller, a book to delight boys and girls (the latter particularly) between the ages ?t six and ten, and even older. "Aunt Sophy's Boys and (?iris will roach about the same audience. Both are profusely Illustrated and prettily bound. "Carl's First Days"- and "Christmas In tho Country" are two gay covered books of easy reading for the little ones. They are written In words of short syllables and contain simple and homelike stories. "H. H." has loft her poet's corner long cnongh to write a book that all boya and girls will read with delight. It is called "Holly's Sil ver Mino," and is published by Roberts Bros. D. Lothrop k Co., of Boston, bavo published a unique little volume called the "Children's Almanac" the calendar reaching over five years. Each month is represented by an original poem from the pens of Longfellow. Whlttier, Aldrh-b, Cella Thal ler, Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney, Edgar Fawcett, John James Piatt, Elisabeth Stuart Phelps and others. Ac companying these poems are twelve drawings on wood, by Mis* Humphrey, and four chromo-litho graphe by Miss Lathbury; "Little Stay-at-Home." by L. Clark son, published by F. W. Robinson, illus trated by bright colored pictures. The "Rag Fair," by the same author aud publisher, is pVottily bound and profusely Illustrated. NfcW BOOKS BKCEIVED. Art lit Blotrraph ie*. Allmon. Houghton, O?ci>od A Co., ptibllxb-TH Hohtnu. C. 'f. Dilliiigbam, Now York. Undo Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowl.v. By Har riot 11. oilier Stown. New edition, w lib illustration* and 0 bibliography of the work. By Conge Bullrn, Kan., F. 8. A. Toiotliei Willi uu Introductory account of the work. linnc?? tnu. Oagood * t'n . publisher*. Button. C. T. Dillingham, Now York. Change. Tito Whlaper of tho Sphinx. Kv W iliiani Leigh ion J. B. I.ippiocott A Co . pitbfUhoiti, Philadelphia. Christmas Krergreeu* A rolloollon of pot-try for tbo holidays, Iui-JiiiIIiik tcorun from Longfellow. Hr.vant. Gold ? inith, tiroy. Montgomery. BlUaCaos and other*. Selected nnd arranged Ity W J. .rohnttoa. Wi'h IlluatreUoaa. W. J. Joltntitan, publisher, Now York. (Jrminrf* on-l liu lid tit K* of the Contonnlol Lx'iibitlim. Philadelphia. l*7H Kdflod by Dti wr Gardner J. M. Up plucott A Co.. publtohorr. Phils,Ul'ihie. A Face illumined. By B. P. Ho*. Dodd, Mo*d A Co., publisher*. Now York. American i'aintem. With sight/three oaaraplo* of their woik eucrarotl on wood By u. w. Hheldon. D. Appleton A Co.. ptiWII?hor?, Now York. Apploton * Now Hourly-Volume fteriss. Bsacousttrli. By Goo rye Makepeace Towl*. Paper Money. A collection of the principal historical fact" bearing npdb the current financial dlaof?ln?. By II. W. Rk'lnir d*ou D. Apploton A Co. publlelter*. Now York. i'lio Art of (iernlahing Churches at Cbri.tmi* and other I'oetival* By Kdward Young Cox. With illustrations from original design* and amount oxample*. Fifth edition, revised and uucmcutod by new design* and lllnalratlons. Cox 1 Son. publishora. No. 13 Bible House. New York. Jams, lotver of my Bool. By Charles W'eoloy, Dc*igns liv Robert Lewi*. F.agruvad by W. J. Dana. D Lidhiop A t'o.. publisher*, Beeton. More Cla?*lc* of Bsbt land. Yerslfled by Clara Duly Bates. DJ.otlirop A Co.. publishora. As Jesuits. Translated front tha French of Paol K- val b>- Ague* L. Sadlicr. D. A J. Sadllor A Co., publlsbeta. New Yodr I'oeklug School Text Bonk, and Huntekteper t Uuide to Cookmy and Kltrhati Mu.ageaient By Juliet Cetson. Or* atjga Jund Company, pablisbera. New York. JUST WHAT HUE WANTED. "Mary Finn," called Judge Wendell, lu the Essex Market Police Court yesterday. Iu response an old lady, wearing a tatt? red calico dreas hanging loosely front her shoulder* attd an old faded shawl drawn over bar head, tlinlll' .l np to tho railing. "Drunk nod titrable to take eare of yourself," aaid the Judge. ??Yea, Your Honor," croaked tho prieoner, "I know it." "Drunk all day." "Yea, Your Honor, drunk all day." "I guess I will have to send yon up on the Inland, Mary." "All right. Judge; thank you. That's Just what I want," said the old lady, highly elated, a* she made wuy for the next. HE LOVED HElI "Ah. let her go. Sure she nay's she's sorry," Slid MeCloskey, In tho Fifty-seventh Si reel Court yester day. His head was well baudaged, and his wife had, In B drunken lit the night hoi ore, used a htdf-docen pieces of crock' ry on It. "Yon forgive herF' aeked thw Court, in amase mont. "t do. For what's the uso of locking the old lady up ? Hhe's sorry, and that's the end of it." "Mho wan druuk f" "She wan thpt." "And beat yon ?" "Hhe did, iti troth." "You forgive her, after all?" "Now, Judge, will you look at herf T he tears ia r.o in in mid rollln' down her face, could 1 eay aught ngsinst her w hen she's that way 1" "TheP you love her?" "Love barf asked Mefloakey. "Sure of course I do. She's lay wife, the mother of our children, and ns good a woman us Uvea if she'd stop drinkin'." ??Mrs. M' t'loskey, will you keep from liquor if I let yon gof" "I will," she answered, weeping. "Then take her home," said the Court to MeCloskey, which he Uid, hushing her sobs and silencing her thanks, HARLEM'S SENSATION. The Alleged Forced Marriage of Miss Jessie Hunt. FLIGHT OF THE BKIDKGKOOM An Appeal Made to the Courts by the Unwilling Bride. Not ft little excitement waa created in Harlem circles yesterday by tUo announcement of the mar riage of Misa Jessie T. Hunt, of Lexington nventu aud 10-tli street, to Mr. Uaviil II. Riabey, of 112th street, near Second avcuuo. Under ordinary oircuiu stances tliu marriage would not excite any interest or comment beyond their own circle of acquaintances; but the story of the way in which the young man la alleged to have secured his bride, as told in yester day's Hibald, at once aroused public interest. The young lady yesterday morning made affidavit in the Harlem Police Court that she married the man she did not love under duress and because she had no alternative but to give her hand or her life, anil ou her complain! a warrant was issued and placed in the hands ol Detective Clarke, who had not up to fottr o'clock se cured his man. A -color of truth was given to thii charge also by the disappearance early in the morn ing of Mr. Itisbey from his home witflout acquainting his mother where lie was going or how long ho would bo away. It he does not get hack soon his niilk route will sutler, and it ho does ho will suffer. Mr. Risbey will bo twenty-two years of ago next February, and Miss lluutj will be twenty-one a month later, so tha4 they were and are legally responsible for their ftotl and ought to have woll considered the outcome. There are discrepancies, if not flat contradictions, in the stories told by the friends and relatives of the ??high contracting parties" yesterday to the Heuald representative. 11KV. Mil. VIBOIN'S JUSTIFICATION*. The Rev. Samuel H. Virgin, pastor or the Congrega tional Church of Harlem, was first visited. Ho reside* in East l*24th street, near Third avenue. He it wa* who united the young people in marriage; but lit was not able to make the two hearts beat as one. Hft showed the Heuaum representative the record of tin marriage, a duplicate of wnicli he had given the brido grooni. There is nothing in the handwriting of Mr. .ibhey to indicate excitement, and Mr, Virgin saw no evidence in the countenances or actions of either thai tlicy were unduly excited. He noticed that the eye* of the young lady looked red, and after he had per. formed the marriage ceremony and was offering prayer for the young conple Mrs. Virgin liotlced thai Miss Hunt used her pocket handkerchief to wipa away a tear; but as the minister's eyes were closed | he could not have noticed this. There is a slight in dication of nervousness in the lady's handwriting where she signed her name on the marriage record. I Rut Mr. Virgin accounted for this by saying that | the signature was made with his gold pen, and us ladles are not used to gold pens she did not handle il easily. He had seen similar indications in the pen ' manship of other ladies who have appeared before I him lor marriage. In this case the persons were I strangers to him. He had no reason to suspect duress or force on the part of the man nor unwilling j consent ou the part of the woman. Indeed, had Miss I Hunt desired to escape, ho says she could have done ao from his house; for wliilo he i took Mr. Risbey into bis study Miss Hunt remained in the parlor with a closed folded door be tween them and the front dour only a fe\V feet from her and Third avenue, less thau fifty feet away. Mr. Risbey was detained by the minister at least three minutes answering the usual questions, and not being able to tell the given name of Mrs. Hunt, he called to Jessie to ascertain. She promptly gave tha required information and afterward signed the record aa stated. HASTE WITH THE WEHDINO. But, moreover, Mr. Virgin received the impression that there was nothing out of the ordinary run of marriages, from the fact that when ho put the usual question, "Wilt thou, Jessie, take this man," Ac., and before he bad finished the question, sho answered it iu tho affirmative. He did not notice it at the tlmo aa am thing remarkable, because persons seeking mar riage don't carry prayer boots with them aud do not always know when tho question ends. But when liis attention was after ward called to Miss Hunt's statement that she hud not responded lie remembered that sho had, und out of time too. But when ho had finished the question she bent her head, but gave no audible response. And as indication of haste in the ceremony as well aa of affection between the young couple Mr. Virgin says that before ho hail quite finished his service the young husband kissed his bride and she returned it Just as willingly aud affectionately. And when they were going away from his house Mr. RlsbeW 1 handed him a crumpled envelope, on opening w hich subsequently a note was found which said simply that the writer would see Mr. Virgin again In a few days. Now, this fact does not indicate undue haste in the preparation, und Mr. Virgin had uo roasou to suppose that he had been in any sense or manner i imposed upon. Both uersons declared that this was their first marriage, but when the min ister asked U either knew any obstacle in the way of their present union neither responded. But this is a common occurrence uud excited no suspicion. It bad been stated that Mr. Risbey was married before and, while Mr. Virgin knew nothing about this, lie ex plained to tiiem that a marriage contracted contrary to the law of Ood would not be sustained by the law of the State. MftS. KISUEV'S UNDEItHTANIUNG OF THE CA.-E. f The writer called on Mrs. Risbey at her residence, in HJth street, near Mecond avenue. Her sou, aa stated elsewhere, was absent, and could not be seen. The lady herself was in mourning attire, having buried her husband only three months ago, and this publication lias added to her deep sorrow. Hue was not inclined at first to say a word on the subject, but after a little conversation she consented to bay a few things. Of course her Information was circumstantial and second hand. While Miss Hunt wau giving u mu sic lesson to her little girl Mrs. Risbey was iu the ba-e m, ut. and her two sous, David and one younger, were up stairs. When the lesson was finished David came down Pi the parlor and spoke with Jessie, aud as Mrs. Risbey was alter ward informed, he merely remind* d her of bcr repeated vows of affection to hiiu, and insisted that the marriage should take place then or never. Her reply was:?"WeU. go up stairs and put vouv hat aud coat on, and 1 will go with you any where " The conversation was carried on iu an ! ordinary tune. Had it been otherwise, Mrs. llisbcy down stair* would have heard it through the heater or her sou up stairs would have heard it there. Be sides there could not have been such a scene between the young people in her parlor as Jessie * friend* describe without attracting the attention of soma members of the household. Moreover, before they left the house Mrs. Itisbey had gone up stairs and was dusting the banister and steps when her son passed her going to hi* room for his overcoat and hat. If Jessie was iu such dread as she alleges she was she could have escaped white David waa up stairs or she could have called for protection. But alio did neither and walked out the door with htm, bis mother remarking that they were going to take a walk. Mrs. Risticy ran down to her basement window aud liado her sou not bo long awav. Ho was not long absent, and some time after hi* return in ' the afternoon he called liis mother aside aud told her iff his marriage. Sim 1 doubted at first, but when he placed the certificate lie fore her she coidd no longer doubt, Nhe. however, rhtded him for getting married secretly, knowing a* ho did that she as well as Jessie s parents wore op posed to clandestine marriages, and that there was no occasion for either of them thus to go off and wed. mr. hunt's version and views. There arc two Mr. Hunts, father and son, aud, to? gotber with Mrs. Hunt, they were found at their rests deuce in Islington avenue, near losth street. They seemed to know the w riter's errand, but when tho obje t of the visit was stated Mr. Hunt, Jr., put on an air of supreme Importance and begged his fath er to sav no more about it, that w liat hail been pub Mailed was correct. Mr. HuDt. Nr.. statod that hlft daughter. Jessie, was at that time up stairs, very sick with nervous prostration; bilk that she hail been ftble to go to the court In tho morning to tunke affidavit to her complaint. Hho still adberea to her version of the threats to take her life and expresses her determination not to live wit It Davo Risbey. Hhe does not accouut for hoT quick walk along First avenue, a distance of twelve blocks, to tho minister's house, when sink might have followed Hcvond or Third avenues, which were nearer. The time waa between niue and ten o'clock iu the morning, ah'-n ononis are apt to be about the streets. Bhe dog* account for her inability to escape from Mrs. Rjabey a bouse, or rather,perhaps, her brother accounted for it l>v saving that Dave wae too quick *or her. Rut here are only sixty feet between Airs. lUsbeya house and Second avenue, which is a business street, w tU store doors inviting entrance all the time and ? crowd reidy to bo gathered at any hour, 'lliera was no explanation of her failure to escape from the minister s house or to place herself Under his protec tion there if she drewlcd bodily harm or death by violence at tho bauds of the man she wedded. But ft omicral explanation of her terror was given in tho statement that "he rode down to Fifty-third street, to her father's place of business, and tlicu went into hvsterical fftlntlng fits, and in that enfeebled eoudt ti'on after viaitlng l'oltce Headquarters, sho wus con veyed homo In the evening. The friends of Mr. lUsbey have a theory that Jesaio was willing enough to marry film, hut that sho feared to lot her pare nts know that sho lisd wedded pri vately. Nlie, therefore, it is said, requested him to %ccn the marriage so ret tor a mouth, but he resolved on publishing trio fact to her friends and Ills, and on the strengtn of that resolve went to Lex ington avenue as slated. But inasmuch a? some other young men of Harlem who liavo been paying attentions to her would be ill sap J pointed, she worried over the matter and regretted I ber act almost as soon as it was eompli fed. They strenuously deny the threats against her life, but her brother as stoutly asserts that lie lisa repeatedly drawn charges from Dave's pistol to prevent shooting and that Dave Itisbey has more than once followed Jessie on the street, threatening to ahoot unices sho | ??tc up tier now beaux.