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Sunday dispatch. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1845-1854, February 01, 1846, Image 1

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sunbail fg|fe LlispalnT
VOL. I. NO. 9.
At 102 Nassau Street,
* Or One Dollar a Year in Advance by Mail.
Will be inserted at the rate of One Dollar per Square
f sixteen lines) the first insertion, and Fifty Cents for
very subsequent insertion. Advertisements for a lon
3er period at the same rate.
S A hungry lion on a lamb was feeding,
V When a poor dog passed by,
And with a patient look of meekness pleading,
Shared in the banquet; whilst the royal beast
Smiled kt his ignorant simplicity.
A wolf looked oh and said, “ and surely I
May have a portion of the prey ; at least,
Indeed, I’ll try.”
He came—came boldly ; when the lion saw
His purpose, he upraised his kingly paw,
Smote him to earth, and left him there there to die.
Thera is some excuse for inexperience,
i Bui none for daring, insolent pretence.
The Cloud.
Over the thirsty plain a pregnant cloud
Rolled on its forward way ;
Scanning the cliffs, whose summits proud,
Beneath it lay;
While to the overflowing sea.
It poured its waters forth, rejoicingly.
“ Am 1 not liberal ?” to the mountain cried
The cloud—while the swift torrent swelled the tides.
'• Liberal ?—the panting field and sun-dried plain
Asked one drop, one single d-op, in vain !”
Exclaimed the mountain Liberal indeed !”
To those who asked no favor—felt no need !”
[Written for the Sunday Dispatch.]
-Ran bom Recollections
Chapter 8.
Hon. Edward Curtis—Mr. Daniel Webster —Paul
R. George —Mr. Curtis called on to resign—
Refuses—Mr. Secretary Upsher—Col. Craven—
Thomas A. Cooper—Mr. Curtis removed—Mr.
C P. Van Ness appointed—Reign of Terror—
Custom II fuse besieged—Appointments—Vaga
bonds and incompetent men appointed—Old dolts
pensioned to secure votes, fyc., fyc.
Discomfortable cousin ! know’st thou not
That when the searching eye of heaven is hid
the globe, and lights the lower world,
thieves and robbers range abroad unseen,
In murders and in outrage, bloody here ; X
But, when from under the terrestial ball,
He fires the proud tops of the eastern pines,
And darts his light through every guilty hole,
Their murders, treasons, and detested sins,
The cloak of midnight being pluck’d from off their backs
Stand bare and naked, trembling at themselves.
King Richard 11.
New York, February 2,184 G
To the Hon. Henry A. Wise,
Minister Extraordinary to the Court of Brazil.
My dear Sir :
The Honorable Edward Curtis was indebted
Yor the office of Collector to Mr. Daniel Webster,
who was the first and only Secretary of State
.that Gen. Harrison ever had; and, it was well
understood that he would succeed Mr. Morgan,
the successor of Mr. Jesse Hoyt, as soon as it
was ascertained that the Hero of the North Bend
had been elected. Mr. Curtis was an able and
an efficient officer, and as long as he had the
power, exercised a wholesome discipline over
the*&ew York Custom House. It was said that
he possessed a commanding influence over Mr.
Webster, and was safe as long as that eminent
.citizen bel<| thejiaijiLoii of Premier. This was
an error, and subsequent events proved that as
eminent as the Premier was, there was a man
behind the throne, much greater than he was,
and who possessed a controlling influence over
that department of executive patronage that lay
within the boundary of New York. Although
* Mr. Curtis was the antipode of the writer of
these letters, and throughout his official career
enacted many parts, that were hostile to the par
ty to which he belongs, common justice requires
that it should be recorded, that he was an able
and an upright officer. In managing the affairs
of the Custom House, he sedulously sought to
maintain the dignity due to the establishment ;
and, as far as in him lay, kept the concern free
the contagion that beset it, under the admi
nistration of Mr. Van Ness.
This man was no less a personage that Mr.
Paul R. George—a politician by profession, and
a native of the State of New Hampshire. In the
month of June or July, 1842, Mr. T J resident Tyler
confided to Mr. George the superintendance of
the affairs of his administration in this State and
>-city, and whatever he said was law, and was as
imperative as any of lhe edicts of Nero or Damo
cles. He was the friend of Mr. Curtis ; he was
also the professed friend of Mr Webster for the
time being, notwithstanding, lie had at other
times, eminently distinguished himself, in the
circles in which he moved, as the opponent, and
some said, as the rival of that celebrated New
England lawyer.
’ Mr. Paul R. George, immediately after having
received his commission, as New York Con
science keeper of the Administration,was appoin
ted military store keeper on Governor’s Island,
where he was to be sometimes found, but not
Fjoften, his business engagements calling him most
1 of the day to the city, where he managed matters
most cautiously, and took good care to let the
subordinates of the government understand that,
if they did not behave like men, who were bound
in honor, to give to Captain Tyler the succession,
they would for the first act of malfeaence of duty,
be compelled to walk lhe plank, or in other words
to go out of office.
Mr. Redwood Fisher, Mr. John LorrimerGra
x ham, Mr. Paxton Hallett, Mr. Robert C. Wet
more, Mr. Edward Curtis, and Mr. Surveyor
Taggart, placed the utmost confidence in Mr.
Paul R. George, and at all times complied most
readily with whatever he happened to dictate.
Mr. Curtis soon discovered that the friendship
of Mr. George would be invaluable ; subsequent
events convinced him, that whilst George main
tained his position, he would probably be able to
hold on to the Collectorship; and, hence it was
he humored him and played into his hands,
on all proper and suitable occasions. The day at
last arrived when Mr. Paul R. George “fell from
grace,” in the estimation of the administration,
and from that hour, lhe fortunes of Mr. Curtis
began to culminate.
The accession of Mr. Upshnr to the office of
Secretary of the Navy, was a sad and an evil
event for Mr. George and the late Collector.
Previous to the incoming of that unfortunate
gentleman, Mr. George was omnipotent at Wash
ington. Before it transpired, however, “ some
factious rascals,” as they were denominated,
succeeded in inducing Congress, to abolish the
offices of military store keeper at Frankfort,
Pennsylvania, and on Governor’s Island in this
harbor, for the sole object of deposing the per
sons who held them. The first was in the occu
pancy of Thomas A Cooper, the tragedian, and
the other was in the hands of Paul R George,
*fyir heto.
Mr. George was of course to be provided for,
und the place of Naval Store Keeper, in Brook
in lyn, long held by a Col. Craven, was given him.
Mr. Cooper was disposed of by being transferred
to the office of Surveyor of the Port of Phila
Mr. S^cretarj 7 Upshur had, for reasons to me
imbibed a most decided antipathy for,
HB.id prejudice against, Mr. George : and availed
of the very first opportunity that present
ed itself to remove him from the office of Navaj
Store Keeper, and re-appoint Col. Craven. It is
said that Mr. Tyler was warmly opposed to his
ejectment, but Mr. Secretary Upshur insisted that
it must be done, and if not done, swore that he
would retire from the Cabinet. It was done ;
and again was Mr. Paul R. George to be provid
ed for.
His next demand was for the position of “ Se
cret Inspector,” in the New York Custom House,
which was awarded. The office of Secret In„
r* spector, it may be as well to inform you,
is a place that is enjoyed by a man, whose prin
ciple business is to 101 l around hotels and bar
ber’s shops, and lhe sinks and sewers of the city
and discuss politics, whilst he pockets three dol
lars the day, and sweats in the enjoyment of an
absolute sinecure.
Mr. Paul R. George had not held this position
many months, before he managed to pick up a
quarrel with the heir apparent, Mr. Bob. Tyler ;
and Bob, by the way ol revenge, marked him for
proscription. Mr. Curtis, was instructed to cut
him oft' from the “ revenue,” and hold him at
defiance. Mr. Curtis expostulated and remon
strated; and, for thus evidencing incorrigible
contumacy, laid foundation for his own proscrip
tion. “ Bob” was offended ; and, of course, his
father soon, sympathized in his indignant emo
At that juncture, there resided in the city of
Washington, an old man ; a man who had grown
grey in office hunting, and who had danced at
tendance and dangled at the heels of every ad
ministration, since the days of the elder Adams;
and who possessed the happy faculty of changing
his politics, much oftener than he did his linen
or his small clothes. His name was Cornelius P.
Van Ness. He had been a judge, a collector of a
two-penny port on Lake Champlain, a Minister
to Spain, and was at all times ready to serve his
country in any capacity the gods might indicate.
This veteran office-hunter had just succeeded
in carrying some very questionable demands
against the government through the departments
at Washington, and was waiting, like “ a fowler
eager for his prey,” for a new opportunity to
touch lhe odd cash that might be in an odd cor
ner of the Treasury, when the Curtis difficulties
reached his observation.
The office of Collector of New York was
a good one ; and, it was intimated to Mr. Tyler,
that he might be induced to accept it, justto pro
tect the interests of the country, not that he was
by any means desirous of holding a position so
exceedingly onerous. He was finally selected as
the successor of Mr. Edward Curtis, but not until
the office had been tendered to five or six gentle
men of character and standing, some of whom
had respectfully, and others indignantly, refused
Mr. Curtis was notified, I think, on the ninth
of May, 1844, that his resignation was wanted,
and that unless he yielded with all good grace, he
would be forcibly ejected. He refused to resign,
and as Mr. Tyler could not remove him whilstthe
Senate was in session, he remained in office till
the 15th of July ensuing, when he made his bow,
and the illustrious Mr. C. P. Van Ness was in
stalled in office. And here commenced what
might be called, in a small way, a Reign of Ter
The moment this Cato of the year 1843, entered
on the duties of the station that had been assign
ed him by Mr. Tyler, public curiosity was on tip
toe to learn what might be his policy. The press
teemed with conjecture ; and whilst on the one
hand it was assumed that he would be guided by
a liberal feeling and would carry out the princi
ples of the democratic party, it was on the other
side alleged that he would be found a man of de
cision and of firmness, who would seek to col
lect the revenue of the country without Reference
to party predileciion He was eulogised and
courted, and flattered and caressed, by all the sy
cophants of the city; and, was in one word sud
denty transformed into lhe estate of a demi-god.
There were not a few of the subordinates of the
Custom House, who called on him to know what
their fate might be, to whom he gave instant as
surance, that they should not be touched ; and
forthwith loud and long hallejahs were chaunted
to the new collector.
Poor devils! They were not aware that they
were a portion of his capital stock, and were to
be traded away, or assassinated at will, to propi
tiate his objects ; they did not know that he was
yet to go through the process of confirmation by
lhe Senate, and that they might prove to be prices
to be paid to propitiate his interest and selfish
Mr. Van Ness had not been in office six weeks
before some fifty or sixty of his subordinate of
ficers were traded away, sacrificed to subserve
ends the most ignoble and outrageous. Nor did
the work of proscription end here. It was en
dorsed by a specious espionage the most villain
ous ; and, to add to the general atrocity of lhe
times, a system of “Black Mail” was com
menced in the shape of what the Mexicans call
forced loans ; and the subordinates were told
that if they refused to submit to these infamous
exactions, or complained they should be removed
from office. In fact, and in truth, they were as
sailed after the maner of the Macheaths’ of the
roads, and the word was your money or your
It has been said that Mr. Collector Van Ness,
had no agency in these transactions ; that he op
posed them and deemed them iniquitous. II
such were the fact, w'hy did he not slop them —
why did he not protect those who were assailed
by the harpies ’
In ordinaiy times;aye, at all times, the man
who holds office, should be willing to contribute
somewhat to pay oft’ the incidental expenses of
lhe party which supports him ; but there should
be some limit to the exaction.
But it was not so during the days of Mr. Van
Ness. These exactions then came weekly, and
sometimes daily, always monthly ; and no one
knew where the money went to. The man who
dared ask any question on that subject was guil
ty of an enormity which could only be obliterated
by expulsion from office. The timid and the
weak were sure to be sponged till their pockets
were empty; or, unable to sustain the wrong any
longer, they rebelled and were denounced. In
one instance a single individual paid over fifty
per centum on his income in a single month!
Who pocketed this money, how it was dis
posed of, no one knew save those who handled
it. It was sometimes alleged that it was wanted
to give vitality to “ John Jones,” at other times
it was said that it was assessed and collected to
sustain a paper called the Aurora, and then again
it was avowed that it was needed to sustain the
household of Mr. Robert Tyler.
Although I never had the personal acquaintance
of Mr. Robert Tyler, and know nothing of his
temperament or character, I will do him lhe jus
tice to say that, I do not believe he ever partici
pated in any such acts of iniquity.
As it at last became w’ellunderstand that “mo
ney” was a talismanic passport into the Custom
House, as well as out of it, a species of political
simony soon sprung into existence ; and hun
dreds there were who expended the last farthing
they could borrow, beg, or steal to purchase fa
vor; and I state the facias one of my own know
ledge, that in several instances sums of two hun
dred dollars were paid to those who professed to
posses the key that unlocked the door to Custom
House preferment. In most, if not all in
stances of the kind, the parties who attempted to
purchase were most signally disappointed and
It was soon understood, common fame so
gave it out, that any one could be quartered on
the Government, who could command influence
among the individuals who composed the Amer
ican Senate, and aid in promoting the confirma
tion of Mr. Collector Van Ness.
As soon as this important fact, was promulga
ted a host, nay, a myriad, of “influential” persona
ges, made their appearance, with their applica
tions for preferment; each and all of whom had
some “ wife’s cousin,” or antiquated “aunt in
the country,” who could induce Mr. Senator Day
ton, or Mr. Senator Huntington, or Mr. Senator
Foster, tQ vote for the confirmation of Mr. Van
Ness, provided he, the supplicating mendicant
were provided for.
No man applied for place without receiving as
surance that his application should lie favorably
considered ; and in most instances, the exact day
was designated, on which his warrant was to be
awarded. In the mean time, he was registered
by lhe clique into whose hands, he had cast him
self, when he was horse-leeched and vampyred,
till his last farthing was exhausted.
The money thus filched, was probably divided
among the the organised bandits, and exhausted
in bacchanalian carousals. In this mode and ac
tion of operation, it is not believed, or asserted;
that the Collector had any agency ; nor, is it pro
bable that he was aware of its existence. And
yet those who were engaged in it, were believed
to be the managers of his own destiny.
At last the number of applicants for places, be
come so numerous, that they actually blocked up
the streets leading to the Custom House, and lite
rally swarmed at lhe corners. They were of all
classes and conditions of society—the out-pour
ing and out-scourings of all the political parties
that ever existed in this country; and the Whig
was at one time quite sure to succeed, to the ex
pulsion of the Democrat. This was at that event
ful period, when the vote of a Whig senator was
particularly desirable. The mob of greedy ap
plicants that thronged and damned up the ave
nues to the Custom House, not only represented
all the political parties of lhe Union, but all
nations, and kindred, and tongues of the uni
verse. France, Italy, Scotland, Holland, Aus
tria, Ireland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and
Russia, all were represented, by applicants for
office —in various instances were su-cessful —and
it was no unusual thing, to find in the service of
the Custom House, men who could not render
themselves intelligible, in their efforts to speak
the English language.
As it appeared desirable to have a full represen
tation from the different sections of society, as
well as from the different nations of the earth,
the almshouses and lazarettos patriotically came
forward, and presented delegates ambitious of
place; and, unlucky politicians, who had some
broken-winded, broken back, and broken-legged
poor relatives, on hand, of whom they were anx
ious to be rid,were,in more than one instance suc
cessful, in quartering the mendicants on the gov
ernment. Although lam not among those, or of
those who would deny to lhe man of foreign
birth, who swears his allegiance to our govern
ment and institutions all the advantages that are
awarded to the native citizen—l, nevertheless,
doubt the expediency of conferring responsible
offices on those, who, by reason of their ignorance
of the language, are incapable of discharging the
trusts committed to their keeping.
Men were appninted to place, for which they
received three dollars a day, who weie not only
mentally, but physically incapable of performing
■iday or an hour’s duty ; and who from the day
they received the appointment, up to the last mo
ment of their official existence, never saw the Cus
tom House, save on salary day, and were thus
pensioned and quartered on the treasury, at the
rate of eleven hundred and ninety-five dollars the
year, because it was believed that they had
friends, who could command influence at Wash
ington. And has it come to this, that the govern
ment of the United States, is to establish a sys
tem of pensions, to be paid out of the pockets of
lhe people, to enable office-holders, and oflice
seekers, to attain their objects !
I have but opened the subject which I intend to
discuss and disclose at length, but as space will
soon fail me, I must dismiss it till next Sunday.
In the meantime,! have to add that, if the policy
that obtained precedence during the days of Mr.
Tyler should unhappily be pursued at any future
day, we might as well bid adieu at once to all
that is dignified, enobling, and invigorating in
the character of a people ; recede to the days of
barbarism and Vandalism—surrender the affairs
of the nation to the knaves and foot-pads of the
highway.and join with Henry Tudor in invoking
one common reign of infamy
“ Up, vanity !
Down, royal state ! all you sage counsellors, hence!
And to the English court assemble now,
From every region, apes of idleness!
Now, neighbor confines l , purge you of your scum :
Have you a ruffian, that will swear, drink, dance,
Revel the night, rob, murder, and commit
The oldest sins the newest kind of ways ?
Be happy, he will trouble you no more :
England shall double gild his treble guilt;
England shall give him office, honor, might:
Faithfully, I remain your devoted friend,
and obedient servant,
Russian :
Tn a cottage in one of the small Russian ham
lets, not far distant from the great capital of the
empire, there sat an old woman in a thoughtful
attitude, looking out from the window upon the
snowy waste sprinkled with houses, out of which
spiral curls of smoke rose in the frosty evening
air. The starlight was clear and bright without,
and within, the evening meal was spread invit
ingly; but neither lhe old woman nor her young
daughter, who was kneeling at her feet and rest
ing her arm upon the mother’s lap, paid heed to
the one or the other. Ever and anon would the
daughter lift up her beautiful face and look ear.
nestly, sometimes imploringly, at her parent. At
last she ventured to put her arm softly round her
neck, and to say in the sweetest and most caress
ing tons in the world:—
“Thou art thinkingly, dear mother,! know,
that Jaromir will be here to night.”
The old woman smoothed the wavy, golden
locks of the young girl, and answered :
“ Nay, my daughter ; I was indeed thinking of
Jaromir, but not that he should come to night;
fori hope he will come hither no more !”
“ And why, mother 1” cried the maiden, start
ing up, while her bright cheek grew pale.
“Because I have forbidden him, Ivanowa.”
The young girl looked into her mother’s face a
moment with an expression of surprise amounting
to terror, and then turned away and covered her
face with her hands.
“Thou art not weeping, my child ? Nay, lis
ten to me. Dost thou not remember the prophecy
of the old gipsy of the cave ? I have oft reminded
thee of it.”
“ That I should be lhe greatest and highest
ady of lhe land
“Even so. Thou wast then twelve years
old, now thou art fifteen, and beautiful, my
“ And Jaromir loveth me I”
“ Last night in my dream I saw’ again the gipsy.
She held a crown in her hand, and said to me,
“ It is for Ivanowa.”
“But dost thou remember, mother, the day
after the gipsy’s prophecy, how the cruel eagle
stooped upon my pet lamb and carried him off?
What left the eagle in return for my beautiful
“There is something great in store for thee,
my child,” said the old woman; “let us not
thwart destiny.”
The young girl only murmured in reply, “Jar
omir loveth me, and 1 love Jaromir.” And
as if the artless confession had summoned the
object of her thoughts, the latch was that instant
uplifted and Jaromir entered. He was the hand
somest,the bravest and the lightest-hearted young
huntsman attendant upon the grand prince. So
far was his station above that of the widow Maria
and her fair daughter, that none of the damsels
in the hamlet who envied her surpassing beauty
would believe that the prince’s huntsman meant
towed the portionless girl; and many a meaning
smile and scornful taunt were flung after the lov
ers when they passed to and from the church, or
when the light in the window’s dwelling denoted
the presence of a visitor. But the ambitious
dreams of the mother, and the simple, loving ear
nestness of the child, kept from their knowledge
the envious sneers of the villagers.
The widow was visionary and ambitious, but
she loved her fair daughter beyond all things on
earth, and when Jaromir and Ivanowa knelt at
her feet to own their love, and implore her bless
ing on their union, and she saw that heaven had
formed them in their youthful beauty lor each
other, her opposition gave way ; she forgot the
gipsy’s prediction ar.d stretching out her hands
in blessing, wept tears of tenderness upon the
sweet maiden’s head.
The sun was shining brightly on a morning in
early Summer. A procession of lhe fairest dam
seis of the hamlet, attended by young men—all in
holiday attire, was on its way to the church,
where the solemn betrothal of Jaromir and Iva
nowa was to take place. The bride was dressed
in white, the veil fastened in her hair with a
wreath of snowy flow ers and floating like a cloud
over her delicate and graceful figure. She leaned
on the arm of Jaromir and walked with eyes
fixed on the ground; but the soft smile of happi
ness was on her face and whenever she looked
up to him who was to be her betrothed, her blue
eyes were filled with the light of love.
Two young girls at her side bore garlands of
flowers, and the widow Maria followed, glanc
ing proudly now and then at the fair girl, and
conversing with the neighbors who walked by
her side.
Suddenly the shrill blast of a trumpet was heard,
and the bridal procession stood still, as the tramp
of several horses, sounding in the distance, came
rapidly nearer. Four or five horsemen rode up in
some confusion ; they were laughing and shout
ing, having out rode their companions in pursuit
of a falcon. The wayward bird was in advance
of them ; he wheeled rapidly round several times
and just as the pursuers came up, had alighted on
the wrist of the bride.
Ivanowa was frightened and strove to shake oft
her newacquaintance; but the bird returned after
every repulse and looked with his clear, keen
eyes so earnestl}' into her’s that fan
cied that had a human expression. While her
young companions gathered round to admire the
noble and fearless creature, more horsemen join
ed the group. Silence instantly prevailed, and
every head was uncovered at the approach of one
whom all recognized as the sovereign.
“Ha ’ my truant bird,” cried the grand Prince;
and alighting, while his attendants did the same,
he held out his hand that the falcon might perch
upon his hand. But his eyes were fastened on the
young girl so intently and with such evident ad
miration, that her eyes drooped to the ground, a
blush overspread her face, and at length, abashed
beneath his prolonged gaze she sank slowly upon
one knee, half terrified lest she might have un
wittingly offended a personage gn exalted.
“Who is this young girl!” asked the sove
reign, turning from one of his attendants to ano
ther, but none answered till Jaromir spoke.
“ So please your highness—it is my betrothed,
Ivanowa, the daughter of Maria, lhe widow.”
“It is well, Jaiomir;” said the grand Prince.
“Come with us, we would question thee far
ther ”
To dispute the will of the sovereign would have
been high treason. The young huntsman was
compelled to leave his bride and depart with the
royal party. The young men and maidens who
had assembled to witness the betrothal returned
slowly to their homes, and Ivanowa threw her
self into her mother’s arms and wept bitterly, with
a vague sense of impending calamity.
Three days after Ivanowa and her motherwere
summoned to court by a special order from the
grand Prince. Jaromir had not returned. None
save the secret agents of the sovereign, knew'that
he languished in solitary imprisonment,while his
bethrothed bride was proclaimed throughout the
city as the chosen wife of the grand Prince, point
ed out by the will of Heaven itself—indicated by
the flight of the falcon—as her who was to share
the throne of the empire.
Magnificent beyond description was the next
bridal peagant in which Ivanowa a>s a
principal personage, while lhe proudest nobles of
the land gazed in admiration upon her unrivaled
and wonderous beauty. Gorgeous music accom
panied the procession ; and lhe shouts and huzzas
oi the people rent the air on every side, mingled
with the peal of trumpets, while banners waved
triumphant, and flowers strewed the way over
which the royal bride was to pass. But her face
was pale as marble, and the jewels that glittered
on her brow, but mocked lhe sadness of her
downcast eyes. Still she moved on, the wonder
of all who beheld her--the beloved of the monarch
at her side, the victim adorned for the sacrifice !
The ceremony was at an end ; the procession
returned to the palace ; and long and loud shouts
of “ luong live the Grand Prince ! Long live the
Princess’” were the signals of unbridled joy and
festivity throughout the capital.
More than a year had passed. In an apartment
of the royal abode, a wasted figure reelined on a
couch surrounded with that luxury and elaborate
adornment which sometimes seem a more sad
mockery of illness and pain than would be the
humblest dwelling of poverty. Two or three at
tendants moved softly to and fro and one had
taken her station by the side of the couch to
watch the slumbering sufferer. It was the grand
Princess—she who had been so lately a bride —
who now lay upon the bed of death.
All at once a slight convulsion passed over her
pallid features ; she opened her eyes, raised her
thin wasted hand slowly, and pointed to the door.
This was opened a moment afier —and an atten
dant whispered to the nurse, “ It is the priest.”
“Let him enter,” was the answer, and the holy
man approached the dying. He stood silent a
moment, then bending over her, whispered in her
ear the single word—“ Ivanowa.”
A bright flush illuminated for an instant the
face of the Princess ; a light came into her eyes.
“ Thou art come at last;” she murmured faintly;
“my spirit summoned thee —Jaromir !”
Without a word more, the priest began and
closed the religions services for the dying. When
these were ended, and the blessing bestowed,
there was deep silence for a few moments.
“ Jaromir,” sajd the Princess at length ; “Jar
omir—hast thou forgiven me *?”
“ Speak not thus, Ivanowa,” faltered the priest
in a voice of anguish. “God hath appointed us
both to suffer on earth. His will be done
“ We shall meet in heaven !”
The sufferer strove but vainly to rise; her eyes
were fixed on him who spoke those words of
hope; an extatic expression gave to her still
beautiful countenance an appearance more ange
lic. “We shall meet in heaven,” she repeated
in a low murmur; and with the words—that have
calmed so many breaking hearts that have
smoothed so many partings—that have lifted so
many sorrowing souls above the woes of this
world—yet trembling on her lips—her gentle and
innocent spirit passed away.
The funeral of the grand Princess Ivanowa was
celebrated with a pomp of magnificence of pa
geantry worthy the consort of so great a sove
reign. The court and empire were in mourning,
but long after her name was no more uttered
among the people her image dwell in one true
heart. The remainder of Jaromir’s life was de
voted to acts of mercy and piety, for he looked
forward ever to the re-union with her he loved,
with the hope that had borne him through years
of suffering and sustained her as she passed the
gates of death.—Columbian Magazine.
Advantages of cultivating Intellectual
Pleasures —Man, in his lowest state, has no
pleasures but those of sense, and no wants but
those of appetite ; afterwards, when society is
divided into different ranks, and some are ap
pointed to labor for the support of others, those
whom their superiority sets free from labor, be
gin to look for intellectual entertainments. Thus,
while the shepherds were attending their flocks,
their masters made the first astronomical obser
vations. So music is said to have had its origin
from a mhii at leisure listening to the strokes of
a hammer. As the senses in the lowest state of
nature are necessary to direct us to our support,
when that support is once secure, there is danger
in following them farther; to him who has no
rule of action but the gratification of the senses,
plenty is always dangerous ; it is therefore neces
sary to the happiness of individuals, and still
more necessary to the security of society, that
the mind should be elevated to the idea of gene
ral beauty, and the contemplation of general
truth ; by this pursuit the mind is always carried
forward in search of something more excellent
than it finds, and obtains its proper superior! y
over the common senses of life by learning to
to feel itself capable of higher aims and nobler
enjoyments. In this gradual exultation of human
nature, every art contributes its contingent to
wards the general supply of mental pleasure.—
Whatever abstracts the thoughts from sensual
gratification—whatever teaches us to look for
happiness within ourselves—must advance in
some measure the dignity of our nature. Per
haps there is no higher proof of the excellency of
man than this —that to a mind properly cultivated,
whatever is bounded is little. The mind is con
tinually laboring to advance, step by step, through
successive gradations of excellence towards per
fection, which is dimly seen at a great though
not hopeless distance, and which we must always
follow, because we never can attain, but the pur
suit rewards itself; one truth teaches another,
and our store is always increasing, though nature
can never be exhausted. — Sir Joshua Reynold's
Solitude —He had need to be well underlaid
that knows how to entertain the time and him
self with his own thoughts. Company, variety
of employments or recreations, may wear out
the day with lhe emptiest hearts; but when a
man hath no society but of himself, no task to
set himself upon but what arises from his own
bosom, surely, if he have not a good stock of
former notions, or an inward mint of new, he
shall soon run out of all, and, as some forlorn
bankrupt, grow weary of himself.— Pishop Hall.
Tom Tipp was a great genius. His infant
years were marked by uncommon precocity of
intellect. The same thing indeed has been said
of sundry other persons ; but in Tom’s case we
have the fact upon unquestionable authority.
The first bent of his genius displayed itself by a
shrewd discovery in the science of bread and
butter. How many full grown people there are
who cannot tell which side of their bread is but
tered ’ Yet Tom found this out very soon after
he cui his teeth ’ As he grew bigger, he grew
more cunning, and w T as pronounced as bright a
child as you would see of a summer’s day. He
demolished picture books, and smashed crockery
in a style that showed he would speedily become
a “ smart, enterprising young man.” These an
ticipsitions were soon fulfilled. He played truant,
and .rat the schoolmistress, by the time other
l»o . mastered half the alphabet. Need I
say More ? Everybody called him a lad of spirit
and < redicted he would make a noise in the
It is not exactly known at what age he first got
into debt —that manly exploit which is sure to
mark lhe career of a man of genius at a very
early period. Let it suffice, that he ran up scores
in various quarters, to the annoyance of his pa
rents and the astonishment of the neighborhood.
Other trifling school-boy pranks may be passed
over; “trickshad he in him which gentlemen
have.” At college, Toni kept up his character ;
he robbed hen-roosts, badgered the tutors, raised
rebellions, set fire to the college, and attained to
the glory of a speedy expulsion. A career so
brilliant at the outset promised great things, and
Tom was set down by all his acquaintance as a
lad of undoubted spirit and genius. In truth, he
thought as much himself, and was determined to
make his fortune as soon as he had sown his
wild oats. He had five thousand dollars to begin
Two or three years did Tom spend in admir
ing the smoothness of his pantaloons, as he
walked up and down Broadway; two or three
more in cultivating whiskers ; and two or three
more in cocking his hat over the left ear. He
now thought himself finished, and quite the thing
—and all Die town called him a likely fellow.
At this crßTCarnioment, hejiut hisjjand in his
pocket for a five-dollar bill, and, to his great sur
drise, found his pocket empty. T’other pocket
was empty too, and his surprise grew into aston
ishment when a further scrutiny told him that all
his cash was gone. “Five thousand dollars!”
exclaimed he in amazement; and is it all gone J”
Echo answered—“ Gone !”
Was ever a discovery more mal-apropos ? An
ordinary mortal would have been overwhelmed
by it; but Tom instantly bethought himself that
lie was a man of genius, and this set all to rights.
“ I have only to make my fortune,” said he,
“that’s all. Yes, I’ll make my fortune without
putting it off any longer; what signifies wait
ing 1” So saying, Tom went off to the theatre,
and thought no more about it.
But a day or two afterwards, a tailor’s bill
came staring him in the face. Tom put his hand
in his pocket again, and was again reminded of
his want of cash and his possession of genius
“ Pshaw!” said he, “ I’ll make my fortune —I’d
quite forgot to do it; but it seems to be time
now.” j Tom, having said this, lighted his cigar
with the bill, pulled up his cravat, and sallied
forth upon a stroll.
Not piany weeks afterwards came a third re
membrancer, in the more emphatic shape of a
const*’,.. > with an awkward-looking scrap of pa
per. Tom got rid of him with some difficulty;
for constables are a sort of folks that hold young
men of genius in no great respect. “Really,”
said Tom, “ 1 must make my foptune ; I may as
well do it now and have it over—so let me think
of it the first thing to-morrow morning.” With
these words, Tom went offto Horn’s, and called
for champagne and oysters.
Tom’s fortune making scheme appeared to be
totally forgotten by him for three months longer,
arid nobody can tell to what extent his forgetful
ness would have run, had it not been disturbed
by another of those perverse accidents which
seemed to have been designed by the malignant
fates to bother gentlemen of genius, likely fel
lows, and such high-minded sublimities on two
legs Tom was one evening lacing up his panta
loons for a ball. “ Not handsome,” said he, as
he looked in the glass—“ but killing genteel.”
At this moment the cassimere gave way in
a most disastrous rent at the knee ! “ T’other
pair, then,” said he ; but, alas ! Tom had not an
other pair ! “ Bah !” he exclaimed, “ cash, cre
dit and pantaloons gone ’ then I must make my
fortune, and so here goes!”
At these decisive words Tom sat down to
make his fortune ;• and began to rub his head and
think. A man of genius has, of course, the
world at his command ; and Tom debated at first
with himself, whether he would be secretary of
state or minister to the court of St. James. Both
officers had some thousands of dollars salary, and
Tom was of opinion that either might do till
something better cast up. His cogitations, how
ever, were awkwardly interrupted by the recol
lection that possibly neither of the actual incum
bents could be displaced without some loss of
time, while tailors are plaguy impatient. So Tom
concluded that the safest project would be to
make love to the daughter of Niggs, the tallow
chandler. She had red hair, and was consider
ably short and thick. “ A dumpy thing,” said
Tom, “but wnat of that? The old one will cut
up heavy when he goes off, besides what he’ll
fork over on the wedding-day.”
Dorothy Niggs was neither coy nor coquettish,
and as for Tom, was not he irresistible? To
make a long story short, Tom found no great dif
ficulty in gaining her heart, for let me whisper
lhe secret —it was the first offer she had everhad>
although more than—no matter how many years
old. Tom considered the business as good as
done ; so being desirous to despatch matters be
cause creditors cannot wait for ever, and a man
of genius without money is constrained to keep
his talents, and possibly his person, hidden from
the public gaze, to the great loss of the commu
nity, he waited upon old Niggs, to receive his
consent. He sat in his arm-chair reading lhe
Price Current. A sheep-skin pocket-book, very
much worn, lay at his elbow on a thin quarto vo
lume, entitled Rowlett’s Tables of Interest. Tom
stated his business, and the old man lifted up his
spectacles, but kept fast hold of the newspaper.
“Oh, I understand. Are yon in lhe grocery
line ?”
“No, sir,” replied Tom, in some surprise.
“ Beg pardon. I thought I had seen your name
in the advertisements. Hem! hem! where was
it? Ah! here it is. ‘Thompson & Tipp, Wa
ter-street, tw’o hundred hogsheads of molasses.’ ”
“Altogether a mistake, I assure you,” said
“ In the hardware trade ?”
“ Not at all.”
“ Perhaps dry goods ?”
“By no means,” returned Tom, growing a lit
tle uneasy.
“ Crockery ?”
“ Neither.”
“ General commission ?”
“ Can’t say it is.”
“ You an’t in the soap-boiling w r ay ?”
“ Never was.”
“ Speculating, I’ll warrant.”
“ Not exactly,” replied Tom, begining to feel
quite alarmed at the oddity of these queries; “ I
—I don’t do much in the way of business just
“Ah! I understand,” said old Niggs, with a
knowing kind of grin, and at the same time lay
ing down his newspaper. “ Property all snug
living on your income! Real estate, hey! or
bank stock !”
Tom sat with his head bent considerably for
ward during these awkward questions. He felt
a sort of lidgelty embarrassment quite unusual for
men of genius in the presence of tallow-chandlers.
He fumbled with the tassel of his cane, and fal
tered out a reply.
“ Neither, sir ; the fact is, that owing to pecu
liar circumstances, my property has very consi
derably diminished of late, or rather, I may say,
entirely disappeared.”
The first movement of old Niggs at these
words, was to throw back his head with a stare
of unutterable astonishment. The next was to
let it fall again with a very forcible sniffy expir
ation of breath through the nose that spoke vo
lumes. His face instantly assumed the most
stubborn and stoical indifference of expression,
while he adjusted his spectacles with the great
est calmness, took up his newspaper, crossed one
leg over the other, and pretended to study the
fluctuations of Russia tallow with might and
main. There was no mistaking this demeanor.
Tom saw in an instant it was over with him
He caught up his hat and rushed out ol the
Such a catastrophe as this he had never so
much as dreamed of. A man of genius to be
witithout cash or credit, and not able to get a
tallow-chandler’s daughter for a wife! The
thought was madness. To-morrow the whole
story would be about town ! “ What is to be
come of me ?” exclaimed Tom, “By heaven ! I
wont live another-hour in this rascally world !
I’ll shoot myself ’ I’ll hang myself”’ Torn, in
his confusion, had quitted the house by the
wrong door, and at these words found himself in
the back-yard. A well was before him. “I’ll
drown myself!” said he, and jumped in!
Now drowning one’s self is no joke, although
talking of it may be. Many a man thinks better
of his determination to do it, in a short walk to
the head of the wharf. Tom Tipp did this in a
short jump down a well. Before he had fallen
halfway, he caught at the rope and hung dang
ling for some minutes, till his strength failed,
and then he gently slipped to the bottom. Don’t
be frightened, reader, the water was only knee
deep, and our hero landed with no other harm
than wet feet.
I would advise all sensible personsnot to jump
into a w’ell till they have thought tw’ice of it.
Tom had not been in the well ten minutes before
he was heartily sick of drowning. He would
fain have climbed up but he was not able ; and
there he was forced to remain counting the mi
nutes and the hours till he was positive his legs
had been in the waler half a century. How long
it really was I never learned, but just as he had
given himself up for lost, he heard a voice above
crying wildly, “ I’ll drown myself! I’ll drown
myself!” Tom was in such astonishment at
these words, that he had no power to speak.
Presently some one approached the well, ex
claiming, “Poor Tom, dear Tom! I shall ne
ver see you again. Cruel, hard-hearted father!
I’ll drown myself! and break his heart.”
“ »T4® Dorothy i said 3’oiti to
himself. “She’s going to drown herself for
love of me, the dear, faithful, kind hearted
“To lose a lover so devoted ! so ardent! so
generous ! No, no! I cannot live ! Ye stars
farewell! Oh deep abyss open thy awful jaws,
and take a wretched, despairing maid !”
“Capital'” exclaimed Tom, at the bottom of
the well, “ and all so exquisitely sincere! She’s
an angel! Come to my arms thou sweet enchan
tress —one leap and it’s done !”
But Dorothy did not leap: she was resolved,
like Cesar, to “ die with dignity.” So she laid
hold of the rope and slid gently down, perhaps
from a misgiving that her purpose might cool
before she got to the bottom, in which case it is
convenient to suspend the body as well as sus
pend the resolution. Now, it is much easier to
slip down a rope than to climb up, so that Doro
thy’s change of opinion on the subject of drown
ing, which took place in transitu, did not pre
vent her from plunging souse into the water and
uttering a most unearthly scream at finding her
self in the arms of a man.
“ In the name of heaven, who are yon ! a man
or a fish ?”
“ Only you own dear Tom Do I look like a
fish 3”
“My blessed stars! and how came you here ?”
“Jumped in out of pure despair— meant to
drown myself.”
“ Poor fellow ! don’t die, I beg of you, for my
sake, don’t!”
“I won’t indeed—besides, this drowning isn’t
exactly what it’s cracked up to be.”
“ Mercy on us! what shall we do ?”
How long they continued to ask each other
questions of this sort, we are unable to state, but
a tete a tete at the bottom of a well must be long
enough in all conscience, if it lasts but half
a day. So thought our two lovers, who just be
gan to feel serious apprehensions of being the
subjects of a ’crownei’s ’quest, when they heard
a noise above. It was the voice of old Niggs,
who approached the well, exclaiming in a most
rueful tone, “Pm undone ! I’m undone ! 1 won’t
live to endure it!”
“ What • more drowning!” said Tom, in grea
ter astonishment than ever. “ What can ail lhe
old put ?”
“ Lost! lost! lost' lost!” exclaimed old Niggs
leaning his head over and looking down into the
“Ah! his daughter!” said Tom, “how he
takes her loss to heart! Kind, fatherly old
“My cash! my cash' I shall never see it
again !” bawled out the old man.
“ Not in a well,” replied Tom.
“ Oh! that cursed Cape Flyaway Land Com
pany that I bought into —”
“And this cursed well that I jumped into,”
said Tom.
“ I’ll drown myself? I’ll drown ! I’ll drown !”
With these words old Niggs caught hold of the
rope and went, hand over fist, down neatly to
the bottom, when Tom put a stop to his descent
by a tremendous “ halloo '”
“ Mercy preserve us !” cried the old fellow,
“ who’s there ?”
“ An unfortunate man !” said Tom.
“Land speculation?” demanded Niggs, fear
“ No—a love speculation,” replied Tom.
“Oho! I think I know you. Came here to
drown ?”
“ Exactly. And now I think we know one
another. You may drown if you see fit, and then
I’ll take your daughter.”
“ I think I won’t,” replied old Niggs, “ for I’ve
no doubt the company will pay at least fifty per
cent. I’ve thought better of it.”
“Good!” exclaimed Tom. “We’ll all live
and be merry. You wouldn't have me tell of this
queer affair about town ; you know it might set
some folks a laughing, eh !”
“For heaven’s sake, never mention it, Mr.
Tom, and Dolly is yours '.”
How they all got out of lhe well we have not
time to say, but old Niggs was soon reconciled
to the loss of half his money. Tom married Do
rothy, kept lhe secret, and went into partnership
with his father-in-law. He has given up his pre
tensions to the character of a man of genius, but
enlightens the world by selling mould and dipped
candles on the lowest terms for cash or approved
Deity.—lf miracles be ceased, yet marvels will
never cease. There is no creature in the world
wherein we may not see enough to wonder at;
for there is no worm of the earth, no spire of
grass, no leaf, no twig, wherein we may not see
the footsteps of a Deity. The best visible crea
ture is man: now, what man is he that can
make but a hair or a straw, much less any sensi
tive creature ? So as no less than an infinite
power is seen in every object that presents itself
to our eyes. If, therefore, we look only upon the
outsides of these bodily substances, and do not
see God in every thing, we are no better than
brutish ; making use merely of our sense, with
out the least improvement of our faith or our
reason. (Contrary, then, to the opinion of those
men who hold that a wise man should admire
nothing, I say, that a man truly wise and good
should admire every thing: or, rather, that infi
niteness of wisdom and omnipotence, which
shows itself in every visible object.—Bishop
To live.—l see too many men willing to live
to no purpose, caring only to be rid of time, on
what terms soever, making it the only scope of
their lives to live: a disposition that may well be
fit brute creatures, which are not capable of any
other aim, save merely their own preservation;
but, for men that enjoy the privilege of reason,
for Christians that pretend a title to religion, too
base and unworthy. Where God hath bestowed
these higher faculties he looks for other improve
ments; for what a poor thing it is only to live!
a thing common to us with the most despised
vermin that breeds on our own corruption ; but
to live for some more excellent ends is that which
reason suggests, and religion perfects.— Hall,
[The subjoined sketch of the life of this.indefatigable
traveller and distinguished author, is from an elaborate
notice of his works, published in November number of
Frederick Henry Alexander, Baron of Hum
boldt, brother of the celebrated Prussian states
man of the same name, was born at Berlin on the
14th September, 1769, the same year with Napo
leon, Wellington, Goethe, Marshal Ney, and
many other illustrious men. He received an ex
cellent and extensive education at lhe university
of Gottingen, and at an academy at Frankfort on
the Oder. His first step into lhe business of life
was as a clerk in the mercantile house of Buch,
at Hamburg, where he soon made himself master
of accounts and book-keeping, and acquired that
perfect command of arithmetic, and habit of
bringing everything, where it is possible, to
the test of figures, by which his political and
scientific writings are so pre-eminently distin
guished. But his disposition was too strong
ly bent on scientific and physical pursuits, to ad
mit of his remaining long in the comparatively
obscure and uninviting paths of commerce. His
thirst for travelling was from his earliest years
unbounded, and it ere long received ample grati
fication. His first considerable journey was with
two naturalists of distinction, Messrs. Fontu
and Geuns, with whom he travelled in Germany,
Holland, and England, in the course of which his
attention was chiefly directed to mineralogical
pursuits. The fruit of his observations appeared
in a work, the first he ever published, which was
printed at Brunswick in 1790, when he was only
twenty-one years of age, entitled “ Observations
sur les Basaltes du Rhin.”
To extend his information, already very con
siderable, on mineralogical science, Humboldt in
1791 repaired to Freyburg, to profit by the in
structions of the celebrated Werner ; and, when
there, he devoted himself, with the characteris
tic ardor of his disposition, to make himself
master of geology and botany, and prosecuted in
an especial manner the study of the fossil re
mains of plants in the rocks around that place.
In 1792, he published at Berlin a learned treatise,
entitled “ Specimen Flora? Friebergensis Subter
ranean ;” which procured for him such celebrity,
that he was soon after appointed director-general
of the mines in the principalities of Anspach and
Bayreuth, in Franconia. His ardent and philan
d.rrTpiu-disposition mere exerted itself for sever
al years in promoting, to the utmost of his
power, various establishments of public utility:
among others, the public school of Streben, from
which has already issued many distinguished
scholars. Charmed by the recent and brilliant
discoveries of M. Galvani in electricity, he next
entered with ardor into that new branch of
science ; and, not content with studying it in the
abstract, he made a great variety of curious ex
periments on the effects of galvanism on his own
person, and published the result in two octavos,
at Berlin, in 1796, enriched by the notes of the
celebrated naturalist Blumenbach. This work
was translated into French by J. F. Jadelot, and
published at Paris, in 1799. Meanwhile Hum
boldt, consumed with an insatiable desire for
traveling, resumed his wanderings, and roamed
over Switzerland and Italy, after which he re
turned to Paris in 1797, and formed an intimacy
with a congenial spirit, M. Aime Bonpland, who
afterwards became the companion of his South
American travels. At this time he formed the
design of joining the expedition of Captain Bau
din, who was destined to circumnavigate the
globe; but the continuance of hostilities pre
vented him from carrying that design into effect.
Baffled in that project, upon which his heart was
much set, Humboldt went to Marseilles with the
intention of embarking on board a Swedish fri
gate for Algiers, from whence he hoped to join
Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt, and cross from
the banks of lhe Nile to the Persian Gulf and the
vast regions of the East. This was the turning
point of his destiny. The Swedish frigate never
arrived ; the English cruisers rendered it impos
sible to cross the Mediterranean, except in a neu
tral vessel; and after waiting with impatience
for about two months, he set out for Madrid, in
the hope of finding means in the Peninsula of
passing into Africa from the opposite shores of
Upon his arrival in the Spanish capital, the
German philosopher was recived with all the dis
tinction which his scientific reputation deserved:
and he obtained from the government the extra
ordinary and unlooked-for boon of a formal leave
to travel over the whole South American colo
nies of the monarchy. This immediately deter
mined Humboldt. He entered with ardor into
the new prospects thus opened to him ; wrote to
his friend Aime Bonpland to propose that he
should join him in the contemplated expedition—
an offer which was gladly accepted; and soon
the visions of Arabia and the Himalaya were sup
planted by those of the Pampas of Buenos Ayres
and the Cordilleras of Peru. The two friends
embarked at Corunna on Lnord a Rpaniah veecc-1,
and after a prosperous voyage, reached Cumana,
in the New World, in July, 1799. From that
city they made their first expedition in Spanish
America, during which they travelled over Spa
nish Guiana, New Andalusia, and the Missions
of the Caribbees, from whence they returned to
Cumana in 1800* There they embarked for the
the Havana; and the whole summer of thatyear
was spent in traversing that great and interesting
island, on which he collected much important
and valuable, information. In September, 1801,
he set out for Quito, where he arrived in Janua
ry of the succeeding year, and was received with
the most flattering distinction. Having reposed
for some months from their fatigues, Humboldt
and Bonpland, proceeded, in the first instance to
survey the country which had been devastated in
1797 by the dreadful earthquake, so frequent in
those regions, and which swallowed up in a mi
nute forty thousand persons. Then he set out, in
June, 1802, to visit the volcano of Tungaragno,
and the summit of Chimborazo. They ascended
to the height of 19,500 feet on the latter moun
tain; but were prevented from reaching the top
by impassable ravines. Perched on one of the
summits, however, of this giant of mountains,
amidst ice and snow, far above the abode of any
living creature except the condor, they made, a
great variety of most interesting observations,
which have proved of essential service to the
cause of science. They were 3485 feet above the
most elevated point which the learned Conda
mine, who had hitherto ascended highest, reach
ed in 1715, but were still 2140 feet below the lof
tiest summit of the mountain, They determin
ed, by a series of strict trigonometrical observa
tions, the height of the chief peaks of that cele
brated ridge—
“ Where Andes, giant of the western star,
Looks from his throne of clouds, o’er half the world:”
Having returned, after this fatiguing and dan
gerous mountain expedition, to Lima, Humboldt
remained several months enjoying the hospitality
of its kind-hearted inhabitants, whose warm feel
ings, and benevolence, and excellent qualities
excited in him the warmest admiration. In the
neighboring harbor of Callao, he was fortunate
enough to see the passage of the planet Mercury
over the disk of the sun, of which transit he
made very important observations; and from
thence passed into the province of New Spain,
where he remained an entire year, sedulously en
gaged in agricultural, political, and statistical,as
physical inquiries, the fruits of which added
much to the value of his published travels. In
April, 1803, he proceeded to Mexico, where he
was so fortunate as to discover the only speci
men known to exist of the tree called Cheirosto
mon Plaianoides, of the highest antiquity and gi
gantic dimensions. During the remainder of that
year, he made several excursions over the moun
tains and valleys of Mexico, inferior to none in
the world in interest and beauty; and in autumn
1804, embarked for the Havana, from whence he
passed into Philadelphia, and traversed a consid
erable part of the United States. At length, in
1805, he returned to Europe, and arrived safe at
Paris in November of that year, bringing with
him, in addition to the observations he had made,
and recollections with which his mind was
fraught, the most extensive and varied collection
of specimens of plants and minerals that ever
was brought from lhe New World. His herba
rium consisted of four thousand different plants,
many of them of extreme rarity even in South
America, and great part of which were previous
ly unknown in Europe. His mineralogical col
lection was of equal extent and value. But by
far the most important additions he lias made to
the cause of science, consist in the vast series of
observations he has made in the New World,
which have set at rest a great many disputed
points in geography, mineralogy, and zoology,
concerning that interesting, and, in a great de
gree, unknown part of the world, and in a pro
portional degree extended the boundaries
of knowledge regarding it. Nor have his labors
been less important in collecting the most valua
ble information regarding the Spanish provinces
of those vast regions, especially the condition of
the Indian, negro, and mulatto race, which exist
within them, and the amoutt of the precious me
tals annually raised from their mines; subjects
of vast importance to Great Britain, and especi
ally to its colonial and commercial interests, but
which have hitherto been in an unaccountable
manner neglected, even by those whose interests
and fortunes were entirely wound up in the
changes connected with these vital subjects.
The remainder of Baron Humboldt’s life has
been chiefly devoted to the various and important
publications, in which be has embodied the fruit
of his vast and extensive researches in the New
Alexandria— The Ptolemies, to whom Egypt
fell on the demise of Alexander the Great, made
Alexandria the metropolis of their empire; and
it became under their liberal and enlightened go
vernment one of the greatest and most flourish
ing cities of antiquity. When it was annexed by
Augustus to the empire of Rome, it is said to
have occupied a circumference of fifteen miles,
and to have had 300,000 free inhabitants, besides
slaves, who were probably quite as numerous. It
was regularly and magnificently built; and was
traversed by two great street, each more than 100
feet across, and the larger extending more than
four miles from east to west. Under the Ptole
mies and the Romans, Alexandria was the entre
pot of the principal trade of antiquity, being the
market where the silks, spices, ivory, slaves, and
other products of India, Arabia, and Ethiopia,
and the corn of Egypt, were exchanged for the
gold, silver, and others products of the western
world. The inhabitants were distinguished by
their industry: either sex and every age were
engaged in laborious occupations, and even the
lame and the blind had employments suited to
their condition. Among the principal manufac
tures were those of glass, linen, and papyrus, the
paper of antiquity. Under the Roman emperors,
Egypt became a principal granary for the supply
of Italy : and its possession was reckoned of the.
utmost importance, and watched over with pecu
liar care. Various privileges and immunities
were conferred upon Alexandria; many of her
inhabitants were admitted to the rights of Roman
citizens, and her wealth and prosperity continued
But Alexandria was still more distinguished by
her eminence in literature and philosophy than
by her commerce and riches. The foundation
of her pre-eminence in this respect was laid by
the Ptolemies, who founded the museum and
library {eleganlice regum curceque egregium opus.
Livy), that afterwards became so famous, at the
same time that they gave the most munificent
encouragement to literature and learned men.
This patronage being continued by the emperors,
Alexandria was, for several centuries, a dis
tinguished seat of science, literature, and philo
sophy. Generally, however, her literati were
more distinguished for learning and research
than for original genius. She produced a host
of grammarians and critics; and the names of
Euclid, Apollonius of Perga, Ptolemy, Eratos
thenes, NicomachtiH, Herophihis. Zopyrus, Arc.,
are but a few of those most distinguished in the
schools of geometry, astronomy, geography, and
medicine, that flourished in Alexandria. But
her philosophy was the most striking feature of
Alexandria, in a literary point of view. The in
flux of doctrines from the E. and W. schools
produced a singular conflict of systems, which
ended in an attempt of the philosophers Ammo
nius, Plotinus, and Porphyry, to establish an
eclectic or universal system, by selecting and
blending doctrines taken from the principal exist
ing systems, particularly from those of Pythag
oras and Plato. Christianity was not exempted
from the influence of this spirit; and on its in
troduction, it was strangely alloyed with Plato
nism ; and principles for expounding of its doc
trines were laid down that would now be with
difficulty admitted.
The schools of geometry, astronomy, physic,
and other, branches of science, maintained their
reputation till A D. 640, when, after a seige of
fourteen months, Alexandria was taken by Am
rou, general of the caliph Omar. The conquerors
were astonished by the greatness of the prize ;
and Amrou,in acquainting the caliph with his cap
ture, says, “We have taken the great city of the
West. It is impossible for me to enumerate the
variety of its riches and beauty ; and I shall con
tent myaolf uritk nkaovvinrr, that it contains 4000
palaces, 4000 baths, 400 theatres or places of
amusements, 12,000 shops for the sale of vegeta
ble food, and 40,000 tributary Jews. The town
has been subdued by force of arms, without
treaty or capitulation.”
It was on this occasion that the famous library
is said to have been destroyed, conformably to
the fanatical decision of the caliph, that “ if the
writings of the Greeks agreed with the book of
God, they were useless, and need not be preserv
ed ; if they disagreed, they were pernicious, and
ought to be destroyed.” This barbarous judg
ment being carried into effect, the books and
manuscripts were distributed among the 4000
baths belonging to the city ; and so prodigious
was their number, that six months are said to
have been required for their consumption! Such
is the tale that has so often excited the indigna
tion and regret of scholars and the admirers of
ancient genius. But Gibbon has shown that it
has no good foundation: it rests on the solitary
statement of Abulpharagius, who wrote six cen
turies after the event, and is not noticed by those
more ancientaunalists, who have particularly de
scribed the seige and capture of the city. It is,
besides, repugnant to the character of the caliph
and his general, and to the policy of the Mohem
rnedans. Even if it did occur, the loss has been
much exaggerated. Great part of the library of
the Ptolemies was accidentally consumed by the
fire which took place during the attack on the
city by Caesar; and either the whole, or the prin
cipal part of the library subsequently collected
was destroyed A.l). 389, when the temple of
Serapis, the most magnificent structure of the
city, was demolished by the enthusiastic zeal of
the Christians.
It would be useless to pursue farther the his
tory of Alexandria. It continued progressively
to decline till, in 1479, its ruin was consummated
by the discovery of the passage to India by the
Cape of Good Hope. But there can be no doubt,
that it is designed to recover some portion of its
ancient importance. It will necessarily become
the centre of the communications now carried on
by steam between Europe and India ; and will,
most probably, again become a considerable em
Opposition of Ignorance to tub use of Print
ing.—ln the ‘Typographical Antiquities’of Ames
and Herbert, it is stated, that the first book print
ed on paper manufactured in England, came out
in 1495 or 1490, from the press of Winkin de.
Worde. Shakspere—whose chronology is not to
be trusted—makes Jack Cade, in the reign of
Henry VI., (who was deposed in 1461,) thus ac
cuse Lord Sands: “ Whereas, before, our fore
fathers had no other books but the score and the
tatly,— thou hast caused printing to be used, and
contrary to the king, his crown, and dignity, thou
hast a paper-mill.” The insurrection of Jack
Cade was ostensibly for the redress of grievances
amongst the people. Shakspeare fixes the com
plaint of Cade against printing and paper making
some ten or twenty years earlier than the intro
duction of printing amongst us; but he could not
have better pointed out the ignorance of popular
violence—and all violence is the result of igno
rance. The best instruments for producing good
government, and equal laws for all men, have
been the paper-mill and the printing-press; and
exactly in proportion as the knowledge which
they embody has been-diffused, we have advanc
ed, not only in our social arrangements, but in
every other manifestation of a prosperous and
well-ordered community. Whatever remains to
be accomplished will go hand in hand with the
continued diffusion of knowledge,

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