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Sunday dispatch. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1845-1854, March 14, 1852, Image 1

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VOL. 7.
TV Story of Neii! Do. k o< ifie |l3 ts nt dltiuc
LIFE AND ADVENTURES of JACK ENGLE:
AN AUTO BIOGRAPHY;
IN WHICH THE READER WILL FIND SOME FAMILIAR CHARACTERS,
7&&T' This Story will br completed, in six
the Manuscript complete in our hands we
the reader to see the end within that time.-
I'fkf.at >kyCandidly leader we arv going
to toll you a miy -*tpi y. Tho narrative is wri -
ter in the first person ; because it was original
ly jotted dU wo by the principal actor in it. f>r
tho entertainment of a valued Iriond. From
that narrative, although tho n
some what elaborated, wifh an unimportant bat
ing out hire, a* d putting in thaie, there ha*»
been no departure in Fubstan- e. The main ii
oidants wore of actual oocurreuoi in this goo.i
ci y of New York ; and ;hero will be a ,-prink
\\ws of our r aier.< by no means small, who will
wander how the deuce such facta, (as they hap
pea *u kno*v theu<) ever got into print.
We shall, in tho narrative, give the perfor
mers in this real drama, unreal names ; and lor
good reasons, throw just. » nough of «ur own
toggery about the m to prevent their biing Iden
tified by strangers.
Some of the facs embodied in the story have
come to our knowledge from >ources o her than
that above meatioced These, wo shall add, or
withhold, as the interest of the detail » ay de
mand.
CHAPTER I
An approved specimen of young America
the Lawyer in his office — Old age , down
at the heel—entrance of Telernachus amt
Ulysses—a bargain dosed.
Punctually at half past 12, the noon day
sun shining flat on the pavement of Wall
street, a youth with the pious name of Na
thaniel, clapt upon his closely crept head, a
straw hat, for which he had that very morn
ing given the sum of twenty-five cents, and
announced his intention of going to his din
ner.
“Covert
Attorney at Law"
stared into tho room (i t was a down-town law
office) from the door which was opened wide
and fastened book, for coolness ; and the re
al Covert, at that moment, looked up from
his cloth-covered table, in an inner apart
ment, whose carpet, book-cases, musty smell,
big chair, with leather cushions, and tho
panels of only one window out of three be
ing opened, and they but partially so, an
nounced it as the sanctum of the sovereign
master there. That gentleman’s garb marked
him as one of the sect of Friends, or Qua
hers. He was a tallish men, considerably
round-shouldered, with a pale, square, close
ly shaven face ; and one who possessed any
expertness as a physiognomist, could not mis
take a certain sanctimonious Satanic look out
of the eyes. From some susp'don that ho
didn’t appear well in that part of hia coun
tenance, perhaps it was, Mr. Covert had n
practice of casting down his visual organs
On this occasion, however, they lighted on
his errand-boy.
“Yes, go to thy dinner; both can go,”
said he, “for I want to be alone.”
And Wigglesworth, the clerk, a tobacco
scented old man—he smoked and ohowed in
cessantly—left his high stool, in the corner
where he had been slowly copying seme doc
ument ,
Old Wigglesworth ! I must drop a word
of praise and regret upon you here ; for the
Lord gave you a good soul, ridiculous old
oodger that you were.
1 kuow few more melancholy sights than
these old men present, whom you see here
and there about New York ; apparently
without chick or child, very poor, their lips
caved in upon toothless gums, dressed in
seedy and greasy clothes, and ending their
lives on that just debatable ground between
honorable starvation and the poor house.
Old Wigglesworth hadhiau well-rtf .OUC©,.
The key to his losses, and his old age uf pen
ury, was nothing more nor less than intem
perance. He did not get drunk, out and
out, but he was never perfectly sober. Co
vert now employed him at a salary of four
dollars a week.
Nathaniel, before-mentioned, was a small
boy, with a boundless ambition ; the utter
most end aud aim of which was that he might
one day drive a fast horse of his own on
Third avenue. In the mean time, ho smoked
cheap cigars, cultivated with tenderness up
on his temples, hia bright brown hair, la that
form denominated “soap-lock,” and swept
out the office and ran the errands ; occa
sionally stopping to settle a dispute by
tongue or fist. For Nathaniel was brave,
and had a constitutional tendency to thrust
bis own opinions upon other people by force
if necessary
Freed from the presence of the two, Mr.
Covert sat meditating and writing alternate
ly; until he had finished a letter, on which
he evidently bestowed considerable pains.—
Ho then folded, enveloped, sealed it, and
locked it his desk.
A tap at the door.
“Come in.”
Two persons enter. One is a hearty mid
dle-aged man, of what is called the working
classes. The other is your humble servant,
who takes all this pains in narrating Ws ad
ventures, for your entertainment; his name
is Jack Engle, and at the time of this intro
duction he is of the roystering age of twenty
—stands about five feet ten, in his stocking
feet —carries a pair of brown eyes and red
cheeks to match, and looks mighty sharp at
the girls as they go home through Nassau
street from their work down town
“Mr. Covert, I suppose,” said my com
panion.
“That is my name, sir. Will thee be seat
ed ?”
“My name’s Foster,” settling himself in a
chair, and putting his baton the table, “you
pot a line from mo the other day, I sup
pose ?”
“Ah, yos—yes,” slowly answered the
lawyer. Then looking at mo, “and this is
tho young man, then ?”
“This is the young man, sir; and wo have
come to see whether we can settle the thing.
You see I want him to be a lawyer, which is
a trade he does not much like, and would not
himself have chosen. But I rather set my
heart upon it; and he is a boy that gives in
to me, and has agreed to study at the busi
ness for one year faithfully. And then 1
have agreed to let him have his own way.”
“Ho is not thy son, I think I understood,”
said Covert.”
“Not exactly,” answered •the olhor, “and
yet so near the same as to make no difference.
Now yon know my mind, and as I am a man
of few words, I should like to know yours.”
“Well, wo will try him, Mr. Foster, at
any rate.”
Then turning to mo, “If thee will come in
here to-morrow forenoon, young man, be
tween nine and ten, 1 shall have more leisure
fora talk ; and we will then make a begin
ning. Although I warn thee in advance
that it will depend entirely upon thyself how
thee gets along. My own part will be no
thing more than to point out the best road.”
Which endeth the first chapter.
• CHAPTER 11.
The worthy milkman, and how he. trusted
people ; and the wonderful tuck he had
one morning in finding a precious trea
sure.
This chapter is necessarily retrospective of.
the proceeding one.
Among the earliest customers of Ephraim
Poster, there came one morning a little
white-headed boy, neither handsome nor
ugly. Ephraim kept a shop in one of the
thoroughfares that cross Grand street, cast
of the Bowery; he sold milk, eggs, and
sundry etceteras—in winter adding to his
avocations, those of a purveyor of pork and
sausage meat, which is a driving and a thriv
ing trade, hereabout, in cold weather.
Pair America rivals ancient Greece in its
love of pork. At the proper season, you
may see, thickly set through the streets,
the places for furnishing this favorite winter
eating; beautiful red and white slices,
mighty hams, either fresh or smoked, sides
iud fore quarters--and, at intervals, a grin
ning head with fat cheeks and ears erect. —
Still more preferable to some, is the power
fully spiced sausage meat, or the jelly-like
head-cheese.
In the preparation of the latter articles,
the worthy Ephraim always did wonders;
and folks had confidence in him—which is a
great deal to bestow on a sausage vender. —
However, he deserved it all. He deserved
more. He was one of the best fellows that
ever lived. People said now and then that
he would never sat the North Elver a-fjre ;
and yet Foster jogged along, even in his
pecuniary affairs, faster and steadier than
some who had the reputation of much supe
rior cunning. He was, without thinking
of it at all, constitutionally kind, liberal,
and unselfish. It was in an humble way, to
he sure; but none the less credit for that.—
He had a knack of making mistakes against
his own interest—giving the customer the
odd pennies, and never gouging in weight or
measure.
Then although tho usual sign of “No
Trust” hung up over the counter, Ephraim
aid trust very much—particularly if the
family asking indulgence were poor, or the
ather or mother was sick Although this
faulted several times in had debts that were
0 wifle to a man in his sort of business, it
NO. 16.
numbers , or less. The writer having placed
• half give such quantities weekly as to enable
Eds
was .marvellous how in the long run he didn't
really lose.
One time, a year after a certain {humping
bill had been utterly despaired of, and the
poor journeyman cabinet makerowing it had
moved to another part of the city, things
grew brighter with him, and he came round
one cool evening to pay up like a man and
make Ephraim’s wife a pretty present of u
work-box Another time when the long,
long score of a poor woman, with little
children, had been allowed to accumulate
nearly all winter- for otherwise, they would
have starved—the husband, an intemperate,
shiftless character, died, and the woman
was taken away by her friends But strange
to tell, who should be engaged, by and by,
as cook in tho house of a wealthy family
three blocks off, but this very same woman
—who grew fat and rosy iu a good place,
and not only paid the old score, long as it
was, —(although Ephraim himself told her
it was no matter, and might as well go, now;
but the worthy cook began to grow angry
then)—not only did she settle the bill, but
sent her old friend a deal of profitable cus
tom. The story of his good deeds went to
the cars of the mistress, and thence info
other people’s ; and you may depend Ephraim
didn’t lose anything by that. So with all
his soft-heartedness the man might be said
to gain nearly enough to balance the really
bad accounts; for they were not always
coming back, after he gave them up—those
unfortunate bills.
This was the sort of personage that the
little flax-headed boy was lucky enough to
come to. He didn’t seem to have performed
any morning toilet; he was bare-headed
and bare-footed ; finally he was about ten
years old. * •
“And who arc you my man ?” said Eph
riam, for he had never seen the youngster
before, although he knew, or thought so,
every mother’s child for a dozen blocks
around.
The tow head ■ looked up in the shopkeep
er’s face and answered that his usual apptla
tion was Jack.
“And where do you come from ?” continu
ed Ephraim.
Master Jack looked up again, but return
ed no reply at all. He drew in a long breath
and let it out again,—that sort of half sigh
that children sometimes make; still keeping
his eyes at Ephraim’s.
“I want some breakfast,” boldly came
from his lips at last.
Ephraim stopped a moment in hia work of
hauling out before tho door his stands and
milk cans; but the bit of astonishment was
followed by something very much like grati
fied vanity. It wouldn’t be every man, or
woman either, that a little unfortunate,
might appeal to with the stylo of Jack's •la
conic speech. It was not a style where ef
frontery or the callous tone of an accustom
od beggar struck out. It was rather like
saying—sir, 1 see that you have a good
heart, and that it always delights yo to do a
charitable deed.
There was apother thing. Ephraim had,
ten months before, been the posaessor'of a
little white head, not much different from
Jack's, only a good deal younger. But it
was its fate one melancholy evening, to be the
subject of the consultation of three doctors
of medicine, who attended it for five succes
sive days. At the end of that time the little
head was whiter than ever, for it was dead.
So the good fellow’s heart, thenceforward,
warmed toward children with a still deeper
warmth than before.
Without any more ado, or any talk about
it, the milkman and the child By silent con
jimb tv. form a mental compact.—
Tho now assistant took holff; and the two
helped each other in all the preparations
and putting to lights. Tow-head sprinkled
tho flagstones in front, and swept them off;
he would have don# the same thing to tho
floor inside—only the owner himself had
done it already.
As ho bustled and brusfaedahout, Ephraim
more than once stopped, under the influence
of a meditative abstraction; ho probably
weighed in his mind the chances of the new
comer's honesty - - for he looked closely at him
from time to time. What particular notions
flitted through the tow-head, I now forget.
And yet I ought to know something about
it, for I was myself the forsaken young vag
abond, who found a friend in that pearl of a
milkman. The spirit of Christ impelled you,
Ephraim, whether you knew it or not. If 1
had been turned off with a surly answer,
there might have been a body lost—or per
haps a soul ; for I was sorely distressed
Parentless and homeless—just at the turning
point where familiarity with crime is devel
oped into something worse—such was I when
you took me in aud ministered unto me.
Something for Ihe special consideration of
those who pay two hundred a year pew
rent, and lake Ihe sacrament from vessels
of silver and gold.: Billjiggs, his life and
death ; wounds, and ba/nl for the some.
At this time, I have only a confused and
occasionally distinct recollection or my for
tunes previous to the morning at the milk
man’s.
You have doubtless, supposing you to have
lived in or ever visited Now-York, seen there
many a little vagabond, in dirty tatters and
shirtleSs. They generally wander along in
men’s boots, picked up somewhere, whose
disproportionate size makes it necessary for
them to keep their feet sliding along, without
lifting from the ground. The shuffling move
ment thus acquired sometimes sticks to them
through life.
Nobody cither cares, or appears to care,
for these juvenile loafers. Some arc tie
children of shame, and are cast out because
they would be a perpetual memento of dis
grace to their generators. Some are orphans
of the poorest classes. Others run away
from parental brutality; which is pretty
plentiful, after all, among both high and low
Others again take to the streets for very sus
tenance ; those who should naturally be their
protectors living lives of drunkenness and
improvidence.
The revelations,of the Reports of the Chief
of the Police, about this extensive element
in what is termed tho rising generation, are
terrible and romantic in their naked facts,
far beyond any romance of tho novelist.
What I remember of my life previous to
my introduction in the second chapter, was
mostly located among this class. We were
indeed wanderers upon the face of tho earth ;
although our travels did not extend beyond
tho limits of the city, and the places within
a few miles distance. The only principle
that controlled us was the instinct to live,
animally; to cat, (if we could get it,) when
we were hungry, and to lie down and sleep
wherever weariness overtook us.
J have a very clear recollection of a most
intimate crony,with whom 1 shared luck and
adventures; and who did the same with me.
He was a little older than myself. His name,
he alwiys said, was William, or Bill, Jiggs;
but we all used to call him Billjiggs, for con
venience.
Billjiggs was quite a magnificent fellow.
When elated or very good humored, indeed,
he was wont to announce himself as one of the
boys you read of iu the Scriptures; though
which of those numerous worthies he meant,
bo never specified. He had red hair, —very
rod. It was never combed ; but it was cut
every lew days, by the friend whp happened
to be handiest; sometimes with a scissors,
sometimes with a jacknife, sharpened for the
work ; and once, 1 remember with a broad
axe. I had the honor of handling the imple
ment myself on that occasion. Some oarpen
iers, at work on a now house, had gone to
dinner near by, and left, their tools lying
loose around. Poor Billjiggs! I came very
near laying his head open.
My friend would never allow me to bo im
posed upon by superior force or canning; and
though I was too little to add much to his
weight in his own quarrels, stiil I sometimes
managed to oast the balance iu bis favor, in
cases where the odds were pretty nearly even
For Billjiggs was pugnacious; he entered
into quarrels and fights on the smallest pre
tence, and sometimes received horrible drub
bings.
One day, I remember, he pitched into a
boy considerably bigger than himself, for
some curt rejoinder to a critical remark of
Billjiggs, about a certain spotted cap which
the aforesaid Boy chose to wear on his head.
He of the spotted cap got considerably the
worst of the battle, which waxed hot; when
ho was fain to seize a good sized, paving
stone that happened to be loose in the street,
and dealt Bxßjiggs such a blow on the side
of his head that he fell flat and senseless on
tho ground, and the blood poured forth free
ly ; the victor taking to his heels like a good
fellow.
I mention this incident because it was the
means of my first seeing an individual who
years Afterward, (as the reader will find in
the course of the story,) played a prominent
part in the affairs of my life,
Billjiggs was carried in tho nearest base
ment, and restoratives applied to him.
An old Quaker lady, and a little girl of
CHAPTER 111.
,my own age, appeared to be the only ones at
h'»me. The old lady was very kind in her
manner; and after washing Billjigga’s dirty
and bloody bead, and'applying plasters from
the neighboring druggist’s, bound it up in
her own*large, clean, white linen handker
chief. The little girl had to fasten th« knot
in it, for the old lady’s fingers were not
nimble enough She did so very tenderly
and neatly; and she seemed to me, as I
looked at her, to be a little red-checked an
gel from Heaven.
Billjigga afterwards kept that handker
chief and couldn’t be induced to part with it
any way. He took it with him to Mexico,
several years afterward ; where the poor
fellow met with an uglier wound than that
of the paving stone; and no old Quaker lady
to look after him; a wound which sent him
to a grave among the prickly cactuses.
Such was the end of Billjiggs; than whom
there are many worse young men, who dress
in clean shirts, with straight high collars,
and go to church of a Sunday.
This little girl—the old lady called her
Martha- spoke so pleasantly to me, too; and
the old lady,when we went away, told me to
come there from time to time, and get what
she had to bestow, either of food or cloth -
ing.
I don’t knowhow it was; but neither I
nor my friend ever stepped foot in that base
ment afterward, even when we were the hun
griest For the first time almost in our
lives, wo had been treated with rational be
nevolence, and as if we were real human
beings. I know, in my own case, it touched
me with a feeling I never remembered be
fore Although t would have died for the
old lady, or the child, I felt something like
pride toward them ? or perhaps for their good
opinion
My impression is to this day, that the
little episode I have just described; that
gentle old face surrounded with the plain
lace edging of its cap, and the silver hair so
smoothly folded —and that other face, em
blem of purity and infantile goodness—and
the glimpse that came upon me, of a happy,
peaceful, honest, well ordered life; my be
lief is, I say, that all this acted with the in
flucncc of a good genius upon me, afterward
Child ah I was, (ah, how far more deeply
childreu think, than most people imagine!)
I saw something of the moral of the differ
ence between the meanness and poverty and
degradation of my class, and the delicacy
and wholesomeness and safety of that Quaker
family. I knew that I was of the same flesh
and blood, and the same nature, as they. 1
was encouraged, and ah how much more
benefited by their really respectful kindness,
than they dreamed of!
And here is a consideration, that the the
orist on the evils of society might build a
big structure upon; but as lam only jotting
down a story of incidents, 1 will leave who
ever sees these paragraphs, to carry out the
train of thought for himself.
CHAPTER IV,
A hint for unsuccessful schoolmasters and
parents ; the first woman with whom 1
fell in love; my teens, and how they
went; I make a beginning at the big
cheese; which leads to a dinner for
three.
Whatever seeds of evil and degradation
my life in the streets had infused in my
character, before I took up my abode with
Ephraim Foster, had no chance to grow af
terward. Both his wife and himself treated
me like a son; and better than many people
treat their sons. Kindness choked out all
lingering tendencies to mischief within mo;
and tho sentiment which just flickered a
moment in my mind, when we were in the
basement of the Quaker lady’s house, here
grew into form auiperrnanence; and I loved
that rough husk of a fellow with a love
which was only overtopped by my affection
for my dear mother, (as I always call her)
his wife Violet.
Violet! that was the name of one for
whom I bear a sentiment imperishable until
my heart perishes!
Let me describe, her. , , ,
This woman with the name ot a frail and
humble flower, had the bodily height and
breadth, of a good sized man. She was a
country girl, when Ephraim married her,
and loved to work out doors. Her features
were coarse; only her complexion was clean
and healthy; and her eyes beamed with per
petual cheerfulness, and willingness to
oblige. She had little education and what
is called in the hot-house taste of the pre
sent day, intellect. She had no more idea
of what are now called Woman’s Rights,
than of the sublimest wonders of geology.
But she had a beautiful soul; and her coarse
big features were lighted up with more
sweetness, tome, than any Madonna of Ita
lian masters.
With the strength of a horse, Violet pos
sessed the gentleness of a dove. How sweet
ly tasted the first food she prepared for me ;
how fresh and fragrant the homely clothes,
I was given to put on that morning, after a
bath in a big tub in the woodhouse; and
how kindly the tone in which I was remind
ed of observances about the place, that day.
For Violet was a critical housekeeper, and
dirt was an abomination in her eyes.
Patient, considerate, self-denying. Mo
ther ! blessed is the borne, blessed are the
children, where such as you are found.
Nearly ten years of my life were here
passed, smoothly and happily. A great por
tion of the last six, was spent at school: al
though I often wished to stop that, and uu
dertake some trade, or employment; but my.
parents would not have it so. They pros
pered fairly ; and said that they mode a de
cent living enough now, and it would per
haps be my turn by aud by, when they grew
old.
Ephraim had his mind set on my following
the profession of the law. I did not steadily
oppose him in this, after I found it was a
darling notion; but tho truth was, it by no
means agreed with my own fancy.
The brightest jewel, saith the Persian
poet, that glitters on the neck of the young
man, is the spirit of adventure. I felt this
spirit within me; but I repressed it, and
made it dumb, for I regarded their feelings
who had lifted me into life, worthy to bo so
called.
You already know of my introduction to
the lawyer Covert. I went the next day ac
cording to appointment, and made a begin
ning. This consisted simply in my master’s
giving me an, outline of the course of prima
ry reading for a law student; and in my
getting familiar with the office, just to take
the rawness off.
I was much amused with Nathaniel, the
office-boy, and felt a sincere pity for old
Wigglesworth ; and before tho morning pass
ed away wo three were on very good terms
together. Nat was pert enough, but he had
a fund of real wit, of which he was suffi
ciently lavish, in season, and out of season.
He saluted mo with gravity as “ Hon Cesar
de Bazan;” from a resemblance he assumed
to discover between myself aud tho player
of that part at the theatre which Nathaniel
was in the habit of honoring with an occa
sional shilling, aud his presence. And Don
Cesar ho persisted in calling me from that
time.
“ Let not my lord forgot that the banquet
waits,” said this precious youth, with a droll
obeisance
It was half past 12, and I wag to treat to
a cheap diuner that day, in commemmora
tion of the important era of my career.
We knew that Mr. Covert had an appoint
ment fo meet some clients at this time, and,
(as Wigglcsworth told mo very often hap
pened,) he signified'his wish for a clear kit
chen.
The parties just anticipated our depar
ture Two ladies came in a carriage, which
we saw at the door; a big black driver,
dressed in a cape surtout, seated on the box.
These ladies, (this Wigglesworth also told
me in tho street) were the wealthy Madam
Seligny and her daughter. Madam was fat
enough, and red enough; had a hooked nose,
and keen black eyes. Her person glistened
and rustled with jewelry aud silks, diffusing
a strong scent of musk, with every move
ment. She had a yellow silk bonnet, set
back on her head ; and her fat hands gloved
in white kid, applied a perfumed handker
chief. of costly lace, to tho before-mentioned
nose. She waddled, rather than walked,
and sank down panting in the great chair
which Mr. Covert had placed for her.
Rebecca, the daughter, offered mettle
more attractive. She was a pretty good spe
cimen of Israelitish beauty, tall and slen
der, and in the full maturity of womanhood
She dressed with some taste, although rich
ly, and with a little of her national fondness
for jewelry. •
Going down stairs, T was aware that Mr.
Covert, from the inside, shut tho door and
looked it.
Our dinner was eaten, with much appro
val and not a little mirth. We had some
sparkling cider, which Nathaniel declared
made him feel quite young again. Wigglcs
worth brightened up too, and offered a toast
wishing that I might have the very best
luck tho law could offer.
“ That,” said Nat, “ would be to hold on
where you are, and never put your foot in
Covert’s office again. For if you want to
know this child’s opinion about him, it is
just ”
But tho boy stopped himself suddenly,
and iu a few moments we adjourned.
In the next chapter I shall fill up the
blank Nat left; and also tell how I got along
at the law.
To lie Continued.
The Secretary of the Pasha of Egypt has
arrived in Paris, on a special mission.
c
V.C.BCVO
NEW YORK, SUNDAY MORNIN
BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS;
Thx origin and advantages of these Societies , and
the objections to them—The principle upon whupi
they are based—The. law wyler which they ate
•organized—With a list of the Associations m/w
in existence.
The rapid formation of Ha iring Ausociatb m
In our mid t, and the apparently »xa-ggerated
promises 1 eld out of immense increase to share
holders, by mvecting small morth y suo*« of
from two to three dollars p‘>r share, to bo uUi
mhtdly valued at from. SSOO to SBOO, i ai called
forth much discussion from the da ly and week
ly presi. A superficial vew of the workings of
those societies may load tho investigator to eon
damn tho theor/ • f As.aoi: t;on as exemplified in
these combinations. How is it. pcssib'e. ho asks
unless you evsort to bbe wildest speculatton, to
realize in the short p ice of seven or 6’ght year,?,
from an investment piyabte in monthly in tab
merits of three debars or t o d liars, amounting
in all to $252 or S2BB, SSOO or SBOO ? As we
have nai f, at toe first gla .oe the subject loots
preposterous lor If the S2BB were permanently
iovested for eight years it w ill be but .slightly in
oreasi d i stlf, whereas the Accumulating Fund
Societies, for every dollar invested, promises to
make it worth more than three dollars at the ex
pirali nof the given time. The objooliox.s and
fears very generally expressed are f< un.Ud upon
lallac ojs cruel miens draw a from * ta neousprin
oip »s, and in the ample s ope which wo h «veal
lowed oun-elvts in this article wo shall indoavor
to lay the theory of Association so plain, bt
fore the reader that he oanoot resist the oonvio
tio s of his own mind, and if he gathers 1 if*r
enoos contrary to tho prom sed bemfioiel cff. o’a
of fh lie societies, ho u»ut be influenced by o'her
the » xpiana'iou now (.'acod befoie him. —
Wo do no , however, promise to cover tie entire
subject matter under cons deration. An associ
ative effort which will probably *nlist bo ore
many years the groat majority of the laboring
classes, cam ot be lightly nor trivially passed
over in one article.
At this time, the hiuory of tho origin of
those societies, uni the good they have already
dene, may bo acceptable.
The idea of assoc atiou for the purchase of re*l
0,-tate and c-rjotion of comfortable bounce for the
labor! - g olafsoe', had its origin among a cool,
calculating race of people—a people not eaii y
led a.tray by dazzling promise, rich rewards, or
uncertain speculations. The Scotch wero the
first to turn their attention to the subject. Some
where about the year 1816, in an obscure manu
facturing town in Scotland, certain laborers,
who had for many yearn been paying rent for in
sufficient shelter from tho elements, came tege
gother, and found on comparirg notes that they
had repaid double tho value of the property
which they occupied to the lord of tho soil, and
although they had done this good service to him
for many years, they were not one cent tho rich
or in consequence—tho property which, as ten
an s, they occupied, although paid for twice over,
was not »heirs, end if they to live under the
same relatione, an equal number of future years,
they would have to pay four times its value ar.d
remain landless—continue tenants. The idea
ook hold of their minds, and they forthwith re
solved to elaborate a system 'thro* which, by pay
ing tho same rent, they might, ultimately hold the
property, not as their landlord’s, but as their
own. An asso-da'icn was formed, weekly dues
were and as fast as the money was received
into the treasury, i - , was turned over and over,
B,ud made use of to such good advantage, tha‘
in an incredibly fclr rfc time the association per
formed all it promised to accomplish, and every
member wat a householder in his own undo put
ed right. •
The success of this association, defective as it
was in many particulars, induced other laborers
to combine, and soon society after society was
formed in Scotland, all of which happily termi
minatod. The people of England, hearing of
this new class of combination , enlisted in the
scheme, improved its workings, and to such favor
... .V-
thousand five hundred building associations were
organized in Great Britain, and wore by act of
Parliament, bearing date, wo believe, February,
1830, duly and legally recognized. Many of the
English societies have satisfactorily wound up
their business, and others are rapidly approach
ing tho desired end.
Toward the close of the year 1845, an attempt
was made in this city to organize an accumu
lating fund association, on the plan of the Eng
lish societies. It was, however, a failure.
The failure was owing to the ignorance of the
workers and the distrust of the people. But few
were found who would risk their savings
The second attempt was more successful, in
1848, certain Englishmen, thoroughly conversant
with the workings of these accumulating socie
ties, took tho matter in hand, and soon the First
American Building and Accumulating Fund As
sociation was successfully established. Mr. John
Brace, a mechanic honorably known in our city,
was elected president, and Mr. Solomon Jesaurun,
secretary, The shares wore put up at S6OO, and
the monthly dues placed at $2.50. It should be
recollected that this was the second attempt—
the first society being a failure—and shareholders
thus far have paid in about $l2O, yet so prosper
ous is it that Mr. Jessurun stands prepared to
purchase shares at the price of $220 The third
annual report states each share in the Association
to be worth $275 62. If, after this, any one
cavils at building associations, it is because they
are more anxious for dispntntiou than for testing
the matter by unprejudiced investigation. The
crude societies of Scotland and England have
worked to a charm, and if we are to believe
parliamentary reports, not one of tho thousands
which have wound up their business in the Brit
ish Islands have failed to fulfil their promises !
it has been objected that there is no adequate
security given by officers for the proper perform
ances dt their duties. A perusal of the Act of
ihe Legislature of this State, passed April 10,
1850, will set at rest all fear which may be enter
tained on that score
With ref ronoe to mortgages, it has been said
that societies mortgage to tho fall value, and
that if a foreclosure wero necessary and forced
sale had, much of (ho property bonded would not
bring more than one-half the face of tho mort
gage. If they bring one-half, the society is sc
oured. The process by which this is accomplish
ed is simple. Notwithstanding tho amount of
money tho p:rson against whom tho mortgsgeis
hold, notwithstanding" the fact of his giving a
probable premium of S4OO, the value of tho pro*
.sorty is hold to fail satisfaction of the bond, as
may bo seen by tea ling sections 1,2, 7of the
Act. Those objections being thus summarily
disposed of, before wo proceed further in oonsid
oration of tho objections offered, wo may bo per
mitted to introduce an abstract from thi? first se
mi-annual report of tho “Fourth American Build
ing Association,” made November 10, 1851
Tho abstract here inserted is entitled the “ P;o
--fi; and Loss Account”:
Dr. By Expenses S 345 7ft
" Balance being ne«ain $10,617 i>7
Which amoiy 1 016 shares is 07
Add dues paid G months . sls 10
Fresant value of each share, ssl 98
$40,968 12
Or. By Entrance Fees § 1,084 00
** do in arrears 80 (0
“ Redemption Fees 20.5 00
“Transfer Fees 84 00
“Fines 97 00
“ Redemption Fees and Fines in arrears. . 61 76
“I*2 Shares redeemed 39,381 00
“Should,” says the Secretary, in conclusion,
“the above ho the average rate of profits, this
association will terminate in five years Jive months
ami fourteen days , from the commencement, when
each share will have obtained its value of $600.”
This statement is verified by the Finance Com
mittee, Samuel Southorilcn, Jacob Pecaro, and
Charles M. Brown, “who,” in the words of these
gentlemen, “would have shown a more splendid
balance sheet by admitting a portion of tho
29 shares unpaid; hat they felt that the state of
tho association rendered it quite unnecessary,
and tho committee proud of their position in tho
association, and still prouder of tho association
itself, feel it unnecessary to add another word on
the subject of the report now submitted,”—
Whatever may bo said by cavillers—those who
would excite distrust iu the bosoms of mechanics
and laborers, they cannot very well get over the
figures and report of the Finance Committee of
the “Fourth American Building Association.”
But as Mr. Millie en is more explicit on this
point, we shall leave it with those gentlemen
anxious to destroy confidence in these associa
tions, to answer his logic.
Tho National Democrat and the Police dazetle,
have published two or three articles adverse to
associations. The reasoning of tho first mime!
paper may be readily disposed of. In an article
in the Wednesday issue, the Democrat says—
“ We cannot sec a single adv mtage to a man,who vants
a homo, by becoming a member of one ol these associa
tions, and which advantage ho cannot have by not being
a member.”
On Thursday it undertook to satisfactorily
maintain the position it had assumed in the
words quoted abov§. An extract from the ar i
cle will show the insufficiency of the arguments
adduced
“If the borrower will visit Williamsburgh. Hoboken or
Jersey City, he can liiro a cotta/e worth $750 for about
$76 per annum: which is 10 per cent on th l - cost. There
is no trouble in getting houses anywhere at. ten per cent,
per annum oe their cost. They may be bad much less ail
around New York. Hut w> will allow that he is com
pelled to pay that rent - ha would thus pay in ten years
$760 rent.
The misfortune of the postulate set forth, lies
in the absurdity of its attempt to disprove one
supposed extravagance by introducing another.
The writer gravely asserts that a tenant may hire
ia VVUltamsbirgh, Hoboken, or Joi soy City, a
cottage for $75 per annum. We know several
mechanics readouts of the places named, who
would without hesitation give up all Building
Associations, if houses, exclusive of ferriage,
could be hired for any such sum. Wo have no
hesitation in saying that there is not a cottage
ini all WiUiampburgb, unless indeed you compel
a man to travel two miles from the ferry, to be
rented for the amount specified. Real estate al
auction b injs more in either of those places
than lots will above Fiftieth street. New York.
The whole article is fault-finding, fallacious and
ridiculous from its title to its dash.
The National Democrat must, if it is desirous
of establishing a prejudice adverse to the asso
ciative theory, advance something more sound
than any adventitious doctrine it has yet brought
forward. Ridicule may frighten many out of
their wits, but it has ever failed to convince peo
ple that black was white or white black.
There is a sincerity about the Police Gaeztte
which commands our respect. And although we
are not convinced by any inferences or conclu
sions wh ch it has as yet drawn, yet the editor
of that paper treats the matter as if he were
anxious to arrive at fair coirclusions. While he
blinds you with his sophistry, he does not exult
over the trick of throwing dust into your eyes.
As we feel bound to give fair play to both sides
of the question, we insert the following—
As the examination is au intricate one, we most proceed
carefully, and in this view, it may be well lo state again,
even at the expense ot a slight reiteration, what the pro
gramme of a Building Association is, that on payment ot
an entrance tee of two dollars, and $3 thereafter pet
month, for eight venire, the depositor obtains one share,
and will be entitled, at the end of that time, to SWOU$ W OU in
cash, for the $290 paid in. If. on the other hand, he wish
es to build or buy at once, and not use the Association as
n Savings Institution, ho taken au extra share, and on
these 1 wo shares asks n loan, to enable him to buy a little
house and lot that have bit his lancy. lie asks for this
loan nt a monthly meeting, and as there are competitors
against him for the few l'*nds on hand, an auction of the
loan at once oomnunces. If he has no real competitor,
those of the members who do not wish to build, and who
intend to use the Association merely as a Savings Bank,
make themselves pretended competitors, lor it is their
money that is loaned, and they naturally wish to make
the borrower pay *8 muoh as possible to the general fond,
to which they look for dividends. So they pit their cun
n*ng against his wants, or h»s infatuation—a game of Pe
ter Funkism commences, the premium ia bid up nearly to
the cracking point, and the game nausea until the next
monthly meeting • fters some fresh pigeons for general
pinching. The mode of borrowing is as follows: “I want
money on these two shares, worth ultimately SBOO apiece!”
says the applicant. “ How much less than the $lC()0will
you take for the nominal loan of that sum?” say the
trustees. “ I will take S6OO on a share, and pavinterest
for $800,” is the answer. *• 1 will do the same tor SSOO a
shnre,” says one of tho lending members. *• I will take
S4OO a share, says the borrower, which being double in
terest for the SBOO, is considered enough, and the auction
stops. The money is not given to the borrower, but he
points out. the house and lothe wants, which is worth just
SBOO, and the Trustees buy it for him, f ake a mortgage on
it for SI6OO, (very poor security for the lenders, by the
way.) and let him go in, exacting, however, dining the
entire eight years, the three dollars a month on each
scare, and in the end giving him a clear deed to tho pro
pe;ty. telling hi in th: I he nas got it virtually for nothing.
We, however, think vt is something, and will therefore
try and see how large this nothing is :
The borrower pays on bis two shares $3 each per
month, which make.sattbe end of the year... $72 00
Interest atfi percent, on SI6OO 96 00
Annual Insurance *” goo
Taxu..... 80 0
Assessments on properly out of town probably
S3O, say 10 (H)
Repairs 10 00
To!*! S2O-1 00
He could hire this Maine house of a landlord for
• 9 per cent., which is 72, or say 76 00
Saving per year $l2O 00
Now, if. instead of paying this $129 a year to the Asso
ciation, he puts it out at interest in the usual way, he
th en have lit the end of eight years, at 6 per cent.
$1,104 74, in hen of a house and lot, worth, at the selling
estimate, and when the house was new. only SBOO, leaving
a balance of $304 74 in favor of retaining bis own money,
and putting it out on bond and mortgage, or otherwise
on . county worth double the amount. But the calcula
tion is not quite complete. We have not added to this
saving the expenses attending the transactions witli the
Association, of $4 as entrance fees on the two shares;
surveyors fees not Jess than $10; searchirg title, $5;
deed, $o; mortgage, $5; recording mortgage, 75 cents:
member s book, 2o cents. These extr a togo her make up
$.«» preliminary expenses, which, w ith interest at six per
cent, for eight vesrs. amounts to 42 60, This added to
the saving of $304 74. makes a full aggregate of $347 34.
Horn is a plain comparison of tho two systems, made
point by point with figures; and figure- cannot lie The
only way m which the advocates and defenders of Build
ing Associations attempt to oppose and reverse it is bv
assuming that landlords got out of tenants a rate of rent
tii-, t amounts to fifteen por cent, on the value of their
property. This, however, is not only erroneous, but in
sincere. Seven-eights of the landed property in k'ew
1 ork does not net six percent, after assessments, taxes
and repairs are paid, and much of it produces only four
The average is six. and f<r the corr-cincm of
this statement wo would not hesitate to refer to the
agents ot tho Astor and Lorillard estates, and to appeal
to all the experience that can be gathered on the subject
from lawyer s offices, and from dealers and brokers in
real estate.
As another evidence of the fallacy of the pretensions
of these Associations, capitalists refuse to touch th*in
(and it is easy enough to get any number of shares bv
proxy.) but on the contrary, there are several of them
0? k fchSteT ,|, & K,adly sell ou Building Associ
ot s■*', with the deed, .-onus, at the end of ei»K*
The Police Gazette declares that, as an evidence
of the unsoundness of these association, “capi
talists refuse to touch them.” This is gratuit
ous. If tho editor of the Gazette had taken the
trouble to enquire into the matter, ho would have
found that “capitalists,” are only too anxious
to avail themselves of the advantages offered; and
to keep these very “ capitalists ” out, laws are
framed under which they cannot purchase more
than five shares. If at anytime it is found that
they have, by chicanery gotten possession of more
than tho prescribed number, they forfeit them
back to the association. We can, in five min
utes, place our hand upon a gentleman who at
this time, has not less than seventy-three shares
in various bulling associations. We know, also,
that he would not invest his money where he
was not likely to realize more than seven per
cent, per annum.
The clap trap cry of “ usury ” which the Gazette
employs, is unworthy of its astute reputation.
It is a miserable fling, bearing with it no
weight, but a good deal of suspiscion; and instead
of tending to convince a sensible reader, dis
gusts him with the inductions offered to his con
sideration.
The knowledge of mankind of which the Ga
zette so boastingly prates, amounts to nothing
The law in this case, as in almost every other in
corporated body,punishes even to bitterness, the
delinquent offender. The editor of the Gazette
will find much food for reflection in the act of
April 10, 1850.
We have italicized some sections of the law,
which we think it would be well for objectors to
look carefully over.
Wo are indebted toMr.MiLLiKKN, a gentleman
favorably known to the community as an advo
cate of these associative movements, for tho fol
lowing lucid explanation of tho theory upon
which they are constructed :
It is somewhat suipriting that such a want of
information is niauife.'ted, by those who assume
to make the disoustiou oi‘commerce and finance*-
thoxr profession, concerning tho principle upon
which the operations of the various building as
sociations among ns »re ooi ducted. Without
delaying to meet all the petty objections that
are raised, and are common to all financial
schemes, permit me to remark that the only one
that can be of any peculiar importance is con
tained in the general *.ffirmation that these asso
ciations promise 100 much. 1 hey are denounced,
not because they may not be of vast benefit, but
because these benefit* may be exaggerated. My
object is simply to state as cor oisely as possible
what 1 conceive to be their theory, and to glance
at the benefits derivable from ibis theory, and
fully developed in their practical operations
For the purpose of greater perspicuity in pursu
ing our argument wo will introduce an associa
tion limited to one thousand shares, tho ultimate
value of each shaie to ho SBOO, the monthly pay
ment upon each unredeemed share to he $3 00,
and upon each redeemed share $7 00. Thetotal
capital to bo accumulated will bo SBOO,OOO. The
amount and rate of payment being givtn, there
remains only the un/ation of the association to
be determined, and this depends entirely upon
the profits made. Ail amounts paid into
the association go into the general fund, and
every dollar beyond the monthly instalment of
$3 00 is a clear gain. Without any profit, or by
imply pouring tho amount arising from dues
into this general'fund, $828,0C0 will have been
accumulated in 23 years. Therefore, assuming
that nil expentes during this time will amount to
$28,000, the association will terminate in 23
years, without earning any profits of any kind.
This then must be the utmost limit, for the with
drawal of any number of shares will not affect
the result, because each withdrawal proportion
ate y diminishes the ultimate capital. Now if
any profits be earned, and all go into a general
fund finally to bo equitably distributed among
all the shares, and this profit be equal to that
usually derived from safe investments, wo need
only show that the expenses are smaller than
usually attend the management of the same
amount of capital, to prove that each share will
necessarily receive a larger amount of prefit than
mual. Tho total amount of expense is briefly
tho salary of the secretary, rent, and stationery
An extra expense attend* the organization,
which is much more than met by tho entrance
foe. In fact the profits arising from the invest
ment of this iqe in tho association, will nearly
cover all expenses. It must be at once apparonl
that fioco all these expenses are subject to the
control of members, they will never reach a
larger amount than is required for tie transac
tion of business. SBOO or S9OO per annum may
be'considered tho maximum oxpendituio.
It must than bo admitted that the exper.se of
management is smaller than that which ufually
attends the investment of the same capital.
Now it is plain that these a : yooiationsi possess<
at least equal faoihttei with any other institu
tions for the investment of funds upon good scon
rity, such as bond and mortgage upon rial estate.
Therefore tho profits must bo as great as ate
usunlly earned by such investment
*<0,96.1 12
Tho conclusion is therefore unavoidable that
this is tho most profitable means of investment
for small sums, even assuming tnat not a single
advantage peculiar to the Association is employ
ed but the low rate of expense. This is the min
imum of profit, and the maximum alone is un
certain. But here arises another source of profit
flowing from tho principle of association. We
have said there are two rates of payment, each
by monthly instalments, one of |3, and the other
of $7. Every redeemed or borrowed share pays
an interest of 6 per cent upon its ultimate value
v MARCH 14, 1852,
of SBOO, which is S4B per year, or $4 per month,
and this added to the dut-s makes $7 per month.
Now, without any further advantage than the
mere investment of the funds accumulated
monthly wo have an interest of 6 per cent, com
pounded twelve times per annum, upon every
dollar invested. Consequently, the lowest rate
of profit upon each share must bo 6 per cent per
annum, compounded monthly, from which are
to be deducted the current expenses. It baa
been seen that the monthly payment upon each
redeemed share is s7—therefore if the borrower
agrees to receive a sum less than the ultimate
value of his share, and coutinues the same month
ly payment, he will evidently increase the ratio
of his payment. And this occurs after this man
ner, When the funds of the Association reach
SBO0 —the ultimate value of one share —this sum
is equally the property of every share in the So
ciety. The question then arises to whom shall
it be given. And this is decided in the follow
ing manner. The SBOO is held up to competition
among the members, and ho who bids highest
receives the loan.
The amount bid is called a premium, and ia
the grand source of profit to the Association.
The premium is deducted from the amount bor
rowed, aud the redeemed share carries with it
the balance. These premiums now average
S4OO per share, which, deducted from the amount
offered, SBOO, leaves S4OO to the borrower. After
reflection it will at once appear that without
any premium the payment of SB4 per annum
upon SBOO is 10£ per cent. Hence it follows th *t
by a premium of S4OO the payment will reach 21
per cent, for it will be recollected the monthly
payments continue thesamo whatever the amount
loaned upon a share. Now this rate of payment
is liquidating every claim upon the borrower,
and when the Association terminates his pay-,
ments cease. The real amount of principal
which tho borrower pays back is sfcper month,
or 4£ per cent upon the SBOO. Now deducting
this from 21 per cent leaves 16£ per cent profit
upon the amount loaned, hence at this rate of
premium we have a clear profit upon every dol
lar invested of per cent compounded 12 times
per annum, a profit which must terminate the
Association in much less than 8 years, and will
no doubt plose it in 6 years. Another method
of considering this subject is simply to trace the
profit derived from one share at a premium of
S4OO. Tho SBOO is offered for sale, and brings
S4OO, which is a clear gain to the Association.
Without any more funds on hand another share
is sold at the same premium, and tho S4OO just
earned thus cancels another share. Hence SBOO
is bringing an interest of 16£ per cent, and has
paid an ultimate debt of SIOOO, for the two shares
thus redeemed receive nothing further from tho
Association, and continue their payment of $47
per month each, until its termination—in other
words the capital has been doubled. It is plain,
then, that unredeemed shares may realize SBOO
in six years, notwithstanding its apparent im
possibility in the view of some who have recently
attempted to disprove it. To the investor
there exists the assurance of at least t> per
cent, compounded 12 times per annum, upon the
amount of his deposites, ami there is amount
of profit above this that may not %e reached.
That is, the lowest rate of profit will be higher
than the highest rate afforded by savings banks.
And the amount of profit that may be obtained
is so large that to the unthinking it seems simply
a humbug.
But how is it with tho borrower ? How can ho
aff rd to paysuoh immense profits'! It is not by
any means tho duty of tho association to answer
this question, it cffcrs to every member money
at 6 por oent. per annum, and leaves it with
them-olves to say how muoh more they will pay
for it. In many oases thcee premiums may be
rash, but beforo pronouncing every man who
pays them a fool, lotus seo what may be inducing
oaoees. First then, since all profits are equally
divided among all the shares, he will receive hie
proportion of the amount he has contributed. It
will be recollected that tho profit)-' »ro measured
by tho duration of the society. r lho sooner all
tvopwumia aa«ma >Ublo Will
of profits, the sooner it will terminate. Now if
all the shares pay tho same premium for money,
they alf contribute equally to the total profit,
and if all share alike In the ultimate profits, they
can loose nothing, whatever amount they con
tribute. If there bo no other inducement how
ever, there thould be groat caution used, for he
who pays the first high rate of premium moy be
the only one inclined so to do, and he will have
21 per cent, to pay for about 13 years, fh which
oa e he would be the looser. This poasibity,
however, argues nothing against the theory of
tho Association. It is only an evidence that all
men are not prudent calculators. But there are
circumstances under which thu premium would
be au evidence of prudence. It is not the amount
paid nor the amount received which gives char
acter to the transaction, but it is the ratio be
tween the two. If I can use money eo as to
make It produce 25 per cent, it would not be im
prudent to pay 21 percent for it. * If my Und-.
lord charges ma 20 per cent in rent upon the
original value of the house in which I am living,
without tho ohanoo of ever possessing H, and wit h
the prospect of finally paying 30 per oent upon
its present value, it could not be called folly in
me to pay 21 per cant for 13 years to an Associa
tion, and then obtain full possession of the house,
let its advance in value be what it might. There
are hundreds of causes which lead to those high
premiums, which will be best ascertained by at
tending some meeting and questioning the par
ties who pay them And some of these causes
are so efficient that even the strongest opponent
of these Associations would by them be induced
to become borrowers, at even higher rates. But
even admitting that these premiums ought not
to be paid, all parties should bo satisfied. Wo
have seen that without premiums the rate ofpay
ment will bo per cent. This will require
about 13 years to complete tho ultimate capital
Therefore, by paying a fair rent for 13 years, the
member will come into possession of his house,
and the investor will receive 6 per oent com
pounded 12 times per annum.
Those thoughts upon the simple theory of the
Association, are hastily put together, and time
will not permit mo at present to consider the se
curity to investors, and the numerous advantages
to all parties connected with them, which are pe
culiar to the principle upon which these corpora
tions are founded, and others that have been con
ferred upon them by law. They may bo learned
at the public meetings.
W. T. B. MILLIKEN.
AN ACT
FOR TUB INCORPORATION OV BUILDING, MUTUAL LOAN
AND ACCUMULATING FUND SOCIETIES.
Passed Aprilio, 1851.
The people of the State of New York, represented in Se
nate and Assembly, do enact as follows:
associate and form an incorporated companwflrir the pur
pose of accumulating a fund for the purchasTof real es
tate, the erection of buildings or the making of other im
provements on lands, or to pay off incumbrances thereon,
or to aid its members in acquiring real estate, making
improvements thereon and removin* incumbrances there
from ; and for the further purpose of accumulating
fund to be returned to its members who do not obtain ad
vances as above mentioned, when the funds of such asso
ciation shall amount to a certain sum per share, to be
Bpe-'ifi p d in the articles of association.
h 2. Such persons shall severally subscribe articles of
association, in which shall bo set forth the name of the
corporation, the time of its regular meetings, and how
speciai meetings may be called, and what shall constitute
a quorum to transact business at meetings ; the qualifica
tions of members, and how constituted ;—what officers,
trustees and attorney there shall be, and how and when
chosen and their duties, and how removed or suspended
from office; the entrance fee of rew members and new
shares, the monthly or weekly dues ver share, tho re
demption fee on shares, on which advances shall be made
and fees to be paid on the transfer of shares; tho lines
and penalties for non-payment of dues or fees, or other
violations of the articles of association; the, manner of
redemption of shares made by advances thereon, the
mortgaged security to be taken on such advances,and how
the same may bo redeemed or chansed ; the manner of the
transfer or withdrawal of shares : the manner of invest
ing funds not required lor advances on sh*roa: the qua
lifications'of voters at tho meetings, and the mode of vo
ting; the ultimate amount to be paid to the owners of
unredeemed shares ; the manner of altering or amending
the articles of association, and such other provisions as
•hall be necessary for the convenient and effective trana
action of the business thereof: provided that the same
shall not in any respect contravene the constitution or
laws of this State.
h 3 A true copy of such articles, signed by the officers
of the association, together with a statement showing
when the association was organized, and the place of the
transaction of its business, and the names of the officers
and trustees at the time of the making of such statement
which shall be verified by oath or affirmation before any
officer authorized to take aflidavits. to be used in courts
of justice, shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the
county in which such association shall transact its busi
ness ; and thereupon the persons who Itave subscribed the
articles of association as aforesaid, and such other per
sons as shall become members of such association and
their successors, shall be a body corporate by the name
specified in such articles of association, and shall possess
the powers and privileges and be subject to the provis
ions of t’tle third of chapter eighteen of the first part of
the revised statutes, s 8 tar as those provisions are con
sistent with the provisions of this act, and they shall, by
their corporate name, be capable in law of purchas nr.
holding and conveying any real and personal estate what
ever, which may be necessary to enable said company to
carry on their operation named in such certificate.
.s 4. It shall be lawful for the trustees to call in and
demand from the stockholders respectively, all such sums
of money by them subscribed at such times, and in such
payments or instalments as the articles of association
shall prescribe, under tho penalty offorfeitinr the shares
of stock subscribed for. »nd all previous payments mode
thereon, if payment shall not be made by the stockhold
er within sixty days aftera personal demand ornotioe re
quiring such payment shall have been published for six
successive weeks in the newspaper nearest to the place
where the business of tho company shall be carried on as
aforesaid.
N 5. All corporations formed under this act shall have
power to borrow money for temporal purposes not incon
sistent with the objects of their organization ; but no
lean for such purposes shall have a longer duration than
two yeaw, nor shall such indebtedness exceed, at any one
time, one fourth of tho ntrgregote amount of the shares
* v. d part s of shares and the inc ome thereof, actually paid
in and received.
(s 6 Parents and guardians may take and hold shares
in *ucb association in behalf, and for the use of their
minor children or wards, providing the cost of such shares
be defrayed from the p tfonal earnings of such minor
children or wards, or by gifts from other persons tha r
their male parents ; married women may take and hold
•hares in such associate ns. providing the cost of suen
shares be defrayed from the personal earnings of their
children voluntarily bestowed for this purpose, or from
property btqueathed or given to them by persons other
than their husbands.
7. Every such corporation shall terminate, except
for the purpose of settling its affairs, whenever all the
shares ’hereof shall be rede* med by advances ther ; on, or
whenever the owners of unredeemed ahaies shall be paid
the ultimate value thereof, as provided in the «rticles ot
association, and not sooner: but no dividend of principal
or of profits shall be mad? until such termination, nor
until all debts of the association shall have been paid or
otherwise suffie'ently provided for. No holder of re
deemed shares shall claim to be exempt from making the
monthly payments provided in the articles of association,
upon the ground that bv reason of losses or otherwise the
association has continued longer than was originally an
ticipatod, whereby the payments mpdo on each shares
UM*y amount l» more than tbe uiuouul- originally ad vnu.:-
od. with legal interest thereon, nor shall tho imposition
of fiDos for non-payment of duos or otr»er fees, or off rr
violation of the articles of association, n<»r shall •
in# of uuy monthly payment require'! by the articles of
association, or of any premiums for loa- s made to mem
bers, he. deemed a violatioa of the provisions of any
slat ’te against usnry
8 Any existing association. formed for tne purpose*
mentioned in tha first section of this act, may, on the
vote of a majority of iho voting shares, at any regular
meeting after the passage of this act. become entitled fo
the benchu of this act, on complying with the second anil
third sect ions thereof, unless the second suction has here
tofore be-u complied with: in which case it shall be ne
cessary tc comply with the said third section.
No officer, trustee, attorney, agent or serveot of
any association hereby incorporated, shall use or dispose
of any part of the fun as of such association, or assign,
transfer, cancel, or deliver up or acknowledge satisfaction
of any bond, mortgage or other written instrument be
longing to such association, unless duly authorized, or Vi
guilty of any fraud in the performance of his duties; and
every pers n guilty of a violation of this section shall b.
liable oiiiiiy to the party injured, to the extent of the
damage thereby incurred, and s all a’se be liable to an
indictment for a misdemeanor, punishable bu fine or im
prisonment, or both, in the discretion of tno court bv
which he shall be tried.
10. Each association formed under the provisions of
this act shall, at the close ot its first year’s operations,
and annually at the same p?riod in each year thereafter,
publish in at least two newspapers published in the place
where their business mav be located, or if no newspaper
shall be published in such place, then in any two news
papers published nearest snclyplaco, a concise statement
verified on the oaths of its President and Secretary, show
ing the actual financial condition of the association, and
the amount of its property aud liabilities, specifying the
same particularly
§ 11. All the shareholders of any association formed
under this act shall be individually liable to the creditors
of said association, to an amount equal to the amount of
stock held by them respectively, for all debts contracted
by such assodationi The directors or other officers of
every association formed under this act shall be person
ally liable for anyfradulent use, disposition or invest
ment of any moneys or property belonging to such asso
ciation, or for any loss which shall bo incurred by any
investments made by such directors or other officer,
other than such as are mentioned ia aud authorized by
this act; but no director or other offi jer of any such at -
sooiation shall bo liable as aforesaid except heauthorizeu
sanctioned, approved or made such fraudulent use, dis
position, or investment as aforesaid.
or executor, administrator, guardian or. true tee, and no
person holding such stock as collateral security, shall be
personally subject to any liability as stockholder of such
company, but the persons pledging such stock shall he
considered as holding the same, aud shall be hah o as a
stockholder accordingly; and the ••state and funds in
the hands ef such executor, administrator, guardian or
trustee shall be liable in like manner, and to the same
extent, as the testator or intestxte, or the ward or per
son interested in such trust fund would have been if he
had been living and competent to act, and hold the same
stock in his own name.
$ 13. Every such executor, administrator, guardian or
trustee, shall represent the share of stock in his hands at
all meetings of the company, and may vote accordingly
as a stockholder ; and every person who shall pledge hia
stock as aforesaid may, nevertheless, represent tho same
at all such meetings, and may vote accordingly as a stock
holder.
§ll. In case it shall happen at anv time, that au
election of officers shall not be made on the day desig
nated by th« by-laws ol said company, when it ought to
have been made, the company for that reason, shall be
dissolved, but it shall be lawful on any other day, to hold
an election for trustees, in such a manner as shall be pro
vided for by the said by-laws; and kill acts of trustee*
shall be valid and binding as against such company, until'
their successors shall be elected.
v) 15. The legislature may at any time alter, amend or
repeal this act; or may annul or repeal any incorporation
formed or created under this act, but such amendment or
repeat shall not, nor shall the dissolution of any such
company, take away, or impair an> remedy given against
any such corporation, its stockholders or others, for auy
liability which shall have been previously incurred.
§ 16. Any company which may be formed under this
act, may increase or diminish its capital stock by com
plying with tho provisions of this act, to any amount
which may be deemed sufficient and proper for the pur
poses of the corporation. But before any corporation
shall be entitled to diminish the amount of its capital
stock, if the amount of its debts and liabilities shall ex
ceed the amount of capital to which it is proposed to be
reduced, such amount of debts and liabilities shall be sat
islied and reduced so ai not to exceed such diminished
amount of capital.
§l7. Whenever any company shall desire to call a
meeting of the stockholders for the purpose of in
creasing or diminishing the amount of its capital stock,
it shall be the duty of the trustees to publish a notice
signed by at least a majority of them, in a newspaper in
the county, if any shall be published therein, at least
three successive weeks, ann to deposit a written or
printed copy thereof in the post office, addressed to each
stockholders his usual place of residence, at least three
weeks previous to the day tixod upon for holding such
meeting, specifying the object of the meeting, the time
and place when and where such meeting shall be held,
and the amount to which it shall be proposed to increase
or diminish the capital, and a vote of at least two thirds
of all the shares of stock shsllbe necessary to an increase
or diminution of the amount of its capital stock.
§ 18. If at any time and place specified in the notice
provided for in the proceeding section of this act, etook
holders shall appear^n person or by proxy, in numbers
representing not lisa than two-thirds of all the shares of
stock of the corporation, they shall organize by choosing
one of the trustees Chairman of the meeting, and also a
suitable person lor Secretary, and proceed to a vote of
those present, in person or by proxy, and if on canvass
ing the votes, it shall appear that a sufficient number ol
votes lias been given in favor of increasing or diminishing
the amount of capital, a certificate (f the proceeding,
showing a compliance with the provisions of this act, tin
amount of capital actually paid in, tho whole amount of
debts and liabilities of the company, and the amount to
wh oh the capital stock shall be increased or diminished,
shall be made on , signed and verified by »ho affidavit of
the Chairman, and be countersigned by tho Secretary; and
such certificate shall be acknowledged by the Chairman,
and when so filed, the capital stock of such corporation
shall be increased or dimihished to the amount specified
in such certificate.
§ 19. The shares held by the members of all associn
tions incorporated under the ['revisions ol this act, shall
be exemnt from sale on execution for debts, to an extent
not oxoeding six hundred dollars iu such shores, at their
f. 9 jSf Wo loan made by any such association to any of
its members, may exceed In amount the par value ot‘ the
capital stock for which such *
scribed . •- ..-uftcata of incorporation,
(x 21. The_ftOUW‘t.a-lxy... c S«s. certified by the county
clerk‘or his deputy, to be a true copy, and of tho whole
of such certificate, shall bo received in all courts and
places, as presumptive legal evidence of the facts therein
Minted.
22. This act shall takes effect immediately.
State of New York, )
Secretary's Office. $ I have compared the pre
ceding with the original law ou file in this office, ana do
certify that tho same is a correct transcript therefrom
and of the whole of the snid original
CHRISTOPHER MORGAN,
The following is a list, as near as we could oollect them
of the various Building and Mutual Loan Associations
now organized in this cisy. We givo in the majority of
cases the time, which by the law of April 10, 1851, they
are required to be filed in the office of tho County Clerk,
the names of Presidents and Secretaries, officers of the
associations, ultimate value of shares, and the dues're
quired monthly to be paid into the hands of the Secretary.
This list together with the proceeding article will give,
our readers and the public generally a clear insight into
tho workings of this new associative effort on the part of
the industrious, to rid themselves and those dependent
ou them, of the curse of landlordism. We do notkmtioi*
pate that this will be theend of “association.” Each new
organization is improved in some minor detail on its pre
decessor, and as each improuement gains favor with the
public, we shall not long be without a perfect associative
system regulating, perhaps, the entire social fabric.
PEOPLE’S.—No I.—Piled January 27,1862. Theodore
Mar tine, President; J. F. Williams, Secretary. Shai-es,
SBOO. Monthly dues, f 3.
PEOPLE’S.—No. 2.—Filed March 10, 1853. Oliver H
Lee, President; J. P, Williams, Secrotsrv. Office, No.
199. West Twenty-ninth street. Shares, SBOO, Dues, S 3.
ISLAND CTTV. —Organized C. B. Ring, Presi
dent: W. B. Smith. Secretary. Office, No. 5 Chatham
Square. Shares, SBOO. Dues, |3.
FH(ENIX.—FiIed February 25. 1851. Wilson Small.
President; Alfred R. Hetfield, Secretary. Office, N 0.65
Chatham street. Shane, SBOO. Duee, $3.
WASHINGTON.—FiIed November 25,1851. Ca»perC.
Childs, President: Henry 11. Hooper, Sec*etary. Office,
333 Pearl street. Shares, S6OO. Dues, $2 50.
HARLEM.—-Piled February 2, 1851. Louis J. Belloni,
President; James N. Wateon. Secretary. Office, corner
4th avenue and 126th-st. Shares, SSOO. Dues $2.
MECHANICS.—No. 2.-Filed March 1, mi. Thomas
Morton, President j Jacob Peeare, Secretary. Office No.
6 Chatham Square. Shares, SSOO. Dues, $2.
AMERICAN FREEHOLD.—FiIed January 14. 1852.
Ralph Benjamin, President; J. W. Sleight, Secretary.
Office, . Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3
CHELSEA.—FiIed February 16, 1852. David HJarnes,
President: Wm. H. Hoyt, Secretary. Office, 230 Ninth
avenue. Shares, SSOO. Dues, $2.
AMERICAN—No. B.—Organized June 2, 1850. John
Bruce, President: Solomon Jeseurun. Secretary. Office,
No. 7 Clinton Court, Beekman street. Shares, S6OO.
Dues, $2 50.
AMERICAN—No. 4.-Filed May 27,1861. John Bruce,
President; Solomon Jessnrun, Secretary. Office, 7 Clin
ton Court, Beekraan-st. Shares, S6OO. Dues, $2 50.
MANHATTAN—No. I.—Filed July 7, 1851. Morgan
Morgans, President; James W. Weston, Secretary. Office
16 Spruce street. Shares SBOO. Dues, $3.
MANHATTAN—No. 2.—Filed November 21,1851. John
N. Genin, President; Janies W. Weston, Secretary. Office
15 Spruce-st. Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
MANHATTAN—No. 3.—Filed March 10, 1852. James
S. Libby, President: James W. Weston, Secretary. Office
15 Spruce-st. Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
CITIZEN’S —Filed January 19, 1852. Simeon Draper,
President; JosiahT, Kendall, Secretary. Office, No. 421
Broadway. Shares SBOO. Dues $3.
EMPIRE—FiIed February 2, 1852. Joseph R. Taylor,
President: J. Weldon Fell, Secretary. Office, 173 Spring
bt. Shares SBOO. Dues s3.*
EMPIRE, No. 2—Filed . Jonathan W. Allen,
President; J. Weldon Fell, Secretary. Office, 173 Spring
st. Shares SBOO. Dues $3.
NORTH AMERICAN—FiIed . Richard F. Car
man, President; Mortimer Smith. Secretary. Office, 458
Broadway. Shares SBOO. Dues $3.
PIKENIX— Organized March 10, 1852. D. D. Nash.
President: A. P. Smith. Secretary. Office, 479 Eighth
avenue. Shares SBOO. Dues $3.
IRVING—FiIed March 12, 1852. Morris Franklin, Pres
ident: A. H. Nicolav. Secretary. Office, 244 Grand st.
Shares SBOO. Duos $3.
COLUMBIAN—FiIed , 1852. Francis A. Palmer,
President; Charles L. Nye, Secretary. Office, 25 Delan
eey st. Shares SSOO. Dues $2.
* UNITED STATES —Filed December 30,1851. Nicholas
M’Graw, President; Thomas Vernon, Secretary. Office,
FRANKLIN—FiIed October 20, 1851. Samuel F. Bar
tol, President; Charles Z. Pond, Secretary. Office, 15
Spruce st. Sharei SBOO. Dues $3.
GREEN POlNT—Filed August 20, 1851. Horatio Al
len. President: Daniel Sheldon. Secretary. Shares, dues
and office could not be ascertained.
METROPOLITAN —Filed September 13,1851. Richard
C. McCormick. President; L. M. Willet, Secretary. Of
fice, . Shares SSOO, Dues $2.
NEW YORK— Filed October 8, 1851. Dr. J. Hassell,
President: J. Buxton, Jr, Secretary. Office, .
Shares S6OO. Dues $2 60.
WORKINGMAN’S—FiIed October 10,1851. John Lind
mach. President; George W. Andersjn, Secretary, Of
fice, . Shares SBOO. Dues $2 60.
NEW YORK INDEPENDENT—FiIed October 29,
1851. Marcus E. Harris. President
Secretary. Office, . Shares SSOO. Dues $2.
GREENWICH—No. s,l.—Filed. December 31, 1861.
Charles Crane, President: R. Ross, ir.. Secretary. Of
fice, 48 Eighth Avenue. Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
GREENWICH—No. 2.—Filed, March 8. John Keyset,
President ; K. Ross, jr.. Secretary. Office, 48 Eighth
Avenue. Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
AMERICAN BUILDING —No I.—Organized, April
18, 184 - . John Bruce. President: Solomon Jessuruu,
Secretary. Office, 7 Clinton Court, Beckman street
Shares, S6OO. Dues, $2 50. Shares In this Association
can now be sold at the Secretary's office, for $220
AMERICAN—No. 2.—Organized, Juno 12,1849. John
Bruce, President; Solomon Jessurun. Secretary. Office,
No 7 Clin tan Court, Beekman street. Shares, S6OO.
Dues, $2 50.
MECHANIC?—No. I.—Filed, September 1.1851. Sam
uel Southerdcn, President: Jacob Pecare, Secretary.
Office, 514 Grand street. Shares, SBOO. Dues, S 3.
KNICKERBOCKER-Filed, February 24,1852. James
R. Del Vecchio, President; Edward J. Madden. Secre
tary. Office, 168 Ninth Avenue. Shares. SBOO. Duos, $3.
KNICKERBOCKER BUILDING—FiIed, . Wel
come R. Beebee, President; Edward J. Madden, Secre
tary.‘Office, 168 Ninth Avenue. Shares, SBOO. Dues,
$3.
MERCANTILE—FiIed, March 13,1852. B. J. Howland,
President; Wra. O. Groser, Secretary. Office, corner of
Broadway and Grand street. Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
EXCELSIOR—FiIed. Augusts, 1861. RobertT. Haws.
President; Nathaniel P. Labarte, Secretary. Office, 166
Bowery, up-stairs- Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
EXCELSIOR—No. 2.—Filed, January 13, 1852. Wil
liam L. Miller, President ; Nathaniel P. Labarte, Secre
tary. Office, 156 Bowery, up-stairs. Shares, S6OO. Dues,
$3.
A“LEGHANIA-FiUd, March 6. 1852. Moses Msy
nard, jr.. President; Oscar F. Benjamin, Secretary. Of
fice. 198 Third Avenue. Shares, S6OO. Dues, $2
UNlON—Filed, September 15, 1852. Robert M. Sel
leck, President: J. Pecare, Secretary. Office, 5 Chat
ham Square. Shares, S6OO. Dues, $3.
FULTON MECHANICS’ AND WORKINGMEN’S—
Filed, Samuel Suthardeu. Prenident; Isaac Am
merman, jr, Secretary. Office, 65 Third Avenue. Shares,
SBOO. Dues, $2 50.
WAVERLY—Organized inlSs2. N. B. Montfort, Pre
sident: James W. Hale, Secretary. Office >43 Sixth Ave
nue. Shares, SSUO. Dues, $3.
BROOKLYN MECHANlCS—Organized FeVy, 1852
Robert P. Perrin, President; J, S. Denman, secretary.
Office, 156 Atlantic st., Brooklyn. Shares SSOO. Dues $2.
CITY BUlLDlNG—Williamsburg—Wm. 11. Butler,
President ; P. C. Berry. Secretary. 146 South Sixth st.
Shares, SBOO. Dues, $3.
The Village Homestead Loan and Savings
This Association is continued on a somewhat different
principle from any hitherto attempted in this country,
viz: purchasing land in large quantities. laying It out
tor a village, distributing the lots amongst the members
at their own choice, at cost price, and loaning money to
build dwellings thereon, to be repaid by subscribing
shares in the capital stock-a limit of four years is giv
en for the woi king out of this unique plan, and a final
division ot profits, if any there are, on the termination
Secreta}
State,
Jos, P. Do Youngh,
Fund issot iation.
uf the Association. To show more clearly the working
of this wo extract from the piodpootus the follow
ins paragraphs:
Wo v.i‘* suppose n uieniber owuing cno 'hare in the As
sociation ; for this he pavs $2 per month, and is entitled
to a piece of ground worth SIOO.
He desires at once to huild a House on this ground, and
wants for the purpose a l»>an of, say. S4OO. He can have
this by buying from the Association four additional
shares, on each of which he pays fee of fifty
cents, and $2 per month. Thus, his monthly instalments
will bo.
$2 00 per month for his ground,
8 00 per mouth on the four additional shares,
2 CO per month interest.
sl2
sl2 paid every month for four year* leaves him free and
absolute owner of his Hous*, (during the greater part of
which period he is in occupation it,) and the ground
on which it stands, and if any profit be realized during
the continuance of the Association, he comes in for a
share of it. _ , ,
w. A. K«nt, v iaii. ; Thomas M. Halpin, Sec
retary, Office, l f/ R Washington Stores, William street;
Dudley Perese Naa»au street: K. J. Earle, 129 William
street; Michael O’Connor, 266 Front street, are the Teut
tees. .
CURRENT LITERATURE.
New Yobk Aristocracy; or Gems or
Japonica-eom —By “Joseph.” This work
is now published entire. We have on a for
mer occasion favorably alluded to this inter
esting expose of fashionable life. We cannot
do more in this connection, tban simply re
fer the reader for further information to the
publication itself. The engravings, general
ly spirited and well executed, are by Boyd
Those desirous of becoming acquainted with
the codfish-scented exclusives of the commu
nity, would aid their investigations mate
rially by purchasing this telling book, Chas
B, Norton is the New York publisher.
The Edinburgh Review, for January.
Leonard Scott, Walker & Creighead pub
lishers The contents for the above month
are :—Genius and Writings of Descartes ;
Bishop Philpotts; Recent Progress of Legis
lation; Church Music; A few Words on In
ternational Copyright; Palgrave’s Norman
dy and England; the Ordinance Survey of
Scotland ; and the Expected Reform Bill. In
troductory to the American edition, there is
an article published by Horace Greeley, en
titled “Review of a Reviewer,” in which the
author responds to a rather petty attack on
his appelative of “Hon,” by a writer in the
“Edinburgh” for December, The statement
made by Mr, Greeley when in London, that
the buildings appeared to be constructed of
a soft creamy marble, and which had a very
pleasing effect on the eye of the stranger, he
now formally withdraws, admits their deoep
tiveness, and declares that they are but faced
with mud ! Good for Horace. Wo hope the
writer in the Edinburgh will be satisfied
with the explanation and retraction.
Kenneth, a Romance of the Highlands.
H. Long & Brother. This deeply interest
ing and chivalrio, blended with the superna
tural, production, a quality for which the
author is celebrated, has just been published
by the above firm. G. W. M. Reynolds’ pub
lications are too generally known by novel
readers in this country, to require further
notice at our bauds. Love, ambition, avar
ice, murder, villainy, and merit rewarded are
the staples from which this class of novel
writers weave their exciting woofs; and no
one of the many distinguished literary gen
tlemen of England know how better to use
them to advantage, than Mr. Reynolds. We
commend the story to the lovers of the mar
vellous.
Appleton’s Popular Library of the
Best Authors. The first number of this new
library is now before us, and if every suc
ceeding issue be as well culled from the vast
fields of literature, we do not fear the splen
did success of the new enterprise. D. Apple
tne firs! pu rmsiliilfc uriii Hb amr
the endorsement of their name upon any
publication stamps it as genuine. The pres
ent issue comprise a series of essays which
from time to time have appeared in the Lon
don Times. They may be enumerated as
follows : Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton;
Railway Novels; Louis Philippe and his
Family ; Drama of the French Revolution ;
Howard the Philanthropist; Robert Southey;
Dean Swift—Stella and Vanessa; Reminis
cences of Coleridge and Southey, by Cottle;
John Keats; Sporting in Africa; Francis
Chantrey; Ancient Egypt.
The' Use of Sunshine, (an Irish tale,)
by S. M., authoress of “The Maiden Aunt,’
“ The Story of a Family,” “ Lays and Bal
lads from English poetry,” etc, 1). Apple
ton & Company, publishers. We quote from
the introduction of the authoress the follow
ing insight into the nature and object of the
work:
“ I have thought that a picture of one small
nook of Irish life, as it appeared to two English
settlers, might not prove wholly uninteresting ;
and I am sure that native critics (if I should find
such) will allow that the mistakes which it may
contain are only so many proofs of its fidelity
under the circumstana s. Individual portraiture
—always, to my thinking, an objectionable prac
tice —would, in the present case, involve the odi
ous imputation of Ingratitude for a great deal of
kindness. The character of Peggy Doherty,
and the main incidents of her history, form the
solitary exception to which I have alluded. 1
must also plead guilty to having stolen the name
of the house occupied by Horace and Marion,
from the dear friends who possess lan exclusive
right to it. 1 have endeavored to give, as near
ly as I could, the dia ect of that particular cor
ner of the north to which my main experience
has been limited; and 1 dare say that I have
produced but an English version of it, after all.’
A LADY’S PLUCK.
We turned aside, writes a gentleman, un
der the title of Notes of Travel in Virginia,
from our path for a space, to visit an object
of some curiosity, which is one of the “ lions”
of “ the Eastern Shore.” This is an ancient
vault, belonging to a member of the “ Cus
tis” family, a branch of the same stock with
which Washington intermarried. It lies upon
a tine old farmstead, looking out upon “ the
Bay,” and occupies the centre of a large field,
the only prominent object, sheltered by some
old trees. This vault is of white marble,
elaborately carved in London, in a state of
partial dilapidation. The curious feature
about it consists in its inscription, which runs
thus: —
‘ Under this marble tomb lies the body of '
the Hon. John Custis, Esq., of the city of
Williamsburgh, and Parish of Burton; formerly
of Hangar’s Parish, on the Eastern Shore of
Virginia, and county of Northampton, aged 71
years, and yet lived hut seven years, which was
the space of time he kept a bachelor’s home at
Arlington, on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.”
This inscription, we are told by another,
on the opposite side, was put on the tomb by
his offu positive orders. The gist of it, as
our lady readers will be pleased to perceive,
consists in the lines wo have italicised ; the
force of which will be better felt and under
stood from the additional fact, which does
not appear, that this bachelor, who lived on
ly in his bachelor condition, was married
three times. His experience, if we are to
believe his epitaph, was greatly adverse to
the idea of any happiness in the marriage
state ; yet how strange that he should have
ventured thrice upon it! The natural con
clusion is, that Hon John Custis was a sin
gularly just and conscientious man, who,
unwilling to do the sex any wrong by a pre
mature judgment, gave them a full and fair
trial, at the expense of his own happiness,
and pronounced judgment only after his re
peated experiments. Tradition has preserv
ed some anecdotes of the sort of experience
which he enjoyed in the marriage state, one
of which I will relate. It appears that ho
was driving out in his ancient coach with
one of his wives—and to do him justice we
must assure the reader that he had but one
at a time—and in the neighborhood of the
very spot te which we ourselves are tending
—Capo Charles. A matrimonial discussion
ensued between the pair, which warmed as
they proceeded. The lord grew angry and
the lady vociferous.
“It was the diamond,” said one —and “ I
insist,” quoth the other, “ that it was the
club.”
“You will drive me mad I” cried John Cus
tis.
“I should call that admirable driving!”
retorted the wife.
“If you say another word, I will drive
down into the sen.
They were even then upon the beach.
“Another word!” screamed the lady.—
“Drive where you please!” she added. —
“Into the sea—l can go as deep as you dare
go, any day.”
Ho became furious, took her at her word,
and drove the horses and chariot into the
ocean. They began to swim. He held in,
looked into her face, and she laughed in his.
“Why do you stop?” she demanded, ex
ultingly, not a whit alarmed.
“You are an imp!" ho exclaimed, flinging
the horses about, and making for the shore
with all expedition.
“Pooh ! pooh !” laughed his tormentor. —
“Learn from that there is no place where
you dare to go, where I dare not accompany
you.”
She had conquered. He never drove at
Cape Charles again, but groaned with the
recollection of the seven years’ bachelor Jife
at Arlington.
PRICE. THREE CENTS.
A HIDEOUS MONSTER.
There exists in French society, remarks the
author of Monte Leone, and wo may add that
•it is by no means limited to French society, a
hideous monster known to all, though no one
disturbs it. Its ravages are great, almost incal
culable. It saps reputation, poisons, dishonors
and defiles the splendor of the moat estimable
form.
This minotaurus, which devours so many in
nocent persons, is especially fearful; because
the blows are terrible. It presents itself under
the mildest and gentlest forms, and is received
everywhere in the city. We find it in our rooms,
in the interior of our families, in the palaces of
the opulent, and the garrets of the poor. It is
composed of but one phrase, and is called —
“They Say.”
“Do you know snob a one 1” is often asked,
and the person is pointed out.
“ No ! but they say his morals are very bad.
He has had strange adventures, and his family
is very unhapny ”
“Are you sure V’
“ Ne. I know nothing about it; but they say
an M
“ Do not trust that gentleman who has much
credit, and is thought so rich. Be on your
guard.”
“ Bah! his fo tune is immense ; see what an
establishment he has.”
“ Yes ! they say ho is very much involved.”
“ Do you know that fact!
“ Not I. They say, though—”
This they say is heard in every relation of life.
It is deadly mortal, and not to be grasped. It
goes hither and thither, strikes and kills manly
Honor, female virtue, without either sox being
ever conscious of the injury done Each as ho
reads these linos will remember cases illustrating
the truth of what we say.
A Definition of Bigotry. —Old Job
Dunkee was at oue time one of the most
popular “darkies” in Cincinnati, Ho was a
kind of patriarch among the colored popula
tion and universally liked by the white folks.
About the time that he stood at the head of
the Now street church, ho was subpoenaed
before Judge Wiseman, to testify to the
character of a negro who was charged with
petty larceny.
“ Well, Job,” said the Squire, “ what do
you know of the character of the defend
ant ?”
“ Well, I know considerable ’bout de col
ored individual, and I neber fin’s him guilty
ob only ope ’fence,” replied Job, with great
reverence.
“ What is the nature of the offence you
allude to f”
“ Why, do niggar am bigoted.”
“He’s what?”
“Bigoted, bigoted—doesn’t you know
what dat am ?”
“ Why, no,” replied the ’Squire, who is
much of a wag, “ Will you define the term.
Job f”
“ Sartainly, sartainly, I does. To be big
oted, a colored pusson must know too much
for one niggar, and not enough for two nig
gars.”
New Style of Dress for Gentle
men.—The Wilmington (N C ) Journal says
a gentleman was seen promenading in the
vicinity of the wharves, elegantly attired in
a flour, barrel, with both heads knocked out.
He was “ minus” coat, vest, and uuwhieper
ables; but, says the editor, with the promp
titude of action and fertility of resource,
which are ever characteristic of genius, he
had perceived at once the capabilities of a
flour barrel as au article of garmenturc,
combining both strength and cheapness, and
thus attired, had enjoyed a most delightful,
though somewhat circuitous walk—the tor
tuousily of his course being, no doubt, at
tributable to the cylindrical form of his robe.
As a flour barrel is by no means as long as a
man, it may be supposed that a portion of
the “human form divine” projected at both
ends, its (the barrel’s) upper extremity ter
minating under the arms, and the lower
coming no further down than the calves of
the legs; thus presenting, as far as longi
tude is concerned, a very fair specimen of a
white oak Bloomer. From various nautical
expressions which the gentleman addressed
to himself, it is shrewdly suspected that he
is one of those wliogg Jyisinefs it is to “ "
Canine V.-=tx a _ .
interesting instance of the sagacity of JL -L
faithful friend,” the dog, occurred recently,
says the London Weekly Times, at Ster
ling Park, in Wales, the residence of Samuel
Tardrcw, Esq. There were a large bull-dog
and a Newfoundland dog kept about the
premises for their protection, and as a little
boy was carelessly making his way along the
path leading from the turnpike road to the
house, the bull dog broke the chain with
which he was fastened and sprang fiercely on
him, and commenced savagely tearing him.
The poor little fellow being dreadfully
frightened with the suddenness and severity
of the attack, cried out for assistance most
piteously At this time the Newfoundland
dog was in another part of the premises, but
as soon as he heard the cries for help he
darted away with tremendous velocity, and
quickly reached the spot, and seizing the
bull-dog with his powerful jaws instantly
flung him off his prey, and held him firm un
til the boy got up from the ground, and was
completely out of harm’s way.
Something about the Face. —The ex
pression of the face is a beautiful distinction
of humanity. We are little aware of the
influence which it constantly exerts If the
dumb animal on whom man exercises his
cruelty—if the horse or the dog, when suf
fering by a blow from the violence of man,
could turn upon him with a human look of
indignation or appeal, could any one resist
the power of the mute expostulation? —
How extraordinary, too, the difference of
expression in the human face, by which
the recognition of personal identity is se
cured. On this small surface, nine inches
by six, are depicted such various traits, that,
among the millions of inhabitants on the
earth, no two have the same lineaments of
face. What dire confusion would ensue, if
all countenances were alike ! if fathers did
not know their own children by eight, nor
husbands their wives I But now, we could
pick out our friend among the multitudes of
the assembled universe.
A Remarkable Fulfilment or a
Dream. —The London Dispatch mentions in
a late number the following remarkable ful
filment of a dream:—William Jackson, a
railway laborer, residing at Green Hammer
ton, near Knaresborough, dreamed that he
should be killed on the railway. He awoke
and told his wife of the circumstance, where
upon she implored him not to go that morn
ing to his usual labor on the line. Not
withstanding this ho did so, when, strange
enough to state, he accidentally lell from a
ballast train in the neighborhood of Flaxby,
and was run over, both his legs and right
arm being crushed in a dreadful manner.
He was brought to the Whcatsheaf Inn,
where he expired three hours after his arri
val, in spite of all human efforts to save his
life. The Coroner’s jury returned a verdict
of accidental death
A Monster. —The Medical Reporter of
New Jersey, states that Doctor £. Buck, of
Bridgeton, was present at a post mortem «x
--amination in that town, not long since, upon
the body of a child which was born alive and
of full term, the abdominal muscles and skin
of which were wholly wanting, exposing to
view, as if by the scalpel, the livor and bow
els. The breast, arms and head were largely
and well developed, but the spine in the lum
bar regions was somewhat deficient, one leg
was an exact wing or fin of a turtle, and
quite small, the end having two or three un
separated toes. The other leg was large and
extended up to the face, and the foot, which
was of club order, rested on the nose.
Woman’s Rights.—Among the singu
lar customs of the Island of Celebes, in the
Indian Ocean, women arc eligible to the
highest offices of the state : that, at the
present moment, four out of six of the he
reditary Rajahs are female. Among the
Bugcs, some men dress like women, and some
women like men, for their whole lives, devo
ting themselves to the occupation of their
adopted sex. _______
A Sad Lesson.—The True. American
mentions the appearance in Trenton of a man
who had just been released from the State Prison,
after serving a term of twenty years. During
this time, the march of improvement has been to
rapid, that almost every vestige of all that was
familiar to him then has been swept away.
Cities and towns have grown*up Railroads and
telegraphs have been established; the ocean is
navigated by steam ; in short almost everything
which to us appears old and void of novelty,
must appear strange and wonderful to him. He
entered his cell of 8 by 10 a young man, and
comes out with the marks of age, and the stamp
of ignominy upon him.
An Officer, in a skirmish with the
British and Indians, in the late war, was severe
ly wounded and unable to rise; two Indians
rushed towards him to secure his scalp as their
prey; one appeared to be a chief warrior, and
was clothed in British uniform. The hatchet
was uplifted to give the fatal blow, thought
passed his mind that some of the chiefs were
Masons, and with this hope be gave a Masonic
sign ; it stayed the arm of the savage warrior—
the hatchet fell harmless to the ground—the In
dian sprang forward, caught him in his arms,
and the endearing title of Brother fell from his
lips. That Indian was Tecumseh.
The man, who will live above hip present cir
cumstances is in great danger of living in a little
time much beneath them, or, as the Italian pro -
verb says, “The man who lives by hope will die
by danger.”— Addison.
Lampoons and satires that are written with
wit and spirit are like pdsoned dart, which not
only inflict a wound, hut make it incurable.
Addison.

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