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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1916-1920, December 08, 1916, Image 16

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Katsrad t (he Pott OBca it Ntw York
Second Clil Mall Matter.
Subaerlptlana hj Mall, raatpald.
DAILY, l'r Month
uaiiY) i-er Tear - "
SUNDAY, l'tr Month
ulfVfiAV tin riiriit llnnth.... M
SUNDAY. I'er Year i P
DAILY AM) SUNDAY, Par Ytar.... I am
DAILY AND SUNDAY, Per Month... i
Foaita.s IU1U,
DAILY. Ir Month 1 -J
MU.NDAY. Per Month .
DAILY AND SUNDAY, l'tr Month... 1 V
f IIK KVKNl.NO HUN. Per Year...... 3 M
THa. KVENINO HU.Ntf ortlf n,l'r o. a
All cheeks, monay orders, c, to bt
mad payable to Tin Bus.
TublUhtd dally. Including Sunday, by ths
Sun I'rlntlnc and Publlslilnc Aetuclntlon at
110 Natiau atraei. Ill Iht Ilorouih ot Man
hattan. New York. ITaaldent, i'rn' .
Munitr. I an Nanau atrMt: Vke-l'rMlttent.
Krvln Wardman. ISO Naiiau atreoti Sec
retary. It. II. Tltherlniton, 180 Najtau
atrttli Treaaurtr, Win. T. Dawart, 180 Nai
aau at reel.
Landon offlre. 40.43 Flaat atrttt.
Parle olBcr, 0 Hue da la Mlchodlart. oR
Rua du tjuatre Seplembra.
Washington OIBct. Munter Building.
. Hrooitlvn offle. Itoom '203. Kasle IJulld
laf, 203 Waihli.Rlon atrtet.
oar trirnii vis faror at lolfa assail.
aerials and llfaetrafleat or aaHltotlon trie
It lore rtltclt arffelee rttunti laey mutt
w an rain MRU stasias far loi ssrssea,
telephone:, beekman tit.
The Progress of rhyslcal Valuation.
In the financial statement occoui
ponylnc llio nnnunl reiort of the In
terstate Commorve Commission nude
public to-tlny there Is this Item:
"To enable the Interstate Commotce
Commlsilon to carry out the objects of
the act approved March 1, 1913, pro
viding for a valuation of the property of
carriers, $3,000,000."
And In the statement of unex
pended balances of appropriations:
"Valuation $15,67.t7"
It therefore appears tbnt during the
flKcnl year which ended on June SO
Inst the commission's expenditures foi
the physical valuation of the prop
erty of the railroads and other carriers
amounted to $2,08-1,332.83.
It appears from the body of the re
lort that the preliminary field work
of valuation during the year covered
about 50,000 miles of railroad and a
corresponding part of the telegraph
property to be Inventoried. The com
nleslon estimates that at the same
rate of progress the road and track
surveys will Iks completed by Jan
uary 1, 1020. Heyond that Is to come
the valuation of mechanical and struc
tural work, the application of prices,
and tbo making of the final assembly
sheets. The report says: "At this
rate of progress the Held work should
be completed In slightly over three
years and the office work In from six
months to u year ufterward."
At the present r.tte of expenditure
the cost to the taxpayers of the call
by Congress for a tentative physical
valuation of the railroad and tele
graph u ml telephone properties seem
likely to lie from twelve to flfteeu
million dollars.
8ucu Is the cost of a purely statisti
cal enterprise, the merit of which dt
iwndri upon the point of view from
which Its resultant figures are con
sidered iiiiJ the unknown conclusions
which may be drawn from these sta
tistics In the more or less distant fu
ture when the prodigious Job of ap
praisal Is done !
Lloyd George as rremler.
The time can lie measured by months
Ince the Night Hon. David Lloyd
Georck threatened to resign from the
'coalition Cabinet unless It agreed to
his plan of conscription and general
compulsion. He had his way. It was
the same but n different Lloyd
GirfitoK who was advocating the limi
tation of urmameiits less than a year
before the great war. In the present
week Mr. Lloyd Gkoruk did actually
resign his post of Secretary of State
for Wnr becauso Mr. Asquith would
not agree to u smaller war council
'from which the Prime Minister should
be excluded.
'And now the paradox of politicians
iB Premier himself, and ho cannot log
Icnlly be In bin own war council, if
he contrives tn form a Cabinet.
Twelve months ago less a fortnight
the Minister of Munitions warned his
countrymen In a memorable speech
In the House of Commons that "un
less we quicken our movements dam
nation will befall the great cause for
which so much blood has been shed."
There was n refrain In the speech that
spurred Englishmen to fresh effort.
It haunted them for many days. "I
wonder," said Mr. Lloyd George, "if
It Is too late too late, the fatal
words of this war." The Allies wero
too lute to save Belgium, too late
to savo Poland, too late to save
Serbia, find now they havo been
too lato to save Jtumanla. Is David
Lloyd Ukokuk, the ilrst Welshman to
become Prime Minister, arriving too
late to save the day?
It Is vastly in the Premier's favor
that his career Is remarkable for tri
umphs over iliniailtles that would
have dismayed and halted other men.
What seemed to lie the Impassible lias
never daunted him. Forlorn hopes
drew him like a magnet. When ob
livion was about to swallow him ho
soared up a meteor. His economic
and flnnnclnl reforms wero won In
torms of obloquy. His hand seemed
to be against every man's. Lloyd
Groiion used to wear the title of the
best hated man In England. Yet the
time came when the mad radical was
the trusted financier admired of the
City. In tbo present year we have
mm-ii him selected to settle the Irish
question. Why? Not because be was
an authority upon It be is not an
authority upon anything but because
ho bud done so many things since the
hell of war burst upon F.urope that
no other man In England has done.
He had settled the Welsh coal miners'
strike; he had multiplied munition
factories and filled them with work
ers; moro than any man he had con
verted the British people to conscrip
tion, although the memory of his op
position to the Doer war and of his
eloquent pacifist pleas was still fresh
In the public mind. .Perhaps the
greatest thing he had done in tills
war was to wake up England by his
wonderful appeals to her pride, her
valor, her traditions, her love of lib
erty. Not In our time have English
men listened to such speeches.
It Is tme Mr. Lloyd Gkoboe's crit
ics say that he Is riding to a fall be:
cause he cannot organize a Cabinet
that will hold together. Dut no man's
opinion about that is authoritative.
It remains to be seen. Often In the
past his critics have been confounded
by the sequel. He faces his difficul
ties gnyly as usual. Ills overtures tn
Labor seem to be winning over Influ
ences regarded as hostile. And the
greatest factor In his favor Is his
splendid record In this war.
A Treasure Muse That Cannot
old Its Trove.
In n house on the West Side of
Mnnhuttan, convenient to six or eight
million people, each day sees an ad
dition to n store of wonderful things
that have been brought from every
part of the world, from earth, sea
and sky, to form a graphic history of
the ball on which we enreer through
space and of Its Inhabitants. To this
bouse go the child of seven and the
happier child of seventy who still
wonders what all life Is for. They
sec the perhaps untempted Adam of
the Neanderthal cave and the kind
face of Hen Franklin; the recon
structed dodo and the Ilahaman
booby, the scarab and the abysmal
fish, the seal and the skluk, the
tyranuosaurus and the mountain
sheep, a mummy wrapping from
Egypt and a petrified blanket from
a gulch In Utah, new pottery from
old China and the sculptures of the
lost civilisations of the New World,
an Eskimo doll and n dinosaur that
gave up the ghost In Wyoming ten
million years ago.
It Is a plnce for the filling of the
eye and the starting of dreams;
dreams of what thoughts were Isirn
beneath the trephined skull of the
ancient Peruvian; of the lost yenrs
between the eohlppus, whose lsmes
are there, and Sir. Keene's Sysonby,
whose skeleton Is yonder, brothers In
blood and speed. Could the sabre
tooth tiger have prevailed against
Jumbo? You may nsk them, for here
is all that Is left of both.
While you watch, men are at work
In the Congo, buying, trapping and
digging treasure which long lines of
natives carry on their heads to the
nearest ship; men creep further Into
the unknown places of South America
to find the tomb of a lost nation or to
add some new bird or snake to the
world's list; men toll In the South
west and In Canada for more clues
to the mysteries of the ages. Everv
year their precious discoveries lsiur
In, and now, while still they come,
the house of wonders Is filled. The
walls of this remarkable Institution,
the American Museum of Niitural
History, can hold yttle more.
It Is not our purpose to detail the
flnnnclnl plan und history of the mu
seum. The city of New York Is
pledged to erect, equip nnd maintain
the building. The trustees provide
the rich collections which the build
ing contains. The greatest money
gift yi the museum, the Morris K.
Jesup endowment, can be used only
for research. What Is to be done to
houe the fine things thnt tire coming
In from tlireo continents? Obviously
the southeast wing, already cnrefullv
planned to hold the oeeanographlc.
Asiatic and part of the American
collections, must be built. Nearly .$3,.
000,000 worth of collections are wait
ing for exhibition space. It Is the
city's pledge to house them, but no
body realizes better than the trustees
of the museum that ot this time the
city Is not In condition to provide the
million dollars needed fur the new
wing. The only hope, ' therefore, is
that one or more persons Interested
In the museum or In the millions
who benefit through It will come to
the front. When wo speak of mill
ions benefited, It Is udvlsedly, for the
attendance last year was 020,000 and
the circulating collections were viewed
by 1,238,000 more.
It Is the opportunity of some citi
zen, perhaps one now as obscure as
the history of the Peruvian Empire.
to add a wing that shall hold the
trove of the treasure hunters. For
the gift of n million dollars the south
east wing shall bear his name, nnd
the people, standing before the llow
doln Whales or the Trenton Traces
of Man, shall bless him.
Is M.kcenas In the nudlence?
Tuberculosis Week.
The object of establishing Inherit.-
losls week Is to remind the public of
tne fact thnt tuberculosis Is not now
regarded as a visitation ut Provl-
deuce, but rather as a result of Inat
tention to simple laws of health. The
apprehension existing In the mlmls of
otherwise well Informed people that
It Is hereditary Is unfounded.
Unit the germ of tuberculosis can
not develop on Infertile soil is vl
denced by the discovery of healed
tuberculosis In tbo lungs In a major
ity of autopsies, after death from
other causes. That abundant light
and air In the home are the. chief
safeguards against tuberculosis
proved by the fact that the illxeuso
prevails chiefly among nsipu living
In unsanitary homes. About eighty
er cent, of cases of consumption oe
cur In homes of less than threo rooms.
Housing Is therefore, the most Im
portant factor in tbo cause and pre
vention of this terrible malady. The
reduction of twenty-five per cent. In
Its mortality during the past ten
years Is a hopeful sign that people are
beginning to realize their Individual
Since the great German pathologist
Yirciiow demonstrated the ubiquity
of tubercular bacilli It has been real
ized that many cases of colds, Infill
ehza and bronchitis arc probably
mild transitory Infections which rest
nnd proper care, sleep nnd good food
bring to a favorable termination. Un
fortunately, the cure of tuberculosis
Is a question of money. For this rea
son the poor demand special care. Not
alone philanthropic consideration but
protection of the community demands
that the governing authorities pro
vide nmplc refuge for these unfor
tunates, so that they may be returned
to their work ns speedily as possible,
with correct Ideas of prevention.
New York city Is entitled to great
credit for having established at Otis
vlllc an Institution for Incipient cases
and at Castleton Corners, Staten
Island, the Sen View Hospital, per
haps the most complete structure of
Its kind for the latter stage cases,
besides other older Institutions, which
It is hoped may be abandoned us soon
ns a contemplated new construction
on Staten Island Is completed.
For people who nre better situated
various private sanltorla offer op
portunity for restoration, but here
conies the difficulty of obtnlulng the
menus required for such exensve
treatment, besides the depressing 'ef
fect of exile from home. Happily the
former senseless rush to fo-called
favorable climates, ranches, moun
tains and plains has given way l
more Intelligent management.
The recognition of the fact that
pure air may be obtained night aud
day In your own home, or very near
It, and that there Is no specific cura
tive action In climate Is relieving jco
ple In moderate circumstances of
grent anxiety nnd contributing to the
cure of patients whose mental dis
tress, while In dlstnnt sanltorla. sur
rounded by sick people, handicaps
their recovery.
The elements that conduce to recov
cry nre cheerful surrounding, good
food, constant exjiosure to air, even
In inclement weather, rest when
feverish and gentle exercise under
normal body tenqierature. These
may lie obtained at home, under su
pervision of a physician ; In fact, the
latter Is the chief advantage of a
That these arc truths Is Illustrated
by the results obtained In the Home
Hospital, established by Commis
sioner KiNnsni'BY, when Director of
the Association for Improving the
Condition of the Poor.
A Call From the I tie of Guam.
The Governor of Guam n few days
ago askftl tlie Navy 'Department to
se,nd ten toads, and the Navy De
partment, having not o much ns n
tadpole, passed t lie request on to the
Department of Agriculture.
.This Is. Hrhaps, the Ilrst official In
vitation ever extended to the Hufoiil
die nnd would Indicate that the family
Is climbing up. It suffered for centu
ries under SitAKi.srrARK'a censure
"ugly nnd venomous," n slnudet
which, It npiH'ars. he did not take thr.
trouble to Invertlgnte but accepted on
I be word of one old Doctor Lvpto.n.
The toad. In fact, wns once lit very
good ttoelety. Three of them were the
device on King 1'i.ovis's Uiutier nnd
were miraculously changed Into the
three lilies of France when brought
face to face, with the heretic nrmy of
King Caniut.
The toad Is Invited with Its whole
family and all of Its Ixdonglugs to
settle down upon this little' Pacific
Island. It Is cxHvtcd to engage In
agriculture. Its special mission being
to iiit the snails that are causing an
epidemic among the cattle. The big.
ger the appetite the better, a (nullifica
tion exactly the opposite asked of the
ordinary farm hand.
Hut severnl years ago American
agriculturists discovered the uiluu of
the toad nnd liegau protecting It.
Every garden now hns Its master toad
and group of assistants Just tm It has
rose bushes and other flowering plants.
The supply Is scarcely equal to the
demand; for while the grown toad lias
only one enemy, the suiiko, the eggs
are destroyed by nil kinds of crea
tures, newts, turtles, birds nnd fish.
Each fond Is thus the survivor of a
regiment of tadpoles.
It Is feared that, ns much ns the
Department of Agriculture would like
to help Guam, It will be unable to do
so In this particular. This country
needs its toads.
Famous Apples.
Our correspondent who points out
that the Bible doesn't specify Adam
ns eating an apple ut the Instigation
of Kvb wonders why tradition should
have llxed on this particular fruit as
the Instrument of the Fall, Such com
pendlums of religious knowledge as
we have consulted nre silent on the
point. But we may draw his at ten.
Hon to another famous fruit which
has Invariably been described as an
apple. This was the rosy sphere
which Ems threw among the guests
at one of the morn notable marriages
In Olympian society. Hlha, Aimiro
iiitk and Athena each claimed It, for
Eiuh had written that It should be
awarded "to the fairest." The arbi
tration of Paiiih wns singularly un
successful ami was one of the causes
of the Trojnn war.
Possibly the fruit of discord nnd
the frult'of the tree of the knowledge
of good und evil were both Identified
as apples iccniise the apple is one
of the oldest, and commonest fruits
known to man, and nw of tbo most
uncertain In quality. The smoothest
exterior, the choicest coloring oft dis
guise the detestable Ben Davis. Or
It. may be that Eve plucked the npplo
before It was sufficiently ripe.
The report that CArjunsa will sign
that protocol would be more Important
it villa wasn't running so well.
Secretary McAdoo Informs the pub
lic that at present the United State
Is the richest country the world has
ever known. Yet to many citizens the
flavor of fresh eggs has become merely
a aad and tantalizing memory.
The Greeks appear to enjoy all the
rigors of war without any of its moral
The eight hour law waa Intended to
be a bonus to the brotherhoods. There-
un: wiey enoma congratulate unor
ganized labor on the Atchison, which
is to. receive a Christmas present of
about $2,760,000.
The University of Paris has Just
awarded a prize to the legal treatise
of Lindell T. Bates, written In French,
on tho conflict of American treaties
and Htnto laws. This is tho first time
in years that a foreigner has received
wns Bcnoiasnc nonor from France. It
IS II reCOEtlttlnn that .V.- ,1
, . . . "urn iiiu era ui
treaty revision begins after the war
.urciKn countries will look toward this
work as an authoritative source of In
formation on American treaty law. It
. .mo runs: in rorclgn International
blW Circles With n rol.l.,.ll ....i.
ten Bomo years ago by a Ilumanlan on
me xunuue iiiver Commission. The
Harvard Lato Jlcview says of Mr.
Bates's thesis: "Llttlo that hns been
written regarding the borderland be
tween International nnd constitutional
nw can compare with this pamphlet
In clearness or In interest."
"Our valorous Latin slater Itu
manla,' ns tho Itnllan Premier Boheixi
culls a hnplcM ally. In In moro need of
Hussion legions nnd high power guns
than of compliments.
Congratulations to tho fourteen mem
bers of tbo Ways nnd Means Commit
tee who are wearing election hats pur
chased by the Hon. Nicholas Lono
worth of Cincinnati. No one Is a
better Judge of a hat than the gen
tleman from tho First Ohio 'district,
and the Hon. Claude Kitchin. the
Hon. Daniel J. McGillicudiit and their
associates muni . i,ui
stylish than! ever before In their lives.
"as- it not tho Prince of Wales
(George IV.) who began to weep when
told that Beau Hhummell didn't like
tbo cut of his coat?
Senator James Hau Lewis will re
main Democratic whip. Court Circular.
Bather! For a century und a quar
ter Scnntc whips have been rugged
fellows who sought to Induce attend
ance of colleagues by rude talk, let
tern, telegrams, rough bouse methods
without frentlpni.u r,inAmA
-1 . .IlltVIIIVII, tJI
beuuty. Uut James Ham! Ah. be
milium noi ne callca the whip. With
Smiles, dftlntv Iwrlnnlm... r tAM.ni,n.i
hands, honeyed words, seductive glow
i miisKcrs or unparalleled loveliness,
bo woos to their benches the truculent,
the tired, tho 1.17V tho l,v. ,k. ir
Playing Senators. None can resist. As
irresistible he ns cream to a cat. It
James Ham In his office be called
Rvrus tho Tempter.
The Hon. Ciiaoi.es E. Htoiics may
now think that In his campaign he
suffered the ultimate of travet discom
fort In rush und Jam. but let him sus
pend Judnment until he has patron
ized our elevated und Bunken routes
between his New York apartment and
bis ottlces for u brief term.
Mrs. K. K. MTARCHEn Is Mayor of Uma
tilla to-day. having defeated her hualund
In th election yesterday. Ciiinfllta,
Ore., ilmitatch.
Poor Starcher will now lie known as
the husband of the Mnvnr r m,.
ond he must kIvo up bis latchkey and
oe a model hustmnd.
Tho.e suffragists exercised ever so
much reserve In merely unfurling it
banner from the gallery of the Mouse,
while the President of the L'nlted
States uddressed the upper and lower
bOUSeS lf ('llliurf In trln, ....U
They could have screnmed. thrown
I'l-iiper ur nrecracKcrs, snouted "Fire! '
and In many other ways havo dls
played their eno of propriety und
worthiness to govern n nation.
The Democratic parly, having won
without the aid of the wet cltlea, and
hitting received the support of nearly all
the prohibition States and the States
where women vute, Is released from any
obllRntlon to the liquor traltlc. It Is free
to take the moral side of this great
moral Isaue, oiul I have no doubt that It
Will llvn till In Ita nnr.nrli.nl, I.. ......
nations. William Jenninos Urtan
Mr. Bryan seems to have overlooked
tho debt of the IJemocrntlc party to
tho wet Cities of Ohio. .iirih.r,nn..
does that turtv tukn tlm mnri ui.i ...
. -.- ...... (I.UtT
a public, question only when there nre
' i tor ucmocrauc candidates?
Hllchnrrst linn Unon fair-., li-i....
niaBiiltlcent success on tho road to com-
inne wi-wry nas neen (,-ained with ilon"s
help! WiLiKi.M.
Also Mackk.s-sen'h nnd Falken
uayn'h. But they will get their deco
rations. On November U The Sun published
H letter dated from McAllen, Texas,
and signed "Harold Graham North
rup, Company F, Twenty-second En
gineers," In which letter the writer,
who said that bo lind cervnd four years
n the New York National Ouard and
had been "In the .camps of tho New-
York division from lis Khattos to
I'linrr. Including Mission and McAllen,"
sharply criticised tho sanitary condi
tions nnd food rations at McAllen.
The Sun hns received from Major
General John F. O Btan, commanding
tbo New York Division of thb National
Guard at McAllen, Texas, n report by
Captain G. 11. Johnson of Company F,
Twenty-second New York Engineers,
upon the criticisms mndo by "Harold
Grnhsni Northrup'' in his letter to The
St'N, "There Is no soldier nt the pres.
out time, and there has been In the
last llvo years no soldier by tho name
of Harold Graham Northrup In this
company," says Captain Johnson, The
criticisms are declared to bo "wholly
without foundation," nnd tho health
of the command "excellent at all
times." To show that the rations aro
good nnd palatable Captain Johnson
appends "a list of menus for the month
of October." which was compiled from
"Urn diaries of tho men of this com
pany." Thk Sr.v llnds that tbo menu
often contained soup, meat or fish in
some form, and there was no luck of
vegetables and fruit. On tho whole It
was excellent camp fare, Captain
Johnson reported that bis men wero
"Interested In their work and zealous
In Its performance."
Since the publication of the North
rup letter The Hun has printed com
munications on November 23 and De
cember 6 from New York guardsmen
testifying to the wholesometMas and
abundance of the food served In tho
border camps and calling "Harold
Graham Northrup" to account for his
complaints about It.
The Call Upon Americans to Protest
Against the Deportations.
The American nights League for Up
holding the Duty of the Republic In In
ternational Relations has Issued the fol
lowing bulletin or statement, addressed
to the American people and signed by
George Haven Putnam, president of the
league; Everett V. Abbott, chairman of
the executive committee, and William
Emerson, secretary : ,
The oonquerors of Belgium, not content
with the burning of her cities, the shoot
ing of her cltlsens, and the Imposing of
crushing Indemnities upon communities
already ruined, are now taking out of
the land three hundred thousand men
and women who hnvo been tho bread
winners for their families. These per
sona are deported to Germany for the
purpose of rilling In the factories the
place of able bodied Germans who are
needed In the ranks.
The American Rights League holds
that no true American can have knowl
edge of this brutal treatment of a con
quered people without a keen feeling of
sympathy for the Belgians and of Indig
nation against their oppressors.
We ask our fellow citizens, men,
women and children, to do now what
can be done, with practical aid and with
personal Influence, to help tho IlclRlans.
Citizens should tiring their Influence to
hear upon tho President, the members
of the Cabinet, nnd the members of Con
gress. Protests can properly be sent to
some responsible (iermnn representative,
such as the German Ambassador.
In most communities the local news
paper can be utilized to give Information
to the people of this act of barbarism
and to secure opportunity for expression
of public Aplnlon. Unless tho Cnlted
States Is willing to nbdlcate Its position
In the family of nations, nnd to take
the ground that It will accept no re
sponsibility for wrongs committed upon
helpless peopla throughout the world,
we should now, as a nation, do what
can be done to make clear our abhorrence
of' such deeds as Germany has com
mitted, and continues to commit, In Bel
gium. We should take pains to make
elear to the President that In any action
that will express the feeling- of the na
tion and will mako the Influence of the
nation count ngalnst barbarities and In
maintenance of the principles of civili
zation he may be insured of the sup
port of patriotic citizens throughout the
Suggestion of a Popular Protest.
To the BtiiTon or The Sun Sir: Hy
all means follow up the splendid sux
geatlon of your correspondent, last week,
who wishes to start a monster protest
against the Iniquitous deportation of
Belgians to Clermany. I shall be only
too jt!ud to sign It. and to contribute
to the fund, and to do nil I can to
facilitate the getting of signatures, which
I am sure will not be a difficult piece
of work. 1 think there are very few
Americans now who are not cravlnc to
aliow in some concerted way what they!
think of licrmany and her methods.
II. B. Woot.RiTp. I
New Tork, December 7.
An Estimate That H Would Save the
Buyer $2.1,000,000 a Year.
To THE BDtTOR or The Sl'N Sir: The
use of the 25 mill coin would Immedl
ateU extend beyond the ute .if th .in.
Klc article now sold two for five cents.!
Articles could lie sold at three and one
half cents to cents each, nnd by I
haudliiR chance back to tln hover ii..y
could be made at one and one-half cents
anil ut one-half rem each. ,
A two and one-half rem mln nnni.t
put the half rent Into use In retail trans
actions ; however, the most direct way
to do this would be to mint a half cent.
Until 1857 we had the half penny.
Its retirement was more than an crrnr.
It was nn InJuMlce to the purchasltiEi
lllllilliv pali.lni. IhK.l.i.l .1.,.. , -t !
Through Its absence the public In robbed '
annually or more man JIS.OOO.OOO.
Fit- the article sold tun fur iu-
we pay three cents If Uiucht singly.
nen a price advances one-half cent a
pound to the retail merchant we have to
pay a full cent advance to him. Should 1
me price receoe one.nair cent a pound 1
to him he does not reduce the price to
When we dally are forreil in rvn.mi '
part of our money for nothing iit i '
of living Is Increased accordlncl) , an.t
It Is a step toward poverty. Abroad the
circulation of minute coin llko the cen
time, copeck, farthliic, kreutzer and
pfennig Is contributory to decreasing
ino cost or living and a ttep toward
prosperity. Aimi.rii OrrENHEiMER, 1
New York, December 7.
Should Not the Hatlrouds Warn the
Cross Legged Beast?
To the Koitor or The Sun sir: In
an editorial article about the nameless
creatures who cross their legs when sit-
ting In public ennvej nitres you raised
the question us to what could be done.
or In what manner they might be treated
to cure them of this atrocious habit.
Allow mo to suggest that they he hence
forth known as "X legs," and that this
term be added to our modern vocabu
lary to designate this type of monstros
ity. The expression would perhaps he
roine - known as synonymous with all
that Is selfish, thoughtless and In utter
disregard of the comfort of others,
whether In the particular. form referred
to above or In any other manner what
soever. As the railroads display signs
leaning "watch Your Step," so thev
might put up otners, but In much larger'
type, wnn tne woras -won t He an .V-
Leg." In time It might cure the evil,
New York, December 7. Amadio.
Tno Yarletles of the Animal.
To the KniToii or The .Sun sir: Your
article on "Tho All Year Hog" rnmes
none too soon. This pest has been In
evidence for quite sonio time, hut of late
has been Increasing In numbers. He sits
with bis legs crossed nt right nnzles,
exposing the entire sole of his shoe und
making It difficult for his neighbor to
avoid contact therewith. As 1 encoun
ter him he Is usually well dressed nnd
prosperous looking, unit wears an air of
being somewhat superior. There Is also
a more uncouth specimen extant.
I hope you will keep the rays focussed
upon him until ho Is driven Into ob
livion. John M, LArmrrr.
New York, December 7.
The hlfh mat nt Iblnz
U i-annnl rilt; 1
Th hlli rpit of preMnta
It hu on tha list.
Origin of rie Resolution Before the
C'oanty Mealeal Society.
To the Editor or Tnr Sun Sir: Dr,
Charles J, Dillon asks why should the
New York County Medical Society feel
called upon to Indorse or reject the policy
or birth control at the December meet
The Birth Control League, which at
that time consisted of social and settle
ment workers, teachers, ministers of the
Gospel, lawyers, writers and people of
broad Intelligence In many Other walks
or lire, but no physicians, sent a com
mlttee to the last session of the Legis
lature to secure the presentation of an
amendment to the present Intolerant law.
Not a single Assemblyman or Senator
could be found who would even offer
such an amendment. Many 1 refused
without giving reasons. Those who took
a more liberal attitude said they could
not present such an amendment to the
law until the request came to them from
some authorized medical body. This led
to tho adding of a few physicians to
the list of the Birth Control League and
Is the Justification for my Introduction
of this resolution before the April meet
ing or the County Medical Society.
A. L. (1oldwater,M. D.
New York, December 7.
"The Only Perfect Military Machine
on tho Border."
To the Editor or The Sun Sir: Those
of us who have returned from five
months arduous service on the border
feel very keenly the disposition of some
newspapers to discredit tho Sixth New
York Division, United States Army, by
saying that rampant disorganization
exists on the border, merely because
Colonel Johnston of the Twelfth New
York Infantry hns resigned his National
Guard commission nnd because his board
of officers has followed bis example.
Those familiar with tho form of mili
tary organizations are aware that far
from being disorganized, the New York
division Is tho only perfect military
machine existing on the border to-day.
There may bo disorganization among
tho troops of other States which the
regular army staff has fulled to weld
Into divisional organizations. There may
be disorganisation among the scattered
outposts of regulars who desert by
squads, but there is no disorganization
In the New York division. In fact, It
Is the only aggregation of units on the
border which may be said to have any
thing which approaches the organization
of n fighting machine.
When tho call for the National Ouard
came last June the State of New York,
among all the States of the Union, sent
to the border it tactical division ns pre
scribed In the Field Ker.vlco Regulations,
und thnt division, somewhat depleted,
but proportioned to nil arms. Is main
tained there to-day to the astonishment
of the regular army und their very up
parent ehngrln. It Is easy to Infer that
the writers who seek to discredit this
splendid machine do not appreciate what
constitutes military organization. Regi
ments are not tlgMIng units. They are
the components of the division, which
Is tho basic fighting unit of the United
States array. Alone In the field a regi
ment of Infantry, artillery or cavalry
would be nil but helpless. Even a num
ber of such regiment would be useless
unlet supiiurteil by the other arms nnd
the proier services of security, supply
and Information. Isolated regiments
may establish outposts and do border
guard duly, but they do not constitute an
The division which New York Slate
sent to the field consisted of three
brigades of Infantry of three regiments
each, commanded by n New York Gen
eral (please note that this left no op
portunity for n regular army Colonel to
draw a Hrlgadler-iieiioral's pay). Then
were reenforced by two battalions of
engineer!., u regiment nnd nn extra
squadron of rnvutry, four (leld hospitals,
four ambulance companies, n battalion
of signal corps, u supply train, and the
only brigade nf Held artillery which has
been ai-scmbled in the United States
since the civil war. consisting of two
regiments of three Inch Held pieces nnd
a regiment of 1,7 siege howitzers. This
entire organization Is the Sixth Division
of the United States Army nnd Is com
manded by u New York militiaman, and
it Is the only tactical division of troops
in the United States which was Kent Into
the Held by u single State, and Is the
only diWslon of any kind on the Mexl
tan border to-day. Septimus.
New Yonx, December 7.
The Illlde ( alls It Fruit, So Maybe It
Wasn't an Apple.
To the Koitor or The Sun .sir: I
sco that a man Is to be fried In a neigh
boring State for asserting his disbelief
in the apple of Scripture. If the de
fendant's lawyer should be so out of date
.is to bo familiar with the Bible he can
safely maintain that Adam Is not ac
cused of eating an apple The word
used Is "fruit."
Thu real motive of my writing is the
hope th.it some one can Inform me of
the origin of "apple" In oar modern
texts. I have already questioned a num
ber of scholars on this point without
success. J. II. Conway.
Brooklyn, December 7.
The 1'rotramnia of ConsTrii,
St If low's Cae.
Tn the Editor or The Sun Sir: In
behalf of many friends of Charles V.
Stlelow I desire to thank the press for
Its consistent and generous support In
tho movement for his commutation.
As the author of the pamphlet upon
which requests for Kxeeutlie clemency
were based, I have been deeply moved
by the widespiead and Intelligent Inter
est, One feature of the case, howexer,
seems not to be fully understood.
It Is that Stlelow Is not of the crimi
nal class nt all, but Is simply nn amiable,
Industrious tenant farmer, devoted to
his family and well regarded by nil who
know him : has never shown any crimi
nal tendencies whatever; and hns not
previously been In any trouble,
New York, December 7.
Did South Carolina flnrn Witches?
To the EniTiin or The Sun .Mr.- "
Descendant of Rebecca Nurse" asks,
"Where nnd when was any person ever
burned us a witch In Salem or else
where In the Colonies?"
Nevlns says: "Persons were accused
of witchcraft In South Carolina In 1708,
tried nnd sentenced to be burned at the
sUkc," As tho relntlies of the, lctlm
brought stilts for heavy danmses Drake's
attempted-extenuation of the horror Is
Illy and misleading,
Chatham, N. J., December 7.
Mr. McPherson Discusses a Notable Experiment in Participation,
Along with Increasing combustion
of coal has come Increasing consump
tlon of Iron ore, the Increasing pro
duction and use of steel. In the olden
time when ore was smelted with char
coal from the pit of the forester the
resultant steel was chiefly wrought
Into arms and armor. The Crusaders
learned the secret of making the steel
of Damascus and turned their knowl
edge toward fashioning keen edged
tools of peace. After nearly a thou
sand years the use of coal and coke
In the furnace enabled tho conversion
of oro In vast retorts from which
emerges the Protean substance so
strong that It Is rolled Into the bars
and beams of bridge and building,
Into the rails which withstand the
pounding of heavy trains; so ductile
that It Is drawn Into the tenacious
wire that fences the Western range,
Into the gossamer thread of the tele
phone magnet; so clastic that It has
succeeded whalebone in the ribs of
ladles' corsets; no penetrating nnd
firm of hold that It Is madolinto nails
and screws; so resistant to lire that
it Is wrought Into safo and 'vault; ro
Impervious to water that It Is formed
Into boiler of engine and hull of ves
sel; so ponderous that It Is mado Into
mighty hammers; so del lento that It Is
fashioned Into the mainspring of the
tiniest timepiece und Into tho Instru
ments of surgery.
At the closo of 1914 and tho begin
ning of 1915 tbo destruction of the
pence of Europe had wrought havoc
with the arts of peace In tho rutted
Stutes. heebie was tho pulse of mine
and mill. Then to meet the need of
the wnrrlng nations mlno nnd mill
began to throb, in, tho spring of
Kiln began tho demand of the
belligerents which lias steadily risen
except during tin Interval or two
when they have finessed In the en
deavor to score a point or so In the
negotiations for prices. Their needs,
however, havo Wen so urgent that
there hns not been much bickering
as to prices, which have risen ns the
demand hits risen. Our mills have
been called upon to produce steel
for arms and munitions made In this
country, for steel to bo made Into
arms and munitions abroad, for steel
to l- wrought Into rails, cars, locomo
tives and nutomohlles used by the con
tending nations.
As money flowed to the United
States In payment tor the grain, meat.
cotton and other supplit-3 shipped
nbroad, the demand for steel for do
mestic consumption wns so stimulated
that mine and mill are pulsating with
an energy never known lefore. The
demand of domestic consumers prob.
ably Is now about four times us great
as that for steel for foreign consump
tion. The swelling demand found the
producers unprcpnrcd. At first there
was fear of ore shortage, but tbo
obvious fact that without ore there
could not lie steel caused such concen
tration of effort In Its production, of
railroads nnd boats In Its transporta
tion from the mines to the mills that
this fear has not been realized. More
blnst furnaces were needed and they
have been built. More mills were
needed; they have lieen built und now
are building. Thus the steel corpora
tions arc themselves competing with
their customers for the output of their
furnaces. The domestic consumer of
steel In the making of structures, ma
chines, nails, wire, tools und appliances .
of universal use bus been obliged to
pay unwonted prices or to postpone I
plnclng his orders. Such us could be 1
postponed have lieen postponed und
many of the orders. that have been
iluced cannot readily be tilled. The
strain placed upon the railroads for
tbo transportation of ore thnt has
entered Into tho mnklng of steel and
of steel products ban impaired tbo
degree of their usefulness for other
transportation. Cars nnd locomotives
nre being worn out nt nn unprece
dented rate nnd cannot Immediately
be replaced. The Imperative domestic
demand nnd the Imperative foreign
demand have obliged tbo steel ninnu
focturers to nptHirtlnn the output of
their mills. Thus in a measure they
have become arbiters of the course of
Notwithstanding nil the handicaps
necessarily Incident to the unforeseen
and prolonged stress, the steel Industry
of the United states has achieved re
sults thnt would not buvc been possible
with the methods of even twenty
years ago. In n great modern mill
masses of ore and flux are loaded Into
gigantic retorts where the dros Is
blown away as by a hurricane. Molten
metal Hows from these converters to
the cooling beds whence ingots nre
carried to the rolls from which i
emerge the shapes of steel that aro '
finally transformed Into gun nnd shel
Into structures, appliances and tin
countless articles of dally use. These ,
processes onco required laborers In i
squads und gangs by the dozen nnd
the score, But now they nre tierfurmed
Jjy machinery. Hero und there In nn
overhead cage a calm nnd collected
individual with trained eye and trained
hand presses tbo button nnd moves
the levers that cuuso tho mechanism
to start and cause It to stop, that
cause tbo doors of furnaces to open
and tho wnltlng mass to bo pushed 1
into u cauldron, that lift a form of steel
as It enters a set of rolls, seize It upon 1
emergence nnu carry it to another
sot. No longer do men toll with
strained muscles and racked nerves
in the face of white but metal; the
work that onco was dally exhausting
and lifo shortening is now performed
by machinery.
The more effective the application
of machinery the less Is the need for
human effort. Thus human labor is
liberated for employment In other vn.
rallnnH tbnt ll.ivn Innrnten.l nn.l .
tended ns the use of machinery has
Increased nnd extended. This simple
fact Is not always understood. A
dozen yenrs ago two Clcrmau army
olllcers spent a few months in look
ing over tho railroads of this country.
Then they wroto u book In which they
kiuicn tnai ino operation or tho roll
roads of the United States could not '
be ns efllclent as that of Germany be-
cause tho German railroads had i-ov.
ernl times as many employees tor e.u-h
mile. A dear old lady once remarked: '
"When I was n girl In Virginia we
had seventeen servants In our kitchen
Took tb Trraatirra, l.efl the Ureas.
ft, f Frori) Jiiirimf
Itobhfra. pnttrlr.2 a mrnl tr.n.l;, i. ...
i.w ,il l .
" " , , " sou .
bat currlrd off (OU north of cnolce hams,
lolni, ribs an.) .I.I, of mutton.
and they mado so much dirt It had t
bo taken away with it hoe."
Every steel manufacturing organl.
ration has n permanent staff 0f
mlnlstratlve, financial, accounting ami
selling officers t-ml their clerks of
operating ofllccrs, metallurgists, them.
Ists, engineers and' foremen, its j,'
mand for labor Is In greater nieaiuri
for men who need not have a high
grce of skill and who can be lialnod
In a short time to perforin th
manual labor required nf thua, The
forco of such laborers varies win,
tho demand for steel. Outing recent
years tho working forco of the I n tM
States Steel Corporation has nun'-ail
about 200,000 men. In December, Un
It had dropped to nbout 134,(j(0. oiv
n few months thereafter tin- slack In
the forco had nil been taken up. As
the mills began to run night uu'i ,Ur
tho floating workers were iih.)r;,ea
and then men catno from fauns and
mines until In September, IMi;, tlftt
wero upon Its payrolls upward t
250,000 names.
In but few branches of Heel tnanu.
facturo nro tbo workmen now r.
ganized In trades unions. For uiny
tho hours nre long, but because r the
developed innchlnerv lb,. ...-.. i. -1.
- - v ..... .un i.- nui
characterized by Its. former seventy.
.urn now in ino railKs nf the Mifl
companies when they nre mnlcl n
recent months more men could n.ivt
been employed If they bad been ai,i,.
able, but the return of tlmiiNn i
their native lands and the ecss.it ,,f
Immigration has scrliuislv
supply. The roptiliir nml omt ,nntiii
working of tho mills nt the pa (. f
the lust two years has not In,- .
peded by the disturbances sn ,
were formerly fomented by t. i,r
uglttitors. who for ni.tiiv m-h- i. ..
up a perpetual Interferon! e iiiu-udtr.t
bickering nnd nn el ei hisili,-- . . .
stun of strikes.
The L'nlted States Steel I ..-... .i,.,
banished tho thraldom of ti
agitator by enlisting not only t'a if.
ions or ns employees in return for
wages but also their Interest in th
success of the organization as pro.
prletnry participants In that niece ..
When this cnrtinmthm mi.i,i .,
the plan under 'Which Its oinplmd-i
may becomo owners of shares of Moik
uy uevoung part of their wnacs to
payment therefor, monev Hint ,m,
went to the support of the old tlma
walking delcirato been It til fljltv jsstrt
the channels through which production
is ennuiiccu. wages ure paid and pro-It
attained. The share holding emp.oive
Instead nf resorting to u trades tir.iMii
wnn every real or fancied grievar.ie
Places It frankly before bis superb
The begrimed workman ittin'ln tha
lubricating oil with care, for he knons
inai every wasted drop diminishes hy
Its value the profit In which as a
shareholder be participates.
This status the olllcers of tin- cor
poration have forwarded by their
watchfulness nnd their Improvement
of tho conditions under winch the
men work. A sanitary corps looki
after the bealtht'ulness of their sur
rounding. This finds exemplillcatl on
in the fact that in each nf its tre'
mills to one man Is assigned the ex.
elusive duty of seeing that the sjpplr
of drinking water Is pun; nnd abun
dant. There has been etery effort to
ilo uwuy with the petty tyr.nmv of
Immediate boss nnd foreman 7t.
chairman of the United Stn'e. Sv-.
Corporation has Insisted thnt It prollt
shall not, be made at tin- cxp.
the welfare and the lift- of its (m
ployees. In recent years a l.r-tt, r un
derstanding Is in evidence 1 -loniOf
tho steel Industry belnir f ninod of
separate strata of capital. n'-r ,ie
trades unionism, the tendency s fir
capital and labor to become wo b.l in
that vertical association nblii- Is a
foremost desideratum In over ird'i
trial and commercial organ rx n
Tbo unprecedented demand f r stie)
has brought prices which pern. '
payment of wages that nre invltln?
Tho corporation has advanci , v i.
three times In the past yen- c
time at the rate, of 10 per ecu'
In tho steel Industry as m ciicr
lines of production, hrntowr
perity leads to n illmli. ,i . a
efficiency of many nf t ho vi
When they receive high rati
many men nre unwilling to r
efforts much beyond the . i
brings the aggregate u.ipc t
they have been accustome I '
the more Inclined tn take i!
The experience nf the tin
corporation In many nf .is ,
typical in greater nr le-s ,i,
that of tho other piincip.il i
Hons In the iidustr Hi
Si I.auuhlin. the Lackaw it - i
brla and liethleheni com- .
During thoo two jour- '
lieen such o.trnnrdlnar .u i
steel that the llucfiatl.n-
Ply have been of relative!--parlance,
with little nr n.. , ,
the prices. Had then- 1
fifthly lower mitmlv th.
probably have bc-'n nn l
an appreciably iiURlni-nn i
they probably would l,ai
less. All tilings rbb and II.
has happnncd to the sti-c! , 1
these past two years ni.n hi
verse of what will hapiu
two years to come. ii
declared In llurope, wi l t
nations come tn us f,,r ,i
In their lndiislri.,i ,. , .
'I I
i- fhus'
' it
' ' i',
Will they bo nbb tn s ipp t
tllemsi'lvcs.' It Is M,it,.l f .
put of the mills nf ticrm.uit
to be SO nr S.i per ri,t
and that that nf the r.i - . ,
Is greater than before t u u
energies are miw devnt;.- t t
factum nf impli-monts. m
appliances nf war. Il c
long In-fore they nio t r-
making of the Mi uoi .ir.
menls nf peace. Tin- m ,
the steel industry nf i',c t
that began with the ,. , i
century lias enabled a pi .i.
Justment t.i varvlnir ..
out the Violent dM.icdt -
eharacli-rlstlc nf prc i.
may have to face tli r
another readjustment r t ,
best brains of its adnn' -
Government im ,iii,,wt i r
olllcers of our eorr"t,iti. i,s
range In dealing wit'i i.
growing out of t.ie war I
obliged to allow tVni ,t w
In solving the t nii.n- t
peace XK t; mi
r rc
Hrr Kind, Tlinnalitlul I 'in. i"
rnxi Ui- ', 'ef,.M li i if, in,,
Tli W- l'.ii nil.. ,.- H-r I;.,- I"
. " M 1 "a-
at Mrs Si lU TU-i. . 1 . r I ,i
i r-i.tlnd Imr of hrr lurtliiu- l ska
pt .urprl.a tu hr
r 1
I MB-BjgjjBiaaa-aaas-Maiasiaias - .. ,
aw T B. - at

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