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THE GENERAL FEATURES OT THE LEVITATED SYSTEM 1- ALUMINUM BED-PLATE OP THE CAR Z- IRON BOpy OF THE CAR. 3- SOLENOID WHICH DRAWS THE VEHICLE PORWARO. 44-4- LEVITATING MAGNETS. BOSTON may become a suburb of New York. One may be nble to live In Boston nnd com mute dally to New York, cnjoyjng the Intellectual stimulus of a home at the Hub and the satisfaction of battling with big business on Manhattan dur ing working hours. Or one may spend the week ends at Chicago If a Man hattanlte, with only a matter of a two hours run separating: thews great In dustrial centres. All this sounds a bit fantastic, no doubt, but there is the assurance of an engineering expert that this very thing la not only possible but emi nently practicable. Prof. Boris Pet rovlk Weinberg, an Instructor In mechanical engineering at the Im perial University of Pctrograd, Is the man that stands sponsor for this prophecy. At the recent Congress of Scientists held hero under the aus pices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science he went further than merely predicting this revolution In transportation, for he showed plans and a working model of the apparatus capahlo of hustling 'human beings from point to point at a, speed of 500 mile an hour. There are probably a. great many people who would prefer to let Trof. Weinberg mako the first trial trip when his line Is built full size, because the sceptic wonders Just how thle Mus covite engineer will be able to halt his trains after he gets them whizzing long at the rate of half a thousand miles an hour. And then there are those timid fouls who fearbclng jarred by a collision at that high speed, quite forgetting that the cars, if built strong enough, would probably have much the better of it, like an armor pierc ing shell when opposed by a barrier of boards. Thla whole Idea of covering distance more quickly than is the practice now la Inspired by the persisiont restless-, nesa of modern life. People want to go as fast as passible when bent upon reaching some desired point. The aero plane has put the, speediest of ex presses somewhat In the shade, and It Is possible to make a hundred miles an hour safely through the air. There are reasons for believing that the fly ing machine will soon be doing much better than this. Logically, efforts are being made also to increase the peed possible in land transportation. Engineers have been working to realize this end for the better part of a quarter of a century, and with some measure of success. Judged by short experimental or demonstrating lines. In most of these essays practical ap plication on a commercial scale has been hampered by the expense. In other words, these extra rapid railway pioneers have been somewhat ahead of the times. But gradually the me chanical world has been developing ac cessories and bringing up the standard of economical electric current produc tion to a point where practical appli cation of these so-called dreamers' schemes Is In a fair way to become an accomplished fact. As part of the Interbuildlng system of express communication on the Capi tol reservation at Washington there Is an 18 Inch tubular Installation by which It in possible to send books, papers and documents from the Library to the Capitol Annex and to and from the Capitol Itself. The express matter Is placed In large cartridges or cap sules mounted on rollers and the car rier Is speeded up by atmospheric Im pulse, driving the container forward through space that has been pumped out and thus formed Into a partial vacuum. Considerable speed of transit la attained In this manner, and with a comparatively simple equipment. This plant Is mentioned In order that it may le plain In part how Prof. Weinberg Is relying upon actual per formance In planning a transports' tlonal system of much higher velocity and greater carrying capacity, for this Russian authority Intends that pas- sepgers, not express matter alone, shall patronize his line. The model re cently displayed here nt the, time Prof, weinDerg icciureo consisted tunua mentally of an Iron tube In which he Inserted a cylindrical car Just big enough for a full grown person to rest In prone. The tube represented the tunnel or conduit of the system nnd the cylindrical car fitted Into the passage wav with a clearance all around. There are no ralln for the carriage to rest upon, the only point of contact be ing above the car, and that only a light one. In other words, the vehicle was freely suspended. This Prof. Weln berg accomplished by means of eleo tro magnets exerting Just pull enough to hold tho car aloft and to servo to guide It along a Mnglo track, thus m if s8f THE CAR OF THE ELECTRIC CARRIER SYSTEM CLIMBING A 45 GRADE AT UNDIMINISHED SPEED. keeping It from swinging laterally when advancing at full speed. The overhead magnets of course were de signed to be energized in groups so that current would be consumed only In the Immediate neighborhood of the moving carrier. Now a cylindrical car rushing on at 500 miles an hour would have to contend with a headon nlr resistance which would call for the expenditure of a good deal of motive "energy, espc- ' daily If the air was' confined In a ' tunnel. Vrof. Weinberg has sought 1o dtspcee. of this difficulty by creating Seltzer Smlths an electrical engineer a partial vacuum ahead of the vehicle of Philadelphia, conceived a revolu after the manner of the Capitol pneu- tlonary form of self-propelled trans- matlc express. The main trouble Is that In a long tube of the size pro- posed by the Russian engineer it would be very expensive to maintain a par- tlal vacuum. Even It It were possible for him to divide the tube up Into . five or ten mile tactions the pumping and piping equipment and the in- 1 stalling of automatic air locks would entall a tremendous outlay, and It Is quite clear that he would require some such equipment In order to make his line mechanically practicable, Theoretically It would bo necessary ! for him to have air locks as he ap- pronched the end of a run, for In this In other words, his entire railroad be way the resistance could be gradually came n great induction, motor instead Increased and the cars brought with-, of fo many separate rcvo'.Kjng driving out violence to a standstill. For pro- pulsion the mrushlng atmospheric air I at the rear of tho vehicle would pro- vide the power, or the car could be drawn forward by magnetic attrac- tlon. I The thing that should interest New i Y'orkers most about this project Is ; that native talent has gone a good ' bit further than the point reached in the model shown by Prof. 'Weinberg. ' HELPING COOPERATING In the cltywido movement to provide constant systematic care for the 5,000 children stricken with Infantile paraly sis in the recent epidemic who require prolonged treatment to save them from becoming permanently deformed, the Post-Oraduato Hospital, at Second avenue and Twentieth street, has re cently established an after care clinic for the treatment of lower East Side victims of tho disease. Scores of chil dren with paralyzed limbs, whose par ents are unable to pay for hospital care for them, are treated three days a week In the Institution's dispensary. Cooperating with the hospital staff, tho Thursday After Care Circle, an or ganization of women, follows the patients Into their homes and when necessary buys braces, clothing or other things that are necessary for tho afflicted children. A bus also has been provided for conveying the moro se verely paralyzed children to and from the hospital. Efforts are made to be gin treatment promptly In every caso and to see that It is continued regu larly. Through tho efforts of the After Care Clrclo toys! hino been provided for the amusement of tho children while they await their turn to receive tho treatment that is expected to en able many of them to walk again. Every modorn practice that has been found helpful In relieving the pnraly.sls of the limbs Is used by tho hospital's afte,r care clinic. Muscle grafting, the elongation of tendons and muscles and hone surgery have been found of great value In en abling the victims to regain the uso of their limbs, Ono of the Important pluses of tho after care treatment Is tho musclo training under tho direc tion of an export. In the ensn of a child In wioso legs or feet certain muscles have been made useless the clinic staff members hnve found It poslhli to train another musclo or a set of muscles that did hlinllar vork to perform the simo functions as thoso that were left life less by the disease. Tho children also receive massage by which muscles that have not tntlrely lost the power of 4p is m Within the past two or three years schemes of the same nature Two been developed upon a much larger scale, nnd It is quite likely that more would have been heard of them In a practical way but for the disturbing effect of the war In Europe. The postal au thorities of both London and Paris were very much interested In some of these projects, for It was their deslro to 11 ml ways to collect and distribute , mail matter at speeds beyond the rates now commonly available. About ten years ago ITunklln porter. -Ills Idens were so novel that ho managed to satisfy all the experts of the United States Patent Office and to obtain his patent Inside of four niontns irom tne date or application, His system consisted fundamentally of a motor driven electrical vehicle without recourse to the ordinary spin- nlng motor as a prime mover. Ho In- genlously spilt up the elements of an electric motor and arranged them In such a fashion part on the roadbed between the tracks nnd part under the car that he was able to translate rotary motion Into horizontal motion. motors for his various cars. His Invention might have halted there had not the Electric Carrier Company of New York bought his patents and then spent a couple of years or so In experimenting In order to whip the Invention Into practical form. Ultimately tho company con- strticted a line l,i00 feet long con- slating of tunnels, trestles, steep grades and Inclines which pretty LITTLE CRIPPLES BACK ALONG ROAD TO HEALTH contraction are restored by the flow of fresh blood that Is caused by the manlpul-itlon of tho masseurs. High frequency electric treatments also are used effectively In strength ening the muscles affected by the disease. Musclo training, massage and electric treatment are continued for months. It has been found that In y-1 "' 1. w " v .... . . Giving electric treatment at the Post-Graduate Hospital to children suffering from THE SUN, SUNDAY, ALUMINUM thoroughly demonstrated the running capacity of the system. Tlte vehicles employed were largo enough to carry a thousand pounds and for normal service the cars made fifty miles an hour at full speed, although the same principles were nppllcable to a larger lino having a maximum velocity of 100 miles an hour. This demonstrating plant was Installed at Paterson, N. J., and was In service there for some months be fore the company went abroad to In terest foreign ' postal authorities and express concerns. It Is not possible to give more than a very slight Idea of how the Smith system works. An induction motor consists fundamentally of two parts: first, an Iron ring Inside of which, more or less like so many warts, are a number of electromagnets spaced equidistant. These magnets ore ex cited by nn electric current and be come alternately positive and negative according to the way the current Is fed to them. Technically this part of the motor Is called tho stator, because it Is held stationary. Within this big ring Is a smaller cylinder of Iron. This is slotted, and the slots are set with strips of copper which are insutatvd one from the other. Between this smaller ring and the wartlike magnets on the envelop ing big ring there Is an air space of a fraction of an inch. When tho magnets are progressively vitalized by an alternating current they exert a pull, and In this manner the central ring or ro"tor Is made to revolve by reason of the magnetic flux. It will be observed that no elec tric current is fed into the rotor or central ring. Now, Imagine a circular many Instances muscles that appar ently had -become uselcsa regained part of their original strength. In many cases surgical 'aid and braces make it possible to restore to tho children the uso of affected limbs. Operative treatment, by which chil dren are saved from becoming per manent cripples, Is not. however. JANUARY 7, 1917. 1 W1NO IC RtPUlStVE K OTTMtVUGWIB H.W. THt REACTION UFTS THE MAGHtT A60V ONE ALUMINUM HATE AND LEVITATES AW OTHER WMINUM, PLATE. "nor'-, . mi CARRIER WITHOUT COVER SHOWING CAPACIT OF CAR OF ELECTRIC CARRIER SYSTEM broken nt one point nnd flattened out Next, another Iron body built of hampered by slippery rails. Further, so that It might bo secured to thu un- j similar sheets is grooved crosswise and the vehicle goes up and down hill with derstdo of a car. Instead of wart.ike In this is laid a thin ladder or grid of! uniform speed. When descending tho magnets, picture colls of Insulated t stamped copper. For nil electrical pur- mechanism serves as a brake and con copper wire laid In grooves cut In the ' ioses this constitutes a rotor, nd It ' trols the rate of advance as If operated flattened Iron ring, nnd suppose thu was Just this s-ort of element that Mr. (by clockwork. There Is little to get Iron body to bo made of thin sheet" Smith designed should bo laid between , out of order. Trailer trains carrying bolted together Instead of a slnstle miU the tracks of his railway from end to i n total of 3,750 pounds have been run casting. Electrically there Is thus pio- end. , on tho experimental line, and plans vided the equivalent of the stator ele- : When excited by a three phase alter- ( have been prepared for n lino lietwecn ment of an Induction motor, but iv- . nnting current certain group' of the i New York and Philadelphia designed statormodelled as to shape, &c. usually begun until a year and a hitlfi has been given to muscle training, massage and electric treatinent. i Recent ndvances in muscle grafting and surgery aro finding remarkable uso In the treatment of Infantile ' paralysis patients at thu hospital. In the case of several children muscles i not affected by tho disease have been 2 PART F THE EXPERIMENTAL LINE OF THE ELECTRIC CARRIER. sSVSTEM. V" I coiN beneath the car aro brought Into grafted to parts of tho legs In which tin- muscles had disappeared and tho patient has been able gradually to use tho limbs affected almost as easily as when he hod two sots of muscles, Such musclo grafting combined with the training of une group of muscles tlmt does work Mimlnr to those of a group that was paralyzed, tho clinic infantile paralysis. SPECIAL TYPE OF HIGH-SPEED CARRIER. SOLENOID AT THE EXTREME LEFT. Plan Advanced by Russian at Congress of Scientists Discussed in Light of Things Already Achieved service, and the field thus Induced re acts upon the rotor element laid be tween the roils. The rotor la fixed, and, of course, cannot move, and as a result the stator attached to the ve hicle is pulled fprward by the magnet ism that Jumps the quarter Inch gap between the carrier and the rotor ele ment on the roadbed. The beauty of the system Ilea In tho comparative simplicity of the equip ment. The wheels simply serve to support the car, and progress Is not iisi ! to carry first class mall, parcel post physicians say, will probably be tho means of saving many children from being permanently deformed. The treatment in severe cases must cover many months before the affected mus cles regain tho ability to contract, thus enabling tho little victims to walk. Several severe cases In the orthopiedlo ward In the hospital have been fol lowed for more than Ave years. Thoso patients suffered from Infantile paraly sis at a tlmo when there wns no epi demic here. Constant massage, musclo training and electric treatment In tho cases of children who were attacked slightly by tho dlseaso In expected to result In a largo number of complete cures. Al ready youngsters at the clinic nro able to move limbs that a few months ago wero lifeless. Treatment of tho chil dren who wero most severely attacked will bo continued as long no necessary, nnd with the aid of bono surgery, braces and constant care In tho honie through the efforts of the After Pare I Clrclo It Is expected that many of the I children will bo enabled to walk again. Whenever thero Is nny musclo left I in the leg of a patient, even though the other leg Is utterly devoid of the tissue that enables n Joint to bo moved, the i hospital experts glvo treatment de signed to strengthen the limb nosses- Ing some muscle. ! adjusting the strain on bones of the knee nnd foot In legs . devoid of musclo In certnin cases It has been possible to make tho apparently useless limb serviceable, Such a leg, when the other limb of a patient Is normnl, acts Just as an arti ficial leg would. Infantile paralysis Is the result of a selective process of destruction by tho iuiu!i!i'imn micro-organism on a group of cells In the spinal cord, This process destroys or severely Injures tne motor nerves supplying the mus cles of tho body, Tho ncrvo destroyed, ine muscio is unawe to work. In severe cases of the disease the muscies atrophy and In many In- siances entirely disappear. Wherever any musclo Is left It Is massaged, ireaiea ann ir possible trained to per form the samo duties of n nenrbv inns. ole that was made useless, thus over coming the effect of tho disease that afflicted nearly 10,000 persons In Now York city In the recent epidemic. HI matter and express packages et th rate of a hundred miles an hour Possibly the most fasclnatlni schemo is that developed by Emll Bachelet of Mount Vernon. N. Y. la order to ovorcomo tractlonal friction Mr, Bachelet found a way to float h'j car or vehicle aloft by means of r. pulslve magnotlc Impulses. Most pw plo know enough about the ordinary horseshoe magnet to p-cal that two of thorn, become mutually repu!siv when their two 'south poles or th!f two north poles aro brought closely together. Working upon this prin. clplo Mr. Bachelet discovered that oe'. tnln non-mngnettc metals, llk cold, silver, brass, copper and aluminum ar affected by the llux or ftclrt of nn ex cited magnet nnd aro repeued more or less energetically. TIiIh Is becauso'of certain mapneKo currents commonly known as Koucault or f ddy currents. Those curren's hiuo generally been at source of vexa'wn to tho practical electrician. Mr Bach elet found a way to put them to help ful use. Ills experiments also hiouclit out that aluminum, which Is very hsht, Is tho non-magnetic metal most v!r ou!y repulsed by the edcl inrrcn'i generated by an electro-mat n Therefore Mr. Bachelet ues an al uminum platform or J)ase for his -t while tho rest of the b-"lv ' ' i vehicle Is of iron. There 1 n rnsnn for this combination of miidiitie non-niacnetic mi-iaW Beneath the l.in- a' nu n'l' ' cars travel h ha t-t .i ' system of elect in-niacncts T a-e energized In kv Mips -iii'l nr.- .i i rally hroir 1 t i .1 1 atnm I ' vanco of tho tar. Thor- ' ' arc always ennasb of i' mi i.t -beneath the vehicle, to exert ward thrust aualnst the nml. the aluminum platform or b.i- s lifting It clear f phyHie.il i. This sheet of aluminum nK . mi lates tho iron body of th n tho magnetic ' llux nnd pn . - underlying magtH'ts from p .'' i vehicle down. My enermzi- '. Hating magnets In groups ' m called "into service omI.v f r f whllo ns the car speeds on n'.o n and for that reonon can withs- l .a overcharge of current with-" k n Injuriously heated. Mr. Bachelet effectn tho ' -n'M motion of his cars by me ins . ' ' nolds really nnother form C if tlon coll or magnet, uhuh ' -i ex cited by an electric mrr. i , a strong tract!''. .r ..ttrait: ' Theso solenn,d are pi ire I , ' '"'t Intervals along the pat'i ' t tern and the ,kU an. n.t.- 1 ruling vehicles automatically ihr. , t .m in and out of henue. The cm- nr.' ! -a ly drawn forward by m.Mi s of magnetic -pulls and llien car if I em ward by momentum until V t'ia one of Influence of the next i .p'lv magnet. This souiuls as t: . t'i ' e 1 it movement might bo icr',. operations arc so nicoK- Iipk I motion Is really smooth. Mr. Bachelet s workim? Mount Vernon had a mo . feet, but with, ii tint l!n paratus worked l.euutitu'h showed time and again t h"t 13 raiso ills model carrier w - ,1 signed load of sl.sty-lh 'O pO , T ,. ter of a quarter of an . 'i . ' t repelling magnets. This u . - i flo-U the vehicle in the ai. , : that is necesslry is j im n and so sustnined, u.Mmm,' il contact, the freely n. .vn k . . easily dnewn foru ird 1. th ., i pull of the f-olenoal.s. Mr. Baohi l. I w us .-, ' ' t perlments and his , ,r . system built nhuiu- h.s i . 1 make It entliely praetu M - distance betwun New ton in an hour's tun. i i - whnt slower than project, but fast enoo' present day niniliem. n Mr. Bachelet went I . ! mithital; of the war. h i i arojMd much iiiioii"' r lieers and scientists n 1 i Invention Is not Intend. 1 supplant general r.ulw , does not Ulge i f, i . passengers or he.i 11. i is a run slzeil Ho m h,. carrying nt the i.iio ,.r hour unit carload of . mail, & weighing '" ' p I'lalnly n sjsicni eauso there is no plr - i, ' ' rails, would not l,. steepest kind of m i '. ven tor's conception or ' . latlon Is a tubular i .s . . ported high above th.. li 1 single lino of ( nl'.iim, tapei'id to n line po,i In fact, are virtu. i!h ets and because of t' . offer a inlifiiiiuni of i enveloping nir. It Is evident that P ' has been mmih h.it Emtio Baelielci's gesllve inn I ..f all tl . fact that Ilia" l- ii, i I maUiiig it pos. M.i.. ! safely ami nn i ' . from iolnt to p. t t . possible of att.ilimi. i 1 - '! '1 I railway systeiiih.