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THE SUN, SUNjBAY, DECEMBER 16, 1917.
3 SOME NEW BOOKS. 1 many learned biologists, and phlloso Thc Dann and Development of Life pliers. He prefers to believe, with ' on I'arth. A,rlstotle, ll,at "Nature produces those The research professor of zoology In J"""t being continually moved 3-nliimhla.Cnlversltv. who nl tin 7samo tlmo president of the American TMuscum of Natural History In this Z'ltv. ranks among the foremost of llv- :A.T VWevrtrts. Any work from hlo pen -tnerefora Is sure to command tho at- " tVtV.ou of men of science at home and itbvud; and ho has Juat produced a "book of unusual Interest, even to read "crs who lack a technical scientific 'training, In The Orlpln and Hvolutloti Zof Life (Charles Rcrlbner's Rons), by IJlEN-nr Fairfiki.0 Osbohn. The problem .which he discusses has provoked con troversy from the time of the tireek philosopher to thu Cyn of Darwin, ;and while It may never bo completely 1 solved, he shows us that modern re search has disclosed many facts that "help us toward a solution. In thin volume tho distinguished au thor presents the energy conception of -evolution and heredity. He regards -tho demonstration of evolution as a -universal law of living nature as being -tho. great Intellectual achievement of tho nineteenth century, and declares ! that It has won a place In natural law liesldo Newton's law of gravitation. -While, however, we know something tnbout ftoio plants and animals and -man have evolved, wo do not know 7ij they evolve. "We know, for ex sample, that thcro has existed a more -or less complete chain of beings from Zmonad to man, that the one toed horso "had a four toed ancestor, that man has .descended from un unknown, apelike iform somewhere In the Tertiary." As .'to the Internal causes of these and analogous transformations, the ex "planatlons that have Heretofore been goffered fall to satisfy the requirements "of scientific reasoning founded upon j observation and experience-; and Prof. "Osborn therefore prefers frankly to ac- " knowledge that the chief cause of the I orderly development of the germ nro ; still entirely unknown. . He points out that the law of the ; aurvlval of the fittest which is all of Darwinism that meets with general ; acceptance at the present day does ; not suffice to explain the origin of evo lution. "Kew biologists to-day ques-' tlon tho simple principle that the flt . test tend to survive, that the unfit tern! ; to be eliminated, and that the present ; aspect of the entire living world Is due ! to this great pruning knife which Is ; constantly sparing those which are ; best fitted or adapted to any condl ; tions of environment nnd cutting out Z those which aro less adaptive. But as t Cope pointed out, the survlvil of flt ; ncss and the origin of fitness are two X very different phenomena." Prof. Os ; born believes that the starting point ; for fresh Investigations of tho subject ; Is to be found In tho conception that " energy Is the chief end of life. ; Accordingly, our author propounds " four questions for consideration: First, C Is life upon the earth something new? - Second, Does life evolution externally "-Vsemble stellar evolution? Third, Is there evidence that similar Internal physico-chemical laws prevail In life evolution nnd In lifeless evolution? Fourth, Are life forms the result of law or of chance? As to the question whether life upon ""VltLV .V V tionai opinion Is "that something new entered this and possibly other planets with the appearance of life"; while the more modern scientific opinion is that "life arose from a recombination of forces existing in the cosmos." These re respectively Ijnown as the vltalistlcv view and tho mechanistic view. Prof. .Osborn Is an ndherent of the latter. "We may express as our own opinion," he writes, "based upon the application Of uniformitarlan evolutionary princi ples, that when life appeared on the earth sorrp energies preexisting in the cosmos were brought Into rotation 'with the chemical elements already existing." He holds that life Is a con tinuation of the evolutionary proceis rather than an exception to the rest of the cosmos, without desiring to be classed either as a m;chanist or a ma terialist. tyi the answer to the second question we come to a fundamental doctrine In Prof. Osborn's cosmic biology. Does life evolution externally ressmble stel lar evolution? An astronomical pteture of the universe represents It as slowly cooling off and running down; stars Maze forth as suns for millions of years and theij throw off planets, which ultimately become as nild and flesolate as our own moon. Our au thor answers his own question In the negative, and very confidently. The dis integration of the earth, according to his view, was checked by the develop ment of life upon the globe. Something new, ho says, was breathed Into the nglng dust. "Certainly the cosmic proc esses cease to run down and begin to build up. abandoning old forms' and .constructing new ones. Through these "activities within matter In the living state the dying earth, itself a mere cinder from the sun, develops nsw chemical compounds; the chemical ele ments of the ocean are enriched from new sources of supply, as additional amounts of chemical compounds, pro duced by organisms from th poll or "by elements In the earth that wero not previously dissolved, are liberated by llfo processes and ultimately carried out to sea; a ti3W life crust logins to cover the earth and to spread over the bottom of the sea." In other words, as life becomes,manlfest the evolutionary process no longer tends toward terres trial disintegration, but gives birth to innumerable forms and functions ap parcntly non-existent In the universe before. It is 11 consolation to have the nssurance of such high scientific au thority that ths world we live In is not a mere flickering rm1er floating in space and ere long to die out. The substance of the third of Prof. Osborn's questions Is whether them was a creation In the strict sense of' the word when life first, appeared on tno eaillis sunace. ".no." answers in.c auiuor, "so tar as we observe the on ner urst visit 10 mat douuuiui out ..process Is still evolutionary rather , troubled land. The tone of the epls thnn creative because nil the new ties Is conversational, not to tay gos characters and forms nf life appear to ! Pipy, but this does riot lessen their "rise cvt f.f new combinations of pee. Interest. The reader who docs not .jAjstipit matter, In other wordj tho j know Mexico personally will gam an r.a ::r.-.-.s of energy transformations accurate Idea of the conditions pre appear to be tuklng a new direction." vailing there before the advent of the "Whllo he insists that the entire trend , present reign of chaos. of scientific observation favors physico-chemical explanation rather than a vltallstlc hypothesis, he does not contend that nny explanation yet uggested Is final or wholly satisfies the demands of rcaeon. j mo iiiiavti'r 111 i-rui, uuorn s louriu luestlnn depends upon the Inquiry whether life forms have arrived nt their present stage throtigh tho opera- Hons of chance or the operations of biw -I... 1. ...... ..., i.j t liniiit, nail tl.tl llutlltir, in ,, . .... i,,ni the verv essence of the original Dar- Wlnlan selection hypothesis of evolu- uuu, uui no noes not Know that j has ever beeh etcmonstrated by actual observation, although accepted by " Y""""' i""'"!"" w.iim.... ... themselves, arrlvo at si certain end." We must therefore clasa Trof. Osborn with the advocates of the doctrine of law as against that of chance in detcr- -- "" prof!8??, .f. '1 "iL?"', The fundamental biological principle of development which Is tho central thought of his work Is thus formu lated by tho author: In each organism th phenomena of llf renresent tho notion, reaction and Inter- I action of four complexes nf physico-chemi cal energy, namely tnc.se or tw in inor ganic environment, 15) the developing or ganism (protoplasm ami body chromatin), () th germ nf heredity chromatin. (4) the llfi) environment. Upon the resultant actions reactions nn.l Interaitlona of poten tial and kinetic energy In each organism aolectlon Is constantly operating wherever there Is comptlt!on lth the correspond ing action", reactions nnd interactions of other orgai.lsms. While Prof. Oaborn appartntly deems this principle established so far as the government of' the organism Is con cerned! he concedes that ,lt remains to be discovered whether It also gbverns the causes of the evolution of the germ. In the course of the argument In support. of his main thesis he in serts the probability that life on the earth had Its origin on the continents In moist rock crevices or openings In' the soli, In great fresh water lakes, or In the salty seas which bordered the land. The chemical life elements of the simplest living forms known to science are derived from the earth, trom the water and from the atmos phere. Ten elements are now essential to life, namely: Hydrogen, oxygen. nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur. potassium, calcium, magnesium and Iron. Perhaps silicon should be added to this list. These substances occur Lin all living organisms except In some primitive bacterial forma. The au thor's idea is that "in the origin and early evolution of the life organism there was a gradual attraction and grouping of the ten chief life elements, followed by the grouping of the nine teen or more chemical elements which were subsequently added." A pri mordial stage of the chemistry of life probably survives In the group of bac teria known ns "primitive ireelers" which possess the power of finding food, 1. e.. energy. In a lifeless world. An example of thin group Is the Xltroxo mnna.i, which lives on am monium sulphate and forms nitrites. Much bacteria apparently cause the decomposition of rocks In the Pyrenees and tho Alp. In discussing the energy evolution of the most primitive plants. Prof. Osborn says that or.e of the note worthy geological discoveries of the present day Is the recognition of the earth building activities of minute seaweeds (algti. and he mentions a forthcomlrg work by Mcsrs. 1 W. Clarke and A. C. Wheeler In which the authors place the calcareous aig above the corals in importance in this respect, l-.imestor.es believed to Is more than 60,000.000 years old are be lieved to have been produced through the agency of this form of plant life. A period of not less than 30,000,000 years Is estimated us the time which Uon .h'backboned amma's: The firm vertebrates known are fossil re mains of fishes found In 1S9I near Canyon City, Col., nnd Inter in the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming and the tllaclc Hills of South Dakota. At the time of the publication of Darwin's famous book on the origin of species. In 1S59, no actual observa tion of the transmutation of one ani mal form Into another had ever been made. Prof. Osborn says that to far as ve knaw the honor of flrft ob serving how rew specific forms arle belongs to Wilhelm Helnrlch Waagea an Austrian palaeontologist and geolo gist, who was born In lstl nd died In 1900. Ills observations were made upon Yossll representatives of the ex isting pearly nautilus, and the minute changes of form a they appear In successive geological strata are shown In illustrations taken from Waogcn's paper on the subjeit. Innumerable Interesting statements of fact are contalne.1 In this volume, brought forward to elil ;.datp the author's views on the main points under discussion. These make the book attractive to the general reader as well as to those of scientific tr.y'es. in discussing the n generative y.tirer of chromatin, for example. Prof. Os born tells lis that this substance op erates In the case of the big trees of Callforrla to heal scars In the baric and woody layers caused by fires which occurred mnny centuries ago. He speaks of the sequoia knonn as General Sl'erman as 'the largest ond oldest llvir. thing known." The height of this gl.ir.t tree Is 27s feet and It Is 102 feet In circumference. The maximum life period of tho sequoias is believed to lie 3,000 years. Similar nnteworthv circumstances concerning plant and animal life are scattered all through the volume and serve to brighten nr.d relieve Us necessarily eerlous tone. "The Origin and Involution of Life" is an important and valuable contrl but Ion to tho progress of modern science In its widest and most philo sophical aspects. More Mexican Memories. An entertaining addition to the mass of American literature on Mexico Is the volume entitled Diplomatic Iiayt (Hurper and Urothers), by Kditii (VHiiAi'ditNisssv, wife of our former Charge d'Affnlres in that country and author of "A Diplomat's Wife in Mex Ico," which has recently proved no acceptable to the public, Mrs, 0'HhnURhnesty'n first book related to the stlrrlii',' events In 1913 and 1914 during tho Presidency nnd Immedl- ntely preceding the downfall of Iluerta: the present volume consists of letters written from Mexico at an enrller date. j recording me impressions experienceu, a ' The membership of tho fair author In the diplomatic circle guve her op portunltlen to sec and hear much t.iat L-ii to -ec and hear much flat i.;.r..Ki V. TiJ iin, observable by the ordinary r visitor, and she presents was not traveller manv plenum of scenes In which her irienun iruiu inr yitriuun loiniKii mm 1 Mohb purticinsteil. There Is a uescrip I tlnn of nn ncreeable dinner at the 1 French Legation where one of the guests was Maurice rtaoul Du Val. . . 1 - 11 1 . - Illltru IHIHI IJUtyri lllll Illt-millJIlnliftl . , , , sportsman who had recently uarrled an attractive Ameilran. "An ntmos It.yhorc of iccent married happiness 1 hung about them, with the romantic adventure of Mexico In tho back ground." Tho wlfo was handsome and sparkling, and Mrs. O'Hhaughnessy tells us tint tho ladles felt It was iultc .a treat to sec her new costumes, they were all so sick of one another's things. They were sure the name of Worth, the Parisian tnllor, would have been disclosed It the brldo hod worn her waistband outside. A touch of tragedy It given to this gossip by a footnote referring to M. Du Val In those word:: "Maurice ftaoul Du Val, fallen on the field of honor, Verdun, May 5. Hlfi." The Madero family figure frequently In Mrs. O'Bhntignessy'H letters. Tho President, It appears, placed crest re liance on the spirits, especially as manifested through tho agency of planchette. There Is a story which the author declares to be authentic, to the effect that on one occasion lie asked planchette what the mure had In store for him and was told that he would one day be ITcsldent of Mexico. "He Is supposed to have arranged his life In conformity to this prophecy, which put him In a condition of mind where everything that happened of happy or unhappy augury bore on the fulfllrtient of this destiny." Mme. Ma dero was subject to spiritualistic trances, according to rumor current among the diplomats, and when In these conditions she would answer doubtful questions concerning her husband's future career. President Madero's wife was greatly Interested in a project for Improving the condition of the women of Mexico by introducing Into the country a lace and embroidery Industry similar to that established by the Queen of Italy on some of the Islands near Venice and edsewbere. When Mrs. OShanghnessy bade her farewell In October. 1912, Mme. Madero told her that one hun dred thousand women had been organ ized for the work In Porto Itlco, nnd asked her If she could not Interest peo ple In New York In the new Industry. Only a few months later. In February, 1913. the President was murdered. This book enables one to. take a pleasant trip Into Mexico without leav ing his own fireside and to see the country as It appeared to those who visited It under favorable auspices be fore the recent revolutions. LEARNING TO KNOW THE FLAG. Vr lina RrODKbt New Meaning the Star anil Stripes. Ar.i kmc brlelit. new flags arc flying from places where flags never flew before and people are counting me sunn am, ..t,i. r 11. n nu-fmancrs about mat- Ipc of flair ettauette. And the general interest has brought to light the fact fW n vnsl majority of comfortable Americans have been forgetting even that they had a flag, or if not quite that at least the number of Its stripes and stars, uv nprfect'v comfortable ana happy : why bother about a flag? The existence of Filch lazy Indifference finds xnresslon In the naive interest now be ing shown In the resurrected colors, says Scrlbner' Muaa:lnr. I know a houne where for n week ur two after Ameri ca's rebirth the flag wan continuously displayed nlaht and day proudly flap ping union down. And 1 have talked lo sweet girl graduates of American schools who did not know lliat there was a star for every State or that there weie rort elght: and one in particular who. when I wearily Informed her that there were thirteen stripes, exclaimed. Thirteen: How awful !" Flummery? Superstition" Idol wor ship" I ve listened to beetle browed professors with dirty collars and broad inlu and to unshaven lound shoul dered youtUs fplttlng forth great new Ideas of the melting pot and the fusing of nntlons, the social millennium and the brotherhood of man : I have heard them industriously Impugning the motives of patriots, pokhis their plpestems Into the private lives of Presidents, caijer In release the fetid breath of long forgotten scandal inonyeiM, leaving a ti all of slime across the flag all to demonstrate a brave Independence of thought. 1 am clad. In the crisis that f ices u, thai they cannot crawl under the ro'ors of fienlom and hide while the clean cut sons of our heroic dead go forth to flsht their Kittles. Proselyting pacifists, hurdetieji with theories and Ideals nnd olilnatIy blind to the facts of a sinful norld, have led our youth astiay We have had teach ers fcr our children who have contused the office, of teaching with that of preaeatng, and so have preached to them sermons in width ti.e gieat prin ciples of our national e-uf.erce have been neglected the great pnv. 'iple that Justice must be fousht f t to-day as It was fought for :n the days or the pa triot pioneers, with a stilwart heart and the strong rm of r!shteouine. fASSING OF B0MANCZ Can fiood Story be Written Aboat Motors as About Ships f Why la there lers magic In a high powerad automobile or tnc Lincoln High way than there was ir liana s nitio brig, the Pilgrim, clpe hauled on the wind? Why (.hould this new motoring story. "Two Million Miles Jfchlnd the Steering Wheel." strike one Bs dull compared with "Two Years Before the Mast"? I have never read an Interesting au tomobile story, writes Dallas Long Sharp In the AMontlo JJoiifMy. They, all em phasize the miles,- mere miles mile per hour, miles per gallon, miles per tiro a stupid and unconvincing thcuie. I doubt If there ever can bo so good a motor story as Dana's eea story ; perhaps never another sea story so good either. For John Masefield, poet and sailor, sayB that romance has now been driven from the sea ; that the Ship of Dreams is gone ; that you may haunt the wharves In these piping times of steam Vet never see those proud ones swaying home, With malnyards backed and bows scream with foam. As oace lung since, lUiru alt the docks uere tilled With that sea beauty man has teased to build. They mark our paasaao as a race of men, llarth lll not aee suth ships again wllch mnke, mB ,han,( ,1Myen f fain, wl).r0 th(, Mnifi 0,j ro,nnnt,c )oe remains about what It evfr was. DEATH OF JAPANESE SCIENTIST. Represented Country Abroad nt In ternational Consreas Japan recently lost one of her most distinguished scholars and educators In - Uie death of Dr. Huron Dalroku Klkuchl, ',IY"JL" "L'J. ... '. ' r,v -unr'r, premueiu 01 uie unpe- rial Academy, chalunnn of the IClucatlon i,lVestlgatlon Commission nnd professor emeritus In the Toklo imperial Unlver- Bty. ills end sumo suddenly, due, to - apoplexy, st me age pi sixiy-iurrc, jears, - Me was educated nt Cambridge, Hug land, where be especially excelled In mathematics, sajs the IJnil nml ll'nf n ' '";,;', I " Vi . , imtru 1-.1iM.11n1 , ,. - .....,.. , .... n,.l.l , 1 1 urmit-H 1,1 nt-iciit-t- 111 inr niniii iiiipriliil University. He represented .lapsn abroad st 'several lutnriintlenal scientific congresses In America and Kuiope 1 POEMS WORTH HEADING. The laggard, livf, that passed mn In the night In a halo aa of flams, Burns there still ethereal light tn the, country whence you came 7 I, who lagged with footsteps slow, Walt before the portals drawn: Is there ny fire aglow On the altars of the dawn? Comes a whisper from ths dead: "You had found your utmost dresnt Had you followed whara I ltd When the altar were agleam. Now the portala of the day , Open but to ashes gray; nitlng winds In eddying gust Blow to earth the drifting dust." It. JS. Btnt-ia. The Auld Hcoteh Wife. They ear I'm kinds crazy - Bin' they sent m the news about him, But there's no an lioor o' the day That I'm no hearlrT Jim: When I'm darnln' their socks I hear him alngln' Us me. When .llmmle was a balrnte lie was the brawest alngsr Y' ever heard, Ills wea roon' volca In nny halrt wad linger; And eo I'm thtnktn' that'a the way I'm aye hearln' him alngln' taa me. They said It was at Arras, But It'a no sae muckla odds As Una's he's fine he's gane, Lying some place under soda; But when I'm wuhln' the dishes I hear him alngln' tae me. He was a bonny laddie, And I thocht that his reld held Was n cllnt o' ilod'e gold glory When 1 was smllln' and aayln' "God speed"; Noo even when I'm greetln' aboot him I can hear him slngln' tae m. I suppose It'a the best aye happens. And I'll no start rlndln' fault Wl the mercy that's been good to me Or the bullet thst said to him "Halt!" For when we're alngln' In tho kirk I can lit ar him slngln' wl' me. And whether lt' the kirk times Or some o' Hobble Burns, "Auld Hundred" or "Sweet Afton," Ma halrt Inl4e o' me burns; Kor thn' I never sep him I can hear him slngln' tae me. And If he's near me all the das I should be clad We're no apatrt. And I'm thlnkln' It'll no be lang (The doctor eays that It's ma halrt). And maybe afore ye ken We'll bnlth be slngln' theilther again. John s. BsnNrrT. HnLTOKS. Mm. Toast tn the Soldier Hoys. from fe rllntrlpia Public l.iigtr. It seems only fair to remember the boys Who are leaving us all for the din and the g nolfe OfThls horrible war that some others be gan. But that we hope to finish God bless Uncle Ham! We're proud of our volunteers My I but tliey'ie brave. For they're solng to fight In the face of the giave. I They'll be shot nt and shelled, and tha cannons will roar: But they'll keep rlcrht on fighting foi peace evermore! They're relvlns on Justice, for tight muat or-vall: , It the rnmy batter. asatilt and assail Till they've gained at the end of this ter rible mrlfe A world nlde fraternity, now and for life. So. hrr' to the roldler toys! Heaven help all Who. not even murmurlnc ansner the call: Kor they know what It means, so do you, sn do I. That i.nn.itit. unattended, la a eoldler'a "guod-by!" Nuw, remember, to serve v, can all da "our bit." As they're losing Hie life (iod will never" renin; A1 they're flthllnr nnd dylr.f for ou- and for you Isn't that true ilevntlin to "The fled, While and niue"? Kaiushiml A, Hsstinos. The Old Blind Man. '10111 Ikr Buffalo Litnlif .Vrire. Down our Utile one street town. His ibc sn" him I e 'em lt Ills cane -upptn' tip an down. An' heurt 4t.eepln' time e'lth it; A-nodilhi' here an' smllln' there, An' epresdln' gUdneH everywhere, Tet blind' a stone, an' I demure Hp didn't seeni tu mind a bit! He took for granted that the eky Was blue, like what It ought t' be Sjj! "perhaps It ain't, but I Prefer to think It Is." eija h-; By faith he believed that all things wer.l Precisely llke'the Maker meant. Mn , tinsmm-nce he j;tjt content That heap of folks don't Bit nho see. He held that Hit the world below Was perfetk as a unrld can be, lie ptefetred to tllltll; It so. All b'J.eve ll. too. It seemed to me. It n-,'er s-Mne I his benrt teplried. An' time '11 aicnln It struck my min i Tli h t w -'r the one" that's groplnx blind, V,'1T.1 l.t m t only one rou'd ! John l. rxt.s. Abljali Utile. This Is the tale nf Abljuh Oale. The skipper ami bis crew. ho set their sail to catch a whale And caught a bl; one too. Sine Hie Lord made whales the tribe of tiales t Had followed their track In ships, And In the throes uf "Thsr she blows" Had cradled a hundred cli'ns. I have heard him say In hi .Ira v, lint way That be hadn't no finally tree; atuch things don't grow on the aes, ou know, And the tiales II. Id on the sea. Lanky and gawky two fisted, pawky. Tight lipped nnd blue of chin Was Abljah flsle but lo our tale. nd pass the p.innlkln, When the war began.' like a sailor man, He. Joined tho llesfrve, you bet; But be wouldn't take ply and he said his siy: 'I ain't earned nothln' yet." He knew each rent In a dollar pent. A a frugal Yankee must, And It hurt to demur to thnt seventy per. But abovo all was he Oust. So he set hl sail un the .lane I. Gale, AVIIh eighteen In the crew. And Orson Talt was of coursn his mate. As he'd been since nliiety-twu. When off Cape llace they talsed a traca Two points off the weather bow. And through the crern rose a submarine, And Abljnh said, "1 vow!'1 The wide batch yawned and a dozen spanned On the deck bs It cleared the brine, nd from the apruwl came a raucoua call, "Come aboard, nu Yankee swine!" And the longboat roars us fourteen oars At Abljah'a word let run. While, seeming slack, behind his back He lanyards his harpoon cun! When n Rale takea aim at came. It's game, As the btrbs break through her skin, Comes Abljnh's yell, "Pull! Pull like hell!" (He says ho says, "1'ulMlke sin.") And that submarine gives a .wild careen, And the hatch dips under brine. And III language roarse he yells to Orse, "Ve fool, ye, pay that line!" i . Then bock to the rail of the Jane P. dale With that submarine In tow, And ha sputters Dutch, does her captain, much. Sas Abljah, "Mehlie so," But b sort nf smiled when Orson, riled, Cries, "Let's keelhaul the curl" And ho says, "My sakesl when It'a him thnt makes Us seventy dollars per!" Mutics Hottus. QUESTIONS AND ANSWEHS. Readers seeking Information regarding phases of war work nre urged to write to, telephone to or visit the- Mayor's Committee an National Defence, sixth floor, Hall of lleconls Building, Cham bers and Centre streets, Kew York, The committee conducts an Informa tion bureau Jointly with the American Tied Cross. "A" bets f0 that President Wilson will have to serve ns President of tho TTidttd Stales until this war Is over and sayt that Hie Constitution has been changed regarding voting for the Presi dent In tlmo of war. . Jaues Anderson. "A" loses. The Constitution has not been changed and says nothing about the election of a President in time of war. The President Is Commander In Chief of the army and navy only while In office and because of his office. May 1 ask through Questions and An swers for the names and addresses of any cooperative buying and distributing organizations In New Tork and vicinity that are conducted solely for the benefit of subscribers; In other words, those not operated for private gain but which dis tribute profits to their patrons? My ad dress Is 2i Parle terrace, Bridgeport, Conn. F. n. Lttlr. To whom shall I send binoculars for the navy's use and to whom camera lenses for air photography? K. Send binoculars to Franklin D. Roose velt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, enre of the Naval Observatory. Wash ington, I). C. Send camera lenses to tho photo graphic dlvlaion of the Signal Corps, U. S. A.. Mills Building Annex, Wash Inston, D. C. I rhould like to know the history of the service flag and the restrictions sur rounding; Its dlrplay. A. V. The service flag was designed by Capt. It U Quelsser of Cleveland, Ohio. The Chamber of Commerce and the City Council of Cleveland recommended Its use, nnd the flag became Instantly popular throughout the country. At the last session of Congress a bill was Introduced to make the flag of ficial, and It was suggested that $J0, 000 be appropriated to provide flags for families having sons and daughters In rervlce. The pressute of war legisla tion sidetracked the bill. But the dis play of this flag has become so gen eral as to make offlcjal adoption an un important formality. No such sanction Is any longer needed. The standard measurement of the ser vice flag Is four by five feet, but the flags are necessarily made to order In many cues nnd the number of stars to be displayed may require nnother proportion of length nnd breadth. In some Instances It has been Impossible to display the hundreds, and even thou sands, of stars representing men from a single cortioratlon who have entered the army or navy. I'nder these cir cumstances It has generally been deemed best to form on the white centre field numerals to denote the number of men under the colors, forming the numerals of little stars. It wnH the Idea of ths originator of the flag that the stars should rcpte cent both men and women who have entered actively Into national service by abandoning normal employment for work directly concerned with the war. The tendency l to restrict the flag to the represent'itlon of men or women In the military or naval service women being In the naval service, for example. as yeomen. In any case. It seems to us that the star should represent active service only. Several eiuggesllons have been made of ways to indicate the death of a person represented by a star on a service flag. The best seem to be the substitution of a gold star for the blue star, or edgln; a blue star with a black border, or re moval of the blue star from the white Held and placing of a white star In the red border. I have at times been lntetested In reading nntler concerning Hawaii and would ba pleased If you or others who ate Interested In tho same subject could furnish the names of any books relating to these Interesting Islands. I have read parts of what apptars to be a school history of tho Islands by Mr, Alexander, another book In which i woman newspaper correspondent de scribes a visit to the islands, and a third whoso title, IT I remember It, was "Around the World With a King," which was Written by one lit tho Ministers tif Knlukaun, who accompanied this Ulug In the Journey aro"nd tho world. Aside fiom its description of the journev this books gives considerable light m the history and development of Hawaii. J. U. M. Gnrould, "Hawaii ; Scenes and Im pressions" ; Goodrich, "The Coming Ha waii" ; Castle, "Hawaii, Past and Pres ent" ; Lawrence, "Old Time Hawaiian and Their Work"; Alexander, "Story of Hawaii"; Lyman, "Hawaiian Tester days"; Grlflin, "List of Books Relating to Hawaii" (lSftfi) ; Blatkmaiin, "The Making of Hawaii" j Brain, "Transfor mation of Hawaii": Whitney, "Hawai ian America" ; Young, "Tho Real Ha waii"; Shoemaker, "Islands of the South ern Seas" ; Muslck, "Our New Posses sions" ; Twombly, "Hawaii nnd Its People": Hawaiian Department of For eign Affairs, "The Hawaiian Islands"; Dibble, "History of Sandwich Islands"; Lllluokalanl, "Hawaii's Stoty"; Kala kaua. "The Legends and Myths of Ha waii ; Pomander, "Account of the Poljueslan Raco and the Ancient His tory of the Hawaiian People," The books named first nre Inter, the others earlier works. Please define n "machine politician." Soon to hk a Voter. A political leader of whatever Im parlance who works exclusively through an existing political organization, state, county or lesser, of any party. The machine politician is a politician who believes that nothing can be duio without organization ill respect of which ho Is everlastingly right. What has made tho name odious is tho ordi nary mnchlno politician's misuse of his organization for private political cuds, When tho machinery is employed to name an unlit or subservient man for ofllco and to elect him ; when the leader begins "trading with the enemy"; when alliance's ore promoted for Improper pur poses, I, e purposes opposed to tho general welfare of tho community, tho iniiehino politician deserves tho worst that has been said of him. PROBLEMS FOR 'SDN I ' READERS TO SOLVE Olio in Discards at Bridge; An other in Drawing the Onrao nt Checkers. Bridge problem No. 438 was a clever Illustration of the manner in which an adversary may sometimes be forced to ' nui urn uwn imimoi uuiuijciiiii. nil" to make ruinous discards. Here IS tlin I distribution : 4s K 9 0 8 J 2 K' 0 17 6 5 4 3 Clubs are trumps and Z Is In the lead. Y and Z want five tricks against any de fence. , The solution Is for Z to lead a spade. which V wins. Y then leads the king of trumps, upon which 7. discards the king of hearts. -The losing trump follows, upon which 7. discards a small diamond. This throws A Into tho lead, unless lie has glvm up the Jack of clubs on tho king and now allows the nlno to win. If that Is his defence, the best heart and the top diamond settle matters at once. If A wins the second trump lead, ho must lead a heart, and no matter which heart It Is. Y ducks It. so as to start II to discarding. Tho next heart Y wins, and by that time II is down to a diamond nnd a spade, or two diamonds. If he lias kept the spade. 7, keeps both diamonds. If 11 lets go tho spade, 55 Is left with tjie last spade, and still has the aco of diamonds to get In with. The point Is K's getting rid of the best heart, and Y's forcing two discards from B. The following have sent in correct so- lutbns to date: Alene Henry Andresen. Hay nidge. W. T. Uuggelen. Frederick Bergen, (S. P. Howen, Lawrence Brandt, lldith Clarke. Milton Cochrane, Alton Dee. Walter Dibble, Martin M. Dough erty, W. P. Kdwards Kllzabeth .lane Karlng. Christopher Krances. riuuip J. tiales. Roscoo C. Harris. L. S. Hart. Jr.. Charles II. Hazlett. W. N. Hill, Charl-s F. Johnson, W. .1. Jackson. T. .1. l.cvinc, Marv Lee. W. T Lelghton. W J. Mr- Clell'an, N. C. Molntyre. II. I. -Minor, It. C. O Urien. Adam J. Otis, w inusor j-ai-mer. Gertrude Payne, A. L. Phillips, Jay Reed. tl. II. Robinson. Charles M. Jioot, Alfiod Saunders. iM. O. Tower. Johnson Taub, S. K. Thomas. C.eorge T. Wold. D. A. vv.. V. 1'. V., Y.. . valine, joiiii fi. Whiting, J. W. Wortis and ICathcrlne Young. . . . Here is the last of tins series oi ten problem", after which Tun Sf.v proposes to b"5ln giving credit for solutions on the point system, which seems to be more popular than any othrr thce days in all forms of competition. nr.tPGK rr.oni.EM no, 4(!0. J 10 8 6 V J . I Z 9 7 '?ti, SpX) FTl o C$x o0 M I o A J. -J I M y o fp JLISS o 4, 7p i 'If J J ' A e I . A toft. .. j Club" are trumps and 7. '- ill Hie lead. Y and 7. want lx tricks. Tho distribution 1-: V h.n the ton six of trumps; king queen ten deuce of diamonds, nnd four of spades, a has the Jack eight four of hearts; nine four of trump. ; nine eight of diamonds. 15 has the eight of trumps; Jack seven sK three of diamonds; king and queen of spade", 7. has tho queen ten of hearts ; three of trumps ; aco of dia monds ; nlno eight six of spade". CHlX'KEIt K.NPi.veis. Problem No. 4T,S was an inetructlve Ic-ou in drawing h game with equal pieces by avoiding a flrst-pnsltlrni win tli.it is threatened by the opponent. The manner In which white gets his slnglo man out of the trap Is worthy of cnrelui studv. Tho distribution Is: B'.at k man on ?, King 011 to. White man on 21, king on 1, hllu to play and diaw. lleru are Uie mows that solve. White. Black. 1-. 1014 f.-i . 1417 :. 1 ii li". "t 14 2.' 21 17 13 K M II I 10 1.1 IS 2S ID ID Tho fnllowlpg have sent In conect so lutlolis to date: DeWItt K. Cnyton, C. K. Cotllss, William tl. Clarke, Fnustn D.i luml, James llyland, L. S. Hart, Jr. Mnry Lee, William Lonlc, '. J. Mctjarry, John Mutch and .lulhm C IUmch. Solu tions for No. 4.1S nlso to hand fiom Owen Fox and Thomas Foy, Olio other with no signature. Hero Is tho last ofAlils series of ten, for which membership catils in Tin: St"N Checker Club will be Issued. After this solvers will bo lated ofi the -point sys tem. At Hie Hist glince this problem ap pears lo be a duplicate of 0110 published in Tin: Si'N mute than two years tigo, but it is not, and it has nn entirely dif ferent line of play aim is by another composer. rnow.RM no. 4ii. ciiucKur.s. Hlac".:. 1111 an k m a mw , mmsw m mm w m . w& m bs While. While to play and win The distribution 1st Black meti on IS, tl and 17; king on 211, While men on 21 uud '-'": kings up 11 nml I.'. J, 11. Morse writes that by u slngulari covered nnd announced, coincidence in a itne jUyed at New . ..... a .Alt, tltm 1 exact moves ghown In problem No. 457, the solution uf which did not appear un til the next 'day, but through a nilsplay nf biBih'M white caino out with a win. White played 25 2 a. 10 U : 1916, i:i9: in 10, Through the- medium of Tub Bon a number of ihitelisi by correspondence have been arranged. H. V. Blvette, Har rleburtr. Pa., would like to make such a. raatch with ohe or more members or Tn 8UW Checker Club. TltOn Dig ARLt'.n GUNS. A. T. WMmore awnds the following solution' of the problem of moving three disabled guns In such a manner Oiat lhey, gnan j,),, the place of three active guns, thero oting only one vacant spw., ... ...... Ul., mnwiil statrt tnra than I one other gun to reach that space. He says that after a nun of one kind has been moved, one of the other three must be moved nextf atld the next gun A L . AL.. l.lH.1 n to 111. moveu raust oa wo anniu " neuf. This rule holds until Hie nintn move. By that time the puixle will ie solved. Call the active guns A II C, and thn disabled guns X Y Z, the seven spacts belnr numbered, thus: 1 2 .1 4 d 6 7 ABC X Y Z These arc then the movements: X to 4. ( to B to 3, X to S, T to 4, 55 to 6, C to 7, H td 6, A to 3. Tile guns are now altemtely active and disabled. We proceed : X tn 1, Y to 2, 7. to 4, B'to , A to ii, 55 to 3. M, W, Jacobs, Jr., says that It Is not difficult to show that all problems of this class may be solved by calculatlpg di rectly from the number of cannon on either side of the space when thtio num bers ore equal, by the following rule: Add the number of camion In tho two groups, square It and deduct one. The figures so obtained ,wlli bo the minimum number of moves required to Interchange the two equal groups. This Is under the conditions of movlnonly one piece at a lime or passing behind only one gun at a time. SCHOOL FOR CARD FLAYERS. AVCTtOW BRIDGE. U. H. ft. says: Dealer bids a heart, ccond ha'tid a spade. What must the bird hand have to assist tho hearts? In tho first place he should have at least three hearts ; or two, one as good ai the queen. Failing this strength ho would deny the hearts by bidding some thing else. If he had a bid of any kind. In the neSt place he should have at least two tr'cks, or one sure nnd two probable, suclt ns n aee, queen, Jack suit, or an ace In one eult and king, queen in another. But If he haa n honor among his three trumps, or has four trumps, he can assist with a trick less outside. X. X. J. asks what constitutes pro tection in a suit, and Bays opinions seem to differ on that point. A suit is protected when the adver saries cannot run it down against you, winning every trlok. Position may change the value of protecting cards, as when a suit Is likely to be led up to tho player. Three to the queen Jack would be protection In fourth hand, but second hand It might be led through twice. Some players call four to the ten pro tection, hut that Is n gamble. Crlbbage. P. It. I. asks the count on this hand nnd how arrived at. Two tfvens, two aces and a six. The two sevens will combine with either nco to make a fifteen, 4 holes. Hither seven will combine with the six and two aces to make two more fifteens, 4 holes. Then the two pairs are worth 1 more, total 12 holes. A. J. L". says: Two playing, th cards, fall two, three, ace, two. What I'j the counting? Kach player pegs a run of three, as there are no duplicates to Interfere onco the run Is started. J. T. says: The non-dealer cuts the pack correctly for the starter, but the dealer turns up two caris. A bets there must be a new cit. 1 A Ii wrong. The nondealcr has his choice of tho cards turned. M. T. L. sa.ts. The Jack of hearts is j turned for a starter. When A comes to count his hand and crib he Includes the two points for the turned Jack. 15 bets it is too late. I The two points for his heels must be I scored beftiio the dealer plays a card ! or the score Is lost. Poker A. V. thinks that the snuver to T. .1. la t week should have been that thero Is only onei kind of flush, as, he says, straight flushes and royal flushes aro neither of them flushes, being sep arated from Hushes In rank by the I11 lervonlng full hand and four of a kind. Then a straight flush Is not a straight because It Is of higher rank. In that case, what Is It if not a flush?' If a player were called on to say what kind of flush he had, how Is .he to differen tiate? S. (1. says: We understand that the lulo for cards exposed In eleallng for tho draw Is that if a player asks for two or three aiwl one Is overturned he must tai;c them all, but that if he asks for only one and It Is turned up hp cannot take It. Is this correct, and if so, why tho distinction'.' It Is not correct. No card cxiosed in dealing for the draw can be taken, but If three aee asked for, two of them are kept nnd tho exposed card will be rn placed after nil thu players havo been helped. Tho law was made to prevent dishonest dealers f0111 altering the nin of tho cards In giving them out for the draw. No matter what cards nre asked for, a faced card, if not taken, does not alter the nm. 3 3. 11. asks in what books ho can find the tables of percentages and oddil Hut the point nf the La for and against certain hands, "The Complete Poker Player," bv John B,ac.rld3e. "The Gentleman's Handbook of Poker," by William Florence. "Tha Poker Book," by Ulchard Ouerndale. "A Treatise on Poker and Its Probabilities," by K. P. Phllpotts. The last named is very scarce. 1", II. 1, says; A deals, II, ( and i pass, i; opens and F Is about to come In on a pair when he tinds he has six ends. 10 itihlut his hand is dead, Why shevuld F suffer for something ,at Is not his fault? He did not make the mis deal. It was his fault to neglect counting his cnuls before lit lifted them. Ills hand Is dead and he Is out of that pot. II. II. Y. says: We havo examined Iloyle's book of rules and In two places II says that If 11 pot l opened by mis take "th.1 opener is penalized, nnd any other player In the left of the putative opener can then open the pot." This dues not :ig-e with your division In niifiver to J. W- II. There nr? iiviny so-cslleil "IloyUs" on the m ir'iel, but there Is no such rule s That minted In nny booh on pok.r llow is fir opener to Ve penal. zed? At what time is the mistake In Uf dle ERRORS IN BIDDING AT ROYAL AUCTION One Favorite- Blunder Is to Overestimate the Value, of a Singleton. By R. F. FOSTER. There Is nn old saying to tin. ,rffCt that experience Is to f.ome persons nv. thn .Ken 1lt,lu nS n l,l .. 1.1.1. . llhlnllnatn nnlu I hn tfirU !.... 1. ... 1 . . """ " ""l' ii" 11 servo lo The remark seems to tit some of n,0 j we see at the card table. Thev tiPv., learn or prodt by their expe'rlpnres , They will make tho same bids nnd Fr I I.a A. I . I.. 111 them fall In tho same wny time afi-r lime, without apparently nntlclmr .. connection between the bid and the fail. urr. Thero nre some bids that are failures only In the matter of degree. Uplnlorm arc not always unanimous as to tlis limit) of such bids. Take the custom of overralllng n no trumpcr, second hnr.4, with, a suit, for Instance. Thoo whoM Judgment In such matters cairlcs weight think the player Rhould have enough to gt tamo with averago assistance tnm the partner. Others think he should have the 0,14 trick . In his own cards and trnn thn partner for one trick only to fulfil the contract. The bid is then reatnnably safe nnd may act as a pusher. The great objection to it t-at 't frightens thn no trump bidder Into a safer contract, If ho has one. The cUtf. cat Instance of this kind Is the plater who overcnlled a no truniper with two hearts, holding the six top hearts ami the ace of diamonds. The next bid by the dealer was five clubs, which he t,,irP As wo get lower In tho scale of skilful bidding we reach those who will otcrcull a no trumper with nny hand upon nhl(h they would make a suit bid if th, r, trumper had never been mentioned, Thin class may be divided Into those who re. strict such bids to the major suns nni thoso who will mako tho hid In nnv sit'.t, Tho theory underlying the bid n th, same In both cases, "All modern no trumpors aro bluffs until they arc provM to be genuine." As wo get lower down tho scale r,f' thoso who never learn from exprle"- wo get to tho class that still believer h six trumps and a singleton and will h. It as dealer or ugnlnt nny other bid, t.o trumps included. This is 11 double error on Its face. As an original bi 1 it In simply unsound. At tho left of a clareil no trumper it Is rotten. In spite of this one may sen the M mado every tiny, and even in thn hct 0' company, where thn play ! supposed to be better than average. When It cot.i off it is a great bid. Those who me ; do not keep a ledger. As an rxmiple of it there Is deal No. 1 nt the Kr rW- bocker duplicate game on lie ember I The dealer sat north. cjr Q 7 8 - I 9 8 4 O Q 10 4 3 7 C4 7 5 O Z 6 6 2 Q 10 8 5 4 3 OA J 8 6 SI 6 3 , 0 9 7 A 6 Z O 10 9 a Z 3 J 10 2 O A J 0 K J 9 In the majority of cases V. tnrt(,i wttl no trump, at some tables, with a Cub on account of the 4S In honor". The , ,. slrurtlve play came up at the t.iblc ' which the no trumper wns nw-rca l'l l tho hand with six trump and a s vir ion. At least, that Is what the b.Uf thought he had. but ns spa les w were trumps nil he hud was pmla" trick with the king of diamond". When Y and It passed. 7., win ' ' spades stopped twice, he Imagined f l up to him. went two no trumps. n passes; so does Y, but l: suppo- s the spades, bidding three. "Tl.-.s s natural. If Z Is taking a rhati 'e 1 p ping the spades with three to tin .ji"' that card ran bo caught. Y elouhlcd three spades, a ,d 1' n ft out of It. went to four hearts -,t h V also doubled. Tho heart ivii'r,. v set for 31fi point". Had A saltl nothing no one w , . 1 ' disturbed tho tin tMlioiMir u-nl for one trlok, .In points, aces T happened at several tables 1 11 asked for a heart lend, .1.1 i two no trumps and w.i- et ' tileks Instead of one. NVtV g vent A and 11 from mnkl .g fi' the see of he.trts and h.ng of . t' whether A starts with ,1 lu.i. t lead. In this hand, therefore. A s In . I th" spades cost him Jibl points t" r creasing tho bid lo three mluIi I 466, whichever way n 'd.e o It. Here Is another deal frnn. 1' evening's play. It was No d ting north : v?10 6 a E J 7 6 OA J 9 6 E J 2 CA E 9 5 3 10 B OQ 10 3 8 7 5 V 8 4 9 5 4 2 OK 7 5 4 A 10 6 The point In this b.n.d -calling no-trumpets, but i tl'uiN partners bid wln-nct 1 player's duty to do eo. t.t the intervening bid, -o tl ' more than It would hate bid not been made. 7, passed and A b: 1 a be.i doubled This double i ,il -partner tn bid his best mi ' be an effective weapon win" ' has mill to speak, but : passed tip an opptu: n.'. 1 bid he cjr.net have much, hand should be iiminialh him Into a declarnt.on ! position. It Is Lis buMtn ' I lu'.irts. Ii should 11..1 .1 j ny' ( ,oos i ft,rCp u to go t two hearts. As nu Illustration, sir ; Ftead of doubling the Kcjii two clubs or tito di.ini'd certalnly havo assisted ' ding two, us he has mote ti .. age hand. Instead nf that and 7. bid two diamonds Now when II goes t" i" 1 bid has not the aino f" It'.g, at:d Y takes ndi.inM gn to threo diamonds.' wh to play tho hand of com tiut only for one tn !.. honors, 31 points This saves 12 pointe. a - v mil do two mid at lie.ut-, .n mado the bid w lien he s'i" 1 so the diamonds would ' hoard fiom. It may be u -points Is not inue'i. bo' 1 afford to keep dropping p nt a time, ni.d mme out 1 auction. Tho New Yotk lb big. v electe-d th. follow it's; ei' enuln year : M S 1 1 Tent ; rinbert I" N ih 1" I'ol Wll'in.ii I' Union " tile Si ntt. -e''i eta v 1I11 - ICndh', IMv d 11 1 I Ur M. .1 Low Y A B Z V fj ft J 7 2 B C 8 2 2 I aQ 9 4 3 It 1 I i1 JefcBBWMMSJSBMSMSBBBBBSaaSai ' ' ' ' f ' v Xvrf .f,v.7V.