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THE .Sl-V, .SUNDAY, APRIL 7, 1!)J8. Queens of the Spy World Whose 7S, M ME- 7 DESPINA fSm mZLr:,- DAVIDOVITCH L-MflkM IT. : Wwf-m!'- fiTflPPH "Lrr mmN. HHWA I IHHUlililililililililililiV. Vr I i I II "-.W-T Mr h&llGz - m?;i. V -"Hf From Delilah's Time Women Have Played Important Parts Secret Service in DR. STEIBEK, who was the hea'd of the German spy system in Prance previous to the war of 1870, once slid: "Two armies won the war. One was my army of peaceful penetration which broke through all the lines of the enemy and pared the way for the army of Von Moltke." This army of "peaceful penetration" was largely composed of women of all classes that Dr. Steiber had introduced into Francc-from 1867 to 1870. The Ger man woman spy helped to open France to the German armies. The Germans seem devoid of the preju dice most people have against spies and spying- It was therefore very easy for Dr. Steiber to recruit an enormous army of women spies in a very short time. After a short period of instruction the most intelligent became servants in the households of the best families of France, especially such houses as were frequently visited by military men. German nurses abounded, German piano teachers, Ger man barmaids, German waitresses were io be scon everywhere ard all of them re ported to Dr. Steiber, who directed the whole network. Ordered to Marry 'in Her Work. There were cases in which a woman spy was o.-ilered to marry a certain man for the good of the fatherland. And after Fraulpin Fuhrer had become .the wife of Capt. Duval she was ordered to fall in Jove vith Gen. Ferre and was censured and threatened when she did not succeed within the given time in making an ad mirer of the latter. In the garrison cities German women spies were especially numerous. " That women are very able as spies has been recognized since the beginning of history. Was not Delilah scut by the Philistines to betray Samson T There are numerous other examples of the same kind in history. Men have always been easily duped by women spies. Catherine ilc Medici. Queen of France, realized that she could better subdue and govern countries through an army of women than through an army under the best generate. She schooled hundreds of women in the art of spying and sent them as "living squadrons" to the courts of Eu rope. It was due to the work of these women that Catherine was able to govern France and the Vatican and earn her rep utation for able statesmanship to which the whole world bowed. But elerer and subtle as the "Medici women' were they cannot be compared with the perfect women spies of modern times. The mission of the women of the "flying squadron was mere eavesdropping and petty conspiracy. The chief talent of these women was that they knew how 'to make men love them and thus to extract secret from them. The modern woman s-py mus.t know how to sketch a fort-fica- ' tion, how to draw a cross-section of a gun nnd even how to select the i-ite for the emplacement of a heavy gun. - Carver of Baronets de Kaula. Among the most subtle and skilful of all the women spies whs Baroness tie Kaula. During the Franco-Prussian war the French General de Cissy was taken prisoner by the Germans. During his sojourn in Germany Baroness de taula and he became very intimate and the young woman, a Levantine by birth, wormed herself into his confidence. After peace was restored Gen. de Cissy returned to Paris, where he soon became a great factor in the reconstruction of the French army. In 1875 he was Minister of War and great things were expected for the "Armce de la Revanche." At the command of Bismarck Baroness de Kaula received her instructions from Dr. Steiber and was ordered to rejoin the old French General in Paris. Unsuspect ingly flattered, Gen. de Cissy welcomed her. The Baroness was installed in a pri vate apartment where the old General came every day after breakfast to listen to her beautiful playing of the piano or to give an opinion on her newest French poem Baroness de Kaula was a poet, an artist and a musician, i But the Baroness never failed to look through the portfolio the Minister of War brought with him on these visits and she memorized what was useful for the Ger man Government to know. Her memory must have been phenomenal, for on one occasion she memorized almost completely a document of 6,000 words by reading it but once. When an accident exposed the Baron ess's true character the republic was in great danger. De Cissy never could be made to admit that the woman was guilty. The Baroness returned to Berlin, where she fell in disgrace because she had not completely sucet-'ded. Another case to the point is that of Felice Schmidt. A beautiful young woman, she had herself banished early in 1915 as a suspicious character from the German border. She went to England and there won a host of admirers among the younger officers. But she was sent alter bigger game. She was ordered to captivate Kitchener. She had managed cleverly so far and the German spy master was sure she would succeed. But she saw Kitchener only once. Only once she had a look at the face of the man who knew not what pity or sentiment was and she fled. Sketched a Gun and Was Sbot. Some time after she made her appear ance at Marseilles as an apple seller and exercised her spell over all the people that came in contact with her. She was so pretty and simple that she inspired con fidence, and she had acquired the southern French accent to perfection. But one day sha was found in a secluded spot making a sketch of one of the big guns. And she paid with her life for this. Switzerland, Monaco and the Scandina vian countries arc now full of women spieA It is amazing how the German net is spread. A story is told of two young 'women whom'chance brought to gether in a lodging house at Basic, Switzerland. It so happened that loth women studied singing under the same professor and they grew very fond of each other. One day one of them after receiving a letter called out that she hod to leave for Bemc at once. "I must also leave," said the other one. They had lived six months together without either of them knowing that the other was a spy for Germany. Recommended by German Embassy. Another story is that no sooner had the war broken out than it was discovered that a member of the household of the Prime Minuter of England, Mr. Asquith, was a spy of the German Government. This woman had been engaged by Mrs. Asquith through the German Embassy. 'The Asquiths and the Liehnowskys were very" close friends, so that when it was learned that a vacancy existed in the household of the English Minister the Ger man Foreign Office saw to it that the right person was selected for the place. It is probably no exaggeration to say that Germany alone has to-day 100,000 paid women spies in all walks of life. She has perhaps twice that numlicr en gaged in spy work without making a specialty of it. Every German woman living abroad knows that if she sends any sort of useful information to the secret service she will lc paid for it. Women of refinement and culture lend themselves to this sort of work as well as servant girls and barmaids. Germany traded on French sympathy with Alsace to introduce Alsatian women into France as spies. These women were especially placed as seltool teachers in garrison towns. Before the war began numbers of Ger man concert hall singers in London who delighted the young navy officers with their quaint English were busily collect ing ever bit of information, they could gather. At the head of the perfect spy work of the German navy department was Fran von Schroeder, wife of Ritt rucister von Schioeder, who was in the Army Intelligence Bureau of the General Staff. Frau von Schroeder, a charming and gifted woman, was cultivated by sev eral American correspondents from whom she obtained information that she desired about the United States Embassy and the United Stales Navy. At one time she was so powerful, be cause of her special knowledge, that notes to the United States in reply to Presi dent Wilson's submarine notes were drafted in her study. Spent $10,000,000 a Year. In the last decade Germany spent on her seeret service more than $10,000,000' yearly, while the English and the French hardly spent one-tenth of that amount on secret work. The Russians spent great amounts of money on secret service work, but these sums were largely waited, be cause the Russian Empress herself as well as many of the most influential women of the Russian Empire were agents of Germany. The (Jermafi bom wives of Russian Ministers and Generals, as well as German dancers, singers and other stagefolk, were in the pay of the Ger man secret service and reported faith fully everything they learned. They even directed their husbands and admirers to do the things the German Intelligence Bureau wanted to have done. How woman's wit once helped a traitor was related in 1912 in the Budapest Vresse, .when Lieut. Sehorveder of the German garrison of Posen and his sweet heart, Ida Mullerthal, "were conrt-mar-tialled on a charge of high treason. Sehorveder was deeply in love with Fraulcin Mullerthal, but owing to his pov erty the prospect of their marriage was very remote. The despair of the young lovers was well known to a Russian secret agent who approached Lieut. Sehorveder and offered him $25,000 for a plan of the fortress of Posen. PoTsrty Prevented Marriage. The Lieutenant agreed to the proposal, but found it very difficult to carry out his task. His circumstances were common knowledge in the garrison, and he was carefully watched. It was impossible for him to purloin a plan of the fortress and despatch it to Russia. After he had ex hausted his ingenuity without being able (o find a suitable stdieme to cam the reward he took counsel with his intended bride, ncr woman's wit suggested a way out of the difficulty. "You shall tattoo the plan of the fort ress on my hack," she said to him, "and I shall easily be able to travel to Russia with it without being discovered." He accepted the fantastic suggestion. That same night he began to tattoo an accurate plan of the fortress on the shoulders of Fraulein Mullerthal. The) TIM'. SIN. Sl'N'DAY. AlMlll. 7. U18. ues Swav the Fate of Nations fsMh wBr y m t mmmt?; who used "flying wmzr . IHnCI III JWUnunuiw yJl kvi-ii-ii 1 1 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBnr a. ,v MATA HARI , the, JAVANESE DANCER EXECUTED AS A SPY in FRANCE operation lasted several days. The work completed, Fraulcin Mullerthal went to Hussia and obtained an audience with the Governor of Warsaw. Removing her coat and blouse she turned her back to him, saying : "Here is the plan." The experienced eye of the General took in all the details at a glance, a copy of the plan was made and without a moment's hesitation the stipulated sum was handed to the daring young woman. But the very secrecy with which Sehor veder had- carried out his task had at tracted suspicion. He had been seen, moreover, in the company of the Russian agent. The extravagance in which the young couple indulged when Fraulein Mullerthal returned from Warsaw con firmed the suspicions which had been aroused. Her dwelling was searched, but without result. -Finally she was arrested, although there was no proof that she had done anything wrong. But the proof was siMin forthcoming. In accordance with prison regulations she had to bo measured and examined for purposes of identification. The game was np. The incriminating plan was found on her shoulders. This was the key to the mysterious journey to Russia and the aidden wealth of the couple. Rumanian Spy for the Kaiser. When Mme, Elena Teudorina, a Ruma nian singer, was arrested in Milan early in January, 1918, through information furnished by the American secret ser vice the Allies got rid of a subtle and clever German spy. Mme. Teudorina, beautiful, talented and with a splendid oicc, apcared in opera at Rome more than twenty years ago and scored a suc cess. She afterward repeated this suc cess in the United States and South America. After ib New York and Argentina were oWrved and she was seen in the entourage of Count von Luxburg of "Spttrlos ver senkt" fame. When she sailed for Spain last October the English secret service was warned and she was taken off the boat at Cadiz by officers of a British destroyer. The singer's baggage was . examined minutely and some papers were found that appeared to lie innocent, but tinder chemical treatment they- developed cipher writings. Then Mme. Teudorina was taken by female attendants and stripped and her skin was treated with chemical?. The complete key to the cipher was found on her shoulders. Stagefolk Easy Material. Stagefolk, becanse of their extravagant living and proverbial light heartedBess, have always been an easy prey .of the Ger man secret service when it has been in search of tools. There was the case of Mata Hari, the Javanese dancer who had captivated Paris and London. She was shot by a French firing squad after she had been convicted .as a spy. Mata Hari was a prominent figure in the night life of Paris before the war. She was arrested in Paris February 13, 1917, after the French police had obtained indisputable proof that while on friendly terms with a number of Frenchmen in official or semi-official positions sne was a trusted agent of the German secret police. It was established that she had furnished information of great impor tance to Germany, including advance de tails of the construction of the British tanks. Mata Hari's maiden name was Mar-, garet Zell and she was the daughter of & Dutch planter and a Javanese woman. At 14 she met Sir Campbell MacLeod, who fell in love with her and gave up his army career on her account. Later she deserted him and lived in great luxury in Parb under the protec tion of a German official. Six feet tall, her great luminous, Oriental eyes shone from an olive hued face of rare beauty. Men in legions were at ncr feet in all the capitals of Europe and always after a dancing season she returned to Berlin to pay a "protracted visit to her German friend. The arrest in Paris of Sumey Depsy, an actress who appeared with Sarah Bern hardt, created a sensation. Her husband, Emilc Guiltier, had been employed by a manufacturer of artificial limbs and had access to all military and Red Cross hos pitals. Sumey Depsy s frequent visits to Switzerland caused the French secret ser vice to be suspicious and led to her arrest on a charge of giving information to.the enemy. Other agents of the German spy sys- Germans Most Unscrupulous of Modern Peoples in Using Female Agents in War stars, with more ambition than money, who were sent to the conservatories of Italy and Paris. Rome, Naples and Milan had more than their share of these spies. Their girlishness, coupled with their wit and subtlety, helped them to obtain val uable information information whieh helped to defeat the splendid army of Ca doraa. When the net was drawn hun dreds of these small fish were caught and many a young girl bow -kehwd bars owes her b'fc to her extreme youth, to ber thick blond braids hanging loosely on her shoulders. The whole world has been honeycombed by German spies, mostly women, who have made their way wherever they were directed in order to procure desired in formation. Wearing the insignia of the American Red Cross women whose parents were unnaturalized Germans have crossed the sea to minister to the wounded in France. These women working in ad vanced dressing stations have been able to secure valuable information from the wounded and prisoners. In convicting six of these nurses of German parentage who arrived from America, the French authorities proved that they had conveyed to Germany vital information concerning troop movements and conditions in the allied armies. Tools of Agents Higher Up. Exposures of their system of operating which have been made to the Government agents here indicate that these women spies are simply tools of German agents higher np. They do not direct schemes, but go where assigned and obtain such information as may prove nseful. In one case it is known that a girl of known hostile ties obtained a position where she would be able to observe oper ations about one of the big coast defence bases. A Federal officer called upon-her employers and produced a record showing that she had spent much of her time with a Teuton army officer who is now on Ellis Island and that she had various other suspects among her most intimate ac quaintances. He also showed that this girl had no other .reason to seek such employment than to obtain information. She was discharged immediately. In Germany she would have been shot. As a rule allied countries are lenient to women spies and this is perhaps one rea son why there are so many and why they are so enterprising. The death of Mme. Despina Davido- tan were young; giik, woald-be lajitarviteh S torch, the beautiful young Levaa-. tine, closed an eventful career. She was only 23 years old when she died, the other day on Ellis Island. She had promenaded her beauty in all the capitals of Europe and she sought everywhere the company of diplomats and men in uniform. Ia Spain she was once detained as a spy, but nothing beyond close friendship with German agents could be proved and she i.i -The fact 'that Germany chooses many Levantine women as sines is due to the fact that these natives of the Eastern Mediterranean have -nn usual ability in mastering languages. Besides they are very able diplomatists and they also have the power of fascination. Use ia tbe Present War. Women spies have played an important role in the defeat of France in 1870, in Russia's defeat, in the defeat of Rumania, Belgium and Serbia and have greatly aided the German advance in the west. It is but natural that we should glorify our own and abuse the one who w enlisted in the service of the enemy. Xb doubt the allied countries have had and still have a great many women spies doing services for them. Bat it is hardly possible that their recruiting has been as easy as that of German spies. Since Germany made war her chief in dustry she had to make spying a chief science. To be a spy is not dishonorable in Germany and to the German mind. Men and women have been trained to it from early childhood and a good many of them, no doubt, do their work from pa triotic motives, and these are the greatest menace, because they are imbued with the belief that Germany must be the master of the world. The Latin peoples have a natural repug nance for this kind of work. Napoleon, who was certainly not an overscrupulous man, refused to bestow a medal of honor on his chief spy, Sehulmeistcr. "Money, as much as you want, but the Cross never!" The halo of romance hovers over the women spies of the American civil war., Who can forget Belle Boyd, the Confederate girl who helped to save Stonewall Jackson's army? There was also Emma Edmonds, the Union spy, whose adventures could scarcely be dupli cated in fiction; Lydia Darrah the Quak eress risked her life to assist Washington's array. Hut sucn actions were prompicu by patriotism only and were done on the spur of the moment and not as a pro fession. 4-, v ji.-ii.it. ,;.