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I 'it -i-J.1 I . , - i r- THE SUN, SUNDAY, JANUARY 19 1919. 11 MARINE By LINDELL T. BATES, Secretary of the Submarine Defence Association, graduate of Yale, '10, holier vl men dearer In law anil the Knight's ( r. i of Isabel la Ctifollrri from the Aftiir of f'M,,i. Camouflage has had almost-. as fascl i tliij? an evolution In m.irlno as In land warfare. In many respects, however. It is the youngest science, and until March, i'US, It might rather be called an art ' an a. science. The Germans were the llr.it to npply "in lessons of visual deception to the on Uarly in the U bovt campaign they lCgan to paint their veels In various cslgns to mako them less conspicuous. In the late nineteenth century British arshH'S used to be black In color, nnd ..merlcan white. In sea flshta at fairly .lose range low visibility wan not con Idcrcd Of great Importance. In the 90's h C.crmans changed from black to dark tray Oreat Britain and the other Pow ers shortly thereafter followed cult, but Ifferrnt shades of gray were used by . Ifferent nations. Dark gray, called "battleship gray," was the prevailing olor At the outbreak of hostilities the l'rcnch. Italian and Austrian fleets were nf a color different from those of the Itrltlsh and Germans. The former fa vored a gray and khaki mixture. The Dutch ships were greenish brown In hue. In 131 Austria adopted the German color for tho sake of uniformity with er ally Prior to the entry of tho United States tun tho war the Allies had made no -ot.ible effort to dlszulso their vessels as help In the struggle against the U boat. When America entered the only Instruc tion to merchant vessels was to paint i-clr white or light colored upper works gray or dull stone color. Some fbcls wero decorated early with false painted 'ons and how waves, or n sjlhouette of destroyer, a submarine or a slnklns t fin? Artlit Took l"i the Work. I the course of tho war several nated because he was the most nvnlln Vmcrlcan artists, noll'ic iho ranlrt d. ble. and he had shown tact and ability wlopment ot land camouflage, beeame , ,terrstcd Iri ita marine iiosslbllltles. tVilllam A. Mackay and Lewis Herzog. to:h of New York, appear to have been (lis pioneers ot elaborate camouflagi fcolh of this country and abroad, al ni:h in lni" attention was beginning o focus on th's iiucsllon simultaneously m trany quarters. Gerome Brush. Maxl nillau Toch and Hverett L. Warner soon r.t'rtd th" new Held. Mr. Mackay even k.abll-.hed a marine camouflage school v'V York city, the first of Its kind. Thre artists were divided at the out let into two groups, those who favored aiming for low visibility and those wiii favored a so-called "dazzle" sys tem Mr. Mackay'a original system was or low visibility, as was that of Mr. Ilru.-b Mr. Wfcrner consldcied decep tion of major and low visibility of minor mporunce. Messrs. Herzog and Toch sought to reconcile both alms. i bv Submarines," by Llndell T. Bates. The United States Shipping Board ' and "Protective Coloration as a Means -ok interest In the possibility of eamou- 0f peOnce Against Submarines." by .luge as a defensive measure for Amcri- t Llovd A. Jonn. j.i merchant -hips. On October 1. Dtfference of thr neports. 1T. the Treasury Department through 'he Bureau of War Bisk Inmrancc Is- Tho writer's report gave the history ud an order requiring under penalty of camouflage, discussed the question of o '-3 per cent increase in war risk , reduction of superstructure, the meanr premium tho. painting of ossels for ' of smoke elimination and of making protective purposes. Ship owners were smoke screen as well as deceptive col at liberty to select either eC five evstem ' oration. Mr. Jones limited hla study to mentioned. Should an ovrtier wish to ' low visibility coloration and how to re f Ills own or a different scheme, the I conclle deceptive coloration at closs rder required him to obta'n for It the range with low visibility at the blendlne prior approval of William I.. Saunders, olmrman of the naval consulting board Little experimental work was con victed with reference to marine camou flage prior to the adoption of the five s stems. Mr. Mackay had painted some t t l tXtv x j v t t 'I4 wtWw J V V V V v v V v -I ; v : : v v : v v Jv!!- 5 5 v v v v v ' v Dimension illusion of lines; the bands are straight, but you wouldn't know it. "iff artne chasers at the navy yard "d Mr. Hcrzog had conducted vKihlllt.v 1 (pertinents on tho northeast roast of j " L'nitid States. The other artists nd not enjoyed suitable experimental "npTtunitlcF. li Tulv. 1917. the Submarine Defence 'fociation was organized by the ship- tir ami Insurance interests in New Tork in an effort to sec that all j raurcs were duly taken to sareguaro 'sel.. Nearly a hundred leading '"rmj and British companies Joined, snd all the leading marine Insurance incirn Lucius H. Beers, counsel for unard tompany, was elected chalr n J. A 11. Hopkins of Johnson & 'I ns was chosen vice-chairman, and ' in'ton W. Bates chairman of tho en gineering committee. Admiral William Benson assigned a naval vessel to the 'fso ation for experimental purpose M tne new organization, although en M Independent, enjoyed the closest r.4 most cordial relations with tho Tit-'.jn and foreign authorities. T e association's technical staff soon ' about ascertaining which. If any. five systems was tho best, and ' r.o e was satisfactory, then to devUe ' fvat would bo more acceptable. It , "po'ed to approach the subject from l IS e.trt rathe than frnm all nrtltle andpomt' so the rhalrman of the en-j .'iseting committee. Llndon W. Bates. , n. v, d th aetlvn enonaration of George 1 Hflvtinan and the facilities of the great sea-ch laooratory of tho Eastman Ko 'k onipanv at Bochester. Lloyd A. 'trf of the Research staff was assigned ' r-'I.aborate with the writer and others "f the association's organization. From -e summer of 1917 to March, 1918, ex utive Investigations wero conducted ' lto. nf.ster. on Lake Ontario and at 1 .pjn the vessel assigned by the Vaw Department under Mr. Bates's dl retmns HrltUh t se 'IJiir.!e, System. L'rmg t.10 timo In which these re arch labors wero being conducted tho nntlth and French navies began to look e-iouuly Into the camouflage question. r-r,y m 191 S the British adopted a iazzle mtem devised by Lieut. JCor--n SUkinson, It. N. V. R , London r st a Pebmary. 191S, It was learned In " .s country that Lieut. Wilkinson was li be sent to the United States to ln- iftto our navy Into tho mybterles of the ""v art. Ninety "dazzle" pattern pre- fld Prior to his arrival tho United M'e. Navy Department decided to es 'M'sh a camouflage section of ts own an;! authorized tho adoption of a "daz ! 'Stem Whatever system, therefore. b adopted had, perforce, to be called l iJle." and as the meaning or mat 'r was still uncertain, practically apy "!T f camouflage was authorized Vs 'no naval authorities wore fsmll- r 'it the scientific research work r..e me Suhmarlne Defence Assoc! itlon nas conducting, the chairman of h meet Ins committee was consulted rr?a ,ng the proposed navy organlza tlnr, i',r triiii'ihc questions In connec tion ,,in thl subject ll was obvious CAMOUFLAGE n! . . ' 5 ' N 'l v 1 First Authentic Account of the De- , ;v ' " 4 'VV j .', I .' v velopment of Illusion in Foiling .. 5 Vr . - ,, ;v ivHiflC V. 1".:. : ! Hun Pirates Written by Leader IS r-v-.v-, -L - , in the Work Here Scien- tt'hm . . , , ,;,4.4p- u tific Explanation ot Colors, a'-"- : , : ;&v---irv - , . I ;- Curves and Lines Used. tAYXrWtf that Mr. Jonvi was the best equipped i ptrson , lh country. Ifor iie'Cxtca live direction under tho IiIkIut naval 1 olllcers Harold Van l'usklrk was deslg- am' could N released from duty with the-'nesoclatlon to go to the navy. These 1 men were made Settlor Lieutenant and they were Lie nucleus of the new Na Cainouflago Section. Of tho fUe American camouflage ar tists Kver'tt I Warner was chosen for a post with them', but Mr. Mackay re mained In Nw York as o local executive of the Shipping Hoard of ship painting fiom designs supplied by the navy. While these developments were taking place Lieut. Wilkinson arrived, bringing with him ninety more "dazzle" pattern. The previous ninety wero already consid ered obsolete. In March the Submarine Defence As sociation terminated Its research work and published two marine camouflage reports entitled "The Science of Low Visibility and Deception as an Aid to the nefence of Vessels Against Attack .distance. The association advocated a system combining low visibility and deception, recommended' tho abolition of tho nvo earlier systems and considered that the British "dazzle'' was subject to crltl- Design illusion of curves; clm largely because of its totr.l nfulect of low visibility. The navy thereupon adopted for certain war vessels 11 low visibility color only, and for dcstro ers and merchant ship a materially modified British "dazzle," changed bo nt to give it a low visibility feature. The Shipping Board organized also a camouflage section antt applied tne nr signs received from the navy Je tho merchant vessel- under its Jurisdiction. Tno results 01 nn: iret-m.n the association, the adoption by the United StatcB Navy of a low visibility, deception system and tho practical e pcrieneo at sea led tho Brltlh in tho late summer ot ii imrauw abandon their en "dazzle," which dis regarded tho lov.' visibility factor. Ca mouflage based o.i more scientific princi ples then began to take the place of the original English system. Checker board bow and funnel patterns and perspective distortion bands began to appear. Lieut. Jones has perfected a "colori meter" to measure, the weather coeffi cient and two expeditions left In Decem ber, 19U, to measure this factor In vari ous teas. Protective coloration for American submarines has been Inves tigated and a special color determined. Navigation signs of a particular variety and clever navigation light schemes have also been evolved. The geographical position of a vessel at sea and tho circumstances under which she Is seen have an Important benrlnir unon her visibility. The suh marlno danger zono Included all the Mediterranean, North Hea, and Atlantlo beyond even the Azores. Cape Verde and Canary Islands. The approaches to tho Irish coast were particularly hazardous as w'ere the other places whero trade routes Intersect or converge such as the Strait of Gibraltar. Hostile U-boats were most likely to bo met In tho Irish Sea and Kngllsh Channel. They were frequently eneoun- I (ered a." where In the .Mediterranean and North Sea, and In the Atlantic as far as longltudn 23 degrees west, nnd as far south aM latitude 30 degrees north. Tliev wern also encountered near Ma deira and the Azores. Thirty per cent, of the shipping losses, according lo Sir The last word in marine camouflage. This freakish looking craft eluded searchlights and keen - Krlc Gcddcs, occurred In the Mcdltcr- ranean. Tho visibility problem Is affected also by the manner In v,liieh ships voyage, whether alone or In a group. Prior to the entry of tho United States Into the war th escort nnd convoy systems did not extend to manv vessels other than transpoita. In 1917 mid 191S, however, largo convoys of from twenty to fort' ships proceeded from American and Canadian ports to Kurope. Merchant vessels proceeding to the Mediterranean occasionally so voyaged, as well as ships coming back from nurono to America Convoys sometimes split up on the Jour ney and single vessels proceeded to other ports than that of the convoy. An effort was made to group vessels according to speed. It happened, how ever, that vessels of less than a certain minimum rate hamper a convoy over much and were not Included In It. Fast vessels were also excluded, as with their speed and manoeuvring1 ability they were about as safe alone. There were nu merous vessels which tvere not given tho protection of convoy. Such nre. for ex ample, ships about 1G and below 7 knots In speed, European coastwise ves sels nnd ships, proceeding to certain Mediterranean ports. Sometimes there fore victims were alone on the sea., some times they were escorted or convoyed. The visibility problem Is further com plicated by certain war emergency navi gation rules. The Instructions to Amer ican and allied ve-sels called for pre cautionary zigzag matia'Uvre.s while the danger zone was being traversed. Fre quently ships proceeded three miles to port or starboard of their normal course, sometimes five miles. Also the normal course Itself was changed two or three times a day. These measures meant that a wide belt was navigated through the submarine Infested area. Smoke a Dangerous Factor. Fueling practice is also a factor In the visibility study. American vessel were required by the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, under penalty of In creased premium, to burn smokeless fuel or anthracite in the danger zone. Inasmuch aa other ship were not nl- ways similarly regulated ana convovs I were comnosed of foreign as well s I American vessels, ftiioko ciouqs niwa ' formed above convoys. It was not pos slble either In all cases to obtain smoke- 1 lest, fuel or to use It the full time nec- t essary. Telltale plumes tnererorc lssuea from the funnels of vessels travelling alone or In company through the danger tune. The most Important of all visibility factors I weather. The yearly "propor. tlon of sky covered with clouds" for the North Atlantic is from 60 to 70 pv cent, for the ocean off the south Eng lish nnd French coasts CO per cent . off the Azores 50 per cent., off the Canaries 40 per cent ar.d off tho Cape Verdo Islands 40 per cent. In the Mediter ranean It is from 30 to 10 per cent., while hi the waters off Oreeco It Is SO per cent Tho ho irs of sunshine a year total 1,300 off the mirth coast of Ireland and the spirals really are circles. Scotland. l.SOO off Kngland, 1.700 ..ft the southern coat of Ireland, :,500 in thu Meditei ranemi. These aro out of i tota' of ..7W hours nf da and night a year. In the Kngllsh Channel westerly gals-, aio pievalent in the winter inocil.s from October to March. Inclusive. T'.i ar-j raro from May to July. Inclusive, and seldom last long. During twilight hours lu the morning and evening then is generally a haze over tho tea. In the danger zone near tho British Isle daylight Is frequently further mod, fie l bv iiioie or less heavy sea fogs, llaa on the water I "almost constant from Octcbir to April V.: .L.. r .i. A,nr ,n'tln mav. however, haven decided In - "I .'IZ rn"." .. "... Ua". .U..rie'nr. Should one make (he vessel's near Hr LI1U ACVirt, unni tc.i nu it, ' " Mediterranean tho percentage of cleir diya Is much greater; there aro fewer stormr, over, in winter, and the atnv.'S iil.etj is freer. Visibility Is also concerned with the cjuestlon of the distance from which thn observation of the U-boae Is taken. Tne distance at which a ship Is potentially vlfible nt tea depends upon the height ol the point of observation, the height of the vessel and tho curvature of the earth's surface Submarines! aio able to receive and lend wireless messages carrying marl tlmo informatlin such as the location of Allied warcraft. Sound signals may be used also for signalling between U-boats. They are now piovided vv.di hydrophones ble (n de(rjt (he presence ot inner craft teve,a mltn off. U the vessel or con- vny I'l found lo be parsing at snnic dis tance, necessitating considerable iun nlni on the surface at high speed to bring the U-boat within attacking dis tance) tho attempt will tint bo made un less tho ship or group I knon-n to be an Important one. If the e-arllest oh. nervations give encouragement thn sub irarlne, unless already ahead nf the ves sel on her course, tikes a direction nt 10 degrees lo the line nf first observa tion and Inward the vessel's- route If the ship Is almio and It Is decided to uso tho naval gun. tho U.imit ap proaches lo a tango nf from four to eight thousand yards and opens lire Tho calibre of the subm nine's deck gun was In 10H Inches at Ihe close of the war It was 5 9 Inches nr ll Inches on BROUGHT TO PERFECTION IN AMERICA most pubniarlnej'. The puns on iner- enant vessels were ortfn outranged. Tho latest U-tioata even dared to uttack an Allied rrulter If, on tho other hand, for tactical rea tons the torpedo Is elected as the weapon to use, tho submit hi" submerges when Mill out nf eight and proccedu to Iho firing position. This Is abreast or slightly ahead ot the victim and about 1,000 yards off. German U boats have fndcavored to come as cIoep as 300 yards before launching the torpedo. 'It the ship is a part ot n convoy the U-boat will either attack the convoy flank or teck to rise In the center. In case of tuoh attack no particular ship la selected during: tho early approach. Whllo submerged the submarine com mander takes from six to eight perlsco. pic observations In order to obtain the conre, range and speed of the mer chantman or eonoy. These data enable him to calculate where the tiring posi tion, will Ijc against it rlnalo vesfel or whero to attack a convoy. The duratjnn of tho perlscoplo Eights Is from thirty seconds to five seconds. In ordinary perlscopea, all but about a third of the light 1. lost by reflection or absorption If there be dust or mniture on the lenses the loss of light Is even greater. This defect In the instruments Is largely compensated among other way,, how ever, by the natural dilation of tho pupil of the eye to admit more light. Normally the vessel's Image I en larged from 12 to 15 times, but magnification thren to six tlmea Is not unusual. To ai-ceitaln rangn from perl-fj-oplo. ohBervatlons there aro only two available methodH. Telemeter scales or cro- hair graduated 'Vertically and horizontally In hundredthH are. generally used. The other method Is the double Imago micrometer. Two imagiv of tho same object are made to cut each other In the lens, and are shifted ivlth refer ence to one anotlRT until the masts, fun nels or other hISh parts of tho vessel tin-1 der observation are Sn a level with the water line or deck line of tho second Image. The angle of shift determine. the distance. The range nf a vessel at the various times that she la observed will give an Idea of her course unless the Is zlg- zarelni At clote ran?') the apparent perspective in ine snip, iter now posiuen I mm ui,ii.iiaa ... indices used. Speed en'' illation I. also approximate onl. It should be cmpha- Ized that course, ranee and speed est1 mated from peiitvoplc observation Is by no means an cxart science. Tim human DC may be deceived when It view I so 1i..l.J 1 Vi-,f. limited and brief. i With respect to pro'eitlve r.imouflago Illusion, even a slight one. nloirg t.iese there are two purposes which may be lines will bo an advantage, since ,ir subserved namely, a ledtictlon In the curacy in gun and especially in torpeJo visibility of vescla In rder that they may traverse (he danger zone unou served or fesa vvell observed by subma rines, and a change In tho appearance of the vessel so that if observed the cal culation of her course, speed and range may be thereby rendered Inari urate. While U-boats aro equipped with tound detection apparatus of considerable hearing radius, the. low visibility pur pose Ih well worth securing, because the hearing radius of so.umt .detector does not in everv raio extend aa far as vision st sea. Sound, fiirtnermort . does not give the piedi-f dirci Hon, distance ind courre of a vessel which nie ncesaiy fur an approach to torpedo llrlni t6i tion. Hard o cc, Ilnrd to Hit. -hip that I hard lo sec I hard to hit It is still, therefore, a real ad I'lnmn for n s'lln in he as neat lv In visible as p-vsslble. This I especially true fiom the Int , cantlle Marine Company thv the aerial I ,r'" f "kv n"'1 w3tCr' vvl, cn fields vv Ith low visibility requirements. ! silver recognizable as the only when "TP;- Tfu. beeM,reh of meeUn'- shl I of the w lreleT oHhelr vessel eCuId be I ".' h lLV'. . . 7'1" ' ? K' ! ,1 n,lv' """" ! the leading edge nf f,e be,m. Her ! ',,: v .1 1 Vv Is much smaller than It I rim from one mast to tho funnel and " .,v : n' Vl.. T ? " ' ' -. MI,r,M,?r.n '"mm w M ,n ." , " . , ' iil meet the ieoiilrement of service !-.'" " i - , nnv- a. v. in cinar raiuir a, i,n" sonn as sue got we i nacK m ine iwaill i.n patrol and be sure ot meeting es-,.iiu meet me leqiiiremem oi sfivicc nlac'tr? them In Fttnng ...k ,i i.,.i.ihiiiit, .t nn vnni. unit ' .hn o e ,v, ,u...hi..,.n se s more ieu ,, n,. Scenic Artl.fn Kffort. Were low visibility secured, to cover , the same tea area with a submarine! Homer F. Emeus,, the .veil kinwn cordon would require more Fiibanvrlne. scenic expert, devoted considerable at If It wero possible so to "dzzle" tlieitentlon to the problem of distorting the eye as to render It incapable or pait'.y I apparent perspective of the upper works Incapable of ohservlng the Image nf the nf a vessel. He prepared a mode! in taigct. this "dazzle" effect would be which a large, triangular screen was dc -able. As. however, in takli.g the p'aced below the bridge, extending fmm niu Important porlscnpic obi-ervitloiis i ftr)o to side, the point of the triangle (lie vessel's outline, masts and funnels t feeing the bow of th vessel. On ci'-b are chiefly notbed. the prpginnuii" nf side of this triangular screen he painted low visibility nnd of diturblng range, a perspective view nf the normal stni". speed and course rslima'e is preferred ture which actually faced the base nf It I. a fciIous matter to decide the , ,, triangle. The effect of thl was nature of the deception to be sought to mK.e the ship -when seen from the Deception as to range can affect gunfire fMf nppear nearly bow on. provided the less than torpedo lire, as with the error was not corrected by a normal former "spot niiiig is resorted in in tho case nf (orpedo aitacK, wnicn is .. .-1 olti'ivu ttt t inor rnnpo. ihWn ... - - course as seen from a submarine seem directed away from tho U-boat or to ward It? Bach ha its advantages and disadvantages, depending upon the re spective pnsltinn, rpeed and other ehar- acjcrlstlcs nr tne sunniunne and tin get vessel 11 ine snip is liimiu i" .ipin'n in coming toward the etibmar.ne. the latter i may be causecl to mi.iireuere tr, a tor., pedo firing position at a range runner than, and astern of, the normal one. On the other hand ijiiio .-nurse is rtthe Ta,",er rXJ, ami rise at a point wheie the vessel could run It down Should an attempt bn made to give than tho actual? A slower apparent speed may cause the r.bnat. lu its cost. to tako leisure In approaching the firing un aspect of speed raster or slower: position. An IIIiieIoii of faster speed may Induce tho submarine tn overrun the firing position. Should un effort bo made to give the range n longer or shorter np(earance? If the vessel seems to be closer to the U-boat thill) she rca'.iv is, (he torpedo , Low visibility deception system devised by the Submarine Defence Association, using Alpha' uu Mtxtruc fivaien yjnr iknr xvrrr. i Periscope of a U-boat, with r . - . . , UUCV.11UU ui aigui. uxi. flre will be actually at longer ranse than the submarine captain anticipates. I If, on the other hand, the ship Is made I to appear more distant thn she really Is, then the torpedo may bo aimed to (pass actually ahead of tho vessel. i A choice cannot be arbitrarily made between the alternatives cited, but that mere snouia n- uice.piion in reisiiou iu . ....r (lie rtecepuon aee.req canno ne precisely, prescribed. It would be vell rot to seek . course of two knots In speed or of two! , to three hundred yard In range Is stif- flolent to add materially to the afct of LiiAC ba 1 a valntl tnftAiri rlfffljilf till1 a vessel against torpedo attack. Any flro as well as the moncruver of ap proach deiiend. Intimately upon cxct ncss in the estimates of the target's range, course and speed The bearing" of vessels are first taken by a U-boat from oh-ervatlon of smoke or superstructure. While for ship, in convoy the smoke, noise and breadth of area covered lessen the utility ot super structure reduction to lower visibility It remains of value ne an nld to tho defe ns'e of the solitary ship. The safety of a ship subject to attick may be said to var Inversely a. (he area over which she I vble to the submarine. On sMllIng ships all superstructure is ! usually needed, but on steamers connd i erahle reduction Is possible. Masts nn I modern vessels serve little purpose r.ive ' for the wireless antenna1, the crnw'p nest and the lights. One mast. In many caes. will suffice. Tile Marconi Oim v. 0f 0(he-r portions of tho ship. i Tne new ,i,p. for tnn Kmergency rtt. n . , t . ji.,, .',,,,:.." ..",',,, ' , " ,1V, "". . ' . T" it i, t. user, n in, r 'tipuu, ' i,u li'uumu IB ,i,n on muritii' , rtici in, i lie vessel was a Cunarder supplied lo Tliomas A. Kdlson by the Subniaiino Defence Association for this experi mental purpose. The funnel and maids were cut f.liort and character deception was sought by Mr. Ldlson by means ,., ,..,,... .,...,,,., t.r,.,. l,...- ,l, f , f M, , ,,f ,,.. ,ruc,ur T ' hlo,.. nrf h ' vnr hnr, Ar fh. , . . ... , . . trwlM ln convoy no con.IllMve i J '""""'M" 'change tho character of a vessel. The field of protective coloration Is I " '. 'Wtant one bn one whirl, Is 1!,llt'rt' n ,,onvoV "r i M"J0" can 1,ar,11' "nP ,0 " nv llblo . .... . ... . , i.iu ui.'. tn tin,. ,.,. -.- ...... . irriv iimiiH inn niv in inen I phi i"i-'i , e tn., u,iiiuar.in.... rr 1,1- o-'.t ia j nr blue, Beta white and Omega gray. eyed coast artillerymen near by whatever paint is ued. But paint may, j dark red. olive green, yellow, gray and Kctei llfk determination Wfi.it will dc render even a convoyed or escorted w hlt. TheMt colors are Ia,ld In large (l.ve on submarine ubsiriet wiii not vessel less liable to torpedo attaek. as I patches of eontraMlng colors. In wiine delude another. The Submatine lifenc low visibility and deception are possible. I of the pattrrna the light colot no c-uu-Vessels proceeding alone cannot expect centrated at ano end of the vessel and , often to be Invisible to oidlnxry vision the dark colors at the other In order o wltnill about 6,uu ani'', unless mere ' I Is a haze or n fog or It Is night, a their bull: dlatlnguU-be them from the I sky For range" bcjnnd about ,"1,000 yards. In buch a cai-e, low visibility and I even Invisibility I." frequently possible. But, If a vesse) lies between the U-boat and the sun no amount of paint 'will render hr Invisible, sine the side ot the ship seen will be In the shadow and the background will bo illuminated, Deception to ordinary vision Is possible, on the other hand, within approximately 5,000 yards, or a greater distance If the periscope used magnifies to several times normal. It Is difficult to so paint a large warship a. to cause real deception, be- 1 cause her naval masts and upper v.orks give away her character ann hearting. On the other hand low vl!blllty for all ships la possible. The- System Annlyznl. One may now analvze the respective merits of flvo American systems, the British "dazzle" and tho navy ciraou- (lage, for these represent tho systems ot camoutlsge practiced during the Luro pear war. The Naval Consulting Board recorded on July ?. 1317, regarding the Mackay system : "Fundamental' It is based on mottling the. surface with tho three primary col- nm vehteh nt a rllntnncn blend to nro- riuce 11 sray having the quality of a gray light He also rroposes to shado the tints so as to lower high lights and raise the low areas of Illumination" I This was classed as a system for ves sels "w.ih-h In our opinion will lower their visibility." The theory of Mr. ; Mackay s low visibility system Is glvon by him In tho following language: "The proportion of constituent colors to give white are: Violet 44, red 36. I green 20. Therefore areas covered with 1 these three colors lu thl proportion would give n general over-all gray. With the colors In this proportion the ground 1 color would be violet." It Is not clear how three different color effects can tie produced by tlm -nmM fnr,.i. i, . ,uv,r.nuent dite Mr ! M,iCka supp pplemented his "low visibility" ohJeot "w lt, edaIa . plJrri(15, and pro-1 atlJced A which Ho calls one of I dlSPVIrJ, !..'.' . I . '. ,,,! ,, ' ,., a,,. ..ui. 1 l u various irregular patterns are ' . 1 carried out lu the shades red. blue, plk, green and while Particular stress Is laid be tV artist upon tho value of Ktioivj miitiast with a view to giving , a deceptive appearance to familiar parts nf the vesel. But Mr. Warner regards the question of pattern as of paramount lm;"rtance. He does not ask to give low visibility within five miles of a vessel. The Toch camouflage s.vstcm applies four colors, a very light bluo gray, a dark blue grny. a dark green and u ight pink purple. The colors are said to have been selected for their so-called "vibrating" qualities. The dark colors predominate in the lower part of the hullv and the lighter lu the upper pjrt i on k ice s - nn.- nmi ."u v . . v.... t.. . . j nis is snow n oy ,ir. Jones in a scieimne 1 iiuiiuie? nui ni mi i j All lines, noth vertical nnd horizontal, .llld ronv inclng manner with the aid of, ar" broken b the nltei nation of colors. ja vj-sibllitv meter" Invented bv luiiil Iteport of (he I or( Test, The siipei'striieture. masts and funnels , , , cour'.e of the exnerllncntB. The , lule a eoi.s.derable part ot her abl are ,-ialnted mainly In a ver light blue . VrnMl "dazzle" system, with Its large, ltv to AVol(I searchlights was attrthuteil gray lnegulaii.v splntcned with a dark i maB.es of black and dark colors. Is par-, to' tie "S" course the following re gray and a lerht pink purple. The creen ! t,cuiarly vulnerable In this respnrt. No ,aiks were made concerning the vamou- ... ...n.i.T. in , I, a ,in.rf rnetiire. . .... . .. . .... t...' iu,r n"v ti Tim cob's are- Intended to blend ar.d III long UlMilUCL'b III." ine it contrast and in large tpinicne. liie Brush sstem seekH low vi'inii- ltv bv rendering uniform the llliinilna tlon of the vessel. Dark areas are raised by light paint and light areas are darkened Black and white Is occasion ally used, or a dark gray. Tho result ing shade upon trending is a gray snmr what lighter than battleship sra;. but resembling it. Minrt ltn Color I cil. Lewis Herzng devised a si.etem vvlilch uses (he short ray colors tha( is, those from the lower side nf the spectrum - avoiding the ue of red, cl)ow and orange He renin rlts concerning tins, svsteni' "Interference nf -ht r.tyn setting ri vibrations I sought by means nf moio "r less conceiKrlc curved sets or panels of blue, green nnd v.olet as a gray base. ... n .,, -,.. ,ni,., .. scintillating with the atmnsphero and blending into U. and thereby Inwering lOU V ISlllllU-V IM 1 i'l SHU'. .VII ll IK 11 ll-IUS aie reduced and lllumlr.atu.il nt shadow.. fol. )m. UrlMn,v ,;1V bo dediirnl 'rom Is given due consideration Tho v eiil- j , UM(, rder averaga w e.uher . nn. cal and horizontal lines of the ship are I imn,:s ip so painted Is forty-is apparently hi'okei, by tho llfieren! tn vss vislhln than one palntid a,--curved lines of the panels." ..idln? to the British "dazzle." On one Tho colors a' arranged nr disposed ; of ,hc. on- -ew London several i--- In an endeavor to confuse tho eye ami i Mn(, nn shore could not pick up M. keep It from resting 'n any particular - s. S. at 3,000 yard dista:ve, spot or part of the ship. The lines of j even with hinei.-ulars. 'There was a color i.'.iDllcution are broken as mu.Vi as .inr',t min over th water, such mm is possible and liianso frequency in dlrcc- tlon All color bands nre applied In arcs of circles each of considerable ra.. paired battleship gray, were visible ,k j erenseil tlie ciiui 'es m i"i") dius. Straight lines nre avoided en llie'a ctcaei- dlnanre than 3.000 yards. .ind p'r ''"' principle lhat the eo Is more confused Tots weir al-o made from ,i sulnni.' .list .i !' sub " ' ' -by the use of circular forms. r,;,e m foggy wenthne It . ilic rii , the world t" - yn 'A The etlevt which it Is desired to pro- cess of thm nay which has b d :.,e I , an'outl.ii:c. I' 1 a .. y ."nr i o'i Hiiift nti thn lel, I liv ll-ilr tilm lu S..si described a a "shimmer" or "sclntil ii?di.i'c( "o niiiiiinii.-i ui r, nun - latlon" very similar to that prcluced i... v. nr. t .. .u. ...f.. t by i'. nn. v,i,m.ii iu rmidiu lt, 1.111,1 or water. The British "d.izz1" 1 made up nf buch colors 4n black, dark blue, f 'lift. s distort uio ajparciu neauiiiK aim view m the vebMl. This scheme Is based invm the idea that Invisibility at ma being unattain able, some .protection may be nfforded by painting ships In uch a way as to confuse the enemy and by causing aonie doubtas to tho couvse, speed and dis tant. It may bo seen from this brief re view upon how frigll a liaise the early systems rented. They wero lmpiessiou Istlc systems devised by artists, and not bclentltio systems devised by ligh,t and eojor experts. Their eponaor. deserve, however, the greatest credit for intro ducing the subject and for opening: a new Held for rersearch. In his elaborate technical icport upon Protective Coloration a a Means of Defence Against Submarines" Lloyd A, .tones expressed tho physical laws and 'factors hlch govern vMhillty. For fpecial research ho determined that low ' vlslbiUty 1 attainable and that a par-1 (t - cuiar suaae, 01 gray ivncn ne cans unieKH K'n.v n ueii euiicu mr 3?fib .vu uiu vnu ui me tinu ,m. h navigating the northern portion of the j straight through a channel at .1 dl-.-danger stone, where the average, wuathe.r tance of about 3.000 yaid.- frum the Is 70 per rent, cloudy, and below that line I nearest searchlight. wherw there Is tiequent Haze. For the Although tho approximate tliue nf her houtheru portion of tho danger zone a departure was known she pnti-ed nmugh bluer tone of gray called psl gray was all five seaichllgnts wholly muleiected found the best. Latitude t." degrre-i north and was picked up only when, utter pass .s a MilUible dividing line of the are ts In tug through tne channel hho turned 011 jt:!:::!:!::::: i At L k -, H t -i t, 4 W - I lit lit 1 f F WW Direction illusion of lines; figures on the right showing 'Jie true relations. The letters are really straight. 'which a ship should am ar omega nnd, pf( gray, respectlvch . , of supreme Interest to note the Nncrlflce nf low visibility bv the various ramoullaso systems heretofore pics entcd. ; unc oi inese syonis piouuce ine uhsl , ; visibility attainable. Omega and pslj foggy weather 0.1 at S00 vnrd. Thou-nlur as the beam Itself Of cnuise It i averHe leather coefficient for tlir rorth- ern. met hazardous portion of tho dan- blanketi a target In the centre nr tear ger zone. Is calculated as .13 edge thereof, but tli-.x was more pro It is posslhlo to compare tho lowest ' r.ounccd In the rare of tho ." vi-.ibr.lty nf (Mnoga gray and that nf the ' The United States Navy f'epartment vatlnus models of (he camniillagu sys-1 l ad the benefit of much prior expert (ems heretnforo proposed. Invisibility . nice when it en. no to adopt a navy is represented by zero, while tlio most ystem. It i 'ie use to i laiv evtent vislhle model of' all. solid black, shows nf tbe data previously n.it-.ined Tho a visibility of 2. All He stenis p t d endnniight- and s tbmarlne . iiaier range between these, two extreme. Th vre riule painted with low vis vllltv vlKibtlltv U rate.) as. viewed a; n.s nay. For trilnnt if"li. . outrag ,in0l, nf fi nnft .Mr,jt. i imega u-.'nv I j.repared for lower visibility even f, , n,0,jels F 9 nnd F "0. than Weather ViM- 1 e-oeitiewnt oiiur. IV 1,'ltl rr.iv. ' 3 n,K" io-' viib'iilt.il!ile ; Mfck.iy. inw , i.tiimj i.Mrie ; ' ",''' ""'I . . Itm.h Inu- vl.lhlllle .41 Mrnka. low viitihty I Jirl,uli'V ,v,.. c,,-rlr.lt. f .m,,.- j ncipieiuly noted In the northern iKir'I'ii i of the danger zone. But other vcse'H i 14 "hltie.evren.irra V ." j.iul i,.i, l.eer. - . United Stales navy to use It upon wa , , un... ... ,. .... - I 'iln,l 'h, 1 ships, such a. thn New Mexico, and unm follows smne . I Main e i,mi I w,.i. .-I.... l,,.,rt rim -;,....- u',.l,.Mitni nf il h I I'.l M.nedLi I ' irut ii .1 p. ,,., Ington. which carried the President France, was so painted. The r!r h lien reb.iptlzed. It Is bonietlnie Uimv n as "blue-green-grsj ," nnd has bei n designated n half a dozen dlffe-ei i wavH, but it Is really Ihe n: Islnal omega gra." l'alo bows, sterns nnd bow wave have licquently been painted on vese and are nf value. It Is i.r little ue , ...... I,A ..,...A.,f ... t ... i- ' ,, tr tiu-.s .it. pa i t ;i t!,. snip "it e t. .i" sucn oe epiinu ai lenuus i too much to u 'compllsh nnjthlng But' i by a false painted bow and stem placed as to distort the apparent pvrriicj II vi) tho course may be made to appear fumowlmt other than It Is. t'hookerboatd iiattcnis blur outline. In art and arrlillevtural drawing llio principles nf ptrspi-ctlve ropri'M-niatlon liavo been i .etitlfically Hudlcd for cen turies. It l. quite feasible to paint a Vessel in Mich h faMilou a that tho apparent perspective la different fiom tho real. This will Induce nn error In course istltnate. A vessel painted with eonvri grins bands of colnrn properly conttnsted will offer a deceptlw iip pcaraiiip an to course. It Is possible also to distort perspective by curves or by vertical bands 'close, together at tho Ikiw or stern of the vessel thjn at the opposite, end. Mimt Ilrnik the Water I, Inc. Inasmuch as the water -lino of a sl-.n li known to he horizontal the bandit thi'Uld breik the water line. This point R of great moment. No .two ships should be (Minted exactly alike In regard 10 pattern and convergence of lines. Per tM...llv.i .U.fUI(iil pJltein ilmuld blend at a distance whet deception I, no lonaer possible but low visibility Is no"-. 1 in bit 1 It should bo carefully borne in mind l lhat th'j blending distances or s.ands and patterns are iMped upon the hypoth 1 hIs that the pericopo does not enlarge i the lm.iFj much above normal vision. If ' ui.iKtdttentlon ot three to six time.' ioi mul should bo resorted to the blctinitii (.(stances Hiumld bn reduced In ordci tn.it low visibility be not sacnuced. It nuy u'ko be. nt.-ebfary to modify the blending diHtamas of the bands and patterns lo mem a potvdblo attempt to nullify by light Illtcra and deceptive clfects. Oeenptlon la a matter of psv lioloy mill Is lestl etlf.-i .itltite lliti lMiltlutv nf Ataocl.it lull has experimented ivuh pui epectlvc dlstoitlon bands and U.' act' board outline blurting njttrrn- i'MVcih who viewed the U S. S. as alio entered .'ew Haven hatbir said tho diamond patient on her bow gave Jur -t scow bow. The British towaid the end of the wnr rame (o favor alfi Mich checker board p.itternr for ccit.iln por tion. of the ship. "Dazzle." putt-rn have been tiled on Ann-rlcan Mnrshlp, but ro lone Jn the upjvrr work. ami masts ntr n' their ipeclal ehanicii r no r.ullcil drcjilou If. poflhle. lixperlmenta have .'een made with equates, rectangle, par lie, t'.ind. ..in other designs to over "in thl handicap, but without suc esM m far It It. for this reaoll ttiat the low visibility object alone Is favored for t1"' lirgir warships. Tests were also made In .lul.v 11!n, off Fort X to determine the efftict of a low visibility deceptive coloration- - upon the ability of coast defences to r 1 1 . , v vessel with searchlight at tilgb Tl v 1 U. S. S. proceeded between Point Y and J1.lu.t1d 7. at s.mjO yards 111-iin r.mge, siuwriiis suiuuui euuiet- un n !.- her own light. This tva npea'ed on another occasion with a modii'. at mi in programme, fhe leit a known noint at ;i known time nn a known l,i.- .ourse. 1 The vessel .as Incp.tcd f.,r i'ii' threo nase etrect vt the tanee 9.000 yards) she gavo rrrn v ' Iri -.vrl! kr.&r.n that a searchlight beam ing iiihi . and lui'ijs or ni.i !: mue. "tii. v.l He na,-e cnieny neen usen. I In rejrnnl to the'si,eees nf rainmiflagi (hero Is practically no iiatn avjn ime, save n liermpti iian-l. Peejiise it 1 hard to determine to what cause ecapi from a submarine has been din. It l ' largely a matter nf guesswork lmw much nnrlrie camniiflage hr.n added 'n a vsi. 5 sel's safety, b it that It had n nlwaji .'.' tlal elTeei Is nnt ope'i tn iiietln'i n ship In rnnvnv nr psng each nih-r at ''! sea have In en ilree'.vcd as to the , nursa nf the camnut'aced vesse' We d I now, l.nwiver. that of ahout 1.30,1 m-ncan vr-.clK pal'ted with the nav i -'em, nr.'i.v eleven have been In.-' ic " M.',-b, 191V The convoy sfstetc, icz.i.'glnie and improved armvmert hav. n ibt, cnn ributeil mateiiilly to this p-'ilt ml prnbibly nil nf them much rcn tha'l h s iioteclUc inlnrailnn Shnuld the w titer liavsui ar f-nian he " mild 'n.i' n ' - callinull.'ici be-elnfiire lived 'i ot I Pt ) . !r.. l. th irreil .11 trnlll U 'III'" l'-' -.ien.i Pr.icti'Jl uoplicati"" l -yn :n- an- re- ........ - ,i , i I , , il.r-. tn j scircn, so nun m. " i Hn did m re.n'h a Dual for'ii . tne gieat will" The low visibility color it rn neter i,,,,,., I. bill (lie tnc-lliJ of revoni'ili '1J- I repl Ive painting vv lib It requites tu ther I traii-foniiatin . in prjctii." s i-m ha pi. Ind d nu' t'i .Hreeilni, "''' ' 1 1 1 1 " j he t.i'.i Tin i .n't.ipie . -lvi , ,,t,,i a' ,n i e t't "" f'l' .... i.l V.I 111.4C U he- I trj "U c ta r j , .,,,:, r,i t ".' ff . -.t, .. ,.' ' u ign win in in " ble rule n .aval warfare FE m vt!