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Hindenburg and Ludendorff Had No Idea America Could Do Any thing, as Interview in 1916 Shows, and They Knew Noth ing of Seething Russia By KARL H. W1EGAND. rHAT tlio Allies did not ac complish In 1915 they could not accomplish in 11; the goal now set for 1917, namely the defeat of Germany, will not bo at tained by them In that year, nor In 1I1S. Let them come on. They have lost approximately 13,000,000 men in dead, wounded, sick and prisoners. If they could not win with them they cannot win without them." There was no tono of boasting In th volco of Field Marshal Paul von Bneekendorff und Hlndenburg. But there was defiance. The Wo tan of the German war gods spoke with quiet finality aa If he believed what he said. "But If America should come In?" I Mlced. That would not change the situa tion," Interposed Ludendorff, sitting on my right. Ho thinks and speaks much quicker than the old Field Marshal. "America is already doing us all the harm she can," added Hindenburs:. "Permit me, Herr General Feld marschal, don't you underrate Vmerica's vast resources, human and material, and perhaps also the spirit that might be aroused In her people?" 1 naked. "Judgment and reason would eem to counsel caution against cm barking on any courso that would eiraw the United States Into tho con nVt. It Is not unreasonable to assume that sho might turn the scales against you," I added. The grim old war god, the idol of the German people, gazed long and deep into the dinner plate In front of liim an If ho would read tho future In the porcelain. "Not resources ns such, but re aources through resourcefulness trans formed intoactivo fighting power com bined with tho highest efficiency, that power permeated with the Indomitable spirit of a united people Imbued with tho will to victory of a nation fighting In a righteous cause, the whole cen tralized and directed with Intelligence that is what makes for victory In war." Prediction, for 101U. It was a long sentenco for the terse, aronlc old Field Marshal. 'Whatever Ms faults and weaknesses, volubility as not one of them, Slowly, deliber ately, punctuated with pauses, ho Poke In his Jerky but forceful manner. Again Ludendorff broke In with eonvithing to add: "Before your coun try reaches that stage a very long procrss and makes it felt on this sido 1' will all bo over," he said. Tho place, grand general headquar tM of the German armies In tho vil late of Pless on the vast cstato of the Prince of Pless in Silesia near tho Rus. ian border. Tho scene, tho dining room In tho living quarters of the Kaiser's military adviser and Chief of tne General Staff a largo rarmnouso, The time, the evening of December 6, 1916. 'IYesent, Field Marshal von Hln O'nburg; his chief of strategy, Gen, Ilrirh LudPndorff : several members of 'hfir stuff and an American corra tpf-ndent. Conversation around tho long dining table lulled. Every member of tho staff Ptfsent wanted to lose not a word of th dlscufslon between the two great n of tho German military chieftains anrt the war correspondent, All eyes "re on Hlndenburg. Outsldo the cold December wind moaned dismally through the leafless trees. There was "n atmosphere of gravity, aa If vital decisions wero pending, which ven the momentary expectation of news of the' fall of Bucharest could not dispel. Only later did 1 learn that already then the question of a renewal of tho ruthless submarine campaign was In tho bal ance. We had ben discussing what In effect were the possibilities of the ap proach of the dusk of the German war gods and tho shattering of their Wal halla of militarism, in the very heart of which we sat that evening. Only we clothed our thoughts In more polite terms with clue deferenco to them as my hosts and to me as their guest. Earlier in tho evening I had a chat with Hlndenburg In his workroom in the division of operations of the Gen eral Staff, located in what had been the administration building of tho big estate. There also he inscribed his name and tho date of my visit in my autograph nlbum. He Invited mo to dine with him and Ludendorff at his living quarters in the hnu"" of the superintendent of the estate. The Kaiser lived in the unpreten tious schloss or palais of the Irlnce of Pless with the owner as his guest. It was an ugly pile of red brick. Gen eral headquarters was 150 miles from the nearest point on the eastern fir ing line and about 300 from the west ern front. It was free from that abomination of all abominations aerial attacks. Nothing will so quickly transform the saintliest Christian into a cursing heathen with a flow of profanity that would make a mule driver green with envy as persistent attacks by tho ''cavalry of tho air" upon tired and worn out soldiers and officers. Hinctenbure MUJmlBed Amerlea. T.nrtpnrinrff hrwl started tho dipctls- sion Unit evening by asking whether there was any likelihood or tne united States Joining tho Allies against Ger mnnv. Pnrrvlnir his own tactics. I had answered with a question: Did Ger many Intend to renew the rutniess ciilimarlnn war pnndpmnNl bv nil tho world? LudenoorlT looked past me 10 Hlndenburg on my left with that def erence to his chief which ho always showed In tho presence of tho old Field Marshal. Dnn rnnlri never tell what micht de velop In war; war was full of sur prises, remarked Hlndenburg cau tiously. There was no desire, no pres ent Intentions, to renow tho unre stricted U-boat war. "Unless we are erni in Hrt it" horn milrklv intpr- posed Ludendorff. I did not know what the situation was in America except for what I had read, but I curtTOTCAri T.ndendorff's pXDression cov ered It "unless wo are forced In." TTIntonlinrir Raid ho did not Wish tO say anything that might offend my ronilnira "hut America to all Intents and purposes Is already tho enemy of Germany." ins resentment ot wnat no called "America's unjust attltudo" cropped out several times, but ho was not as brutally frank as l'icia Mar shal August von Mackenscn, who In Via ntflnrr of Przemvsl In Galicla on Juno 4, 1915, ordered me to bo out of tViA iiirlsdirtlon of his army uy 4 in the afternoon becauso "as a matter of ..-inMnia t xi'.mt no Americans around me." Mackenscn was the original anti-American high commanoer in inn German army and an autocrat of au- "No one questions Americas vast resources In men, money anu inaivrmi, i,, i n n-pirt them Into n fighting ma- vifnn liim time vears." remarked Ludendorff. "Seo how long Germany has been at It." That ivm the total error of tho Ger man war gods. It showed that they ,ma nnt hnvK the nttriuute or military omniscience so often credited to them. Turning to Hlndenburg I asked him what he knew of revolutionary ac tivity in Russia. "I am tired of hearing of revolution , T....nU M Via BTHn'nl' hfllfinlirl V. "I 111 ivumtm! , a. .... don't bellevo In It. Since tho first day of tho war I have heard notnins: dui revolution In KussIr,' and there has been none. Wronir About llnaata Alao- i'T Ann't imllsvA there will ho any until the war Is ovor. Itussla Is bo vast and so loosely organized m tne way of communication and transporta tion K has no rtaltjicrvous system, so e to speak that it reminds me of a big Jellyfish. You can stick a knlfo In one part and the rest of It docs not even know It. "My plans rra not based upon the possibilities of revolution In Russia. It forms no part of them. I have teen fed up on that for two years. If revo lution comes, bo much the better for us; if It doesn't, I will not bo dlJ.au polnted." Fatal error number two by Ger many's Wotan. The Russian revolu tion came In March, threo months later. In April after Congress declared war Lleut.-Col. von Haftcn. Ludcn dorff's right hand man, bewailed to mo "the fatal error that we did not know a revolution was coming in Russia." He said, "Had wo known that wt would not havo renewed tho ruthless submarine war on February 1, and thus would havo averted war with America. A fatal error! A fatal error!" And so it proved. Notwithstanding the very general belief that the Russian revolution was "made in Germany," I do not think Hlndenburg was bluffing when ho said on tho evening of December 5, 1916, that he did not bellevo In the talk of a revolution in Russia. Only a month before, on November 0, to be exact, King Ferdinand In Sofia com plained bitterly and with signs of much nervousness and Impatience that the Central Governments wero getting no reliable information from Russia. "What's going on in Russia?" he asked. "Berlin knows nothing, Vienna can glvo us no information that can at all bo relied upon, and we learn nothing that we ought to know about what Is taking placo thero. It makes me nervous." It was tho last time that Hlnden burg and Ludendorff talked with an American until tho defeated and crushed old Field Marshal received a delegation of correspondents, Including some Americans, In his headquarters at Cassel a few weeks ago, and pleaded for an amelioration of arml- stlco conditions. Ludendorff, who wanted to become tho now Iron Chan cellor of Germany, was not there. He was gone. Ho got from under somo say he fled. His whereabouts Is un known. Hlndenburg remained to take his mediclno along with his people. That j alono should prove which of the two leading German military figures was truly tho greater. It recalls what an officer of his staff remarked to mo In December, 1914, after the severe Aus trian defeat by tho Russians at Ivan- gorod, forcing Hlndenburg to fall back for more than fifty miles. "Hlndenburg was never greater In victory than In defeat," said he. The Idol of CJrrranny. Much has been written about those two figures In Germany's stand against the greater part of the world, and not a little by writers who never saw or talked with them. Much more will be written about those two personalities and their actions by historians of tho future. I have given somo of tho con versation of that evening as affording a psychological glimpse Into tho make up of the two men who were conceiv ing tho plans and directing tho mili tary operations not only of Germany but In a general way of her allies, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey as well. They did not know of the spirit that can bo aroused In the American peoplo nor did thoy bellevo In what was to them "tho Impossible," tho speed with which tho American people could convert raw resourcos In to the finished product, Into u colossal fighting machine. They did not know that a revolution was coming In Rus sia, first to help them, later to engulf them. When I asked Hlndenburg what would happen It tho bond of a "united peoplo" and tho "will to victory of an entire nation," which ho had declared essential to success, should no longer exist, he answered with an expressive THE SUN, SUNDAY, FACSIMILE fi SIGNATURE PAHIKnSBHiiilv movement of tho hand which I Inter-, preted as meaning "tho game will be up." "Das kommt nlcht bcl uns" (that will not tako place with us), he said. But ho was mistaken. So much has been written about Hlndenburg and Ludendorff that I will give my personal impressions of them. In August. 1916. Germany, with tho "glooms" resting heavily upon the peo ple, was suddenly electrified by tho news that the popular Idol, Hlnden burg, had been placed at the head of all tho German armies to succeed Fal kenhayn. Until then Hlndenburg had boen only commander in chief in tho Fast. The spirits of army and people rose. I was tho first foreigner In Berlin to hear it, Maximilian Harden having called rno up on the telephone and told me some hours before It became pub lic. Officers In the Adlon Hotel, when I told them, threw their arms around one another for Joy. Gen. Kric'.i von Falkenhayn, who had been Minister of War and had been named by the Kaiser to succeed Count Helmuth von Multko as Chief of the General Staff somo time after the German defeat at the first battle of the Marne, had proved no greater success. Hindenburg and Ludendorff had travelled a road of triumphal victories that led Into tho heart of the people. Falkenhayn achieved nothing spec tacular. The masses did not tako into consideration that the French, tho British and tho Belgians wero not the Russians. Falkenhayn's fall, despite the Kaiser's favor, becamo only a question of time after the rivers of blood in his 111 fated Verdun venture, so often at tributed to tho Crown Princo. Tho Kaiser did not particularly want Hindenburg as chief of his armies, a post which carries with it the position of chief military advisor to the mon arch. Tho grim, blunt old Field Mar shal had never been a personal favorllc of his. Had he not retired porno time before the outbreak of war, report said, because ho had told the Kaiser some plain truths? The Kaiser was willing to hcip honors on him, but preferred that for personal contact Hlndenburg remain In tho Fast. His cold reserve, rough granlteliko appearance and short, brusquo man ners, so sharply in contrast with the polish, suavity and almost Frenchlike courtliness of manner and magnetic personality of Falkenhayn, never ap pealed very strongly to tho "Obersto President Poincare's Visit Continued from Freceding Pag. that Queen Eleanoro was Induced to abandon her trip. It Is betraying no secret of tho State Department to mention that In 1902, after l'rlnco .Henry of Prussia's trip to New York, Chicago, Washington, &c it Issued a circular instructing Its diplomatic representatives abroad to do nil In their power to discourage trips to tho United States by members of reigning houses, on the ground of tho difficulty experienced in securing from Congress tho funds for their enter tainment and In providing for their safety. In fact, when money was asked from Congress for tho pay ment of the expenses of tho visit of tho cx-Kalser'a brothor to America, Representatives nnxlous to stund well with their rural constituents pro tested against American dollars being wasted In hospitalities and honors to scions of the effete monarchies of Europe. No such objection can ho raised when It comes to tho question of the expenses to bo Incurred In welcoming President Polncare. Although he will bo received as President Wilson was in Franco und everywhero elso abroad with full sovereign honors, ho comes hero as the head of a Government that Is quite as democratic as that of this atstot republic. Moreover, FEBRUARY 9, 1919. HINDENBURQ Kriegsherr." Then, too, Hlndenburg' was Independence personified. Thero was nothing of tho courtier about the warrior of the Masurian swamps. He was not given to flattery, but was given considerably to criticism. When he becamo gruff and spoko his mind freely his words hud the lciness of liquefied air. Much of tho time he was taciturn, something Wllhclm II. never could stand. The Kaiser was very impressionable and anything around him that savored of gloom de pressed his spirits. To offset that, however, Hindenburg had a rockllko confidence upon every occasion: though taciturn he was never dispirited and it was believed that he would be ablo to steady tho IC.ii.scr. But tho Kaiser resisted tor a long time the pressure to name the hero ot tho Kast. Less than a year before had Hindenburg not slowly and with ag gravating deliberation unbuckled his sword end quietly laid it on the table beforo his highest war lord with, "Then, our Majesty, I am no longer In command here." when tho Kaiser had impetuously insisted upon some change. in tho Field Marshal's cam paign plans In tho Fast? A member of Hlndenburg'a staff related tho Inci dent to me. The Kaiser would much have pre ferred tho more courtlerlike and bend ablo .Maekensen for Chief of Staff, but next to Falkenhayn Mackenscn was the mct unpopular high commander with army and people. And as there were many reports of friction between Falkenhayn and Hindenburg it was known as well that Hlndenburg had no particular love for Maekensen, whoso victories wero largely credited to tho military genius of his chief of staff, Major-Gen. von Seeekt. often called tho "second Ludendorff." Mackenscn was a great favorite of tho Kaiser, but Intensely disliked by tho Crown Prince becauso ho had fo often tattled to the father about the fon when young Wllhclm was under Maekensen in Danzig. I had been with Maekensen in 1914 near Lodz when ho commanded Hlndenburg's Ninth Army. His Quartermaster General at the time was Colonel, later Major-General Saubcrzwelg, who ex ecuted Edith Cavcll. The Hlndenburg cult reached the height, always dangerous to a hero or popular idol, where it becamo increas ingly difficult to llvo up to it, and It was certain to wano tho moment ho no longer could mako the people happy with victories. thero wil! be a universal popularity about tho visit of President Polncare that certainly did not exist in the caso of Princo Henry's visit. President Polncare, it may be as sumed, will forao to America on board one of tho bigger French liners, con verted for tho occasion into a Gov ernment yacht, and escorted by sev eral French battleships. These will bo met off the Capes by an American pnuadion which will escort him to Newport News. There he will bo met liv tho Secretary of State, by members of tho Cabinet and by tho ranking officers of tho army and navy, who will escort him up tho Potomac, on tho Mayflower to Washington, where ho will bo welcomed on landing by the President and Mrs. Wilson. In accordance with tho precedent set by President Wilson In Paris Pres ldcnt Polncare will address both houses of Congress. In view of the fact that he was the leader of tho French bar tho Supreme Court may be depended upon to devise means of paying him signal honor. That he will visit Chi cngo, St. Louis, Boston and Phlladol phlo, the cradlo of American liberty, goes without saying, and It is taken for granted that he will spend two or three days In New York boforo em barking here on his return to France. But throughout his stay he will be tho guest of the entire nation. HINDENBURG in FULL REGALIA Ludendorff was a close second In popular favor. He was, so to ppeak, tho new Siegfried, the mythical hero of Germany, come to llfo again. He alto was looked upon somen hat as a reincarnation of tho Moltke of 1S70 in military strategy. Thero was much dispute as to which of tho two was really "tho great one." In tho army, as among tho peoplo, there wero two opinions, but neither ever felt quite certain. Ono could never como from general headquarters without the question being asked, "Do tell us, which is the real genius?" Tho two men were very different from each other. Hindenburg w.us cold, distant, severe, but had tho rcpu- I tauon of tclng Just, and was believed i lo bu tteil ultjli lu'uili'ulu In military j Judgment. His appearance was rough. Ills face looked as if it had been cut out of an oak treo with a dull axe. He had tho typical hquaro head which could easily be drawn with four lines. Ho had (.mall pig eyes deeply set. Tho dominant noto In his face was grim, Ironlike will and deter mination to tho point of brutality, especially when in repose, but that expression was greatly modified when ho spoke. In manner he was short, brusque, but fceldom unkind; in speech, terso nnd laconic. Ha was at that timo regarded not only as a greet military leader but also a sort of patriarchal father of his people. Ludendorff is nioro than fifteen years younger than Hlndenburg. Tho former has a finer head nnd a more intellectual face. Ho hus rather large bulbous eyes in contrast to Hlnden burg's deep 6et small eyes. Ruthless forcefulness, tho forcefulness ot uie mastiff rather than tho tenacity of the bulldog, is tho dominant noto In his face. Terso and loconio as Hlndenburg was, Ludendorff was evt'ii more si lent. Hlndenburg would upon occa sion talk, Ludendorff seldom. At that, lis had qualities which rendered him more companionable and likable. lie could bo very sympathetic nnd was warmly temperamental, had a keener and quicker mind, was excitable und at times "blew up" when things went wrong. Ho was a thinker, schemer und planner. His face, much moro sensitive than that of Hlndenburg's, often reflected his thought, while tUat of tho old Field Marshal was always sphlnxltke, Capt. Caemmerer, now dead, then personal adjutant to Hlndenburg, onco summed up for mo tho two currents of opinion running in headquarters regarding the two men. "Wo worship Hlndenburg, but we lovo Ludendorff," ho said. Thr Two Lender Compnred. In action Hlndenburg was conser vative, cautious, deliberate and slow. Ho weighed things carefully. Luden dorff was aggressive, forcoful. Impetu ous, eager and Impatient. One had the Impression, and that Impression was often strengthened by men at headquarters, that of the two he was tho thinker, originator und concelver of plans. Hlndenburg tested, weighed, ex amined, passed upon and approved or disapproved them. Ludendorff was tho dynamic power, tho driving forco and tho Inspiration; Hlndenburg was the balance, tho control, tho brako when necessary, nnd tho hand on the throt tle. Every morning about 7:30 Luden dorff camo to Hliulelibiug with tho night's reports, his buggcstlnns nnd now plans. Tho Field Marthul passed upon them, approved, modified or added his own Ideas. There was a strong streak of Tou tonlo fatalism In Hlndenburg. WJiat God decreed would bo nnd was good. Ludendorff tried to leavo nothing to ohanoo. The Field Martha! had a sol dlor's contempt for politics. "What more ran they glvo me?'" he nnce said to me. When I suggested tho Chan cellorship, ho answered brusquely, "I would not thnnk them for that " He declared ho had no further am- tlons. Ludendorff, on the other hand, was inordinately ambitious. He had a fondness for and studied politics as siduously. Often he used Hlndenburg's namo for political purpose nnd effect. Not really understanding politics or tho port that psychology plays m it, ho used Hlndenburg's name mure and more until it lost its potency with the people. Some asserted that Luden dorff had dono that deliberately to diminish or destroy tho Hindenburg spell with tho peoplo. Ludendorff had ambitions, great am bitions. His friends said ho was tho logical man to become Chancellor, .to direct both Hie military nnd political destinies of Germany, that he would I'O a new Iron Chancellor, a combina tion of a Bismarck and a Moltke. Ludriidoiff, it appeared, had somo such thought. More and more insidiously crept the thought through tho German army nnd among tho peoplo that not Hin denburg but Ludendorff was "tho great one" of thoso strange military twins. Openly it was stated that "Ludendorff mado Hlndenburg." Steadily Luden dorffs influence with the Kaiser in creased ns Ui.it of Hlndenburg, who would not meddle In politics moro than he was forced to, waned. I.ndrndnrfT rrnettrully Dtrtntor. By tho fall of 1916 Ludendorff was practically dictator. Ho was dominat ing not only tho military but albO the political situation. Tho Kaiser leaned moro and more on him, There Is little doubt that he iersuaded tho Kaiser to make tho spring oirenslve ot IfllS and that that was a Ludendorff nnd not a Hlndenburg offensive. The Taoglicha lluiulschau, ono of the mili tary organs of Berlin, statod specifi cally that tho responsibility for Ger many's appeal to President Wilson for an armistice rested solely upon Luden dorff, upon whose personal Initiative it was made. The gamo being up, ho then resigned nnd dlsappcaied. Hindenburg comes of a family of the old but lesser Prussian nobility. He was retired from the army in 1911 and will bo 72 In October. llo was wounded in the war with Austria In 1SC6 nnd fought ns lieutenant in the war with Franco in 1S70. His brother is a writer. Ludendorff, although a commoner he has declined patents of nobility Is a descendant of King Erik XIV. of Sweden, and to Sweden ho is reported to havo fled. Ho wns bom In Kni zevnla in tho province of Posen. His father was a Landwirt or farmer on a largo scale. Ono brother left Germany and nettled In tho East Indies. An other took to afctrouoiny and became tho chief astronomer in tho Astro Physical Obcervatory In Potsdam. LudendorfTs grandfather was a prom inent merchant in Stettin and married Ada Lovisa Lcffler, a .Swedish girl. Tho latter was a direct descendant of Virginia Eriksdotter, a daughter of King Erik XIV. of Sweden by Agila Pehrsdotters, tho daughter of a rich Finnish merchant with whom ho con tracted a "lefthanded union" King Erik was poisoned In 1577 at the in stigation of his brother. In 1909 Ludendorff married Frau Margaretho Peniet, n widow with four children, who was tho daughter of a manufacturer. There wero many legends about Ludendorff's appoint ment ns chief of staff to Hlndenburg in August, 1914. There was nothing mysterious about it. But tho popular miry! in Germany, ns elsewhere, clings to romance. IIIiiilenliarK's Appointment. In 1913 Ludendorff commanded an Infantry regiment in Dusseldorf. On April 22, 1914, ho was nuido Major- General and placed in command of nn Infuntry brlgrade In htras-iburg When the war broke out LudemluriT was assigned to Gen. vim Enimlcli ns Chief Quartermaster of the hitter's fore?1', the l!r."t to Mta-k I-legf. In the storm mi Fort Fleron on August 0 Prlnoo YVl'.lielm of Llppe. (icn. von Buelow nnd fin von Wiipsuw, the last communions the Fourteenth la- War Reporter's Analysis of Hun Leaders' Characters Reveals Cunning and Stu pidity, Brutality and Suavity, Strength and Weakness, Curi ously Mixed, With Fatal Results fantry Brigade, voro killed by th fire of tho brave Belgians. Von Wtissow's brigade, through th loss of Its commander, hesitated anJ began to waver. Seeing that, Ludcn. dcrff Immediately took command of tho brigado nnd personally led it In av charge on tho Belgian line north of Fort Fleron. LudendorfTs attaclc was successful, and tho Germans broko through. After tho capture ot Liege, credit for which wot given to Emmich, tho Kniser summoned Luden dorff to make a personal report t him. llo was so pleased that lm throw his arms around Ludendorff and conferred upon him tho Pour I Mprlto cross-. By tho mlddlo of August Gen. voa Prittwitz. ono of the Kaiser's favorites, wns badly defeated by Gen. Reuneti kampf and his Russians in East Prussia. Tho General Staff decide tliat tho Kaiser's favorite must bo cashiered. Impressed by tho decision, initiative and energy displayed by; Ludendorff In thn attack on Liege. Gen. von Moltke, Chief of the General Staff, recommended to tho Kalrer th appointment of Ludendorff as Chief ot Staff In the East and Hlndenburg. tli old warrior of tho Masurian swninpi, as commander In chief in plac of Prltt'itz. The latter wns repotted le havo committrd suicide because of th dlssrnrn of hi", removal, but ln is ir was still living quietly In Berlin when 1 left thei At a o'clock on the afternoon et August 22 Hlndenburg received ;i telegram on bis estate near Hanover, saying that ho had been selectPil for an Important command nnd to hold himself in readiness to leavo the fol lowing day Tho telegram did not stato whnt 'ho command wns. Half an hour later a second telegram ar rived stating that Major-Gen. Luden dorff had been named as his chief of stuff and would arrive between .! and t o'clock that night on a special train from Namur. Hindenburg was to bo at the station ready to board the train. At 7:30 finally came a telegram telling Hindenburg where he was destined to go nnd that ln had Wen appointed to the command of tho army in East Prussia, wh;ro Maekensen and Francois were making a desperate stand against Itenneukampf nnd Sain sonoff. The track wan cleared for the lIlnd'-nburg-Ludendorff sppclal from Hanover to Maricnburg in East Prussia. During the rest of the night and t'ie next day Hindenburg and Ludendorff worked out their plans, which resulted In the defeat of the Russians in tho Masurian I-ako battles of T.innen berg, Neidpuburg nnd Ortclsbun,'. Samsonoff committed suicide. Fric tion between him and IieiinenkampC Is supposed to have contributed larg -ly to their disaster. Hindenburg him self remarked to mo once, "Hail Ren nenkampf nnd Samsonoff cooperated, or the ono known what was happen ing to tlm ohcr, they could havo crushed me." When 1 nsT.cd Hlndenburg about tho reports Hint thousands of Rulnn soldiers had drowned In tho lakes, a very popular ntory in Oi many, tbft old Field Marshal replied, "Nonsunse! Just a legend which the people, will insist em having. I doubt whether1 :,ou will find 150 dead Russians in thu lakes." Hlndenburg, iwhn bade defiance ! thu Allies and who said "the, war wl'l go to tho sldo that has the strongest, nerves." now knows which sldo that was. Whatever placo future histo rians will give him, it will bo said, that he wns not great enough for hli mental horizon to e'xte'iid beyond th borders of Europe1. Hut it will bi ! rredlted to him that ho took his niedlfluo wi'h his people. The same, cannot be said of Ludnndorff, wh' followed tlvj example uC tho Kalter and t..c Crown Trl'iro.