Newspaper Page Text
7 . ...V
BIG THRONGS AT
Impressive Services Held in
Westminster Abbey and
JIIGH OFFICIALS PRESENT
Secretary Lansing at Blcr of
Bravo Nurso Slain by Ger
mans in Brussels.
tpf-clat Cab It DetpatcX to Tni Ben.
Copyright, lilt; ott rtgMt reiervtd.
Ixndon, May 16. Ab might have be.
Cttcd a dead queen the body of Edith
Cavell was borne to-day to Westminster
Abbey and her memory aooorded one of
the moat remarkable demonstrations In
the history of England. I
By their very silence and solemnity
the ceremonies to-day at historic TVest
slnster Abbey, In times of peaco, would
have been appropriate to the passing of
a national figure. To-day they assumed
the proportions of a great nation's trib
ute to a martyred heroine.
Tew royal funerals In tho past hare
upheld fiich weight of sentiment as was
exhibited to-day by British manhood
and womanhood which Joined In a
demonstration of devotion and reverence
for the memory of the woman who oc
cupies the foremost place In tho hearts
England showed to-day that It had not
forgotten tho cruelties and barbarisms
committed during the early days of the
irar, especially during the days when
Edith Cnvel as a nurse aided and com
forted British soldiers, then died, after
an unjust trial and verdict at the hands
cf Britain's enemies.
As the coffin, draped with the Union
Jack and covered with red carnations,
as removed from tho railway carriage
at Victoria Station and placed upon a
run carriage a low moan rose' from tho
crowd In the thickly packed streets. Tho
moan was the wall of a nation, but here
and there could bo distinguished audi
ble and Individual expressions of real
These died away as the band of the
Guards struck the opening bars of the
Dead March and the military escort,
with anus reversed, silently took Its
position on either side of tho gun car
riage and the procession moved cathe
dralivard. 1'ndcr the soft caressing breezes of
rprln;.- and tho warmth of a spring
ran tho procosBlon crept forward be
tween solidly packed lines of men and
women, who bowed reverently In a sil
ence that was so complete as to be
almost Impressive. Throughout the
line of march thero was silence, with
here and there devout, softly murmured
prayers as men and women drew forth
rosaries and told off their pleas for the
martyr. Hundreds of w6unded soldiers
were In tho crowds, and they and the
irmy nurses stood stiffly at attention
their eyes filled with "tears. Many who
Buffered grievous wrongs during the war
wept silently for wounds still bleeding
and for wrongs still unrlghted.
A tremendous crowd gathered atthe
Abbey, tilled the streets and overhung
t1: cjllcrles. Queen Alexandra at
tended tlic funeraV-and entered tho Abb's-
through lanes of nurses represent
ing the Allied countries, th United
States and all the .British colonies. A
party of American soldiers led by a
captain marched Into the cathedral aa
the choir sang the psalm: 'Though I
walk In the valley of the shadow of the
death, thou art with me."
Thp Coldstream Guards, commanded
by Ool Alston, carried the coffin to tho
catafalque before tho altar. Relatives
who had accompanied the body from
Dover followed tho coffin, -fvhllo the
choir chanted solemnly. A long ray of
suti!ilno that streamed through the
lofty windows fell across the casket as
the coldlers set It down, making a halo
about the rostrum where the dead
woman lay. The dean of Westminster
Abbey spoke In words or glowing tribute
to the dead nurse, and as the belta
tolled six soldiers again lifted the coffin"
and bore It to the carriage. The pro
cession then started down the embank
ment for tho Liverpool streec station,
whre the Journey was resumed to Nor
wich for the final burial.
MARTYR TO HONOR
Did Not Thoroughly JJndcr
stand Charges Against Her
and Scaled Own Doom.
INJUSTICE AT HER TRIAL
NOTABLES AT ABBEY
FOR FUNERAL RITES
Service Conducted by the
Dean of Westminster.
r.y the Ajtodated Prut.
Los-don, May ID. J- England paid
tribute, to Edith Cavell, the English
nurse executed by tho Germans at Brus
.!?, October II, 1915, here to-day when
t"r tody, en route from Brussels to her
native city of Norwich, was taken to
ttistmlnster Abbey for an Impressive
It was a public funeral. In which. It
teemed, every' resident of the great met
ropoliH endeavored to participate. The
s.rcets through which the cortege moved
were congested with crowds, and every
men or stand me room In tlie nelchbor
hood of the Abbey was occupied by a
densely massed multitude which the
ea;er to do reverent homage to "that
bravfl woman," as the Bishop lot London
'.escribed her. "who deserves a great
eal from tho British Empire."
TV congregation at the Abbey in
cluded high ofliclaln of the Government,
representatives of foreign countries and
men prominent In many walks of life.
Kmg 'ieoxe was represented by the
E-'l of Athlone, brother of queen
Mur The cervlce wan conducted by
tr.e lie!in f Westminster. No address
wav (leuvcred. The opening sentences
of he burial servlcn were sung by the
e " ' wtiTh then sang tho Twenty-third
tn and a short lesson from the
BELGIANS HONOR MARTYR
WITH SOLEMN CEREMONY
Notable Persons and Thousands of Others Pay Tribute
as Miss Cavell's Body Is Borne to Railway Sta
tion, Where Services Are Held.
Special Cable Detpateh to Tnr Be from the
London Timet Bervlee.
Copyrioht, lilt: all riahtt reterved.
Brussels, May 12 (delayed). Bel
gians who havo witnessed every' public
ceremony In Brussels which has taken
place In their life time assure your cor
respondent tho town has never wit
nessed a more Impressive spectacle than
that of the transfer of Edith Cavell's
body from the Tlr National to the Gare
du Nord Station, which was carried out
this morning under perfect weather conditions.
Whether one considers the crowd?
that lined the streets whroln every
house flew a flag at half staff, or tho
excellent organization and simplicity of
tho procession and the religious serv
ice at the station. It may bo confidently
affirmed that no English woman except
Queen Victoria ever had a more mtfvlng
or grander progress to her last resting
The coffin, which had been lying In a
mortuary chapel of the Tlr National,
was conveyed on a British gun carriage
covered by the Union Jack, on which
lay wreaths from tho Belgians, tly) city
Died Not Only as Patriot hut
Without Hatred of Foo,
The removal of Edith Cavell's body
from Its burial placo In Brussels to
England, where funeral services were held
yesterday at Westminister Abbey, brings
out the fact again that even at this dato
there Is no record of her trial and that
very little Information Issued through
the closed doors behind which she waa
hurried to her death.
From tho fragmentary facta avail
able, however. It Is clear that Miss
Cavell did not herself thoroughly under
stand tne nature of the charges against
her, and that In all good faith she
virtually sealed her own doom by ad
mitting the lesser accusations, such as
receiving and nursing English soldiers
at her hospital, which she believed to
be tho -worst accusations that wero
made against her.
Many of her friends, among them
Brand Whltlock. American Minister to
Belgium, believed dp to the last moment
that the offence for which eho was being
held accountablewas simply that of aid
lng young men to cross the Dutch
frontier a violation which was not pun
ished with particular severity. Judged by
the standard of sentences then being
imposed In occupied Belgium.
Such an atmosphere of mystery and
misunderstanding surrounding her death
has been set forth In the American
envoy's Just published book, "Belgium,"
In which he pays tribute to the per
sonallty of the English nurse, courage-
ous and resigned, even though she had
not expected such a fate.
Brand IVhltlock's Request.
Soon after this woman, who had won
tho respect of all who knew her In
Brussels by her conduct of a nursing
home In the Rue de la Cllnlque, was
arrested on August 5 by tho Germans
Mr. Whltlock wrote a letter to Baron
von der Lancken asking If she had ac
tually been Imprisoned nnd requesting
permission for Maltre de Levnl, coun
sellor of the American Legation, to see
her and prepare for her defence.
Falling to get an answer. Mr. Whlt
lock wrote a second letter, which brought
the response on September 12 over a
month after the arrest that Miss Cavell
had been placed In the prison of St.
Gllles when she admitted having hidden
English and French soldiers In her home,
as well as Belgians, who were old enough
to bear arms and who were all anxious
to get to the front. Furthermore, the
German military ofTlclal represented, she
had confessed having furnished these
soldiers with money to get to France,
and had provided guides to enable them
to cross the Dutch frontier.
After her acquaintances had been led
to bellevo that the charges against her
would be no worse than aiding young
men to pass Into Holland they finally
of Brussels and nurses from Miss Ca
vell's school. The bearers were British
In tho procession which started at 10
nVlnMf TV urn Dr nnrl fa. Wnlnwripht.
brother-in-law nnd sister of Miss Cavell, I'ned how serious those charges were.
and her other sister. Miss Florence Ca
did sho seek to conceal that she know
they planned an attempt to cross the
Dutch frontier. She did not suppress
her patriotic pride In her work of mercy,
and when sho was asked If she had not
aided English soldiers left behind after
the early battles of Mons and cnarieroi
Bhe candidly acknowledged It, with tho
explanation that they wero of her raco
and sho would help her own.
Gave Succor to 200.
Tho court, seemingly Impressed, In
quired If she had not succored twenty.
Yes." she replied, frankly, "more
than twenty two hundred."
No, not all English : French and Bel
Thereupon ono of the Judges pointed
out that this heightened the seriousness
of her delinquency, since the French And
Belgians wero not of her nationality.
Another Judge asserted In a typically
Teutonic vein that she had, been foolish
to aid tho English, because. In his opin
ion, tho English are ungrateful.
No," retorted Miss Cavell, "tne Eng
lish aro not ungrateful."
"How do you know they are not7" de
manded her questioner.
"Because," waa the reply, ' some oi
them have written to(me from England
to thank me."
This damned her utterly In the eyes
of her German Inquisitors. Helping sol
diers to reach a neutral country iiks
Holland might not havs seemed to call
for ruthlcssness on their part, but wnen
they became convinced from her replies
that Miss uaveii naa actually aiueu
them to get to nn enemy country above
all, England the enormity of her ac
tions had no mitigation in tneir eyes.
Denth Fennlty Ileport.
On Sunday, the day after the close of
the trial, ono of tho nurses under Miss
Cavell. communicated to tne American
Minister a report that tne prosecutor
would nsk the court for the death pen-
nlty In the case of Miss Cavell and sev
eral of tho other defendants. Air. wnu
lock, however, considered this was
merely the practice of prosecutors the
world over, who always asked for the
At 9 o'clock the next evening, nowever,
Maltro do Leval rushed to him with the
news that tho sentence of death had been
pronounced on Miss Cavell at 4 :30 that
afternoon and that she would bo shot at
2 o'clock tho next morning. It seemed
Incredible to Mr. Whltlock that there
could be such an Immediate execution of
sentence, without time to prepare and
present a plea for clemency.
He believed that a stay of execution
would bo granted, but Maltre de Leval
went to beg for mercy from tho Governor-General,
who had gone for a com
fortable game of bridge at his chateau
at Trols Fontaines, ten miles nway, and
returned with the report that It was
Meanwhile the Bev. Mr. Gahan, pastor
of the English church, went to see Miss
Cavell In her cell, having been sum
moned by a note from some ono In the
St. Gllles prison, which contained merely
the statement In German, Tome at once;
some one Is about to die."
He was tho last representative of her
own people to see Ming Carvell alive. He
found her lying on her narrow prison cot,
but she arose bravely and drew a dress-'
lng gown about her delicate form. Sho
told him she had never expected sucn
an end to the trial, but when the Judg
ment was read to her that afternoon in
her coll she had not been afraid to dlo.
Life had not been all hapW for her,
she said, and she was glad to die for her
country. Life had been hurried, and she
was grateful for the weeks ,of rest, even
though they had been In prison. No
word of complaint passed her lips, about
her trial. Sho had avowed everything,
she' said, without appearing to realize
that her confession was not sufficient,
even under German law, to Justify the
capital punishment to be visited upon
Moro remarkable still, sho expressed
an utter lack of hatred toward any one
aa she received the sacrament. "Patriot-
Ism," she said, "Is not enough. I must
have no hatred and no bitterness tp
ward any one." So far as Is known,
they were her last words. At 7 In the
morning she and the architect Baucij,
conveyed by the black van to the Tlr
National, were shot. Bravo and calm
to the last, Miss Cavell faced tho firing
squad without n tremor.
When official announcements of tho
execution wero posted throughout the
city horrified throngs gathered about
them, and In .one of them a dignified old
Judge said: lt was not tho execution
of a Judgment; It waa an assassina
tion I" When Mr. Whltlock requested
Baron von der Lancken for permission
from the Governor-General to have the
body burled by the American Legation
and Miss Cavell's friends, the Baron In
formed htm solemnly that Interment had
already taken nlace. Under the law, he
explained. It could not be exhumed with- j
out an order from tne imperial uovem
ment and the Governor-General himself
had gone to Berlin.
Wrote to Morphine Addict.
Just before the end Miss Cavell wrote
several letters, one of "them to a girl
whom Miss Cavell had been assisting In
her efforts to break herself of the mor
phlno habit. To this sufferer Miss Cavell
sent word that If God would permit she
would continue trying to help her.
Other letters. Including ono for her
mother in England, wero turned over to
the German authorities to bo delivered,
but were never transmitted. Repeatedly
Mr. Whltlock besought the German offi
cials for them, particularly the mlyetve
that could comfort the aged and sor
rowing mother. He met with a refusal,
on tho ground that If he sent them to
England they would bo published, thereby
creating another sensation that would
weaken tho German cause. Even In the
faco of his promise that they would not
be printed the Germans remained ob
durate, though the officer In charge of
them said to him finally:
"I wish 1 might give them to you.
They aro n very' sad and uncomfortablo
charge for me to keep."
What was given into the American
Minister's care, however. Along with a
few precious trinkets, was Edith Cavell's
prayer book. And there, amid the other
entries In her own hand of the scrip
tural verses that fortified her on tne last
night, was her own final epltapth:
"Died at 7 A. M. on October 12, 191E."
veil, and tho Belgian Minister of War,
the British, Spanish and American Min
isters, Burgomaster Max of Brussels,
representatives of the Ministers of the
Interior and of Foreign Affairs, munici
pal officers and nurses from tho Cavell
The route of the procession was lined
throughout by school children. Lighted
street lamps were covered by crepe, as
were also tho children's banners. The
central portal of the station was draped
In mourning ami the reception room
similarly draped and adorned with
shrubs. The central hall had been
transformed into a mortuary chapel.
As the time approached for the arrival
of the procession the reception room was
filled with representatives of tho whole
diplomatic and social life of Brussels
from tho entire Belgian Government
downward. Every' personality known In
Brussels who could possibly be present
for her countrymen," followed. As tho
coffin Was taken Into the cathedral the
hymn, "Now the Laborer's Task Ts
O'er," which was followed by the read
ing of the lesson, I Peter, II.. 19, by
Canon Dechalr. Then came tho anthem,
"I Know That My Redeemer Llveth,"
and Chopin's Funeral March.
While the hymn, "Brief Life' Is
Here Our fortlon," was being sung the
procession formed for the march to the
graveside. There the latter part of the
burial service was conducted by tho
Bishop, and the hymn, "Abide With
Me," which Miss Cavell repeated Just
before she was killed by tho Germans,
was sung. The benediction was then
pronounced and the bugle Bounded the
The funeral party which nccompanled
the body from Brussels to Norwich In
cluded eight members of Miss Cavell's
family and prominent British and Bel
Among tho notable persons at the ser
vices at Westminster Abbey wero the
Queen Mother Alexandra, Princess Vlr
torla, the American Ambassador and
Mrs. John W. Davis, Secretary and Mrs.
Lansing and many American officers.
Kevciatmn of ril, John. Then came
K'j. Ivan o anthem, "Yta, Though I Walk
T ' JukIi Urn Valley of the Shadow of
r" a'.. ' and "I Heard a Voice from
'l"'i- I.ltany. the Lord's Prayer and
t j ii U"ti were then repeated, fol
l'vj -. the hymn. "Abide With Me."
Th. benediction was then pronounced
"d tne Last I'oit and Reveille were
T ii- service, which began at noon,
las'eii half n hour. The procession
to' tlic Abbey to the strains of Chopin's
I 'Jnerai March and nroceeded lo the
etatior., where the coffin of plain oak
r.um nn a train for Norwich.
On tho coffin was the simple Inscrip
tion EniTif C A vi ix. y
r-m bee. t, 1865. Died Oct. 12, 1918.
"-orwlch It was placed on a gun
Jf" r'ac and was taken to Norwich
flcta.iy .jejlgnated "For the funeral of
With Cavell, a nurse who gave her life
APPEAL TO BRITONS
i 1 1
Begs Not to Impose Slavery
Veiled Threat by hbert.
By the Attociated rrett.
Lonion, May 16. Philip Scheldemann,
the German Premier, hns sent thrnugn
the Berlin correspondent of tho Daily
Herald, the Labor newspaper, an ap
peal to the British people to realize "the
appalling position Germany Is placed In
by the peace conditions." Hcrr Schelde
mann makes various points similar 10
those In his recent speeches, and ad :
"Wo cannot believe that fellow human
beings, however much under the Influ
ence of a wicked war, can reauy intend
to reduce a kindred civilized people to
slavery, for that Is what these condi
tions mean. , , .
"We Germans call upon you English
not to force ua to sign away our birth
right and the peaco of Europe In our
hour of weakness."
our last word, but should It provo that
this mailed fist peace Is to bo Imposed
upon us wo shall have to take our decisions."
FOR LEAGUE POST
Will Represent U. S. in Per
Washington, Slay 16. Raymond B.
Fosdick, a New York lawyer, who was
chairman of tho Commission on Train
ing Camp Activities durinc the war.
will bo one of tho permanent American
officials In tho Loncuc of Nations when
the Ieaiuo Is organized The exnrt
poaltlon to which Mr. Fosdlck will be
appointed was not known to-day in
Mr. Fosdlck Is 3fi years old. His
homo formerly was In Buffalo, where
his father Is nn educator. He first
came Into public notice some ten years
ago, when toon after being graduated
from Princeton rfnd taking a post
graduate course at the New York Ijiw
School he began practising law In New
York nnd became connected with
Mayor Gaynor's administration us As
sistant Corporation Counbcl. A little
later ho becamo Commissioner of Ac
counts nnd tho Investigations ho con
ducted Into municipal affairs attracted
countrywide nttentlon. I
During 1913 Mr. .Fosdlck 'worked In
Europe- investigating police system
for tho Rockefeller Bureau of Social
Hygiene. When the United States
rnlercd the wwr ho took tho chairman
ship of the Commission on Training
Camp Activities, serving without pay
But when the frail llttlo woman of 50
was arraigned before the court-martlai
In the Senate Chamber on October 7 she
was not herself aware of the gravity of
her "crime" in the eyes of the Germans.
Unable to Talk to Counsel.
When Miss Cavell, tho Princess do
Cray, the Countess de Belleville and
thirty-two other similarly nccused were
brought before the military court they
were seated bo that they could neither
see nor communicate with their own
counsel, who were compelled to sit be
hind them. The witnesses, nlso placed
behind them, were likewise Invisible, to
It was this spirit of hampering the
defendants which ruled the whole pro
cedure of the trial. Miss Cavell had
never received any written statement of
her alleged breach of military law, and
noni was presented to her attorney. She
wns questioned In German a language
with which she was not conversant the
questions and answers being translated
Into French, which she spoke fluently.
With only the vaguest knowledge of
the threat resting over her, she believed
that the Germans were charging her
with the deeds she had committed, and
out of tho honest frankness of her heart
acknowledged them. In fact, she signed
a paper to that effect.
She did not deny having received In
her establishment English soldiers whom
she nursed nnd cheered with money, nor
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BROADWAY AT 34th STREET
M "r,1 "rtlielraii as The Yellow
tnl.. t '"'"ken UUMams at Geo. SI.
rtir. J'0'"" 1e oaeaf the be.t char.
By (As Anodated Prtn.
BtttLiN, May 14 (delayed). Frledrlch
Ebert, the German President, in a state
ment mado In Vorwaerfa has reiterated
his opposition to the peace tenns sub
mitted by the Entente, declaring them
unreconcllable with conscience and rea
son and Insisting that they must be
drastically and fundamentally corrected.
Above all, practical negotiations were
necessary, he declared, and these would
quickly result In the attainment of a
worthy peace If a return wero made
to the fourteen points.
"As long as one remnant of hope re
mains that reason will triumph," contin
ued President Ebert. "we will not speak
r.nilKA iiuh In the role of the slrl Is
tragedienne of extraordinary ability," N,
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