Newspaper Page Text
THE SUN, TUESDAY, 'AUGUST r 12,. 1919.
VETERAN IRONMASTER WROUGHT MARVELS IN PUBLIC BENEFACTIONS 10 1 CARNEGIE GREATEST I KNEW-SCHWAB Humanity Has Lost a Bone J factor, DcclarcB Steel Man's Partner. I OTHERS. PAY TRIBUTES "A Qrcat American," George W. Perkins Calls Pioneer Clows Praises Career. i "The, world has lost a. great roan and f great benefactor to humanity." was tho comment of 'Charles M. Schwab, a chairman of the Bethlohem Steel Corpo jratlon, when Informed yesterday at hl (country home at Loretta, Pa., of the 'death of Mr. Carnegie. Mr. Schwab left tat once for New York and last night was Son a train due here this morning. "It would be difficult for me to find jj words to express my love and admira tion for Mr. Carnegie, my friend, my partner and assoclro for forty years," said Mr. Schwab. "He was the greatest man I ever knew and he had a heart so filled with .lender sentiment, .especially with refer ence to his associates, as to make him beloved as well as admired by all those who cams Into business or social oontact with him. 1 "Mr. Carnegie possessed the faculty if Inspiring others to unusual efforts In a greater measure than any man X ever knew and he always won by expressions of appreciation rather than by criticism. "The world has lost a great man and a great benefactor to humanity and I have lost a friend greater than whom no man ever had." Tributes to Mr. Carnegie's spirit of philanthropy and his energy came from many of his former associates yesterday upon tho receipt of news of his death. ""George W. Perkins, chairman of the .finance committee of the Carnegie Foun dation, said: "I .am deeply grieved to hear of Mr. Carnegie's death. He was a great Amer ican, belonging to that class which after the war of 1865 was quick to appreciate that we had a united country and a great opportunity. "Ho grasped the new machinery which inventors placed In our hands at that time and with them threw all his great mental energy Into developing our coun try. When his active business career closed, with the same energy he gave a large percentage of his wealth to move ments that he believed would help the people. "One of the last talks I had with him was about profit sharing. He was most enthusiastic in his commendation of the Steel Corporation's "profit sharing plans, ana expressed the belief that the prin ciple of profit sharing was destined to be a great factor In solving the existing problems between capital and labor." Incredible Career. Says Clewtu James B. Clews of Henry Clews 4 Co., bankers, said: "The death of Mr. Carnegie removes one of the greatest characters the world has ever known. In these days of labor unrest his career offers a fitting example of what can be accomplished by one .commencing In the lowest station of life; when he possesses the necessary qualifi cations for rising and makes the most of his opportunities. "Viewed from almost any standpoint. It seems almost Incredible that any one should have been able to start at the lowest rung of the ladder as a messenger boy and work himself up through vari ous grades until finally he became the greatest manufacturer that the universe has' ever seen. The name of Andrew Carnegie will last for many ages to come, not) only, however, as the foremost iron merchant, but for his great works of philanthropy for the benefit of man kind. Mr. Carnegie not only was a great money maker, but he was also a great spender, In the right direction. "Perhaps no one will ever know the total sum bestowed for benefactions, but that they equalled fully $350,000,000 Is generally recognized, nor will It be known until his will Is filed what part of his vast fortune he retained at the time of his death, but In all probability this will also approach close to $150,000,000, B. large portion of which no doubt will go to charity. Mr. Carnegie's life was a well rounded out one, and it is sate to Ray that he made every one of his nearly eighty-four years count to the utmost." "Mr. Carnegie had extraordinary qual ities which made him a notable figure on both sides of the Atlantic" declared Thomas W. Lamont of J. P. Morgan St Co. "He first achieved a great suc cess In Industry, a success which he .shared liberally with his capable lieu tenants, and then devoted his fortune and his energy to the causes of educa tion and peace. His libraries spread ovor the English-speaking world: his Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and his aid to the causes of peace and Pan-Americanism were wise gifts of enduring value and service." By nest Friend, Bays Bertram. James Bertram, secretary of the Car negie Corporation, which was established in 1911 with a capital of 1225,000,000 to perpetuate all of Mr. Carnegie's educa tional benefactions, was born twelve miles from Dunfermline, the little Scotch Village which was Mr. Carnegie's birth place. He was private secretary to Mr, Csmegle before becoming connected with the Carnegie Corporation. "I was Intimately associated with him for twenty years and his kindness was unfailing," said Mr, Bertram yesterday. "Ho was my best friend. I saw him for the last time a few months ago, and. In spite of his age, I had no idea the end Was so near." Ellhu Root, Jr., said 'Mr. Carnegie was n citizen of New York and that his will doubtless will be probated here. He In timated that Mr. Carnegie's death would have no effect ppon the Carnegie Foun dation's future or upon ctmllar philan thropies established br film. Mr. Root sent the news of MT. Carnegie's deyith to Ills father, whj ,ls( at his summer home at Clinton, N. Y. A recapitulation was made recently of the wori of the Carnegie Founda tion for Urd Advancement of Teaching, hid first, and one of his largest, bene factions. It was established In 1905 and. In the Oilrteen years ending No vember, 1918, It had paid 798" allow ances and pensions amounting to $6,260,600 to teachers and professors In the schools and private universities of the United States, Canada and New foundland. An endowment of 110,000,000 was Alven the Foundation at Its creation. In VJS 15,000,000 was added to enlarge Its scope so as to Include state uni versities. Another gift of 11,250,000 was made In 1913 to endow a division of educational Inquiry for research Into methods of tenchlng and the study of educational problems. .kPlifsld,ent. W'lson, who was then at the head of Princeton, together with the president! of most of the leading unl v,.".Ule,Vof the county, served on the original board of trustees. The original laea contemD ated fr. .m. A l ANDREW CARNEGIE wm w wsr 4. W w Continued from Flrat Pope. anlums because of their pungent odors. One of these flowers was his dally choice for wear In the lapel of his coat. In the summers of 1917 and 1918 he did much fishing. Ho had a power craft built to make these excursions com fortable. He was on the water for the f last time last Thursday. He passed tho , afternoon under the shadow of a group of pines near the .shore trying for black ! cass. Before his last illness Mr, Carnegie played much of what Is known as "clock golf." For a long time he had been ac companied to the links only .by an at tendant He used always tho club he bought from Tom Morris, whom he once culled "the greatest man In the world." Prior to this summer ho war an active golfer, playing nearly every morning In gpu weawer. Never Dlscnsseel Arxntsttoo, The war has long teen ignored as a subject of conversation In the Carnegie household. So far as Is known, no one ever discussed the signing of the ar mistice with hurt or the developments of the peace negotiations. Tho funeral service will take place Thursday morning, probably at 11 o'clock. Tho Rev. Benson N. Wyman, pastor of the Lenox Congregational Church, where Mr. and Mrs. Carnegie had a pew, and the Rev. Dr. William Plerson Merrill, "-pastor of the Brick Presbyterian Church, where the Came gles attended services In New York, will officiate. Other details had not been arranged last night It was the opinion at Shadow Brook that that the body will be taken on a special funeral train on 'Thursday afternoon to Sleepy Hollow Cemetery at Tarrytown, wheve there Is a Carnegie burial plot The New York house will not be opened by Mrs, Carnegie, It was said. According to members of his house hold, the' Ironmaster had hoped to go to Sklbo Castle for this summer. He changed his plans and went to Lenox when he learned that it would be Impos sible to take the servants who had been with him long and whose presence was necessary to his comfort Restrictions of the Government limited him to taking one automobile and one chauffeur. The only social event Mr. Carnegie at tended during tho last year was the marriage of his daughter to Ensign Mil ler, April 23 last The wedding took place In the Fifth avenue house. There Were 100 guests. As part of the pro gramme Scotch bagpipe players gave the national music that the Ironmaster loved so welL Toole Special Joy In Wedding", The bridegroom was the son of a former president of the Chicago. Mil waukee and St Paul Railroad. He left Stevens Institute, In Hoboken, In 1916 to drive an ambulance with the French. When the United States became a bel ligerent he entered the navy and was made an Knslgn. He Is 24 years old. The former Miss Carneglo Is 22 years old. , The wedding brought particular Joy to Mr. Carnegie. He had been a busi ness associate of the bridegroom's father. The elder Miller and Mr. Car negie, long before either had attained the measure of success that was to be their ultimate lot and while the son of one and the daughter of the other were very young, had exchanged the wish that their families would become con nected by marriage. Besides his wife and daughter, Mr. Carnegie left three nephews, Andrew, Morris and William C. Carnegie of New York, and a niece, Mrs. Rtcketson . of Boston. At the time that Mr. Carnegie pur chased Shadow Brook, In the hills of the beautiful Berkshlres. It was said that he did so because of the resemblance of the surrounding country to that around Sklbo Castle. STEEL'S SUPERLORD HAD AN EPIC CAREER Crowned It by Renouncing Business for Philanthropy. Carnegie Is dead. A little, red nosed weaver's calm of Dunrermune has ceased to be a prince of the world. A thin shanked Immigrant boy of eleven has slept peacefully his last sleep In a great bed after a last ride over his own sweet sun swept acres, hill carved and water gemmed. The starveling bobbin ooy whose every daylight hour meant toll In a grimy, humming cotton factory, lies a dead Lord Rector, a lord rector who for thirty years has ministered not to the elegancies of the leisured few. His chancelry dispensed its treasure and garnered new amid the drab ways of toll. Upon his wires of gold he sent the Imaginative spark to where In dark places It might Inspire to brighter things, might divert with the gleam of romance the mind and heart oppressed, fainting, beneath the stress of man's age-old bat tle with matter the battle In which Carnegie won ruthlessly to triumph for himself. ' A little telegraph operator became the manager of a budding railroad. The railroader turned his skill and managed the communications of his country In civil war. The small merchant, ventur ing on borrowed capital amid the dawn ing wonders of the day of transporta tion and of steel stopper Just short of dominance In all the world's material affairs. The lone child of the wife of his bosom came frail and fragile Into the world and Just before his death she wed and made him happy. nenonnces Power, Tnrns Altruist. Thus, meagerly set forth, the life of Andrew Carnegie ran the gamut of all possible romance. And, crowning it all is that incident, almost unique In all the epics, when this superlord of Industry, his vast plans and his mighty battalions drawn, marshalled, munitioned those who hod fought him knew how terribly wen renounced me conquest of the world and turned to altruism. Steel ruled the world and Carnegie was pre paring to rule steel all steel It makes ono ask what would have happened had Alexander stopped at the Hellespont had Ctesar not crossed the Rubicon, had "Napoleon not maae himself from Consul Into Consul for Life. There seems little doubt but that this name In which speaks the snlrit of .. ,. f8. hanical development and a I Its traits, Carnegie, will live. He himself attached it to thousands of "monuments more enduring than brass." Its story will Inevitably turn, neverthe less, on that great change to the Idoal of altruism from the Ideal of power. Of the three great financial figures which the age produced In America, Mor gan, Rockefeller and Carnegie, Carnegie possessed most of those human traits that nave tne strongest appeal. Men yean ui .j. i-. icrsaii, or "jonn u." Rockefeller. But they say "Andy" Car negie. Throughout his career runs the constant thread of his rough and ready contact with his kind, whether the weavers of Dunfermline, the factory hands of Pittsburg or the giants of the Industrial battlefield yjero he fought Andrew Carnegie, the .Hi i ,.,,! No picture of his bearded face can ever be completely dissociated from a chuckle. And Andy Carnegie was articulate In his own behalf as the others were not He had no mean genius for expression. He had written books of solid worth anc real charm. He was a ready speak er nnd writer for all the grind of his early years. And It was a grind. From the mo ment he earned his first wage, a dollar twenty for a week, until he retired, ho ground himself, his associates and his enemies. But he never ground any one harder than he was willing to and did grind himself. Work, readiness to seize opportunity, daring when opportunity came, and a supreme ability to organize the effort of other men were his touch stones of success. Ho himself believed that his genius was seeded In heredity. "I have often said." he once remarked, "that I do not know a lineage which I prefer to that of a library founding weaver." Ills father was one pf those substan tial citizens, the artisans of the days before machinery. He had his own seven looms In Dunfermline where his apprentices wove the linen he was com missioned to make by the merchants of thi town. Mr. Carnegie's remark above quoted was prompted by the discovery that his father had pooled his books with the books of other master weavers and that from this collection hod grown the first library of the town. There In the little Flfeshlre city An drew was bom November 25, 1887. When he was 10 came the tragedy out of which by a strange double paradox rose his own greatness. Machine weav ing was Introduced into Scotland. An drew's father got no more orders for his hand run looms and disaster faced the little family, whose eldest son was one day to oe the overlord of most of the machinery of this earth. Carnegie said he well remembered the family council at which It was decided to sell the hand looms for what they were worth and emigrate to Allegheny Pa., where the family already had rela tives. The decision was taken, he said. In the face of his parents' conviction that It meant nothing but sorrow for them, but because they were convinced It spelt better things for the two boys, Andrew and Thomas. Andrew was 11 when the little family came to Alle ghany. Worked ITom Dark to Dark. At 11 he was thrust Into the factory system of those days, which he admitted,! was mtlo short of child rlavery. He got a Job as bobbin boy In the cotton factory whero his father had found work. Ho went to work before daylight and tolled until after dark. But even then ho said, there was a hint of the Ideal In his canny, young Scotch head. "For a lad of 12," he has written It "to rise and breakfast every morning, except the blessed Sunday morning, and go out Into the streets and find his way to the factory and begin work while It was still jlark outside, and not be re leased until after darkness came again In the evening forty minutes Interval only being allowed at noon was a terri ble task. "But I was young and had my dreams, and something within always told ms that this would not could not should not last; I should some day get Into a .better position. Besides this, I felt my self no longer a boy but quite 'a little man,' and this made me happy," AVhen the change came Carnegie seized It, though It seemed at first to be wut of the frying pan Into the fire. Just before he was 18 a "kind old Scots man" took him Into the factory Wi the bobbins were made. His duties, not yet IS, were to fire the boiler nnd run the small steam engine which powered the plant Upon a mind of thirteen years this task produced a reaction that might have been expected. "The firing of the boiler was all right," he has said, "for, fortunately, we did not use coal, but the refuse wooden chips, and I always liked to work in wood: but the responsibility of keeping th .i.P rirrht r .u. 1 glne and the danger of my making a mistake and blowing the whole fac- tory to pieces caused too great a strain, and I often awoke and found myself sit ting up in bed through the night try ing the steam gauges. "But I never told them at home that I was having a 'hard tussle.'" His third apprenticeship, as he calls It, came when he got a Job aa a tele graph messenger In Pittsburg at the age of 14. Ho greets It with his first en- , thuslasm. thus This," he said, "was a transfer from darkness to light, from the desert to paradise, for here I entered a new world, amid bookB, newspapers, pencils, pens and Ink, and writing pads, and a clean office, bright windows and the llteHiry J atmosphers I woa ths happiest oy Famous Ironmaster nisi - i i .i .! alive. Really, after this change there seemed little left to be desired ; for what more does one want In life, and Indeed what more can one get that is of much consequence? After he has got these things he has 'got it all' ; the only tools he needs for anything." Ill First Investment, But nobody better than the shrewd Andy realized that It took energy to consolidate this "all." He was a new boy in Pittsburg and his first Job was to become a perfect messenger by get ting to heart the names of every busi ness firm up and down Wood street. Then he set out to become a telegrapher.' Sitting In when he could he was soon a substitute operator and then a regular one. Apparently he was a good one for he was chosen to run the first private wire for the Pennsylvania Railroad, Just completed. W. A. Scott, the road's superintendent, had observed his oper ating. At this time Carnegie was get ting $25 a month and he considered It a competence because It made his family at home Independent "They could live on $800 a year," he says. Starting as "clerk and operator" to the superintendent at 815 a month, young Carnegie was soon deep in his superior's confidence. So deep in fact that Scott gave him his first opportunity for Investment He told him where he could buy for 1600 ten shares of Adams Express stock from the estate of a man who had Just died. Though Carnegie was one of the world's largest holders of securities, he bought always for In vestment He boasted that there was not a, dollar of all hU millions which had been made in stock gambling. He had no patience wit) speculator in securities. ' "It will be c. goo. for this coun try when the stock gamblers come to grief," he said on one occasion, "I wish I could devise some means where both parties to a stock gamble could be mode to suffer. I am speaking now as a busi ness man and as one who rtas never made a dollar by gambling In stocks and who would as soon make It that way as by playing cards, bridge whlat and so on." Nevertheless that first purchase of stock was made with borrowed money. His family by this time had built and paid for a little home, worth about $800. When Andrew came homo and told of the opportunity to buy the stock the family decided that an opportunity to invest with the help of his superior In the railroad, help which Scott had prom Ised If Pamegle could not raise the money, was too good to be neglected, Irrespective of the actual merit of the Investment. So his mother hurried to Ohio, mortgaged the little house through an uncle who lived there, and the stock was bought Tho stock paid monthly dividends of $1 a share. It was while working as clerk to the railroad superintendent that young Carnegie teamed the lesson of organiza tion. In those days the superintendent was not only charged with responsibility for his section of line, but. with all the details of operating It. despatching train and sending telegrams. Carnegie says! of It himself: "It took me some time to leam, but I did learn, that the supremely great managers, such aa you have In these days, never do any work themselves worth speaking about; their point Is to make others work while they think. I applied this lesson in after llfo, so thai hininoo !. ... i. a care. " Aids Sleeping Car Inventor. The first real item of this Pirniv ,,, . II UO UlUi 4-tlllOUOUi BVIWb, milt., I uVBtl fortunes came at this time, but not his town home. His devotion to Scot through tho Adams Express stock. It land was only less great than his devo was laid In the fortunes of the first tlon to the United States. He expressed sleeping oars and the Woodruff Sleeping it as the feeling a man has for his c" Company. mother and for his wife. In an ad- "One day on a train," Carnegie says, dress before the Worshipful Company of ' a nice, farmer looking gentleman came Plumbers In London he said : up to me and drew from a green bag the "I stand before you as-a representa- model of the first sleeping car." live of both the old and the new, being The conductor had told the Inventor, neither exclusively of one nor the other, Woodruff, that Carnegie was conneoted bothft Scottish-American one with the railroad. He was Immediately my native and the other my adopted Impressed with the practicability of the country. I love to think of them as Idea and arranged for Woodruff to meet motner w,fe- tot" t0 ba greatly him In Altoona the next day. There Ioved- Such they t0 ms- Scott Mill superintendent, grasped the nevr "e th tW0.flaB' " X see value of the idea Immediately and & tn,m Defore me now' "ltll0Ut teellng a contract was made for Woodruff to erect lVmp myL thr2at. or raany ye? two sample cars for the Pennsylvania! fln0B ther8 has 1.ate1 trom my ca"ls This contract gave Tcarneii i hE ,n sxanl - J"bl Br experiencV B,rPes and th8 Unlon Jack B8wn t0 make monthly nsvS.nJf .... t0 "ethr- 11 fl0Ilt ther8 now a symbol more than $200 17?A h-methln? ""aiding, I believe, what la to come." Se car and h. w.. LuS "v8 Yet even England fell beneath his nrmf o. S 2 llhout ""eh criticism In his devotion to peace. De- inSl-K ' hV.ty"' h8 went Plte th dependency of his business on v3 oanK'r and borrowed the money on munition making ho was the first great jus own note, agreeing vo repay it at , modem advocate of International dls- mif "J1,0"1?' - armament In fact, he refused to make me woodruff company afterward was armament In his own plants until con absorbed by Pullman and the Investment vlnced by the personal importunities of proved extremely profitable, in the President Harrison that it was his duty meantime CarnegU had gof to be a roll- to do eo. ' , road division superintendent Ha got there by a typical display of nerve. One day the superintendent was late coming to his office and - wreck on th'e single track tine had tied traffic In knots. It was railroad religion In those days that I only the superintendent himself could ucur up a wreuK. xoung v&rnegio uis- entod. Sitting at the telegraph wire he dl 1 gesed tho reports of freights waiting on every siding and the through express from the East hours late. He sent out the orders that put 'tho trains In motion. The express he hold until the freights had been cleared, getting acknowledg ment from tho express conductor that he knew the other slower trains were running "on his time." He signed the messages with Scott's name. Carnegie thus describes the superintendent's re ception of his work : 1 "When Mr. Scott reached the office he was In a great stew. He had- heard about the accident and all the trains being late, and aa he sat down to his desk he said: "Here it is 10 o'clock and the ex press not In, all the freight trains hung up, and the devil to pay. Wire ,' "Here I Interposed with 'Excuse me,. Mr. Scott, but I have sent all of the tele graphic orders that I thought you would send. Here are copies of my telegrams, and X think that you will find the through freight already in the yards.' "Mr. Scott looked at me very keenly for a minute, but ho never said a word. He looked over the telegrams I had sent In his name, ard still said nothing. In fact he never said a word to me about the matter. A few days afterward J. Edgar Thomson, the president of the road, came Into our office and, laying down his hand on my shoulder, asked, 'Is this Andyr " 'Yes. sir,' said L "-Well, I have been hearing about you,' said he." It was shortly after this that he got his own division on the railroad. But he wb constantly on the alert and the profits from his sleeping car Investments were shrewdly turned Into oil lands near Oil City. Pa. This was long before the day of the great development In oil, and young Carnegie was looked upon by many of his fellows aa foolish. So when the civil war came It found Carnegie well up In the management of on Important railroad and owning per sonal property that marked him as a substantial citizen. He was but 28 years old but ho had been at it for fifteen years. He was made superintendent of mili tary railroads and Qovernment telegraph linen In tho East during the war and at Its close cut loose from railroading and went Into business strictly for himself. He no longer loaned his little share of capital to others. He proceeded to bor row capital for himself. Up to this time all railroad bridges had been built of wood. Carnegie saw that they must be built of Iron. So he went .into Pittsburg and organized the Keystone Bridge Works. His' share of the capital was $1,250. "I had not the money," he confesses, "but the bank lent It to me. This com pany built the first great bridge over the Ohio River. This was my beginning In manufacturing and from that start all other works have grown, the profits of the one works building theother." From then on the career of Carneglo is the familiar career of the great captain of Industry save that Carnegie was perhaps the most successful of them all with a spirit and dash about his exploits, a drive and vigor and hardlnest to his work that many of the others laod. He was frank, surprising, humorous with It all. He thought for himself and ho expressed his thoughts without the slightest hesitation or constraint In fact his frankness earned him many enemies. He was a violent opponent of some of the" most sacred doctrines of the Repub lican party, to which ho gave always his formal allegiance. , Yet he said things nbout a protective tariff albeit he had been one of Its greatest beneficiaries that made Republican leaders shiver. A story has made the rounds only recently that he went to McKlnley In 1900 and offered to pay personally the prlco the United States had paid Spain for the Philippines, provided the President would commission him to go to Manila and proclaim that the Flllpplnos were free to go their own way. He was the familiar of many of the greatest men of his time, not only here hut abroad. His first large profit In fact was a quarter million dollar commis sion for the sale of Pennslyvanla Rail road bonds In Europe. Even In these early days, before he became famous, he was on terms of friendly Intimacy with Gladstone. Rosoberry, Matthew Ar nold, Herbert Spencer, John Morley and James Bryce. Throughout his life he was an omniv orous reader. He dlgested.a,dozen dally papers, read regularly the principal weeklies and trade reviews and was fa miliar with anything In the monthly magazines that Interested him and his Interest was well nigh universal How early his own literary spirit manifested Itself Is shown by the list of his books. They begin with "An American Four In Hand In Great Britain." written In 1SS8, and continue with "Round the World" (1884), "Triumphant Democracy" (1866), "The Gospel of Wealth" (1900), "The Empire of Business" (1902). this was translated Into eight languages); 'The Life of James Watt" (1806), and "Problems of To-day" (1909). Always Democratic. Yet despite his distinguished acquaint anceship, his vast affairs and his aspir ing mind he was above all a democrat He did not own a private car until within the last few years. He was In Atlantic City when he was summoned to New York In 1901 to close the great deal for the United 8tates Steel Corporation. A private car was sent for him. Wltn a tingle companion he sat there for a few minutes in solemn grandeur and then re marked: "DoeBn't this bore you you and mo all alone? Let's go into uie aay smoaer; Uiere are people In there." And In they went He was devoted to organ music. He gave hundreds of organs to Institutions and churches. He also was a regular attendant at the opera whea In New York, but never subscribed to a seat In tne "8:olden horseshoe." He and Mrs. Carnegie, latterly with .their daughter, orchestra seats which they bought as chance afforded. And despite this he nu ug,uicu w nw nut... w. ww.hw., pipes. It was Scottish plps that fur nished the musla at his daughter's wed- Jl I. . V. - 1 1 .. nn1nn. a, Tf.U . ,i. ,,.,. i.i.i. h. k $350,695,653 Is Last Total Given of Ironmaster's Many Benefactions QOMPILATIONS mado public by tho Carnegie Endowmont for In ternational Pcnco yesterday showed that tho ironmaster had given away a total of $ 850,605,53 up to June 1, 1018. This was more than the quarter billion ho was credited with upon his retirement, illustrat ing the difficulty in the task of disposing of such a sum, tho bulk of it 5 per cent, bonds, piling up income at the rate of $50 a minute. Among tho principal gifts enumerated are the following: 2,811 free public libraries $60,804,808 To colleges. Pvr libraries, endowments, &c 20,383,010 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of teaching 29,250,000 Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburg.... 26,719,380 Carnegie Institute of Washington 22,800,000 Carnegie Endowment for International Pace.. 10,000,000 Scholarship endowment for Scotch universities. . 10,000,000 In 1912 all future gifts wero placed in the hands of tho Carnegie Corporation of New York, with an endowment of ?125,000,000. This organization gave $3,000,000 to war relief work since 1914. Among Mr Carnegie's minor benefactions wero $2,000,000 for the Allied Engineering Societies Building in Forty-fourth street, $2,000, 000 for Carnegie Hall and Music Hall in Fifty-seventh street, liberal contributions to the New York and Pittsburg orchestras and endless pensions and gifts to personal friends and bid associates. It is not known how much Mr. Carnegie gave for church organs before ho turned this work over to the corporation. In 1909 he was one of the leaders In the international conference that called on President Taft to propose In behalf of the United States the first move for limitation. But after a trip to Europe In the next year he changed his mind as to who should lead the procession. He decided that England should do this. So vigorous did he become on 'this theme that a Grand Jury In Wolverhampton Indicted his book on democracy aa sub versive of society. He charged England with being responsible tar the armament race, and In a letter to the London Times he wrote: "In all truth and soberness it should no longer bo permissible for any two Powers In jealous rivalry to build dread noughts contingent upon what each other may do, thus compelling all other naval Powers to follow their ruinous and. In this the twentieth century, sad dening example, or to become defence less. "This Is no mere German-British af fair. It Is a worldwide Issue, and the next step, momentous as It may. prove for good or evil. Is apparently for Brit ain to take as the Inventor and first adopter of the dreadnought "Whatever tho final result If Britain played the part of peacemaker, as sug gested, she would have the moral sup port of the enlightened public sentiment of tho world with her, a tower of strength. If repulsed she would have her quarrel Just "It Is not for any non-cltlxen to ad vise ; she will choose her own path. Cer tain It Is, however, she could play no no bler part nor one that would redound In history more to her honor and glory, Il lustrious as that history Is, for hence forth Jt Is the triumphs of peace through conciliation, not those of brutal war through the slaughter of our fellowmen, that are to make nations venerated In after ages, "I write as one who loves his native land." Built Hnsrae Peace Palace. In 1907 he dropped his prepared ad dress ao President of the National Peace Conference to make sharp reply to President Roosevelt's Just Issued cry for national spunk. Mr. Roosevelt had said that when righteousness and peace were at odds peace would have to give way. "Junius tells' us," Mr. Carnegie cried, "tha the first prlnclplo of Justice Is that men should not be Judges In their own cause. When a man refuses to submit to arbitration he Is unjust We have heard righteousness contrasted with peace. Righteousness and peace, I tell you, cannot be divorced. It Is the man who offers to submit his cause to a Just judge who embraces that 'right eousness which texalteth a nation.' "Had I a dispute with another man, I would be unjust should I refuse to listen to the Judgment of a third. The only thing for that other man to say would be "Well, you may be right but I want to go before Mr. Hughes or Mr. Root' here and what they say about your rights we will abide by.' " It was Mr. Carnegie's $1,800,000 that built the great empty peace palace at The Hague. He even offered to pay 1360,000 to Germany for her claim against Venezuela rather than risk war between the two and the possible drag ging In of the United States. He gave half of the cost of the magnificent 81,500,000 Pan-American Union Build ing In Washington, and much more for other buildings for the International Bureau -of American Republics at Cart ago. But these were tho manifestations of the later Carnegie. The earlier Car negie, the "Andy" of the big steel days, the Ironmaster at his fighting prime. Is an Intriguing figure. Following the Keystone Bridge Works came the Union Iron Mills and then Car negie saw his first Bessemer converter. Ho had his quarter million from the sale of Pennsylvania bonds abroad and he threw It all Into stell. He organized Car negie, McCandless & Co., which began to loom as a big factor in the growing Industry. Genius at Oriranf zatlon. It has been said that Carnegie was not a practical steel maker. This Is probably true. But he was a genius at organization and salesmanship. He was also a genius at advertising In his own way. He never shunned publicity. Rather he courted It courted It to al most his dying dajr. He travelled and ho talked to reporters as finely as ho talked to Prims Ministers. It was a well-nigh Irresistible combination. It was tho best substitute for the modernly organized systems of publicity that reaches both Prime Ministers and re porters automatically. An early friend describes Carnegie's place In this first firm as follows: "Shlnn bossed the show; McCandless lent It dignity and standing ; Phlpps took In the pennies at the gate and kept the payroll down ; Tom Carnegie kept every body In good humor; Andy looked after the advertising and drove the band wagon." So It was. Carnegie had faith In steel. Partners, come and went, but Carnogle stayed. It was the day of the great ex pansion of steel. Not only was Iron replacing wood and lath and plaster In construction, but steel was making new fields for itself. The "T" roll hod re placed strap Iron on the railroads nndJ steel became not oniy me metier lor'tne metal worker but for the builder. Behind a high protective tariff the men of the Camegle mills were driven by the Carnegie spirit to undreamed of feats of production. The captain of the Lucy furnace produced a hundred tons a day In 1S77 and men said It was an impossible myth. But before the eyes of captains of furnaces Carnegie dangled always the glory and the profit of partnership. To the men who produced results went re wards with an almost automatic pre cision. Those who failed to produce soon dropped out. Carnegie had passed his long hours in the mills and factories. He deemed It slight hardship that others fchould do the same. His company paid a consistent 40 per cent. In 1881-lts growth and prosperity was revealed when It was reorganized into Camegle Bros. & Co That company was capitalized at $5,000,000 and $2,737, 000 stood in Andrew Carnegie's name. His original quarter million had In creased eleven fold. Up to 1888 the company had paid dividends varying from 28 to 69 per cent, and Carnegie's original Investment had Increased sixty times over. In those days a million dol lars was still a gigantic figure. The men associated with blm In those days were the pioneers of the steel in dustry, most of them, like Camegle, hav ing risen from shirtsleeve Jobs. Henry Phlpps remained steadily with hta chief. And in 1889 Henry C. Frlck came in to stay until the great Frtck-Caraegls war of ten years later. In that year Camegle acquired the Homestead Works with which his name will always be associated. Under his management it paid for -Its acquisition In two years. The Duquesne plant ac quired a year later, paid Its cost In a single twelvemonth. In 1892 the capital of the firm was Increased to $25,000,000. It had become a national figure. Its business was the cause of bitter battles among the rail roads entering Pittsburg. So Frlck' threw them all out and built the Union Railroad. But the business was fast outgrowing the Pittsburg district It reached out to the fertile Meaaba ore fields. Frlck engineered their acquisi tion. They were owned by a man named Henry W. Oliver, and Oliver lacked the money to develop them. Oliver gave the Camegle Interests five-sixths of his stock and the Camegle people loaned htm a half million to develop them. But between Lake Superior and the mills stretched miles of lake and land. Camegle himself bought the Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad, and In 1899 he bought the first of his own fleet of ore vessels, the fleet of towering ships that now form the greatest single Item of great lakes transport This was the chain, the first and biggest example of modern efficient organization, that made It true that ore which lay In the Minne sota hills on Monday was steel rails in Pittsburg on Saturday night In selling Carnegie killed competition. In manufacturing he stimulated It That was the secret of his great success. Without the merciless cutting of prices and a rail pool of brutal strength gave him a clear field. Within, every boss, sub-boss and workman was pitted against every other In his class. Success led to promotion, pay, partnership. Failure meant dismissal from the highest to the lowest Even for the partners there was a sort of human scrap heap. They were shunted Into politics when they 'couldn't make and sell steel. But fiercely as the men were driven, bitter as was the competition among' them, implacable as was the face of their chief as he cried daily for the besting of yesterday's record, each man felt that his reward was there when he earned it Men died like flies before the blazing hearth doors. Men dropped from exhaus tion in the ferocious race. But the win ners won reward. And after the great change Camegle turned to the consola tion of the losers with a generosity as free as had been the competition which caused their loss. Even before the great change, however, there are many stories to show that beneath his stolo mask of Napoleonlo ambition there beat a tender Scotch heart Frfclc and Carnearle Break. Out of this blazing cauldor In more senses than one came the fire tried men who have formed the steel kings of to day Charles Schwab, William E. Corey, George Lauder, Dinkey, Lovejoy and Lelshman. Among them worked Berg and Boenthrager, whose processes In creased the wealth of all. In 1889 the company's profits were $90,000,000, and of that $25,000,000 went to Carnegie alone. It was more than the total cap italization of the firm. Then came the Frick-Camegle quar rel, which estranged not only Frick but Phlpps. It was never wholly made up. Frlck charged that Camegle threw him out of office at the acme of the com pany's success and demanded that he sell his interests at half what they were worth. He called Camegle a thief and Camegle replied In kind. Finally there came a conference at At lantic City, arranged by that shrewd cor poration lawyer, James B. DHL A new company was organized In New Jersey with $160,000,000 In stock and a like amount In bonds. Of the common stock Carnegie held $86,000,000 and Frlck $15,000,000 par value. But Frlck failed of election to the directorate and though Dill got a fee'tr,' y 000,000 for his work Frlck was never satisfied. Phlpps, too, fell out with the Ironmaster. But Carnegie had tasted blood. In 1900 he declared war. He said he would drive every competitor out of the busi ness and make himself the dictator In steel. Ha refused to return a two million dollar option when It was forfeited by violation of Its technical terms. He mercilessly undercut every other firm In steol. lie plunged Into every phase of the business from the transportation of the taw material to the sale of the fin ished product In the market Where he .couldn't buy the plants of competitors he built his own near by and killed them. He threw $12,000,000 Into a tube plant In Ohio. He set a corps of surveyors to work to plan a road rivalling the Pennsylvania from Pitts burg to the sea. He declared war on the Rockefeller Interests, building his own seagoing ore carriers. When a small rival withdrew Its trade from him he smothered It with his own plant In tho rival territory. He foamed with a perfect Berserk rage of commercial bat tle. He announced that millions would be spent to make his own plants beyond the reach of competition In prices and the world knew he had the millions, the energy and the will to do it. And then, at 60, he lay down. With his rivals fully cognizant of the terror of his thlrty-flve years of experience when brought to the battlefield, with his single glance enough to set an enemy a tremblo, with the world of steel domi nation before him, he .took his price and quit Frlcx aof Schwab had always; argued for corporate control. Men n. the ranks as they were, they seemeir sense Instinctively the danger of an . plre founded on a man, albeit a maiTS genius 1 Schwab took the initiative In the w gaining, and In 1901 Interests headed i. J. P. Morgan & Co. camo to Mr rJl negle with his price. It was $304 Us 000 In gold E per cent bonds, $98 277 lj'," In preferred stock and $90,274 04n i! common. Carnegie took It to hlj ttM and the billion dollar United SuiL Steel Corporation was formed. Over night Andrew Carntgle turnit from the emperor militant to the falri godfather. His nrst act upon retirement was to set aside a $4,000,000 ptnjlou fund for the Steel Corporation's em ployees. Thus began the great eu of philanthropy, the years through which ho strove to live up to Ms then in nounced dictum that tho "man who ea rich dies disgraced." Whether he has been successful la these laler years as he was in the earllw ones remains to be seen. The best tu tlmate of the amount ho has glvn places It at about $400,000,000. Cut hi Income when he retired was $40 a Bin. ute. He consistently followed the nrta! clple which he enunciated early In u,u phase of his career that the very rich man Is but a trustee for the poor, "m. trusted for a season with a great put of the Increased wealth of the common lty, but administering It for the beneji of the community far better than it could or would have done It for Itself He did not seek to make more monir But ho did not Invest foolishly. h once said that In the panic of 1907 could have mado another $50,000,009 but did not do so because It would be but nxiy more womeB ior nimseif. Before the Industrial Relations Com. mission In Washington In 1915 Mr. Car. negi gave this review of his phllao. throplo enterprises In his own words; "My first act upon retiring from bu'sl. ness was to give $5,000,000 to tfct workmen of the Carnoxle Steel Com pany as a parting gift, $4,000,000 for pensions to the men and $1,000,000 to maintain tho libraries and halls I hid duhi ior inem. i was greatly pleised V when later the United States ri.j wurwi nuuii ow at 10 oupitcate my gift, 'adding $4,000,000 to the fund for pensions. I have Just read the follow lng report of this Joint fund with greit satisfaction : "The Tourth annual report of the United States Steel and Carnfrts Pension Fund, made public to-dir shows that Blnce January 1, 1911, whea the fund was established, retired em ployees pf the Steel Corporation hiT received in pensions $1,575,021.3, For the year 1914 the total disbursement from the pension fund amounted to $611,967.90, which was a gain over the previous year of $89,152.76, and a r!a of $230,510.52 over the first year of the fund's existence. "There are now 2,521 beneflclarix r 1 the fund. During the year 612 pension er?" were added nnd 183 died. The aver, age pensions of the cases added wtrs $20.40 a month, the average age of tho I pensioners being 63.33 years and tho 1 average term of the service 28.76 rears. Under the rules of the fund not less thsa $12 nor more than $100 a month Is raid.' I "The Hero Fund which I was privi leged to found has always Interested na most deeply, 'perhaps because the Idea cume to me through personal experienca. Mr. Taylor, who had formerly been su perintendent of the coal mine near.PItt. burg heard that an accident hi.', oc curred and Immediately drove to ths mine and called for volunteers to descend with him to the rescue of those below, A number promptly responded and man wero saved, but Mr. Taylor, the volunteer hero, lost hls'llfe. Here was one of ths true heroes of civilization, who save and serve their fellows. The heroes of bar barism wound and slay theirs. "I could not rest until I had toundtd hero funds In various countries, with a total capital of $11,790,000. The re port of the annual meeting held at Pittsburg on January 20 shows awards given to forty heroes or their wives and families, with a total of 1,021 awards since tho fund began operations. "The Carnegie Institute of Pittsburg, one of the greatest gtfts I have made, has cost so far $24,000,00 and his more than 3,000 students from forty two States, 1,288 of whom are men from tho Industries trying to Improve their conditions. The fees are onlr nominal, averaging $25 a year, which Is one-fifth to one-tenth what la usually charged. The cheapest we know of else where charges $150. "I do not know of any service to widows which brings such relief. It relieves 'the widow of doubt about the security of the fund upon which she is able to live In comfort. Of course the deposits and security are regularly examined by a representative of the State Department of Banking. Six per cent Is a higher rate than banks would pay. but I feel quite Justified In beiM Uberal. "I confess to being greatly surprised to learn within the last few days that I have no less than 481 pensioners upon my list receiving a total of III. 945.56 a year." Endowed Sclenttflo rieienrch. The Carnegie Institute in Washington probably vies with his foundations for the pension of college professors In im portance and Interest nmong hi educa tional gifts, barring alwaya the scatter ing of libraries over the face of the English speaking globe. The Washing ton Institute Is designed to do for science In America what Governments do (or It abroad. It takes the examplar of any science who shows himself worthy and provides him the facilities for original research. It is Mr. Carnegie's contribu tion to tho sum total of man's origin" gUl 0 W d (76a It has departments Ilka these of so ciology and economics, history, a gM" physical laboratory, marine biology ana botanical research. It has already pro duced valuable results. The cruise of the non-magnottc yacht Carnegie hu produced absolutely reliable charts 01 magnetlo variation In all the seven Mj' and through tho wllderne&sea of tM continents. His pension fund for college tearheri, originally designed as a measure purely for the relief of those whce devotion to pedagogy brought them to penury w old age, has developed Into a pmierTJi controlling factor In the trend of ' modem higher education Through requirements for eligibility to the pen sion fund It has ext-clsed a trcrr.en lnnn .v.. l,iiln nnd mff-00' of the seventy-four Institutions of hi1"' learnlnic In this country vi n.UlstU .1.... I Visnsflla In addition to these gmat to""";,, be has bestowed more than f In Individual irlfta for H'er ai ana .l r.i,rnnu. in nnn.KPCtnr ft" 'nst , I' " ' " ttnn nf l,arnlnr In this t'U' ri and Canada. He endowed the Pi ' l, unw S otch versiiies wun tK.-nuiuir.mi'- " ' ,vd students only less munificent tniln "J. Rhodes scholarships for the ''""r from all the world at Oxford and t. brld-ie. And In 1912 he irnn,X all of this work to the Carnig ' Foul no tlon of New York with un endowment $125,000,000. ' war came ther. and all s efforts. During "e war " The great phliamnropio errorm. j-ui -ir ".", nun kivuii uuiJiKiii uiviu ...... ..in to various war work nnd relief orgwiw tlons. ,v,i But It Is In his libraries after j the name of Carneule wir hve ' them that he has taken the n ' l'r' , He has always Insisted that on attached to them. Ami lio has a . Anmlilllll 1 Ci 1 he gave tho bulldlngn vhouiu t provide the sltea, tho booKs maintenance. -.. sit and V 4