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No. E'l. EUROPEAN ARTICLES. FRANCE. THE French nation profeeuting with ardour their plans of reformation in Legillation arid Tiirifpr-jdence.—'The Common* resolute for their liehts—th» Nobility jealous of the consequence, Jthe patriot King balancing the contending inter ests, by railing a deprefled Democracy. SPAIN. The people of this fertile and delightful region, have lono-laboured under the fatal influence of bi gotry-and blind zeal—The effects have been anf werable —They are now emerging from darknels. By recen' .ccounts, the arts begin to aflame a rei pec-able J on among them—and as the rays of knowled -m upon their minds, they will avail themfelve. «i he advantages with which they are favoured b nature.—Charles the Illd. who lately tleceafed, ha ">een succeeded by his Son, Charles the IVth. from wh.ofe adminiftraiion the nation havt very ag-eeable anticipations. It is faicl, that the new King has introduced his O leen into his councils, and that Hie aflifts at the opening of all the dil'patches. The Spanijh nat on lijs long hcen celebrated for itr gallantry—lt feemsthe new King is determined not to depreciate the nati onal character. UNITED NETHERLANDS. Our allies, the Dutch, according to some late ac counts; appear to be in an uneasy (itnation. 1 he Prince of Orange, aided by the King of Pruflia, has however, so effe(fled his design, that the Pto \ince have' very little left, but the power of com plaining. 9 PRUSSIA. The Monarch of this warlike Kingdom, like his predecellor, is active and enterprizing —as his late movements, with respect to the Dutch, and more recently in regard to the Poles, (ufUciently teftify —and it appca; s from the publick documents, that Poland will find her inte. eft in conceding to his demands, in not complying with the requisitions oftheEmprefs of Rufiia. GERMANY : This Empire appears to be Hred of the project ing spirit of its Sovereign. —The Empe:or altera tedious, and by inoft accounts, vexatious, and not very glonous campaign, against the FuiLs, is re turned to his capital—and if the latest accounts are true, the Mufleluien appear to have no difpoiition to abate of their ardour in profeeuting their advan tages. The capture of Choczin, by the Kmprefs, is the only event, which renders it probable that a peace may be speedily rcftored. —1 he Lmperoys dominions in the Netherlands, are yet in a fervent. HUMANITY. Emancipated Africans have been compl' :ined of as defeating the be nevolent defi.ns of their friends, by unworthy conduQ. in a (late of freedom: Admitting the fad, in some instances, the foil >w iug is an attempt to aflign the caufc . TO the enquiry upon the fubjccl of the Afri" cans, principally with to the behaviour ot these who have b :e : emancipated :— It may be observed, That all circuinftances con sidered, their condudt is as irreproachable, ascould reasonably be cxnected—and nctwithftanding what Iras been afierted, but fewinftances have occurred, ot flagrantly bad chapters : It is however grant ed, that many having obtained their freedom, be come idle, vicious, and poor, and so a burthen to I'ociery ; hut all this is to be accounted for, from their forntt, fttuation ill life. It is a general opinion among those who keep Slaves, that ignorance is the heft feenrity for obe dience— hence these child cn of misfortune, ar brought up in an alienation from all inftruClion and knowledge—and at an age, when the human mind, is found incapable of imbibing ideas, or re ceiving inftrtuftion, have been sent adrift,as it were ■without oars, fails, rudder, or compass to aflift thei, progress in the voyage of life—or with li;tle nior. to diftinguifli them from irrational animals, than their lhape. I fay they are turned out to get their living, in an inhospitable world, entirely destitute of that knowledge, which is absolutely neceftary to enable them to stand a common chance for a live lihood—-Not only destitute of this knowledge, but arrived to that advanced period of life, when ex perience teftifies it is too late to learn. , ' s incapacity is not a circumstance peculia,r to c Africans : A, gentleman of my acquaintance, w to was, at a former period, engaged in the bufi of a publick In&ru<ftor, has allured me, that s had both black and white scholars., who were men j T 1 ~ ar ;d in p»oportion as they had been neg- tn e early part of life, in that proportion From SATURDAY, Armi. 18, to WEDNESDAY April 22, 1789. it was found equally difficult to inttrudt either.— Tliefe unhappy persons therefore ought not to be irraigned upon the principles that apply lo those who have enjoyed the blelling of an early educa ion—for how can fruit be expedled, where 110 pre paration was made for the harvest ? The least attention to the condu<it of white per sons, who labour under the disadvantages of ignor ance, will Ihew, th;;t vice, indolence, and wretch edness, are not confined to the colour of the Ikin.— It may bealked, Whether there is reason to sup pose, that, enjoying equal advantages, in point oi education, with the whites, they would make equal improvements ?—Unfortunately, experience does, not at present furnifti us with documents to decidi he question upon 3. general scale ; but nevertheless here are a great many instances to prove, thai hacks, who have had their education begun at a proper period, have proved goodrnechanicks,Jarmers, raders, and t cjpettable members of society. A variety of particulars in point might be, enumerated, espe cially in the country towns. This information applies both to those who were imported young, and to those born in the country — with this, difference however, against the kidnap ped Africans, that they are, in general, past the age when impressions are made to the greatest ad vantage, when firft sent into slavery. C. MR. ADAMS. [The following letter, together with 25 others, was written in Hol land, in the year 1780, by His Excellency the Vice-President of the United State , in answer to 29 questions proposed to him, by a Society of gentlemen in Amfterdjtn.—The advertisement an nexed to them, will give the belt ideaof theirnature and operation " ADVERTISEMENT. " Dr. CALXOEN, an eminent civilian at Amsterdam, to whftm hefe Letters were written,compofed, by the means of them, a com parison between the revolt of the Low Countries from Spain, ant 1 he revolution of the United States of Amcrica j in which he con :luded, upon the whole, that a 1 it aas a kind of mitotic that th ' farmer fucctedciy it would be a greater miracle Jltll if the latter Jhouti not.' This composition was read by him to 3 Society of gentlemen of let ers, about forty in number, who met sometimes at Amsterdam; and by its means, jull sentiments of American affairs began to spread in :hat country, and to prevail over the continual misrepresentations o' :ertain Gazettes and emissaries. The publications of Gen. Howe, ind Gen. Bur gov Ml, in vindication of themselves, were procured o be translated into French, and prop a gated, together with many 3ther pamphlets, which a (Tided in the fame design, and contributed .0 excite the citizens to thofeapplications, by petitions to the regen :ics of thefeveral cities, which finallyprocured the acknowledgment d( American indcpendency, the treaty of commerce, and a loan of money." —— —■ Ext raft from a printed Pamphletl LEJTTER VI. Atnfterdavi, Gliober 10, 1730. SIR, THE sixth talk is to shew, " That no person, in " America, is of so much influence, power, " or credit, that his death, or corruption, by En " glifli money, could be of any nameable confe " quence." This question is very natural for a stranger to ilk ; but it would not occur to a native American, who had palled all his life in his own country ; and upon hearing it proposed he could only finile. It lhould be considered, that there are in Ame rica no Kings, Princes or Nobles; no Popes, Cardi nals, Patriarchs, Arclibiihops, Bishops or other ecclesiastical dignitaries. They are these, and [*uch like lofty subordinations, which place great bodies of men in a state of dependence upon one, which enable one or a few individuals, in Europe, to carry away after them large numbers, wherever hey may think fit to go.—There are no heredita ry offices, or titles, in families ; nor even any great illates that descend in a right line to the eldest sons. All estates ofinteftates are distributed among ill the children ; so that there are 110 individuals, aor families, who have, either from office, title, n- fortune, an exienfive power or influence. We ire all equal in America, in a political view, and is much alike as Lycurgus's hay cocks. All public iffices and employments are bellowed by the free hoice of the people, and, at present, through the whole continent, are in the hands of those gentle men who have diftinguilhed themselves the most, by their counsels, exertions, and fufferings, in the contest with Great-Britain. If there ever was a war, that could be called the people's war, it is this of America against Great-Britain ; it having been determined 011 by the people, and pursued by the people, in every step of its progress. But who is it in America, that has credit to car ry over, to the fide of Great-Britain, any number of men ?—General Howe tells us, that he employ- Ed Mr. Delancy, Mr. Cortlandt ikinner,Mr. Chal mers, and Mr. Gallon ay, the molt influenzal men hey could find; and he tells you theii" ridiculous access. Are they members of Congress, who, by being corrupted, would carry votes in C ongrefs 111 favor of the Englifli.—l can tell you of a truth, there has not been one motion made inCongiefs, since :he declaration of independency, on the 4th of July, 1776, foi a reconciliation with Gr eat Britain; and there is not one man, in America, of luf cient authority, or credit, to make a motion in. Congress, for a peace with Great-Biitain, upon my terms fliort of independence, without ruining ills character for ever. If a delegate si om any one ot ire Thirteen States, were to make a mouon for peace, upon any conditions short of independency, hat delegate would be recalled with indignation oy his constituents, as soon as tlrey should know ,c.—The Englilh have artfully repiefented in i.u ope, tliatC ongi el's have been governed by paiticu lar gentlemen ; but you may uepend vpon it, it is falfe. At one tinre, the Engliflr would have made it believed that Mr. Randolph, the fiift Piefident of Congress, was its foul. Mr. Randolph died, and Congress proceeded as well asfcver —At another time Mr. Hancock was all and all. Mr. Hancock left the Congress, and has scarcely been there for thiee years ; yet Congreft has pi oceeded wiilr as much vvifdom, honor and fortitude as ever.—At another time, the English reprel'ented that Mr. Dickinfon was the ruler of America. Mr. Dickiijfon opposed openly,and upon principle,the declaration ot inde pendency ; but, instead of carrying his point, Iris conlUtuents differed with him so materially, that they recalled him fromCongrefs, and he was absent fonre years ; yet Congress proceeded with no less constancy ; and Mr. Dickinfon lately, finding all America unalterably fixed in the fyltem of indepen dency, has fallen in, like a good citizen, and now supports it inCongrefs with as much zeal as others. —At another time, the Englilh have been known to believe that Dr. Franklin was the eflential mem ber of Congress ; but Dr. Fanklin was sent to France in 1776, and has been there ever since ; yet Con gress has been aS atftive and as capable as before.— At another time Mr. Samuel Adams was reprefent edasthe man who didevery tiring ; yet Mr. Salnuel Adams has been absent for the greatest part of three years, attending his duty as Secretary of State in the Maflachufett's Bay ; yetit does not appear that Mr. Adams's absence has weakened the deliberati ons of Congress in theleafl.—-Nay, they have fbme tinres been filly enough to represent your humble servant, Mr. John Adams, as an eflential member x)f Congress ; it is now, however, three years since Congress did him the honour to fend him to Europe as a Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Ver sailles, and he has never been in Congress since : Yet Congress have done better since became away, than they ever did before. In short, Sir, all these pretences are the most ri diculous imaginable. The American cause Hands upon the eflential, unalterable character of the whole body of the people ; upon their prejudices, paflrons, habits, and principles, which they derived from their ancestors, their educa' ion ; drew in with their mothers' milk, and have been confirmed by the whole course of their lives : And the characters whom they have made conspicuous, by placing Jiern in their public employments, Are but bubbles on the sea of matter borne ; They rife, they break, and to that sea return; The fame reasoning is applicable to all the Gover«f nors, Lieutenant Governors, Secretaries of State, Judges, Senators, and Representatives of particular ,tates. They are all eligible, and elected every year by the body of the people ; and would lose heir characters and- influence the instant they ihould depart, in their public conduct, frton the political system that the people are determined to support. But are there any officers of the army, who' could carry over large numbers of people ?—The influ ence of these officers is confined to the army : They have very little among the citizens. But if we consider the conftitutirar of that army, we shall fee, that it is impossible that any officer could carry with him any numbers, even of soldiers. These officers are not appointed by a King, or a Prince, nor by General Washington : They can hardly be said to be appointed by Congref3. They have all commilfions fromCongrefs, it is true ; but they are named and recommended, and are generally ap pointed, by the executive branch of government im the particular state to which they belong, except the general officers, who are appointed by Con gress. The continental army consists of the quotas of officers and troops furnifhedby thirteen States. If an officer of the Maflachufett's Bay forces, forex ample, should go over to the enemy, he might, poflibly,carry withhiiir half a do - /, soldiers belong ing to that State j yet I even doubt whether any PRICE SIX PENCE.