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>'o. X. ,«r F TCH-./'*'POLITICALSTATE 0 f AIVIERIC A. NUMBER VIII. THE arrangement of the great constitutional powers of Government, viz. the legislative, • Hicial and executive, into three diftinift and derate bodies, differently constituted andinde rndent of each other, torms the belt security Ciinft encroachments «pon either, or the abule power appertaining to each, which human Lenmty has yet devised , as the oppolingimer etooftlie several branches tend to produce that ' allance and equilibrium between tne whole, which affords a great palladium to the libeties of the people, and forms a government of laws in cortradiftindtion to a government of men. _ In proceeding to examine the present National Svftem by the criterion just eitablifhed, we ftvall find as'near a conformity to it, as the circuin jfamces and relative fituatjon of the governments priorly exifting,feemed to admit of; though per haps net so completely conformable, as might have been Villied: One branch of the Legillature iscompofedof men chosen directly by the people, and at Itated periods, which are as near to each other as is compatible with the real interests of the people ; for a ihorter period than two years, would not have afforded futficient time to become acquainted with those points, in which thel'e in terests confiited : The proportion of the Repre sentatives to the people are adequate to the pur poses of their inltitution, and at the fame time free from the inconveniencies and indecision pe culiar to multitudinous fiflemblies ; they (very properly) hold the purse-strings of the nation, which it is natural to suppose they will never unloose, but for the benefit of the people, in which coiififts their gfeateft security ; as the want ot money tofupportit must ever bar the progrelsof any combination, holtile to their l ights ; and as a further security against opprellive fyltems of tax ation, we have the oppofinginterelts of thole who levy them, being thenifelves fubjed: to the bur then equally with the reft of the conint unity. We now proceed to some general reflections on the other branch of the Legiflaturt, which we find to be cjiofen indirectly by the people, thro the medium of each particular government, and intended to support diltincftly, that corporate power of their c6jift.it uents, which is the eflence of this confederated Republic, or confederation of Republics, and which affords the reason ot an equal representation from all. AVhile this body is peculiarly calculated topreferve t'hefe .flential diltinttions, it has a tendency to check the pro gi'efs'of any party-projects, and to temper that zeal and palLon in the other branch, which too often bears fvvay in popular aflemLlies, wl,iilc their riper years, and more mature judgment, give the people a right to expecft the most beneficial conse quences from their cQjuurrent pov cr. The ad vantages to be derived from their duration in of fice, for forming treaties, &<;. need 110 comment, Upon the joint wisdom of the two branches of the Legillature, will the Judicial power becftab lilhed to be perfc&ly independent of either, af ter being thus conflicted, v. hich independence must aril 5 from the tenure of the yfliccs " duritig gwilekavior," and such salaries as will give them eal'e, and prevent the chance of corruption ; and perhaps in no cafe can abftraift and uncontroled power, be Ipdgcd with more security to liberty and the rights of the people—the experience of several States in the union w ill strongly support this pofiiion. We come now to the executive branch of pow er, the formation of which proves the difficulties that attended its cftablilhment, and which under all circnmftances, is thought to be the most eligi ble that could have been adopted. Tlje objec tions which now attend it, confiit inthe want of a proper responsibility in the fit ft Magistrate (ow "tgto the partition of his powers with the Senate) which is peculiarly attainable in an elective Ma gistracy, and affords the most effective security a gamft the abule of power; while here we alfp »nd the fame men legiljators and executors of the laws, which in some cases may prevent their im partial administration ; bur the present pQfitio.ii 0 '^ e executive, as corix-fponding wfth the ge neral ideas of those who planned if. may be ( eemedthe njoft expedient; and while tliat gigat roan fills the executive power of this government, 10 half whole enlcgium the ablest pane- S}"'! must blush, and against whom the tonjiue 0 ealum_ny has never daved to circulate a wliif- Justice will have her commanding power, and j C var ioJs interests of the community be dircct and guarded by an equal hand, ll'any futu.e n e 'ii. government lliould be found "1 CC a T. we invoke the funics of Heaven on the attempt. From WEDNESDAY, May 13, to SATURDAY, May 16, 1789. The great objecfts to be attended to by this go vernment, as Revenue, Agriculture, Manufactures, and Commerce future principles of Taxation, Public Debts, Public Faith, or Credit, uulocated Land?, Naval and JMilitary Strength, ire. ire. will be attended to m the form heretofore pursued, or by a special publication. AMERICANUS. STYLE FOR THE PRESIDENT. [If the following Speculation, taken from the " DAILY AD VERTISER" of Thursday la it, did not merit a re-publication .from the importauce of tne fubj'ft it x-efers to, y£t its beau ties as a Compnfition, would be a luflicient apology for its appear ance in the (.azetteof the United States; but its eligibility on both accounts is fl.rik\ng!y apparent.] To the PRINTER. S I R, A committee of Congress are appointed to re port 011 the style in which the legislature are to address The President of the United States: That ibniething in addition to the word Presi dent is proper, maybe inferred from the practice of all the most civilized, and the moll barbarous,"rom the condu'ft of these States, to wards their own officers, and from the declarati ons of those who by their lex or station, are pla ced out of the vortex of politics, and speak on ly from their feelings : By these the title of Ex cellency is considered as too little for so dignified a fubjec r t, and for want of a better term, the word Highness is substituted. This too is excep tionable, as conveying no definite meaning; and as it lias hitherto been applied to the little Prin ces of Europe, cannot be expreilive of the rank of the firft magistrate of" a free people. Why ftiould not the style be commensurate to his station ? If he is the firft wliy fliould any other ap pellation be fought in the court calenders of Eu rope, or the fubliute bombast of the east; GEORGE WASHINGTON, Supreme Magistrate, and President of the United States, is surely not harflier than the various titles aflumed by the executive powers of other nations; nor will Tour IWagijlracy, or J'our Supremacy, found worse than Your Grace, Your Eminence, and Your Highness, when once the car is famiiiarized to the found. The ideas thqfe terms convey, are not only bet ter adapted "to the fubje«ft,*but are infinitely more elevated, since in this firft application, they will borrow all the lustre of the man to whom they aiefolely appropriated, and to every hearer they will be fynonimous with Bra v ery, Dig nity, Pa triotism, ViRTtfE, Wisdom, WASHINGTON; and when the tears of a grateful people shall be dew the grave oftheir beloved Chief, these titles, endeared and dignified by their firft wearer, will reflecfl lustre on his fuccelior. A. L. " WiLkiincton, May g, 1789. An ADDRESS of the Dclatcare Society for promoting dotnejlic Manu- JtUhrcs, tt George Washington, Pre/idcfit-Gcncral oJ,the United States. WE the members of the Delaware Socicty for promoting domes tic manufattui'ts, beg leave to prcfent youT Excellency with our warpieft congratulations on you>iappointment to the presidency of the United States. Dfceply penetrated with the most indelible Sentiments of grati tude for yoUrfortner inestimable frrvices, we participate the lively, effufions of joy so univerfaily communicated by your consenting to accept the high trust to which you have been so honorably elcfted. We are sensible that the eftabl fhrnen: of ? £ene»al government, in which freedom and energy are so happily blended, is an object of the* highest consequence, and will require the reftnration of that Confidence in the ad mi niftrat ion of p. . licaffaiis, which the general opinion of your disinterested virtue, moderation and other eminent qualities alone can inspire. As your excellency has been plcafed to rclinquifh the enjoy ment of a dignified retirement. iid incompliance with the ardent felicitations of a numerous ar\d grateful people, once more to afford us the benefit of your sage direction and illustrious example, we contemplate with pee.uliar fatista&ion the credit and renown our new govcrnmc nt will acquire, even in d'.ft-int nations, by its com mencement under the glorious aulp c.s- of your distinguished ab... ics and celebrated name. We are conscious of our obligation to Providence for the preservation of ybur invaluable life to a period so impor tant, and oXir most fervent withes will be unceasing that your excellency may lono- preiide in the council of America, with un interrupted harmony and the superior delight of promoting the happiness and prosperity of a rising empire. being fully convinced of your Excellency's indulgent attention to whatever isdefigned to be of public utility, we flatter ourselves, the Society who have the honor to present this addrels, having af tociatcd under an engagement to clothe themfelvcs in complete Suits of domeflic manufactures, and encourage every branch of the fame in Ant erica, will meet your Excellency's approbation, and be fa- Kprabiy confuler d as an additional inlbnceof the federal and pa triQiic Liniments of the citizens of Delaware. In behalf oj the Society, THOMAS MAY, Vice-President. To the Delaware Society for promoting Domcjlic Manvfaftures. Gentlemen, I return you my fmcere thanks for your congratulations and frood wishes on my appointment to the presidency of the United State c . f j Convinced that the happy effefis which may fce~erivcd from ov: 1 ovrrrimcnt; must depend, in a confideraßle degree, on the determination of the people to support the person entrusted with the administration, I fluli rejoice to find that my acceptance : has met with their approbation. The promotion of domestic manufa&ures, will, ir. my con ception, be among the firft confequencCs, which may naturally be expected to rcfult from an energetic government.—For my fell", having* equal regard for the prosperity ol the farming, trading, and maiiufa&uring interests, I will only observe, that 1 cannot conceive theextenfion of the latter (so far as it m ay afford employ, ment to a great number of hands which would be otherwise idle) can be detrimental to the former. On the contrary, the concurrence of virtuous individuals, and the combination of. economical societies to rely as much as poflible on the resources. of our own country, may be produ&ive of great national ad vantages, by establishing the habits of industry and economy, The objects, thercfofe, of your institution are, in my opinion, highly Commendable; ana you will permit me to add, gentle men, that I propose to demonstrate the sincerity of my opinion, on this fubjeft, by ths'uniformity of my pra£bc(,' in giving a deci ded preference to the produce and fabrics of AmertC2, whensoe ver it may be done without involving unreasonable cxpentts, or very great inconveniences. GEORGE WASHINGTON. *. NATIONAL EXAMPLE. A correspondent informs us that at the late court held for Ches ter-county, the grand jury, from principles of patriotism, con fined themfclves to Federal liquors, so that their expences du ring the fitting of the court for two days, amounted ojily.to fix. fhillingg each man ; whereas former grand juries used to from 18 to 225. 6d.—An example highly worthy o [imitation ! i_ HINTS TO MANUFACTURER S. THE practice of beginning works on a large and expensive plan is attended with two verygreatevils. It preve nts prudent people and people of small flocks, engaging in them. It renders such works very hazardous adventures, for all new works are liable to losses from want of experience in the owners and workmen ; and an error committed in large works may prove fatal to a moderate cap-tal, which would scarcely be perceived in similar works on a small plan. In works not well understood, the losses which arise from doing the business in a less perfett manner on a small scale, arc small compared with those which attend committing errors in woiks on a large stale ; and in all new works errors will In this country where the value of money is high, it is almost im poflible any profit ihou\A be a compensation for having so sums out as ■ must be put into the expefelive proje&s. Most new works have beeu begun too large in this country. If we built a Slitting Mill, it was made fufficient to flit as much Iron in a weeH as would fell in half a If we built a Glass Hou&, it was at the expcnce of thousands, and calculated to cov*r all that part of the country with glass, which was not covered by the house, Thrf history of Potash works in New-Eugland ought to be a lesson to every mannfafluring projector—The firft potash work in this country is said to have been ere&ed at, or :v?ar what is now called Belchertown in MaflachufettsT The proprietor began with build ing an enormous sreat House, somewhat like a large New-England Meeting-House, this building hefurmlh:d with as many larg~tubs full bound with strong Iron hoops as could be conveniently placed round the inside of the house, each tub so high and that a person might as well clean the Augean stable as clean it out, fre.m these his ley was to be drawn. In the meqn time people were employed to cut out and burn the wood of the funoundingforeft* to supply alhes, which indeed were procured in considerable quantities, but as is usual in such attempts not proportioned to the expence. By the time his allies were ready he had built in the centre of his house, four furnacts, the fires of which were made to meet at a point in one chimney which was to carry up the Smoke, with an idea that he could make a more intense heat by the meeting of the fires of four furnaces than by any single furnace. The intention was, that the strong ley should be made to run in small ftreamsfrom the surrounding vats into the place where the fires of his four furnaces met, which were to form so intense a heat as to constantly evaporate all the moisture and let the dry salts fall into a bed or pan which was provided below to receive them. These furnaces being duly dried and made hot, the fires were urged, and the ley fuffered to run in small streams to'the place where it was to be evaporated, but the instant the ley csme into this violent heat the chimney blew up, and every thing near it fuffered by the explosion* This taught the proprietor that he must boil his Icy, and for that purpose he procured pans and went on to make more potash which wasfent to market, but what with expences altogether difproportioned to the business, and what with the errors he made in prosecuting the proje&, the man broke and his potash works went to ruin. After this some gentlemen from Scotland set up the works in SufHeld in Conne&icut, they brought out from Scotland every utcnfil even to the tubs and erected a work some what in the Meeting house ftilc', but being men of business and prudence they continued their works perhaps without great loss, or great profit. From that time to this theprojefts for making potaih have become less and less expensive, till now some of the most profitable potash works we have, were cre&ed at less than twenty dollars expence exclusive of the Iron Kettles. Begin manufacturing projects with small works and add what by experience is found necessary. LONDON, March 5. This morning some dispatches were received from Gibraltar, which were brought over in a brig arrived at one of the western ports. A few letters were also brought over, which contain advices that the Emperor of Morocco is fitting out his whole naval force; and that provifxon veflels are failing almost daily for Constantino ple to the relief of the Turks, who do not find their supplies out of Asia so regular as formerly. It is thought that Joseph will overturn the third estate, or commons of Brabant, which per sists in refuting him any supplies. The firft estates have been fummoncd on particular busi ness, and it is supposed that this is the objedl of their convocation. This aflembly is fwprn to the -most fcrypulous silence. May 9. The King of Sweden has publiflied an Ordinance, ordering four fact days to be held during the present year. The critical situation of affairs has induced his Majesty to judge if ne ceflary. It concludes with the following words, defervjng of being handed down to posterity, rp.i cj: si v r z xci.