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Gazette of the United-States. [volume] (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, December 22, 1792, Image 2

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in his eflate against bis creditors--
they provide tor the poor, and what
is far better, they prevent the in
crease of poor by providing schools
for the children. Not content with
protecting the many from the few
by equal laws, and by aboliflling
diltinciiuns—ihey afford, by means
of che public (rhools, all the aid ot
the laws to ei.able the poor to be
come rich,, and the humble to raise
themfehes to eminence. Let thole
who prattle about the late obfeuri
ty of the republican fpirit'in New-
England (hew, if the} can, In what
inltitutions ot the filter'flates it ap
pears with mote ufeful splendor.*
The iiiftitutions and political ha
bits of New-England do not evince
a monopoly of power and rights by
the few again It the many. I here
was a time in 1774 and 1775, when
the whole people of New-England
fpoke,-through their town-meetings,
the language of determined riefilt
ance to tyranny. Then it appeared
to the whole continent, that the
town corporations in the eastern co
lonies wete so many orderly repub
lics, admirably adapted to the pre
firvation of equal liberty, because
they served to collect, to mature,
and to give a momentum to the fen
timentsof the people—and not less
adapted to maintain good order even
after the'authority of the lawsceaf
ecl. In faifi, they flood for a time
indead of laws and government,and
during the whole war eminently af
filed the dates in the druggie. Yet
this didri<ft of country, though fill
ed with petty republics which actu
ally reduce republican principles to
practice, and make them familiar
to the multitude, is pretended by a
writer, who probably never saw it,
to have declined from its republi
Is there in the general state of
New-England manners, any thing
to warrant this infinoation ? The
tenure of lands is in fee limple—
lease eftatcs are almost unknown.
Small, but independent freeholds,
form infinitely the greatest propor
tion of property and influence. A
foil, too rugged for any but free
hands to til], is found on number
]efs|trials, unprofitable when en
grofl'ed into great plantations. It
must therefore remain in the hands
of a numerous yeoinaury. These
are their rights, and the world has
seen with what an high spirited con
sciousness of their worth the New-
England farmers have defended
them. Are these the men, who not
only nnderftand but who feel their
rights, with whom the republican
spirit is obscured ? It is true their
habits are favorable to order they
enjoy too much to desire the over
throw of a government which pro
tects their rights, and extends their
happiness. But without meaning
to charge sentiments unfriendly tn
republican liberty upon the people
of the fuuthern states, New-En<rland
may vouch her constitutions" and
laws, her political habitg and insti
tutions, and the general state of pro
perty, manners and society, as well
as the recent events of the revoluti
on, to prove that the ardor of her
zeal is not abating, and is not infe
rior to their own.
* If any /hould be of opinion that too much
ftrcfs is 'aid upon the use of public schools to
preserve equal liberty, they foould know that
Plato and the wisest of the Ancients rated
education at no left price.
All, fays Pj,ato, who have meditated on
the ait ofgoverning mankind, have been con
vinced that the late of empires depended on
the education given to youth. What aie tie
fohd foundations of the tranquility and hap
pinefs of States'? Not the laws which regu
late their confiitution,or which increase tlieir
power, out the institutions which form the
Ciusens md give activity to their minds—
ijot t ie laws which dispense rewards and pun
-1 laments, liut the public voice when it makes
an exact distribution of contempt and esteem.
When the nature, advantages, and defects of
t'ied.Berent torms of government are care
v,„. ih ,11 find that the dif
toTXlE* ,"TT ofa
to destroy tie best ot conditions, or to rec
tify the 1110 ft defective.
■'~A7 RAf T.
NV nrrccdeat c,„ Ju lt,fy an improper con
, A " c ni which dtc unjust in ihem
"'Vl\ f A K ,V "'j m by time, ihould
uc\cr be fuffcied to coniinuc."
Foreign Affairs.
LONDON, September 21,
WE have auihoiity to allure our readers,
thai a very fl«mei\i»g invitation has been
sent from France to General Walhtngton, to take
the Command in Chief of its Patriotic Army.
We have no less confidence in declaring, that if
another campaign ii. had in F«anct, this icnown
ed soldier will make it against. the hod of inso
lent foes now confederated to destroy the liber
ties of mankind, and those principles which have
rendei ed America more valuable than all the reft
of the Globe. If that Saviour of his Country,
and Giver of Freedom, accepts the call, he is ro
form a part of his fluff from some of his old
brother officers.
We exped every day to hear thai Confct-efs
will deliberate, on the piopricty of afiiiling
France, as also to what amount.
If WASHINGTON goes to Fiance, every
TYRANT will soon quit it ! !!
LxtraCl oja utter fiom Calais. Sept. 15.
Mr. Thomas Paine, after a of three
hours, arrived here from Dover. The
di erent treatment he met with at the two sea
ports, is such as ought to make an Eugiilhman
b!ufh for the chara&er of his nation.
On the name of Paioe bring announced, the
fold»e> y at the gates were drawn up, and the of
ficer on guard having embraced him, presented
him with the national cockade. A very pretty
woman, who stood by, dtfn ed she mi zlu have
the honor of putting it on h»s hat, exprefling her
hopes that he would continue his exertions in
favor of Liberty, Equality, and France. This
ceremony being over, he walked to D'cflcin's,
(whose ftrect is now called Rue dcl'Egalit*, for
merly Rue du Roi) atttended by men, women
and children, crowding round him, and calling
out. 11 Vits Thomas Paine !" He was then con
duced to,l he town hall, and there prefenitd tp
the Municipality, who, with the greatest affac
non, embraced their new Reprefcntative. The
Mayor then addrefled him in a (hort speech,
which was interpreted to him by Mr. Audibert,
to which Mi. Paine (laying his hand on his
heart) replied, faying, his life frould be devoted
to their service.
At the inn he was waited upon by the dif
ferent persons in authority, and by the Piefidrnt
of the Constitutional Society, desiring lie would
attend their meeting of that night. The whole
towu would hjVe been there had there been
room ; the hall of the ' Minirnej' was so crowd
ed, that it was with difficulty they made way
for him to the fide of the President. Over the
chair he fat in was placed the bust of Mirabeau,
and the colours of prince, England a-nd Ame
rica, united. A speaker acquainted him, from
the tribune, of his elefticn, ainidll (he plaudits
of the people. The women did not spare their
hands, and, for some minutes, nothing was heard
but Vive la Nation, Vivt Thomas Paine !" in voi
ces male and female. They have appointed an
extra meeting in thechutch to-morrow, m honor
of their Deputy to the Convention, the Minima
being found quite lutfocating,from the concoui fe
of people who attended yellerdav. To-night
there is to be a play, at which a box is to be re
fervtd for the Author of the Rights of Man, the
ohjr6t of ihc tnglifh Proclamation.
Every thing here has the appearance of peace
and quictaefs. The aifcnalt, are well supplied,
and able to stand a two years siege.
P. S. Mr. Paine has leccived a letter from the
National Aflembly, which he is fa id to be an
fwcring from hence. He will not probably be
at Paris so soon as he thinks, lince he has been
ele£led for Abbeville and Beauvais, as well as for
Calais ; and they will hardly let him pals with
out paying htm some mark of their attention.
FREDERICKSBURG (Virginia) Dec. 6.
We feel much concern in relating a melan
choly accident which happened on Wednesday
evening lad Mr. Abner Vbrnon, of Si af
ford, in attempting to foid the Rappahannock
at the tails, was thiown from his hoife and
drowned. —He was a man ol a mofl amiable
temper, cheerful and kind to every one, Heady
in his principles, pure in his morals ; esteemed
and refpe£ted by his numerous friends for his
great integrity and ufefulnefs, and who, now
sensible ol his worth, lament his loss with fmcere
and general furrow.
Extract of a letter from Brigadier Gene
ral Wilkinfon, to tbe Secretary at War,
dated at Fort Hamilton, 6th Novem-
ber, 1792, 7 o'clock P. M.
" Just as I was about to dispatch this,
I icccived a letter from Major Adair,
commandant of the Kentucky mounted
infantry, of which the enclosed is a copy:
The check which the enemy experienced
in this little affair, will produce good ef
fects, and the event refle&s honour upon
the major and the yeomanry of Kentucky;
but the immediate consequence will be an
entire stop to the transport of forage to
the advanced post, as our pack horses ate
either destroyed or disabled, and the rifle
men dismounted. In this situation, lam
perplexed by difficulties, as from try ig
norance of the designs of government,and
for the want of explicit orders, I am at a
loss whether todirea the purchase of more
pack hoifes, or to encourage the riflemen
to remount themselves. On these points
I lliall duly dehberate, and will make such
decision as my judgment may dired, re.
lying confidently on the liberality of go
vernment, for an excuse, (hould I err; and
in the mean time, I shall urge forward the
transport of forage from Furt Waftiing
*°n to tins post, by every means left in my
As tills affair happened near to and in
fight of Fort St. Clair it may be enquired
why the commanding officer did not sup
port major Adair ? The answer is ftiort,
and will, I hope, prove fatisfaCtory-"The
gavrifon under his command is posted for
defence, and not offence, and altho' it ap
pears that in this initance to have hazard
ed would have been judicious, yet as 1
have considered it fafeft for the national
int«reftsto confine my subordinate officers
by rigidorderstodtfenfive measures solely,
they are bound to hazard in no cafe what
evci, does not immediately and es
sentially interest the faftty of the trust
.which may be confided to them ; and it
may be added that in the instance before
up, the attack, was a raoft daring one,
neither the number or ultimate
obje&of the enemy, could be developed,
before it was discovered that Major Adair
was a full match for him.
I have this moment dispatched twenty
tif my mounted infantry, who will reach
St. Clair before day light, to aid in
bringing in the wounded and the weary.
Copy of a letter from Major John Adair,
to JSrigadier General Wilkinfon, dated
Fort St. Clair, November 6, 1792.
S 1 R,
This morning about the firft appear
ance of day, the enemy attacked my
camp, within fight of this post, the at
tafekwae sudden, and thejenemy came on
••with a degree of courage that bespoke
them warriors indeed, foroe of my men
were h#nd in hand'with -them before we.
retreated, which however we did about
eighty yard# to a kind of stockade intend
ed for stables ; we there made a Hand, I
then ordered Lieut. Madison to take a
party and gain their right flank if poflible,
I called for Lieut. Hail to fend to the
left; but found he had been flatn ; I then
led forward the fnen who stood near me,
which together with the ensigns Bucha
nan and Flinn, amounted to about twen
ty-five, and pressed the left of their center
thinking it absolutely necessary to afiift
Madison. We made a manly pu(h, and
the enemy retreated, taking all our hor
se( except five or fix. We drove them a
bont fix hundred yaids through our camp,
, where they again made a (land, and we
fought them some time, two of my men
were here (hot dead.
At that moment I received informati
on that the enemy was about to flank us
on the right, and on turning that way, I
saw about 60 of them running to that
point. I had yet heard nothing of Ma
dison I then ordered my men to retreat,
which they did with deliberation, hearti
ly cursing the Indians who pursued us
close to our camp, where we again fought
them until they gave way ; and when
they retreated our ammunition was near
ly expended altho' we had been supplied
from the gariifon in the course of the
action. I did not think proper to follow
them again, but ordered my men into the
garrison to draw ammunition. I return
ed however, in a few minutes to a hill,
to which we had firftdiiven them, where
I found two of m.y .men fcalpcd, who
were bro't in. SioCW-tl began to write
this, a few of the etdPtoy appeared in
fight, and I pursued them with a party
about a quarter of a mile, but could not
overtake ihem, and did not think proper
to go farther. Madison, who I sent to
the right, was on his firft attack wound
ed, and obliged to retreat to the garrison,
leaving a man or two dead.
To this misfortune I think the enemy
are indebted for the horses they have got;
had he gained their right flank, I once
had pofleffion of their left, and I think
we (hould hare routed them at that stage
gf the action, as we had them on the re
treat. I have fix killed and five wound
ed ; four men are miffing, [ think they
went off early in the action on horseback,
and are, I suppose, by this, -at Fort Ha
milton. My officers and a number of
men diftinguiffied themselves greatly.—
Poor Hail died calling to his men to ad
vance. Madifon'a bravery and conduct
need no comment; they are well known.
Flinn and Buchanan acled with a cool
ness and courage which dots them much
honor. Buchanan, after firing his gun,
knocked down an Indian with the barrel.
1 hey have killed and taken a great num
ber of the pack-horfeg. I intend follow
ing them this evening some distance, to
ascertain their route and strength, if pof-
I I»i i>.{ V {..v. 1
bout fifty of n;v men fought with a bra
very equal to any men in the world, and
had not the
on bee
as a
place of fafety for the bafhful, I think
many more would have fought well.
The enemy have no doubt as many kil
led as myfelf; they left two dead on the
ground, and I saw two carried ess. The
only advantage they have gained is our
horses, which is a capital one, as it disa
bles me from bringing the inteiview to a
more serious and fatiafaftory decision. I
am foriy I cannot fend you belter news,
and am, fir, yours, &c.
Copy of a letter from JamerSengrirve, Efq
to the Secretary of War, dated St. Ma,
ry'j iid Nov. 1792.
Beitig just arrived here from the con
ference ground at Colerain in company
with forty-five of the principal chiefs of
the Creeks on a visit to my residence, and
finding a boat departing for Savannah, I
drop you a line in haste to inform you,
that every thing hath gone favourable
beyond my most sanguine expectation.
I had present at our meeting the chieft
of eighteen of the principal towns in etie
Creek nation, peace and friendlhip with
the United States they cor.sum, and de
clare pointedly against joining the nor
thern tiibes orany others red or white
against us. The whole particulars you
(hall have without delay. In the mean
time I am happy in being able to fay that
every thing is in a most pleafino state be
tween the Creeks and our country.
hope you will excuse this, as I zrow
furronnded with a very nojfy but J
ere W of Red Kings and Chiefs.
Ext raft of a letter jrom General Wilkin U
Fay t- 6th November, 179-4
" I have the pleasure to inform you, that
Major Adair* has this dav had a ffrurt and
honorable brulh with a body of savages, sup
posed to be double his. number, near to Fort
St. Clair, and that after several turns of forti
tude and a {harp contefl- for two hours, he fi
nally kept his ground, tho' the enemy carried
off the great body of his horses during the ac
4< I lament that Capt. Hule is among the
flairi ; hut for the consolation of his f Tends,
and of the friends of all who have fallen, they
fell gloriously, and sleep in the bed of honor—
Madison is again wounded—lf he continues
his career, he will be a distinguished warrior.
Be pleased to inform his brother that his
wound is flight. Enclosed are the r.ames of
the killed and wounded. Major Adair has
done no more than I expected, that is, he has
combined courage to conduit, and done honor
to the state of Kentucky.
N. B. The. enemy left two dead on the
field, and were observed to carry off many.
Hale, Matthew Englifli,
Isaac Jett, Joseph Clinton, John Williams,
Robert Boaling.
Wounded—Capt. Madison, Thomas Hickr
man, Aaron Adams, Luke Vorifs, Richard
* Capt. Adair commanded, a company of about too
mounted volunteers, called into service from the Jhte
of Kentucky, to escort provisions/cut from Fort Wash
ington for the fupp!\ of Fort Jejfcrfon.
MefTage from the Governor on Tuesday last.
To the Senate and House of Reprefentat:+es of
the Genual Ajfembly of Pennsylvania.
THE Representatives of this state, fifth*
Senate and House of Reprefeniaiives of the
United States, have anxiously lug-gefted to me,
the Tieceflity of making feme further' provision
for the accommodation of Congress; as thep'f
fent building will certainly be inadequate tor
that purpose, when the ratio of representation,
established by a late ait, (hall take effect.
difpofi.ion which the legiflaturc of Penafylvani*
has uniformly cvinced to promote the cafe and
dignity, of the members of the different depart
ments of the general government, assure me, that
you will pay a cheerful attention to thisr fubje£U
I (hall only, therefore, observe, thdl the proposed
meafute may, perhaps, be accomplished, with
out incurring the expencc of a new building,
either by enlarging that which Congress now
oecupics, or (as the legiflaturc, on a former oc
casion, aurhoiifed) by surrendering, for the use
of the General Government,the State-House and
the adjacent offices.
Philadelphia, Dec. 18,1 79«
A letter from James Pemberton and Jo a
Kaighn, was read, requeuing a copy ot the pe
tition of a number of the citizens of the Frenc
The peti.ion of the DireOors of the
Company of North-America, was read i e .e
cond time, and referred to Mcffrs. Swanwic »
Forreft, Turner, Everlcv, and Gallatin, to re P
A mo'ion was made by Mr. Gallatin in i
following words, viz. . ,
Rcfolvtd, Thai a committee be appointed w
cnouiic into the propriety of lowering t e
of-roproved lands within the boundaries o t -
purchases made of the Indians prior to I ie y ea
i *»85.
'The mtfTag-: from the Governor, read o«
Tucfday, v»as referied to a committee.
D-ed in this city, Mr. John S. Hutton,
aged one hundred and ten vears. Mr. Hutton
bora on Long-Iflund, in the U* of New-

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