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society. I "o substitute for ■lv
such a system except in placing oil the M Indians on large reservatlona as rapidly | II as can be done, and giving them abso- ■ d lute protection there as soon tts they are | ei fltteafor It- They should be induced to C take their lands in severalty and set np p a territorial government for their own fi protection. For full details on this sub- tl •act 1 call your special attention to the s report of the secretary of the Interior and ti the commissioner of Indian affairs. n The report of the Secretary of War 8 . OlZof which $23,832 810 wasdisbursed in ( , the payment of debts contracted during 1 t the war, and is not chargeable to curreut c arinv expenses. Hts estimate ol $34,- t 531 031 for the expenses of the army for > the' next fiscal year is HS low as it is , believed can be relied on. The t estimates of bureau officers have been < carefully scrutinised and reduced , wherever It has been deetued praclica- , ble. If, however, the condition of the j country should be such by the begin- < nine oi the next fiscal year as to admit | of a greater concentration of troops, the i appropriation asked for will not bo ex- j trend "d. The appropriations estimated i for river and harbor improvement anil i for fortifications aro submitted sepa- j ratelv. Whatever amount Congress inay'tleem proper to appropriate ior , these purposes will fce expended. The recommendation of the Gem-ml of 1 the army that appropriations be made \ for the forts at Boston, Portland, New York Philadelphia, New Orleans and San Francisco, is concurred in. I aiso ask your special attention to the recommendation of the General com manding the military division of the Pac fic for the sale of the seal islands of St. Paul and St. George, Alaska territory and suggests that it either be complied with, or that legislatiou be had fir Hie protection of the seal fisheries from which a revenue should bo d* rived _ The report of the Secretary ol War contains a synopsis of the reports of the heads of bureaus, of the commanders of military divisions, aud of the districts of Virginia, Mississippi and Texas, and the report of the general of the army in full. The recommendations therein contained have been well considered and ara sub mitted for your action. I however, call special attention to tb recommendation of the chief of ordi nance for the sale ot arsenals and lands no longer of use to the government; also to the recommendation of the secretary of war, that the act of the 3d of March, 1869, prohibiting promotions and ap pointments on the staff corps of the army, be repealed. The extent of the country to be garrisoned, and the num- j ber of military pests to be occupied is j the same with a reduced army as with a large one, and the number of staff offi cers required is more dependant on the latter than the former conditions. The report of the Secretary cf the Navy, accompanying this, shows the condition of the navy when this ad ministration came Into office, and the changes made since. Strenuous efforts have been made to place as many ves sels in commission (or render tb-rn fit for service if required) as possible, and to substitute the sail for steam whilst cruising, thus materially reducing the expenses of the navy and adding greatly to its efficiency. Looking to our future I recommend a liberal, though not extravagant policy towards this branch of the public ser vice. The report of tbo Postmaster General tarnishes a clear and comprehensive exhibit of the operations of the pos tal service and of the financial con dition of tffp Postoffice Department, ending the 30th of June, 1809. The ordinary postal revenues for the year ending the 30th of Juue, ISC9, amounted to eighteen millions three hundred and forty-four thousand five hundred and ten dollars, and the expenditures to £23,698,131, showing an excess of expenditures over receipts of §5,353,620. "The excess of expenditures over receipts for ihe previous year amounted to $6 137,992; the increase of revenues for 1869 over those of 18' S was $2,052,909, and Hie increase of expendi tures was §937,538; the increased revenue in 1869 exceeded the increased revenue in 1868 by $906,336, and the increased expenditures in 1869 was 82,527.'.70 less than the increased expenditure In 1853, showing, by comparison,this gratifying feature of improvement, that while the increase of expendilureorer the increase of receipts in 1868 was §2,439,535, the in crease of receipts over the increase of ex penditures In 1869 was §1,084,374. Your attention is respectfully called to the recommendation made by the Postmaster General for authority to change the rate of compensation to the ranin trunk railroad lines for their ser vices in carrying the mail; for having post route maps executed: for reorganb /.ing and increasing the efficiency of the special agency service; for tho increase of the mail service on the Pacific, and for establishing mail service under the flag of the Union on tho At lantic; and most especially do I .-all your attention to his recommenda tion for the total abolition of the frank ing privilege. This is an abuse irorn which no one receives commen.su rate. advantage. It reduces the receipts for the postal service from twenty-five to thirty per cent., and largely increases the service to be performed. The method by which postage should be paid npon public matter is set forth fully in the re- | port of the Postmaster General. The report of the secretary of the in terior shows, that the quantity of public lands disposed of duriug the year ending the 30tb of June, 1369, was 7,600,152 acres, exceeding that or the preceding year by 1,010 407 acres; of tbis amount 2,599,544 acres were entered under the homestead laws, and the remainder was granted to aid in the construction of works of internal i m prove ment approved to the state as swamp lands an a located with warrants and scrip. The cash re ceipts from all sources were §4,472,886; exceeding those of the preceding year, *284,140. During the last fiscal year 23,196 names were added to the pension roils, and 4,- 376 dropped therefrom, leaving at its close, 187,963. The amount paid to pen sioners, including the compensation of disbursing agents,was §28,422,884, an in crease of $4.411,903 on that of the previ- ! ous year. The munificence of Congress has been conspicuously manifested in its legislation for soldiers and sailors who suffered in the recent struggle to maintain that u- ity of government which makes us one peo ple. The additions to the pension rolls of each successive year since ihe conclusion of hostilities, result in a great degree from the defeated amendments of the act of July 14,1862, which extended its ' provisions to cases not falling within its . original soope. The large outlay which Is thus occasioned is further increased ' >j the more liberal allowance bestowed ifncp that data npon these who In the ine of duty were wholly or pe rmanently iiaabled. Public opinion M* given an smphatic sanction to th measure# ot i Congress, and it will be conceded ihatrio piart ofonr public burden is mow cheer fully borne than that which is imposed by LhU branch of the service. It neces- I sitates, the next fiscal yw. in addition I to the amount justly chargeable to the j ( uaval pension fund, an appropriation of ( §30,000.000. i During the year 1869 the Patent Office lsoed 13.762 ' patents, and its receipts were §686,389, being §213,926 more than the expenditures. I would respectfully call your attention to the recommenda tion of the Secretary of the Interior for uniting the duties of supervising the education of freedmen with the other du ties devolving upon the commissioner ol education. If It is the desire of Con gress to make the census, which ninst be taken during the year 1870, more com plete than heretolore, 1 would suggest early action upon any plan that 'bay be agreed upon. AB Congress at Its last session apf>ointed a oomuiittae to take into consideration such measures as might be deemed preper in referenoe to the census and to report a plan, I desist fn m saying more. T recommend to your favorable con sideration the claims of the Agricultural bureau for liberal appropriations. In a country so diversified in climate and Roil as ours, and with a population so largely dependeut pnn agriculture, the benefits that can be oonferred by prop erly fostering the bureau areincalculable. I desire respectfully to call the atten tion of Congress to the inadequate sala ries ol' a number of the most Important officers ot the government iu this mes sage. I will not enumerate them, but will specify only the Justices oi tbo Supreme Court. No change lias been made in tficir salaties tor fifteen years, and within that time the labors of tbo court have largely increased and tho expenses of living have at least doubled during the same time. Congress has twice found it nec essary to increase largely tho compensa tion of its own members, and the duty which it owes to another department ot government deserves, and will uudoubt ediyreceive its due consideration. There are many subjects not alluded to in this message which might with propriety be introduced, but I abstain, believing that your patriot ism and statesmanship will suggest the topics of the legislation most conducive to the interests of the whole people. On my part I promise a rigid adherence to [ the laws and their strict enforoement. U. A GRANT. ■ ■ ' ' REPORT OF THE GENERAL OF THE ARHY. WASHINGTON, December s.—General Sherman, in his report submitted to Congress to-day, opposes any further reduction of the army. Ho says the en tire army is ou duty, and he has constant calls for more troops, which cannot be granted. He calls tbo president's earn est attention to tbis watter.tliat Congress may be appealed to not to diminish tne military establishment because of the great extent ot country; the unsettled character of a large region measured north, south, east and west by thousands of miles; the acts of Indians who inhabit this region, and the growing necessities of affording greater protection to the roads that traverse this region, and the mining and agricultural interests there in. While the nation at large is at peace, a state of quisi war continues to exist over one-hulf itsextent, and troops therein are exposed to labors, murders, fights aud dangers that amount to war. Withdrawing or largely diminishing the troops in Texas, the Indian country, Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, Idaho or Alaska, as well as in some parts of the southern states, would, he believes, result in a state of things amounting to anarchy. lie refers to the labors and exposures of tho officers and men, and hopes that they will receive the assurance to which they are fairly entitled that their labors are appreciated. Officers have been re quired to do the duties of Indian agents, sheriffs, etc., foreign to their military training, and have done this duty with out murmur aud with marked intelli gence. Never, ho says, has be known the army officers so poor, but they hope by the appreciation of the currency their compensation will soon become more satisfactory. Any diminution of their pay would result in the loSs of the servi ces of every good officer, to the extreme damage of the army. General Sherman advises the adoption by Congress of the new army regulations as prepared by the special board of offi cers. In referring to army consolida tion, he says there are five hundred un attached officers, of whom one hundred and fifty-six aro awaiting orders. The number of retired officers is one hun dred and seventy-seven. He urges tbat cavalry and artillery regiments be offi cered alike in regimental and company organizations, and asks for an extra lieutenant for cavalry companies. He argues that it is uDjusi that the reduc tion ol'the army should fall exclusively on the infantry arm of the service, and recommends that after congress has en- I acted the necessary laws, the President i assemble a board of disinterested gen eral officers, to whom shall be com mitted the whole matter of reduction and reorganization. General Sherman comments upon what ho calla the absurdity of the stali j of the army making the reports to tho secretary of war. If this is continued, he says, we have the absurdity of the general commanding the army, with his chief etaff officers reporting to somebody else. lie hopes for legislation that will allow the officers of the army to call upon the general for troops instead of the president. He advocates an increase of pay for the soldiers. He recommends that forts covering the cities of Portland, boston, j Xew York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, j New Orleans and San Francisco be com pleted as soon as possible. He calls at ' tention to the earnest recommendations I Of General Thomas, that Sea island of ; Alaska, St. Paul and St. George be sold ito the cheapest bidder. He is informed that parties in San Francisco are ready to bid several millions of dollars, which, : he sayß, would go far towards indemni ; Tying the government for tbis otherwise j poor and costly country. "But, father, you kuow love makes time fly," said an enthusiastic daugh ter, who was arguing in favor of a longer I bridal trip than usual. "Yes, my dear, j I know U does at first. but you will find ' that in the end time will make lovefly." KEPOTt T [ £ OF THR SECRETARY OF WAR.; £ , t X a WASHINGTON, December 6. 1 The report of General Belknap, Secre- ' taryofWar, which was anomltted to ] Congress to-day, opens with a tribute to * the memory of General Rawlins. The Secretary then explains that few recom mendattons will be made at length. < as the duties of the office were assumed < but a few days prior to the date of this report—November 20. He, however, ' refers to the material matters of the re- j ports presented to him. Referring to the report of the General of the Army, he aays; There are twelve departments and three districts, each under the oommaud of a general officer, and the departments are formed into four military divisions, commanded by the four generals next In rank to the General of the Army. The regular army consists of five regi ments of artillery, ten of cavalry, twen ty-five of infantry, the battalion of engi neers, and tbo corps of cadets. All the regiments are on duty. The Secretary endorses a reootnmenda tiou of General Sherman, that legislation be had enucting the rules and articles of war adopted by the board oonvened in conformity with the act of Congress of July 28, 1866, and approving the new regulations compiled in Juno, 1868. Tho Secretary then continues, still referring to General .Sherman's report: He indorses the recommendations of tho Adjutant General of the army for the repeal of so much of section 6 of the act of March 3,186§, as prohibits further appointments or proniotions.leaving the organization of the Adjatant General's department as it was fixed by section 10 of the act ol July 28, 1866. An increase to the number of Assistant Inspector Generals is recommended. With regard to the Bureau of Military Justice, the Secretary says: The Judge Advocate General reports the number of records of military courts received, renewed, and registered to be 14,943. Of the Quartermaster General, the re port states that the clerical force of this office has been reduced so low, by late legislation, as to seriously retard the public business; and to provide for tbe settlement of accounts some increase in the force is necessary. A building capa ble of accommodating all the bureaus of the War Department, fire proof and se cure, is much needed. Military records of great value are exposed to destruc tion, and are so scattered as to impede and delay the publlo business. Tbe monthly rental of buildings and lots occupied by buildings owned by the United States amounted to §4,264 19, being a yearly rental of §50,954 28. Tbe railway companies to which the military railroad material of the Quartermaster's Department was acid on credit at the end of tbe war, incurred 1 a debt originally of $7,591,406. Interest has increased this amount to $9,000,000 about one half of which has been paid but soma railroads being in default, and showing no disposition to meet their ob ligations, suit has been lately ordered to i be brought against them. But few ves -1 sels bav'3 been owned by this depart i ment during the year. The railroads of the country having declined to adhere to the war rates of transportation, have i been paid during the fiscal year theirf general tariffs, with a classification o i military supplies settled in conference at a convention of general freight 1 agents. There bave been paid ! for water transportation during the i i year, $1,424,222 82, and for railroad transportation, $2,253,304 30, Of this i amount, $933,166 21 was paid to the Pa , j clfic railroads, one-half being paid in . I cash and the other half retained in tbe ' treasury to meet the Interest on the i I bonds guaranteed by tbe UDited States. 1 During the year 96,000 persons, 3,800 an r imals, and 62,000 tons of stores have been , moved by water, and 60,000 persons, 14,000 animals, and 40,000 lons of stores by railroad; 27,000 tons of stores bave i been moved by contractors for wagon transportation. The Pacific railroad has i occupied some of the principal routes of former wagon transportation, and has saved the government much money in supplying the posts along its line. By arrangements between the departments of War and the Interior, supplies for the Indian service are now transported by : the Quartermaster's Department on i routes iu the Indian Territory, the actual cost nnder the contract being refunded ' to tbe War Department out of tbe appro priation of $2,000,000 for the pacification of the Indians, granted April 10, 1860. i Although the amount of clothing and equipage on band at the end of the war i has been reduced by sales and issues, ' there still remains a stock valued at over • $42,000,000. The general depots bave • been reduced to four, aud at only two of • them is there any large collection of ma l terlal, viz: at the Schuylkill arsenal, on i the Delaware, and at Jeffersonville, on the Ohio. The latter is being drawn npon oonstantlv, bnt it still oon • tains over $14,000,000 worth of war ' material. There are 72 national i cemeteries, and 313 local post or private ' cemeteries in which soldiers lie buried. • The titles of 71 of the national cemeteries have bee., approved aa perfect by the 1 Attorney General; 322 607 intermentsare ■ reported, of which 171,946 have been Identified. Tbe expenditure on this work has been nearly $3,000,000 daring ■ the year; 5,855 animals were purchased, I and 3,492 were sold. These latter pro duced the sum of $223,338. Subsistence i supplies tor the army have been mainly I procured in the large market cities ol i the country. The average cost of the , ration at these markets has been about i 23c. Efforts to procure salt meats on i the Pacific coast for troops stationed ' there have met with great success, 1 supplies of excellent quality having I been obtained at lavorable prices, i Tobacco, at an average monthly value of $19,000, has been furnished to the ' troops at cost prices, and the Freedmen's i Bureau has been supplied with stores to the value of nearly $250,000, most of which has already been paid for, and the remainder Is in progress of refunding at the Treasury. The issues to Indians at various points have amounted to more than $150,000, and at the request of tbe Interior Department, stores valued at $37,040 were issued to destitute Gsages and others, to prevent starvation during the winter. Under an ar rangement between the War De partment and tbe Department of the Interior, the Indian Department is being furnished with food for the In dians on several reservation on tbe Mis souri river and In tbe Indian Territory. Tbe ration so furnished is prescribed or approved by the Interior Department, and its value is to be repaid from appro- I prtatlons made by section 4 of the act of April 10. iB6O. Tliere baa been paid $27,- 121 73 aa coram mat lon on raiiona to c Unlou soldiers while prisoners of war. e Claims for supplies furnished tte army 1 during the war, amounting to 82,899,* i 806 15, hare been received, of 1 which $238,033 87 bars been allowed, t and $2,531,061 13 have been rejected, i t During the fiscal year 11,907 accounts j t and returua hare been received, from I i various offices, of which 11,787 have been i ( examined and referred to the Third Au- 1 dlior for final settlement. A change In 1 the army ration, by extending the rati- I ety of articles, aod also in the manner of < disposing of the savings of soldiers' i messes and oakeries would be of ad van- , tage. A change in the law is reccm- < mended so as to allow officers of the line when acting as assistant commission ers of subsistence S2O per month in addition to their pay, instead of S2O less one ration per day, now allowed. THE RIVER AND HARBOR WORKS have progressed as rapidly as the means appropriated for their execution allowed. The appropriation in April last of $2,- 000,000 for these works was distributed In accordance with the law ao as to sub serve the interests of commerce. The survey of Northern aud Northwestern lakes has progressed com mens urately with the amounts appropriated for con ducting it. The Lake Superior survey is drawing to completion. It bus devei- | oped u.aoy new harbors of refuge, and made known dangers to navigation j highly important to the commercial in- ; terests of Lhe States dependent upon the I water lino of communication for ihe j transportation of cereals and ores. Reecnnoisaanees and geographi cal and geological explorations and swveys have been con tinued during the year In the terri tory west of the Mississippi river, and the* information thus obtained is sup plied to the troops occupying that sec tion of the country. The survey of the Colorado of the West has not for special reasons been resumed. Collateral sur veys now in progress may furnish evi dence of the necessity of the survey of the upper portions of the river and of the improvement of the lower portion as a line of military supply and of travel and transportation Irom the mines of Southern Nevada. The geological sur vey, just completed from Sierra Nevada to the Rocky monntalns, is fruitful in valuable results, especially in relation to the mining regions and to the extent of the coal formation. It also furnishes other scientific data of great interest. Liberty arsenal, Missouri, has been sold during the year, under authority of the act of July 28, 1868, and realized the sum of $8,012 00. The St. Louis arsenal will be sold under the same act as soon as it can be spared, but certain buildings thereat should be reserved from sale snd devoted to general army purposes. The sale of the Harpers Ferry armory prop erty will take place on November 30, 1869. The Rome arsenal, theChamplain arsenal, the Mount Vernon arsenal (Alabama), the Appalachicola arsenal and the North Carolina arsenal are recommended to be sold. It is advisable that this should be done, and (bat the captured lands in bhreveport, Louisi ana, in Marshall nnd Jeffer son, Texas, and in Marion and Davis counties, Texas, should be similarly disposed of. A principal arse nal of construction and deposit and a powder depot are recommended to be established on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and in the valley of the M ississippi. The sale of some of the present eastern arsenals is suggest) d as a means to raise funds wh> rewilh to establish the princi pal arsenal for the Pacific coast. Rock Island is the principal point for the prin cipal arsenal for the valley of the Missis sippi. Powder depots should be estab lished on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The army will probably be able to ab sorb the cadets as fast as they graduate, it being but two-filths larger than the now authorized number, while the army baa more than doubled in the meantime. Upon the question of raising the standard of admission, he remarks that every addition to the list of preparatory qualifications necessarily restricts the circle from which can be drawn, and that the present list embraces all the at tainments that can be obtained by a very large majority of the youth of the country. Since the standard was raised by law In 1866, the rejections for want of the necessary educational requirements have increased from 15 per cent, to 27 per cent. As n substitute for the otner re commendations of the Board, the In spector proposes schools of appli cation for the several arms, such as exist in Europe and have always been favored by military officers here, and the nucleus for two of which are to be for.nd in the artillery school at Fort ress Monroe and one of the three engi neer depots already established. He gives various reasons for his proposi tion; principal among them the ready and economical application of facilities already at hand, aud the depressing in fluence up>on the cadets of a long resi dence amid unchanging scenes and un varying modes of life, study and disci pline. The estimates for the support of the academy during the coining fiscal year amount to $332,204 20, of which •212,019 20 is for pay and allowances of instructors and cadets. The division commanded by Lieuten ant Qeneral Sheridan embraces the De partments of Dakota, the Platte and the Missouri, commanded respectively by Mgjor General W. S. Hancock, Brevet Major General Augur and Brevet Major General Sehofield. These three depart ments cover a territory of great extent, in which most of the civilized, semi civilized and wild Indians abide, and include the Btates of Illinois, lowa, Mis souri, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Terri tories of Colorado, New Mexico, Wyo ming, Utah, Dakota, Montana and the Indian. The administration of these departments has been ably and economically conducted, but the number of troops now on duty in tbem is deemed insufficient, with the present reduced strength of companies, to meet the wants of the ser vice. Although there have been nu merous depredations in Ibis division, the condition of Indian affairs is very much better than last year. The policy of reservations adopted by the Indian Department is, in the judgment of Gen. Sheridan, the only policy that will put an end to Indian murders and depreda tions. Every effort is made to avoid the necessity of punishing the savages, with the strong hope that they may settle down on their reservations, and adopt a more peaceful and civilized life. The system of supplying the wild bands UDder the preseat Indian management is working well. The Indian receives ail that the government intends he should, and can have no plea of bad faith to urge as an excuse for a return to his former habits. The current expenditures of the Medi cal Department during the fiscal year ending June 30. XSC9, were $233,501 21. The total expenditures of that depart ment, Including " war debts" and re fundments," was $703,305 30, and the available balanoeon tiand at the ctoseof the year was $1,792 050 73. The health of the "troops has been good. The total number of caseaon the sick list during the year was 104,235. The average nu ru ber constantly on sick list report was 2,367, or about 5-42 per cent. The num ber of deaths was 548; of discharges for disability, 1,128. The number of com missioned medical officers for duty on June 80, 1869, was 101, being au average of one medical officer to 204 tneu. The number of posts was 239, besid *s detach ments and outposts. Tnere arenowtwo vacancies of surgeons and forty-two of assistant surgeons in the medical corps The experience of the past three years has shown that the present organization of the medical staff is satisfactory, bnt that even were all the vacaneies In it filled It would still tie barely adequate to the demands made upon It. The Paymaster Geusial presents the following'suuatnary exhibit: Balance in the hands of paymasters at the begin ning of the fiscal year, July 1, 1868, $5,- 981,578 14; rec-lved from Treasury dur ! ing the fiscal year, $36,245,000; received | by paymasters from other sources, ex- I elusive of sums transferred among them selves, $238,19$ 06; total to be accounted I for, $12.161,770 30. Accounted for as fol [iows: Disbursements to the regular , array, $18,678,250 61 ; disbursements to military academy, $181,258 78; disburse ments to volunteers, back pay and bounties, $19,918,635 43; total disburse ments, $38,782,144 82; amount refunded to Treasury,s4B,94B 37; balance in band* of paymasters June 30,1869, $3,633,677 01; total sl2 404,770 20 Ther- remain m-w m service only sixty regular paymasters authorized oy the act ror me reorganiza tion of the army passed July 28, 1806. The disbursements for reconstruction purposes are $2,613,293 16, and the bal ance in hands of paymasters October 2, 1869,1s $110,643 79. The total amount disbursed by the pay department for additional bounties, including those set tled by the Second Auditor and paid by the department on treasury certificates from the beginning to the 30th June last, $57,220,150. Some more buildings are required at Jefferson Barrick,and are recommended to be paid for out of the proceeds of the sale of the St. Louis Arsenal. With reference to the Freed men's Bu reau the Secretary repeats what has al ready been published in Genera! How ard's report. The expenses of the bu reau were met the first year with the proceeds of rents, sales of crops, school taxes and tuition, and sale of "Confed erate States" property. The amount re ceived from all these miscellaneous sources was $1,865,615 SO, and from up propriations by Congress since July. 1866, $11,084,750, making a total of $12,- 850,395 80 received from all sources. 'I he expenditures, including the accounts of the "Department of Negro Affairs." from June 1, 1865, to August SI, 1809, have been $11,194,028 10. The Secretary recommends the reor ganization of the West Point Military Academy on an enlarged basis, with an Increased number of cadets, to be di vided into two classes, one to pursue an ordinary course of military instruction and to be returned to the walks of civil life upon their graduatioa. The cost of military reconstruction in the First District (Virginia) for the vear ending September 30, 1869, was 8146,- 902 86. t In the 1 ourth District, the cases of violence offered Ihe regularly constituted authorities were not numerous. In the Fifth military district, Indian raids duriDg the year have been tin -1 usually bold, and" it is believed com manded in most instances by white men, Heavy damages to the citizens in iiv stock and property have resulted, but the loss of life has been small, amoum ing to about twenty-six persons. Tin troops In the district could not be used in the protection of the citizens agains' the Indians on account of thc-ir being required to carry out reconstruction. The number of cases tried by military commission, under section 3 of the act of March, 1567, from October 30, IS6S, tr September 38, 1869, is 59, of which 21 were convicted and 38 acquitted. The number of murders and oihei crimes In Texas, has diminished during the past year. The report closes with the following statement of appropriations, expendi tures aud estimates: There was carried to the surplus fund June 30, 1809, the sum of $58,239.17-1 93 The actual expen ditures for the fiscal year ending June 30,18C9, were. Including the Freedmen's Bureau, $56,761,732 16, to which must be added for old war debts paid the sum of $23 582.310 60, making tho total expendi tures $8,774,042 76. Of the above there was expended for reconstruction purpo ses $406,519 IS. There was appropriated for the service of the War Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1870, $37,538,851 08. The estimated deficien cies are $2,940,000 00. The total estimate of military appropriations for the year ending June 30,1869, is $54,431,031 39. In the foregoing estimate the amounts originally presented by the heads of bu reaus have been materially reduced, and any appropriation smaller in amount than that asked for would fail to meet the necessary wants of the departments. The following estimates are submitted separately, and are given for the consid eration of Congress, as presented by the Chief of Engineers: For fortifications, $4,196,300; for rivers and harbors, $7,961,- 900. Total, sl2 158,300. As to the forti fications, I urge the appropriations asked for the forts near the larger cities named in the report of lhe General of the Army, to wit: Portland, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, New Orleans and San Francisco, In the town or S , Maiue, lived some vears ago a couple who bad got tired o'f tho jars and troubles of wedded life, aud mutually resolved to end them. But being rather short of this world's goods, they hardly felt like paying out the money necessary to obtain a divorce. So they "went to the old gentleman who joined them in the bonds of mat rimony some years before, and desired bim to untie the knot. The worthy old squire scratched his head and thought a moment, and told them there was no way but to go to court: "But hold," said be, "I have it. You promised to live together until death should you part. Come out into the yard." Then seizing a cat that sat in ihe doorway, bedlreted John to takeber by the tail aud Jane by the head and pull her apart. Then lifting a sharp axe, he said: "Now death doth you part." The axe fell and the couple were di vorced. To CURE AND SMOKE BAc.jt._At tin season of Ihe year, ail onr farmers are preparing 10 salt their hams and ba con, so we propose to give tbem art celpt *vHereby salting arid smoking csn be done in one simple and short prorvus Many of our housewvies are forced to depend upon their neighbors for conve niences to smoke wi'h. These of us who own smoke houses know how dlffi'-u.t it is to smoke just right. Bv lh process all trouble is avoided. Take targe sized butter-firkin, cask t-r bar rel, according lo the quantity of meat you desire to smoke. Place it over a fir. of corn cobs with the corn on. Meet smoked in this way is higher flavored, the oora seem log to produce a tet< r taste than coba, or wood, or green ws. nuta. Let lhe tub smoke from five j,, six hours. To one hundred pounds ot meat take eight pounds of sail, two pounds of coarse brown sngor, or tlm. pints of molasses, aud two ounces mi; petre. Ruballttlefine salt Into the ham, and shoulders, then put th meat it the Btnoked tub, cover it wall water turn In the salt, sugar and saltpetr-' cover closely, and set In a cool place where it will not freeze. If a scum ri-. . on the brine turn it off, ? aid and add a little more salt, ir d sired to keep through the summer, in be early spring smoke the tub three hours 1 •nger, put back the meat acd turn on ihe t'r when cold. lu a month after pickling, the bams will be ready for us*. They can be kc p: in the brine all summer, and if a ham i cut, return It to the tnb f.r further use. Beef and tongues can be kept In the same manner, and there Is no damp-r from insects. In six or seven weeks the beef is packed and smoked enough t , dry. This is the surest and inostexpe ditious way ofsalting and smoking pork and beef, and if once tried will alw-f, - i be adopted. DISTANCES AT 081-HAUDS.—Much u.v cusslon has taken place in relation to 11. proper distances apart to set apple tre.-- , in orchards. Many western farmer* prefer placing tbem near together a* a ■ protection from cold winds, and fifteen . and twenty feet have been recommended. t This close planting has proved the va is. , of shelter, and while the trees re young , a larger amount of fruit is obtained fron, an acre. But when the trees become t larger and older these advantages in a 1 great measure disappear. It is therefore g proposed to thiu them out by succc sively removing the supernumeraries, until double distance is obtained. Thus the shelter and larger crops are ob j tained in the earlier yean of the orchard, and more space and light " when it becomes older. The dis ] advantages are, the greater difficulty ' of cultivating, snd greater exhausts'/:. 2 of the soil. We observe a statement ol ~ J. Bennington, of Macon, Michigan, in B the Weetcrn Ilural , that he has orch ards set out twenty years ago, which have so crowded each other that the " fruit has become small and slanted, and . be is thinning the trees out. But they , are not so good in form, nor will the. probably become nearly *o perfect anil • symmetrical as If-set out thirty or thirt y five feet apart and allowed to grow and - develop under full exposure to light ami p air. But where shelter is u necessity, it i may nevertheless be best to set thick at - first unless timber belts are employed > to B-recn the young trees from fierce 1 winds.— Country Gentleman. COMI'OST HEAPS.—IT is often recotn -3 mended that when manure is thrown r into heaps in a field it should be covered with a layer of earth to prevent the es cape of the ammonia. The experiment , of Dr. Yoeleker. at the royal agr.ciiltn- J, ral college at Cirenceetefi in England, have established the fact that the evapo ration of ammonia from large heaps of manure, goes on but siightiv; for the '2 reason that during the composition of '* manure,certain organicacids are formed ' at the same tune theammonie. isevolved and then immediately unite with the ammonia, forming non-volatile com " pounds. There is an active escape . of ammonia from the interior of largs 2, heaps, where the beat is too great for ' the chemical changes above referred ® to; but as it approaches the exterior parts of the heaps, where the beat is 2 very much less, the ammonia is com pletely taken up by the organie acids ,? and retained. There will be but a trilling escape of ammonia while there is sufficient moisture to retain it, for t r water absorbs and retains many huu -8 dred times the bulk of ammonia "gas at the ordinary temperatares. These non ; volatile compounds, from being highly " soluble in water, are liable to be washed away by every rain storm, giving the 6 well-known brown color to the drain ing?) of manure heaps.— American Ag p rieultnri&t. 8 ■ R WHAT FOWLS TO KKKl\—'The choice of breeds is so much a matter of fancy, p that one can hardly advise another . about them without a long dissertation, j Brabmas are good layers, sitters tul t mothers and are great" favorites; hehvy i fowls, active, but will not fly; flesh good. 1 Light Brabams are not very expensive e dark now,are qnite so. White Leghorn r are presistent layers, do not sit, fly like 3 pigeons; very pretty, nice, economical , fowls. OI French fowls,select Houdans, which are good sized, speckled, homely j fowls, presistent layers, and hardy; ex t cellent lor the table." If you must beeco t nomical, buy two trios of the breed you prefer, and a lot of common fowls, se j lee ing light colored, large bodied, feath er-legged pullets, .next spring save the B your pure pullets, ,and you will stock your yard with forty or fifty fowls with ' little expense. Should you wish a breed of more fancy fowls, "you have your s choice among Polands of various colors, , llamburgs, etc., which are great layers: ( Cochins, which are not superior to Brah mas; Black Spanish,which lay the hand- J somesteggs laid by any fowl, and many of tbem, are very beautiful, but delicate, as are also the Creve Cueurs and La . Fleche breeds, which excel most others ' as layers and table fowl.— American An- I rieultraHst. J A little girl got to school in Dan . bury, Connecticut, the other morning just as it commenced, and her teach*: [ said' "You are just in time, Sussie." Then, turning to the otherschollars, she j asked, "ID time for what children?" A , hand went up. and au intelligent boy i thus signified be had solved the pro- Mem. "Well, Thomas, just in time for what?" "Lanigan's ball 1" shouted the [ promising youth. \ A lady made a call upon a friend who , had recently been married. When ber husband came to dinner she said : "I have been to see Mrs. ." "Well, replied tho husband, "I suppose she is very happy." "Happy! Well. I should : think she' ought to be; she has n j camel's-halr shawl, two-thirds border."