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The Columbian. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1866-1910, May 26, 1866, Image 2

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aremui: 11, Moom:, kihtoh.
m)OM9inrrto, batchday, may si, 100.
PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S INAU
QURAL ADDRESS AS VICE
PRESIDENT, MARCH 4, 1805.
Tins ndilress, as published In the Con
ffrcssionak Globe shortly titter Its deliv
ery, Is now valuable evidence in vindi
cation of President Johnson against the
attacks of his Radical opponent ; for It
pnive-s that at the time of Its delivery,
nnd before ho became President, ho held
tho satno viows which 11 now holds and
advocates regarding tho status of the
Southern States and their relations to
the Union.
Two prominent Ideas appear In this
inaugural address, characteristic of the
man nnd consistent with his wiioic
course In public life. The first 0110 which
hochoso then to announce In entering
upon tho duties of a high station was
thnt ho was ono of the people, having
sympathies with tho mass of mankind,
desiring their welfare, nnd determined
to contribute to It, wherever placed, to
tho utmost of his power. Ho remem
bered "the rock from which he was
hewn, and tho pit from which ho was
digged." In tho august presence of
great public functionaries, and of tho
representatives of foreign powers, ho
remained tho man of the people, owing
nllcglaneo to them, and to no other poW'
cr under Heaven. He thought of him
self as of a son of American free insti
tutions, to whoso elevution to high
ofllco neither birth, nor rank, nor wealth
wero necessary ; to whom garters, and
stars, and decorations, tho imposition of
n monarch's hands, and heraldic titles,
wero nothing, nnd less than nothing
"Bcholdlherc,howfreelnstitutlonsopen
up tho road of distinction nnd tho seats
of power to nil men, however obscure
of blrtli or unblessed by fortune I" And
tills was said, or indicated, in no spirit
of vain-glorying, or of selfish and indo
lent pride, but in behalf of and in honor
of tho people and institutions of ids na
tive land.
But tins was not all. Not only was
ho there, clovatcd to that placo by the
votes of tho people, and true to them in
nil his sympathies and convictions, but
his State .was there also in ids person as
the second oillcial in tho Republic. Ten
nessee was there as a State in the Union,
faithful to her duties, and with nil her
rights as a member of the Union tiiiim
paired by secession and war. Had men,
wicked men, had attempted to carry her
out of tho Union and to place her in a
Southern and hostile confederacy. Rut
her loyal sons had resisted tho iniqul
tous scheme, and had upheld, tlirougl
terrific trials, the cause of tho Union
within her borders. Through Are and
Wood, and trials and suffering almost
unexampled, they "fought tho good
fight," and kept faith with their breth
ren of tho adhering States. And
now they rejoiced that their efforts, and
labors, and sufferings had not been in
vain. They had scouted secession ordi
nances and stood by the ancient laws,
and held as null and void, and abomina
ble, all pretended authority and all law
and regulation founded on rebellion, or
Intended to provoke its objects. Ten
nessee claimed her placo in tho Union as
of right nnd not of favor j siio was enti
tled to that placo in virtue of constitu
tional law and in just reason. Her sons
wero not outlaws, nor enemies, but citi
zens of tho United States, and entitled
as such to all the benefits of tho Union
established by our fathers.
How all this sounds in contradiction to
the impudent assertion of Thaddeus Ste
vens in the Baltimore Convention, that
Andrew Johnson was nn alien enemy,
and ineligible to the Vice-Presidency !
Tho then Vice-President then gave tho
same answer to Thaddeus Stevens which
now, as President, he gives ; and thnt nn
swer was : "Tho ordluances of secession
wero unlawful and void ; Tennessee re
mains In tho Union, nnd holds her proud
placo among the States which compose It ;
nnd her bravo and patriotic sons, in
stead of being aliens, arc citizens of tho
United States, nnd in full communion
with their brethren North and West,
with whom they mado common causo,
and underwent moro than common sac
rifice during tho war."
This was tho Inaugural nddrcs3 which
tho patriot of Tennessee delivered upon
tho occasion of assum'tig his duties as
Vice-President. It had pith nnd sub
stance; it was appropriate to tho time:
nnd itenmo witli significance and forco
from ono who had Just been elevated,
against tho impudent protest of Stovens,
to thfl second ofllco in tho gift of tho
American people. Wo will add that
tho address, as published In tho Globe,
was written out and published by tho
reporter without any rovislon or change
by tho Vice-President or any other per
son. Wo mention this upon tho direct
authority of tho reporter himself, a man
of character and veracity, only because
tho contrary has'been sometimes assert
ed without tho slightest foundation In
truth.
Turning now, with this address in
hand, to tho recent message and dis
courses of tho President, wo can seo
what perfect consistency ho maintains
In I1I3 public conduct. His present
policy appears in strict conformity witli
tho sentiments of tho Inaugural address,
nnd neither friend nor foe ennimputoto
him any departure from thoso princi
ples which ho proclaimed as tho chosen
man of tho pcoplo, in March, 1805.
A FEW QUESTIONS.
KKADKit, when you hear somo cnthti
slustlolndlvidunl declaiming ngalnst the
President, try the experiment of asking
him to point out tho particular doclrino
or measure of tho Union party of lbOl,
as announced in tno liaittmore pan-
form or elsewhere by pnity authority,
which President Johnson has abandoned
or betrayed. Ask him to put his finger
on tho specific point of complaint In re
spect to any such doctrine or measure.
AVus a huge and costly rreednuin's Bu
reau system n proclaimed measure of
the Union party? Was disunionism, in
any of Its protean forms, a feature of
their plntform of principles- was 1110
ilnetrlno of Head States n dogma of
Union men, or countenanced, in any
way whatever, by their chosen candi
date, Mr. Lincoln ? Was negro sulTrage,
Indiscriminate and Immediate, and to
bo enforced upon tho pcoplo by Federal
power, tv doctrlno of that great party
upon which It achieved success and a
renewal of its hold on public power?
No ; not ono of these things can bo as
sorted or pretended. By whnt obllgu-
Hon. then, Is tho President bound to sac
rlllce his deliberate convictions upon any
one or all of these points when they are
presented to him for his official action?
Sworn to support tho Constitution, can
lie disregard it upon demand of partisan
leadcrsandngltators? Ishe, inhtshigh
office, to submit himself to tho dictation
of unscrupulous nnd desperate men, who
would sacrifice their country, if needs
bo, to gratify their passions and their
will? Men who lovo fair dealing, and
regard Justice, and respect Independence,
nnd ndmlro honesty In public station,
will have no dlfllculty In choosing be-
twecn the President and those who re-
vile him ; between tho man chosen by
the people, nnd In all respects laltlilui
to his high trust, and ills disunion ene
mies, North or South, who would defeat
his policy and blast his fame. On this,
as on former notnblo occasions, a great
and virtuous patriot, a leader of tho
pcoplo and 11 man of tho pcoplo, will
triumph over his enemies nnd tho cue
mies of ids country, and will send down
an honored and illustrious name to fu
ture tlmo.
known their view and hopet upon tho
vital question of reconstruction. Noth
ing could lie more kindly, more digni
fied, or moro truly Christian than the
words and bearing of tho President or
tho United States upon that occasion,
in a speech, couched In noble nnd ex
prcsslve language, he expressed tho
pleasure it gave him to hear the depu
tation acknowledge tho errors of the
past. Ho us-uired those present of his
sincere desire to give hack to the South
all its rights. 1 ie would adhere strictly
to tho Constitution, maintain it In nil its
Integrity, nnd maku It tho means of re
storing tho Southern States to their for-
... ,M. I I- . ....
mer position, i ne noum icuiiugB im
pressed by tho President j his reiterated
assurances of good-will ; his treatment
of the Southerners as brothers, as sons
of n common country, who had erred
indued, but Who wereanti ever mm oeen
brothers, touched nil present, and pro
duced a deep impression. More than
nnw flm Milnf Magistrate was Inter
rupted bv tho approbation nnu tno emo
tion of lils audience. The menijers of
tliiwliMiiiliitlnn expressed tlieir linn re
solve to do nil in their power toward the
reconstruction or the Union. At iengin
they retired, full or hope nnd confidence,
renewing ngnin ineir pruimsu iu jum
heartily in the work of restoring har
mony nnd peace throughout the length
and breadth or their common country.
nv' tfi-iMit Is the contrast offered by
this brotherly reconciliation between tho
cldef of a frco nation nnd some or its
amw fur n Hmn led astrnv. nnd those
scenes of bloody repression which have
marked tho triumph of many n Euro-
penn despot over ills own subjects, wnom
long years of oppression and misrulo
ilnd into rebellion t
The policy of Mr. Johnson may bo
sumified un In these words: "Tho Con-
Htltiitlnn In all its inteirrltv." Ho had
been faithful to ft in tno nouroi danger;
ho mado it tho supremo rule 01 111s con
limit, in tlin lionr nf vlctorv. But ho de
termined to apply It, even in tno case 01
those who had tnuen up arms against 11,
with nil the leniency consistent with its
due maintenance. Such conduct was
worthy the constitutional cliiei 01 a lree
Government, when dealing with those
who had ever been considered as erring
brothers, and who wero now completely
otats mercy.
THE LOCAL PEESS.
Tin: Coi.u mhi ax is to bo a newsjntper,
and not a hand organ of sect, party,
clique, or interest. Wc propose to pub
lish tho proceedings of nil party conven
tions and meetings, with moro or lets
of fulness, unci with fairness, nssuiinii
that our readers will bo able to Judge for
themselves between what is good and
what is objectionable in tho sentiments
or actions of public bodies nnd popular
meetings, and do not expect to find it
necessary to caution them against ac
cepting all that we print as conveying
our individual sentimentsorconvictions
These will be conveyed, from time to
time, in our editorial columns. From
our first number.
Thirteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania
Volunteers,or the purpose of repelling
the. invasion mado into our State by the
Jtebel arm', and a few weeks after our
return nomo wo were conxcripica ami
nrved our time in tho One Hundred
and Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania Mili
tia.
Wo slinnlv mnko mention of these
facts to show that Captain Monro Is not
Hip only editor In this place that soldier
ed hi the late war; nnd In doing this wo
don't wish to be understood as el dining
any credit to out-self, or attempting to
estnblHt our loyalty, as we hold it is to
no persons' credit who toou uny.part 111
tho Into war. For nut-self we would
have none of it. Oivo It all to such men
as Butler nnd Banks; privates desire
none, since tho war has been nrostltuted
to the mimeses of disunion nnd aboli
tionism.
s to our partner, ho remained nt
homo like all good citizens, pursuing a
legitimate business, doing more for the
1'iHiil of tho rnuntrv than ItintlV who
claimed and seemed to bo Intensely loy
al, and desirous of mobbing nil Demo
crats who did not think, believe, nnd
act with them.
AN ENGLISH OPINION.
Ik tho midst of the numerous un
friendly notices we received from the
Kngllsh press during the Rebellion,
none wero more outspoken in our de
fence than the London ll'rohii tn.itcr J!c-
vie.ic. Throughout tno war it ticmnucu
the cause of tho Union with a consisten
cy which is entitled to all praise. In
view of tills fact tho annexed extract
from its pages will be read with increased
Interest :
Mnnv and bitter were the attacks
which had been made on Abraham Lin
coln. Tho like were now directed
against his successor. Neither ids ori
gin nor ins cnaracter was spared. 111s
future policy was donounceu oeiorenanu
as cruel and sanguinary. Andrew John
son has given them the most complete
or nil replies no 11ns lived tnem down
110 is now Known to tno worm as onu
of tho ablest men of Hie day.
Ills views ot public policy assimilated
themselves more nnd more, ns timo went
on,tothoseol Mr. President Lincoln, mm
una iv came into uericci agreement wiui
them. When tho latter was elected
President a second time Mr. Johnson
was elected witli him as Vice-President
It was a most wise choice, for ho had
shown a rare mixture of courage ond
ability. Ho had remained faithful to
tno union, aim being, ns no was, n
Southern Senator, tho Northerners by
sucn a selection clearly snowed Hint, it
was nut against tno south, as suet. tnat
tuey wero ngntmg, out against me vio
lators 01 tne law and tne constitution.
Since his accession to the Presidency lie
has discharged the duties of bis high of-
nee mid directed tno policy oi tne coun
try with a lirmncss, moderation, and
tact which pvovo him to bo a man of no
ordinary capacity. Tho work which
Mr. Johnepn and Ills Government have
hud to do has been of tho most dilllcult
and dclleato kind. Dangers of the most
opposlto character besot tho object to
which all their efforts have been direct
edthat or reconstruct htg tho Union
If too great leniency wero shown, there
was danger of losing in point of fact ono
01 1110 pest, irutts 01 tno crisis tiirou
which tho nation had passed; for to
abolish slavery, and yet leavo tho future
of tho former slaves entirety In tho
hands of their old masters, would have
been to uboiisii it only in name, uuur
untees wero necessary thnt this should
bo n bona flite abolition, carried into
practical ciiect. it was also Hist to usu
of tlio South tangible proofs, in ono form
or another, of Its sincerity nnd loyalty
In returning to tho Union. On the other
Inini I. it was most desirable, both as a
matter of policy and principle, not to
no too severe, or even too exacting.
Such 11 courso would have been wrong,
nnd would beside have hindered tho
work of reconstruction, which tho Uni
ted States Government and pcoplo ear
nestly wished to further; it would, more
over, hnvo irritated tho South, and In
disposed it toward that party among its
own citl.'iis which desired to return to
their old allcgiunco In ail good faith.
Mexican correspondence states that
tho French war steamer JMjnror was
wrecked while going to Guadalajara. It
Is likewise stated that Mcthuela was us
Rtiulted on tlto morning of tho 1st in
stant by twelve hundred Junrlsts under
Eseobedo. Tho Liberals wero permitted
to rctlro, losing thirty ofllcers and sov
enteen men. Tho guerillas of Perez
were defeated by Colonel Trevens nt So
Jado on tho 22d ultimo, losing twenty
eight killed nud nlno wounded.
Prison discipline fs 11
... . 1 iMumi lit. 11 nni-n num. mm 11 limim- i ni ulmiuiuuv,
imvo been thought of practical. u;t, and deserve. careful study.
lui...uw..M v. j. - - , l l,., I , ,1nn
Colorado I nm not nwure that any 11a- m'ru " " " "
lroiu iNorineni ncwspuiiris. ii
11 of except with
Honnl exigency, either Of n, political or
commercial noturo, requires n departure
from the law of equality which has been
so generally mfherod to In our history,
Jf Information submitted in connec
tion with this bill is reliable, Colorado,
instead of increasing, lias declined In
population. At nn election for mem
bers of iv Territorial Legislature, held
in 1801, 10,080 votes were cast. At tho
election before mentioned, in 18G1, tho
number or votes cast was 0,102, while tit
the irregular election, held in lea"), which
Is assumed as 11 basis for legislative ne
never heard It spokc
condemnation. Most of us are wiso
enough to know that It Is tootir interest
to sustain tho Government under which
we expect to live.
.Fourth. It Is believed at tho North
Hint th(j Southern people, if Invested
Tho quc-etlmi Is not how can wo best
keep a certain number of men locked up,
chained surrounded by bars nnd walls
and prevented from escaping. That
Is merely a vulgm' problem In mathemiw
tics, and may bo solVcM by reproducing
the old hast lie. Can wo Hot so treat theso
criminals that they Will furioke forever
tho path of crime? Can we lfot ttluente-
with polltlcril power, would endeavor to pnbllo opinion-tip to tlto vccognlt n o5
force upon tho Oovernntent thonssunip-
Hon of tho debt of tho Into confederacy
We do not believe that this Idea ever
entered Into tho wildest dream of the
most visionary mail In these Southern
Tho clement policy of tho Washington
Government lit tho hour of victory was
further munlfe.-ted by tho fact that no
lire was forfeited, excepting that of thoso
who wero proved to po accomplices in
Mr. Lincoln's murder, and thnt of a cer
tain Wirz, convicted of heinous cruelty
toward Northern prisoners incarcerated
at Andet-sonville. Such lenient conduct
was but right, yet rarely, if ever, has It
marked tho close of thoio civil strifes
which have desolated in turn every
country of tho Old World.
Tho reception of a numerous and Im
portant Southern deputation by Mr,
Johnson, nt tho Wlilto House, brought
out in nil their foreo theso noblo senti
ments of mercy and reconciliation. Tho
deputation waited on him to mako
We suppose no ono who has given the
matter intelligent Investigation will do
nv tho advantage of a Poor House to a
county us a measure of practical ccono
my. In this connection Ave publish tho
following from tho Democrat and Slur:
The editor of tho Berwick Gazette is
willing to come down n little, and con
fine his remarks 111 opposition to tno Co
lumbia County Poor Houe to the Bor
oiiL'h of Berwick : a nice way of ac
knowledging that he publishes a paper
for tho guidance and edification of tho
citizens of that place alone. But in his
first article one would not suppose this
tho case, as his strictures upon tho
Poor House uuestlon were too general
nnd not made applicable alone to any
borough or township in tiie county. Wo
do not feel disposed, if we had the now
er. to force any district into this meas
ure, but desire each and every one to
think and act in the matter for them
selves; and if that is the po-itlon of the
liuzeite we sunn better uiuterstaiKi 11 11
the future. And so lar ns calling upon
the borougn to pay taxes to Keep any
poor or "other townships," wo can say
that, from what in formation wu have In
tno matter, tnt-so county J'oor nouses
areself-suslalniug institutions. At least
this is the case in the Counties of Chester,
Loliii? 1. Berks. Bucks. Schuylkill. Mon
tour, Clarion, and others that wo might
mention. In several of these counties
the Poor Houe farm creates, instead of
a burden upon the tax-payers, quite a
revenue to tno county, and we iau to see
why the same tiling can't bo done in
Columbia County. It must be a poor
farm indeed, if properly managed, that
would not produce suiucieiit to main
tain the paupers of this county without
taxing tho people, when a largo amount
or tne labor can uo uono oy tne paupers
themselves.
In conversation with a gentleman
e 11.111 r.. ,i,f IniK, otn.m
lllllll OUIllI 1IVIH v..iuint , iivi iwif, rmi-v,
we were informed that for twelve years
while he lived in that county ho paid no
poor taxes upon his property. At pre
sent lie could not state whether or not
the people of that county wero subjected
to any poor taxes, but rather thought
they were, on account of there being so
many children made orphans nnd mo
thers made widows during tno tate war:
besides, tho population of that county is
mado up of a different class of people
lrom thoso 01 our county. 11 fccnuyiKiu
can maintain ner poor twelve years
without levying and collecting taxes for
that purpose, wiry snouiit not Columbia
bo able, with iter rich nnd well-produc
ing farm land, to maintain her poor
without burdening thu people by taxa
tion ? Sho can do it, is our honest con
vict on.
Tho experience has been in Montour
County that tlio.-o townships not in the
Poor Houso have Had Heavier taxes to
pay in support of the poor than they
hud before tho erection of tho County
Poor House, while tho other townships
had very light II any taxes to pay
Thoso not accepting have since seen
their mistake, and tho result has been
thu townships remaining out petitioned
to tho Legislature last w inter, and pro
cured an act for tho erection of another
Poor House In that county. They have
been convinced that it is cheaper and
better to keep their paupers in a County
Poor House than have them proiiiiscu
lously nil over tho county in filth and
Idleness. Those aro facts, and can't bo
disputed. Tho people of this county
should consider tho matter well in all
its particulars, and act in thu premises
111 such a manner as not to uc regretted
iu the future,
Tito subjoined nrtlclo from tho same
paper speaks for itself:
In an nrtlclo written by us (tho sen
ior) some time 111 1'eimmry last, respect
lug the starting of a new paper in tills
place, wu stated that it would iu con
ducted by ono Captain Moore, lato of tho
Chronicle, ofllce. Wa-Oiiiigton. D. C. This
announcement was mado upon what wo
deemed gooa authority. 1 Jut 111 tho llr
issue of tho new paper wo were correct
cd iu words us follows : " Captain Monro
is not Into of tho Washington Chronicle
ofllce, never having hud any connection
whatever with that establishment.'
Not having" enlightened" his readers o
his "whereabouts" previous to ills com
ing to this county, we, iu noticing the
new paper 011 its first appearance, spoke
of tlto editor as of "sotuo other placo
Ides tills." Tills was thu best we
lies
could do. Hut since, iu his last.
states Hiat "at the outbreak of the war w
were editing a paper lu New York, but
abandoned that occupation, and enlisted
us a private in tho Thirty-sixth Regi
ment of New York Volunteers, in tho
moutu 01 April, ibui," 110 served 111
full termof enlistment in said regiment
during which time, no says, 110 receive
promotions.
As lio would llko to know of his con
temporaries' " whereabouts" during
that time, for ono wo will stato that, nt
tno briiiKing out 01 tno war, wo were
engaged publishing tho Star of the
An'i.iu Blooitisburg, Pn.. and continu
ed that business until wo ciilblcil iu the
VETO OP TIIE COLERADO BILL.
To the Senate of the United States:
1 nrrunx to tho Senate, in which
House it originated, tho bill which has
pasted both Houses of Congress, enti
tled "An Act for the admission of tlto
Stato of Colorado into tho Union," with
my objections to its becoming ti law at
this time.
First. From tho best Information
which I hnvo been able to obtain, I do
not consider Hie establishment of a State
government nt present necessary for Hie
welfare of the pcoplo in Colorado. Un
der the existing Territorial government
nil tho rights, privileges, ond interests
or the citizens arc protected and secur
ed. Tho qualified voters choose their
own legislators ond their own local ofll
cers, and nrc represented In Congress by
a delegate or their own selection. They
make and execute their own municipal
laws, subject only to revision by Con-
Kress tin authority not likely to bo ex
ercised unless in extreme or extraordi
nary cases. The population is small,
some estimating it so low as twenty-five
thousand, while advocates or the hill
reckon the number nt from thirty-five
thousand to forty thousand souls. The
pcoplo are principally recent settlers,
many of whom ore understood to be
ready for removal to other mining dis
tricts, beyond tho limits of tho Territory,
IT circumstances shall render them moro
Inviting. Such n population cannot but
find relief from excessive taxation desi
rable. If the Territorial system, which
devolves the expenses of the executive,
legislative, and judicial departments up
on tho United Stntcs, is for the present
continued, tliey cannot but find thu se
curity of person and property increased
bv their relianco upon tho national
Kxecutivo power for the maintenance
of law and order, against the disturban
ces necessarily incident to all newly-organized
communities.
Second. It is not satisfactorily estab
lished Hint a majority of tho citizens of
Colorado desire or are prepared for an
xchango of a Territorial for a State gov
ernment. In Septemiyr, lSbl, under
the authority of Congress, an election
was lawfully appointed nnd held for the
purpose of ascertaining the views of the
people upon this particular question;
6,102 votes were cast, andof this number
i majority of a,lo2 was given against tho
proposed change. In September, iboo,
without any legal authority, tho ques
tion was again presented to the people
of the Territory, witli tho view of ob
tniningn reconsideration or tho result or
tho election held In compliance with the
actor Congress approved March 21, 1801.
At this second election fi.OO.i votes were
polled, and a majority or 155 was given
In favor of a Stato organization. It
does not seem to 111c entirely safe to re
ceive this last-mentioned result, so ir
regularly obtained, us sufficient to over-
weigh the one which had been legally
obtained in tho first election. Regu
larity and conformity to law are essen
tial to tho preservation of order and a
stahlo government, and should, as far as
practicable, always be observed In the
formation or new States.
Third. The admission or Colorado at
this time as a State into the Federal Un
ion appears to me to bo incompatible
with tho public interests of tnecountry
and while it Is desirable Hint Territories
when sufllclcntly matured, should be
organized as States, yet tho spirit oi tho
Constitution seems to require that there
should bo an approximation toward
equality among tho several States com
prising tho Union. No Stato can Have
less or more than two Senators In Con
gross. TI10 largest Htato lias a popula
tion or four millions; several ol the
States have n population exceeding two
millions; and many others liiivoa popu
lation exceeding one million.
H this bill should become a law, the
pcoplo of Colorado, thirty thousand in
number, would have in tho House or
Representatives 0110 member, while
New York, with a population or four
millions, has hut thirty-one. Colorado
would hnvo iu tho Mectorul (.'olle-;
threo votes, whllo New York has only
thirty-three. Colorado would have In
tho Senate two votes, whllo New York
has no more.
Inequalities of this character have al
ready occurred, hut it is believed Hint
nono lmvo happened where tho inequali
ty was so great.
When such inequality has been allow
ed, Congress is supposed to have penult
ted It 011 the ground of sumo high pub
lie necessity, and under circumstances
which promised that it would rapidly
disappear through thu growth and de
velopment of tho newly-admitted State.
Tints, in regard to the several States in
what was formerly called tlto " North
went Territory," lying west of the Mis
sissippi, their rapid advancement In
population rendered it certain that States
admitted with only ono or two repre
sentatives Iu Congress would iu a very
short period ho entitled to a great
iiicrcuso of representation. So, when
California was admitted on tho ground
of commercial and political exigencies,
it was well foreseen that that State was
de.;tiued rapidly to become u great,
Hon nt this time, tho aggregate of votes Stntcs, We have never heard tho sub-
cast was 5,005.
Sincerely anxious for the welfare nnd
... r rtl ! 1 .... .1 t-1 .. I ..
prosperity 01 every ix'rriiury win omn.-,
os well as for the prosperity and welfare
of the whole Union, 1 regret thlsnppar
cut decline of population in Colorado,
but itls manifest that it Is duo to emigra
tion, which is going on from that Terri
tory into other regions within tho Uni
ted States, which eltherarolnfact,oraro
believed by the Inhabitants of Colorado
to be, richer in mineral wealth nnd agri
cultural resources. If, however, Color
ado lias not really declined In popula
tion, nnother census, or nnother election
under tho authority or Congress, would
lace the question beyond a doubt, anil
cause but little delay In theultlmatond-
lect mentioned except with ridicule, and,
ns in tho preceding case, we believe it
never would have been mentioned ntnll
ir it had not been thrust upon our atten
tion by tlto Northern press.
If tho pcoplo nt tho North could only
know tho truth In regard to tho four
points nbove spoken of, wo believe that
there would bo un immense chnngo In
public opinion nnd In the state of public
feeling there, nnd Hint Hie result would
be a restoration of friendly relations and
of material prosperity. Few of them,
tho manhood of man so that when it
poor sufferer falls by tho wayside lie Is
not to bo thrown Into a ditch like hi
much carrion? What can wo expect of
men who rtsk of thdr keepers "who U
Jesus Christ, of whom wo hcarso' lritfcltV'
Why'snkl tvpTlscM visitor tew pro"
fnno convict, " why (Iff yotf fiot have"
better thoughts?" " Better thoughts,
was the forlorn response, "where snail
I get them ?" This question coming in
us from tho dungeon, from tho heart of"
nn outcast and felon, embraced Hlottliolo"
philosophy. The society In Us linrrw
way is doing all it can to answer It. Let
us do more. Aw i orc Tribune.
mission of the Territory as a Stato if that wo wilfully falsify; and others will cett if tho company boas flourishing
desired by the people.
The tenor of these objections furnishes
the reply which may bo expected to nn
nrgtiment in favor of tho measure de
rived from Hie ennbllng net, which was
passed by Congress on the 21st day of of the ease admits of, wo think wc can
March, 1801, although Congress then pledge ourselves, in advance, to produce
supposed that the condition of tho Ter
ritory was such as to warrant its admis-
ion ns a State. Tho result o! the two
years' experience shows that every rea
son which existed for tho institution or obtain more full information from the
a Territorial instead of a Stato govern
ment in Colorado at its first organiza
tion still continues in force. Tho condi
tion of the Union nt tho present mo
ment is calculated to inspire caution in
regard to tho admission of now State?
Eleven of tho old States have been for
some time and still remain unrepresent
ed in Congress.
It is a common interest of nil the
States, as well as those represented ns
those unrepresented, that the integrity
and harmony of the Union should bo re
stored as completely as possible, so that
all thoso who arc expected to bear the
burdens of tho Federal Government
shall be consulted concerning tho ad
mission of new States; that in the mean
timo 110 Stato shall bo prematurely and
unncces-arily admitted to participation
n tlto political power which the Feder
al Government wields, not for the bene-
lit of any Individual, Stato or section,
but for tho common safety, welfare, and
happiness of the whole country.
Axnitr.w Jonxsox.
Washington, I). C, Jtay 15, lfCO.
TnE PROOF OF THE PUDDING.
Thk period of declaring semi-annual
perhaps, will seo theso lines; or thoso dividends havlngarrlved, wohavclook-
who seo them some, wo have no doubt, wm, soluo curiosity to seo whnt sort
will believe all wo have said, for some 0f dividend tiie Pennsylvania Railroad
of them know that our testimony can mnnttircrs would announce. Tills wo seo
bo relied on ; some, wo fear, will say i,,. ti10 lllclal advertisement is five per
probably say that wo are mistaken as to aJ H generally supposed, how is It that
tlto facts. WTo earnestly entreat those it cannot divide better prollts than this?
who doubt our evidenco to tell us what q nc rensnnrwe think, is obvious enough,
evidence would bo satisfactory; and If The profits of tho rond arc either squan-
they demand evidence, which tho nature ,icrc(i jn corrupting the Legislature nnd
it.
This article may bo copied by North
ern newspapers, and it is just possible
Hint some of their readers would Hko to
same source; it so, let tnem nuurcss a
letter to the editor of tho Christian Tiv
de.r. Atlnnta. Go., and they shall bo
promptly responded to, publicly or pri
vately, os they may desire,
PRISONS AND PRISON DISCI
PLINE.
Oxr. or society's adjourned but per
petually recurring questions is that re
ferring to crime and criminals. Good
men live in the hope of making all men
good at some time or other or discov
ering a system by which virtue will bc-
ofllccrs or the Stato government who
belong to tho notorious " ring" combin
ation, or else the managers nrc obliged
to hold back tho money in order to ena
ble them to grasp more lines of road.
They have just leased or bought a lino
in New York, nnother in Wisconsin, nro
building ono in Illinois, and nro kite
flying in the Pacific Railroad matter.
Perhaps our readers may think that
ultimately the finances of tho corpora
tion may bo improved by these invest
ments. But even IT they should, tho
managers must, Trout tlto mere necessity
or lighting down competition, go on
wasting money In new schemes. Just
what we see now wo may set down as
tho permanent policy or tho company,
and if tho stockholders ever get any bet
ter dividends than they now receive, it
will he only nn occasional distribution
come the rule of human conduct. Half or scrip. This expedient or " watering
FOUR MISTAKES.
Tnr. great obstacle to reconstruction in
Church and State, in fiict nnd in feeling,
lies in mutual misunderstanding of the
facts in regard to each other by tho
Northern and Southern people. H the
truth were known nt tho North as to
what is said, and done, nnd thought, and
felt in these Southern States, we believe
that a controlling number of tho people
there would be inclined to extend to us
such treatment ns wo desire and ns wo
think wo deserve. There are four lead
lug particulars in which we think their
udgments of us nro entirely wrong, and
if they could bo correctly informed on
these points, we believe that u vast
stride would bo made toward real peace,
With a sincere desire to do good to our
fellow-men, nnd to glorify our Father in
Heaven, wo proceed to mention theso
four tilings, nnd to put on record our sol
emit testimony in regard to tlieni.
First. It is believed at tho North that
the pcoplo here consider tho late dispute
still unsettled; that they are anxious for
another opportunity to resort to nrms;
and that they are ready and ripo to uvall
themselves of the first occasion to mako
another effort for independence,
In nil this our Northern friends nro
entirely mistaken. There is not a word
of truth in it. There may bo individuals
of whom it is true; or courso we cannot
say there aro nono ; but we can and do
say that wo know or nono and have
heard or none. Tho people here nro not
thinking about arms nor nbout inde
pendence ; tho ideas for which tho war
was fought aro considered obsolete, nnd
are seldom spoken of. Tho grand Idea
with almost every ono is to take euro of
himself, and improve Ills own condition
Revolution is, of all things, tho furthest
from their wishes or thoughts
Second. It is believed at tho Nortli
that there Is hero a general disposition
to oppress and persecute tlto negro race,
and, if possible, to rc-enslavo them
Nothing could bo further from tlto
truth. During tho wnr tho slaves for
tho most part stood by tlieir masters, la
bored for them without overseers in
thousands of instances, and sympathized
witli them and sustained them in every
possible way to tho last. Since tho war
they have conducted themselves with a
degree of propriety which, under tho
circumstances, isn wonder to tho world
These things lmvo Increased the kind
ness of feelings which were kind before,
and tho negro race is held in higher esli
iiiatlou at thuSouth this day than It over
lias been. Tho rights of suffrage, of proved.
holding ofllce, and of sitting on juries
are denied Hieui by our laws, but In nil
other respects tliey aro (in Georgia) pw
visety an footing with the, uiiile jicoplc,
and so wo think It is In most or tho other
Stated. Tho people o! tho North huvo
or our social problems depend upon this.
ir people only knew how good it was to
bo good tho work would be done. The
pleasure or frankness; of saying yes or
no ; being nble to look every man in the
eye ; of respecting tho personal relations
of labor, is far sweeter than the mo-st at
tractive vice. This is coninionplnci
philosophy, perhaps, but so Is the con
stunt repetition of every truth. Wc
consider these social questions over and
over again until all argument seems
dead, mid every illustration becomes as
trito as tlto warnings ngalnst lying, and
tho incentives to industry, that we o'nee
found in our spelling-books,
Here is the twenty-first annual report
of the Executive Committee of tho Pri
son Association of New York, 232 pp
part first only, and full of strange Inter
est. It is tlto annual record of tho efforts
or a company of good men to see Hint if
there Is not some wheat among the tares
of society, some hidden residuo of gold
in the alloy which "law" throws from
its crucible. That Justice shall be dono
to tho destitute; that discharged prison
ers shall receive n helping hand in tlieir
struggles toward an honest life; that
evil associations shall bo withhold from
tho-punlshcd criminal, is tho purpose of
theso gentlemen. During thu twenty
ono years of tho society's existence
72,501 persons have been visited in pris
on; 21,020 complaints lmvo been exam
ined; 5,0.10 complaints havo been aban
doned at tho instance of tho society;
0,002 prisoners havo been discharged
from custody through tho interposition
of .tho society ; 11,281 discharged prison
ers have been aided in various ways;
!1,3()2 discharged convicts provided witli
situations. Twenty-one years well
spent, and honest useful work well done !
Certain suggestlvo facts crop out of
this report which should he well consid
ered in our philosophy. Wo find that
war greatly influences crime that dur
ing the war tlto social bonds seem to
loosen, and tho vice of poor human na
ture predominates.. Foreign immigra
tion fosters crime, partly from tho fact
that somo European nations make
America, in a sly way, a placo for crim
iuul transportation, partly becauso our
foreign born residents aro very ignorant
and irresponsible. Crime nestles in ci
ties, and generally avoids tho rural dis
tricts. Two-thirds of our criminals are
under thirty years of age. Reformatory
Influences nro used with gootl result
Twenty years ngo threo out of ten dis
charged convicts wero recommitted ;
now scarcely moro than ono out of ten.
Tho principle or labor Is Introduced Into
prison lifo with good results. Convict
labor now exceeds by sixty thousand
dollars a year tho cost of convict living
tho surplus going to pay tho salaries
of prison olllcors. It teems to us that
when tho convicts earn their living Hioy
havo dono their duty to tho Stato, and
should bo allowed tho residuo uf their
titno for education and solf-lmprove-
ment. Tho lash no longer exists in tho
prison. Tho food of the prisoner is lin-
Iu other times punishment was
tho controlling element of prison disci
pllno; now tho poor wretclies are stintu
luted by reward and hope. In other
times (Iiorrlblu thought, and not pleas
out to think of in connection witli our
ancestors) every child born in prison
their stock" is a favorite one with tho
managers of the monopoly, and lias been
repeatedly resorted to by them. Tliey
never pay a largo cash dividend, not
withstanding all that is said about tho
enormous business dono by their line.
Now, either tlto road docs not mnko
an adequate profit in Hie trade, because
it is donoelieaply onNew Yorkaccount,
to prevent it going on other lines, or
else the money is wasted In unprofitable
Investments inWestern roads, legislative
corruption, etc. If this is not so, let U8
ask tho company what becomes of tho
money ? Tills is a question which thous
ands of stockholders iu tho company
would like to have nnswered. We point
our readers to this comparatively small
dividend as affording the best posslblo
evidenco of all that wo have lreen say
ing heretofore respecting tho incapacity
and nbsoluto stupidity of tho present
managers of the road. They do not
know how to mnko adequate profits
on tho working capital of their various
lines ; or if they mako tho money and
do not pay proper dividends, they nro
wasting it, as wo havo said before, and
therefore in either caso their incapacity
is established.
Our own belief is, then, that if a dif
ferent management were in power in
tho company, such as would abandon
tho ruinous policy of attempting to mo
nopolize tho wholo railroad business of
Pennsylvania, ifhd would give up rail
road building to tho projectors nnd ad
vocates of new lines, nnd conduct its
roads in tho interest of its stockhold
ers, tlto scmi-nnnuni dividends, instead
of being five per cent., might easily
reacii fifteen per cent. It is therefore
a question which appeals directly to tho
pocket or every stockholder of the com
pany, and moro especially to tho city
corporation, which is tho greatest stock
holder. Such a dividend ns might bo
legitimately declared would naturally
lessen the taxation of every citizen of
Philadelphia. In this light it is a mat
ter worthy or tlto attention of tho City
Councils, as well as' of tho tax-payers,
and if wo had Councils enpablo of lifting
themselves nbovo tho reach of bribery
or Intimidation, wo might with somo
degree of confidence depend upon their
action.
Slnco the commencement of tho pres
ent controversy tho Pennsylvania Rail
road Company has spent not less than
mlf a million of dollars in all sorts uf
discreditable ways In fighting down tho
computing line. Every dollar of this is.
taken from tho fund nvoilablo for dlvU
dends, ami tho stockholders now get flvo
per cant, on this excuse. Wo nllttdo to
this now in order to show to our readers,
and the public that wo nro not hostile to,
tho Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
but only to tho men who aro mismanage
ing It. AS'o go further und say tho facts,
provo that tho stockholders havo really
no better frlonds than ourselves, anil that
if tliey would only follow our ndvico and
turn out tlto incapoblps from their man-,
aging body, tliey would get far better
dividends, and their shares would com
maud much higher rates than tliey da
now, Germantoim Telegraph,
been so often told that tho opposlto of died from bad air and unwholesome
all this Is true, that tliey may find it food; now tho little creatures nro taken
hard to beilovo what wo tell them; but and raised under pure Influence. The
w facts aro as wo state. convict prison Is no longer a school of
Third, It Is believed at tho North vice, a moral lazur-hou.se, absorbing, in
that tiio moment tlto Southern people crcasliignnddNributlitgcimtagion. All
aro clothed with political power they this tho society bus dono, and yet its
w ill use their influence lor tho ropudlu- field Has scarcely been touched.
Hon of tlto national debt. . In uddltion to these labors, tho society
Wo huvo never heard this scheme pro-1 does much toward advancing the science
Tin: SenllneUa llmotana publishes
news from Venice to tho 18th of April.
stating that tho Austrian fleet had gono
into tho port of Poln. Tho building of
Iron-clads mid tho construction of gun-
curriages anil ambtilanco wagons was.
being actively carried on in the Venetian
tut-eiials. Orders had been glyon to. pro-,
pare quarters for thirty thoasai.ul men,.
1 ..-
A iitxKVoiijixr physician considers
tho poor li,Ls best patients, (or- God. Js tlu
paymaster.

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