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THE COLUMBIAN, BLOOMSBUHG, SATU11DAY, AUGUST 18, 1866.
tun; okoihik ii. moohi;, r.niTtm. 11LOO.MH11U1UI, HATUKDAY, AUUL'KT 18, ISfiH, TIIE BRADFORD DESPOTISM BROKEN. Fon many years David Wllmot, of Frco Trndo memory, has ruled the County of Bradford according to the dictated of his Interests and passions. It has been a rule of proscription, intol erance, and selfishness lieyond any ox nmple In the history of this section of tho Commonwealth, but It has had the prcstlgo of success, and has been sub mitted to by hundreds, If not thousands, to whom It was both unwelcome and odious. Partisan Interests, tho pressure of tho war, and other causes have con spired to extend and perpctuato an evil domination, and to induce food men c'en to yield it countenance and encouragement. It has been upheld and made strong because to mnny it ap peared to bo (under tho circumstances) connected wlth'publlc Interests of tran scendent importance, nnd sometimes with the existence or unity of tho coun try itself. Hut a day of reckoning has come, nnd an account may now be stated be tween tho people of that county and their Master. Obedience Is only due to a superior where tho rule of tholattcr Is benignant and Just. And equally clear Is it that political leadership should be founded in public utility and personal merit. Wo need not now review the past life of Judge Wllmot, instructive as that review would bo. Wo conflno ourselves mainly to tho present. Beginning po litical llfo as an apostle of Freo Trade nnd Radical Democracy, lie has run through all tho stages of transition to Radical Dlsunionlsm. Upon the ter mination of his Senatorial term, he took refago in a llfo olllco at Washing ton as n Judge of tho Court of Claims. The ofllco was created by legislation, which ho himself assisted to enact, and lits appointment was on his own per sonal application to tho lato President. The Court is not burdened with busi ness, but tho pay is respectable. The long vacations between its terms are spent by Wllmot In managing the poll tics of Bradford County, and in pro jecting schemes for controlling the Congressional, Senatorial, and Repre sentative Districts of which Bradford composes a part. lie amuses ids hours of Icisuro nnd retirement in tho mani pulation of ofllccs and in tho intrigues of nominations. No public man of this country has ever run a career more hel lish, mora barren of magnanimity and generous impulse, or less fruitful in ad vantage to the public; and his present position and employments aro In keep ing with his past career. His lieutonnnts, or subordinates in command, in the management of po litical dominion, aro persons of conse quence only by reason of their connec tion with him. Butof both of them the public havo now, by bitter experience, obtained considerable knowledge. The one, George Lanrion, a man of cleri cal antecedents but of unclerlcal prac tice, was onco put in .nomination in tins congressional District, but was withdrawn before judgment was pro nounced upon him by tho people: for, tho direct charge that ho was corrupt received such general acceptance that his caso became desperate and his "withdrawal a necessity. Tho other, Ulysses Mercur, a gentleman of Jewish descent, more recently became the Rep resentative of this Congressional Dis trict in Congress. It will be our bu-l- ncss hereafter, though by no means a pleasure, to roview his Congressional record, and to discuss thoroughly his present claims to public favor in the canvass for re-election. These men, botli chief and subordinates, have a fixed prlnclplo of political management nnd conduct. They hold to tho doctrlno of Robert Walpole, that every man has his price, and that all results in politi cal tactics are to bo reached by some di rect action upon the selfish interests or passions of men. Passion is to bo In tlucnccd to tho highest pitch by contin ual agitation and popular appeals, and individuals aro to ho subsidized and controlled by the ollices and patronage 01 uovernment. 'ilia policy which hits grown out of these views has been both corruptly and scandalous. Subserviency has been rewarded and independence proscribed Whoever within thollmits of Bradford County would not "crook tho pregnant Hinges of tho knee" to tho Towanda power lias been excluded from all favor, nnu any aciivo cxniwtlon of indenen denco has been followed by act I vo per secution, in snort, tlio political eon- trol established in Bradford under these men has been both selfish and relentless, But what particularly concerns us is tho fact that tho attempt has been made to extend the Bradford policy to the Wlioio congressional District. Tho men south of Bradford, Columbia, Montour, Wyoming, nnd Huliivan were to bo sub Jected to tho samo system of coercion nnd corruption which had been found potent and successful la the north. No olllco was too obscure, and no Individ ual too discreet to escape tho notice and fitiimlion ol tlio Towanda power. Tho Inquiry which penetrated everywhere, and reaciieu every ease, wasi What is necessary to establish tho Inlluenco of tho master and insure tho subservlencv of the slave? Jlenco it became no'd- blo for a supple instrument hereto boast through his newspaper that there was Mit ouo Postmaster left within tho en tiro limits of Columbia County who was not opposed to Andrew Johnson nnd devoted to tho Radical Interest! pit'f It- Iwaino particularly ovldent that tlvo pren of tho district was to bo subsl rilzeri to tho objwit In vm'. The Post mastership at BlooninhijrK was assigned by Wilmot to Pnlomon John because ho controlled a small newspaper which might Influence political action in this u a county ; nnd after four years enjoyment of that office, tho recipient of favor was for tho samo reason transferred to tho more lucrative post of Assessor, nnd his assistant editor made to succeed him in his former office. These last changes required tho removal of an Assessor Who held tho placo but sixteen month, and whoseonly fault was tho wantof per fect submission to the Towanda power. In Montour County n Deputy Assessor- ship was bestowed to secure tho adher ence of tho Montour American. Finally, In Wyoming County, n sudden and Im proper removal at tho Tunkhannock i'ost-nfllco opened a placo to tho editor of the Wyoming Jtepublican, and se cured his fealty to, and continued his zeal for, his masters. But this selfish, aggressive, and intol erant power reached Its utmost limit of triumph In tho removal of Monroe in October, 1SG5, nnd In the subsequent appointment of William Burgess at Tutikhnnnock. Tho Bradford despot ism Is broken. It win no longer strut insolently upon tho scene nnd perforin Its pleasure. Tlio master and his men are not only known but are powerless for extensive evil. Their day of doom ap proaches, when the righteous Judgment of tho people will tako from them alto gether and forever tho power nnd Inllu enco which they hnvo abused. BIiOOMSBURO POST-OFFICE. We havo the pleasure of announcing that John B. Pursel has been appointed by tho Postmaster-General to bo Post master at Bloomsburg, In placo of Daniel A. Beckley removed. Mr. Pursel Is a firm Union man nnd a supporter of tho President, and his ap pointment will bo highly satisfactory in this community. He had strong recom mendations for tho placo when P. John was appointed some years ago; and again, when Hockley was appointed, n decided majority of tho citizens inter ested in the olllco sjgned petitions In his favor. The wrong then committed In Hockley's appointment is now corrected. The lato incumbent can havo but lit tle sympathy from nny quarter in tho matter of ills removal. He obtained the situation against the voice of tho peo ple concerned simply because of his association with P. John and willing ness to borvo tho Radical Bradford poli ticians who then controlled appoint ments. He lias acted with great folly and impropriety in ills oflice. Ho has made It a habit to show tho President's portrait, and propose, in a jeering man ner, to sell It cheap, or sell it at half- price, with other remarks expressive of disrespect and antipathy. We need hardly add, after this statement, that he is a Radical Disuniouist of tho worst type, and has used his oflice freely for circulating Radical newspapers and documents. Recently tho editor of this journal was treated rudely by him upon mak ing a just complaint at the ofllco that packages of tho Comj.miiia.v were nils- cut through the malls; and afterward he published a malicious article in tlio Hepublican intended to injure us in our private business. It has been tho opinion of Union men interested in the ofllco that their mail-matter has been subjected to im proper inspection and espionage, and facts only known at tho oflice officially have been bruited to tho public through tho Republican, whoso editor has had free access at all times to the boxes in the oflice. For instance, when upon one occasion tho editor of tho lato Columbia Democrat quietly mailed a copy of his paper to the President, tho lact was forthwith announced, with a llourish of impertinence, In tho Radical organ. Tlio lato Postmaster was a new man in tho town when selected, and thopref erence given him over a citizen of long standing and respectable character, was peculiarly objectionable nnd odious for that reason. Tho Post-office will bo located at a very convenient point In tho town, and good accommodations will bo provided lor serving tlio public. A COMMUNICATION. To the muor of the Columbian : Foit onco tho Republican tells the mini, m speaking of the Democrat and Mar in its issuo of last week, saying the reason tho Democrat ami Star fight with tho Columiiia.v, Is on account of patronage, and not on account of prin ciples, but for policy. This must bo apparent to any observer. Tho Coi.um niAN Is not abusing any person or party on account of principle. It does what every party should do at tho present time support tho hands of tho Admin- Istration, and endeavor to heal the breach made and that now exists be tween tho people. If wo only had moro imncrs nf tim same Kind it would bo well for us. It Is high tlmo that Radicalism should bo stopped, and that wo should act as friends, not as enemies. Tho time for bitter hostilities should bo over, and an imosity and jealousy bo banished for ever. But this is not tho caso ; tho edi tors of the Democrat awl Star seem to cherish that within their strongly, and foster it as an idol. What is more cowardly, more degrading than tho two last named propensities ! They lly on wings of wind, sjnriinr their inl. sonous darts Into overy circle, and seem ing to gloat over It. Will.this produce a revolution of feeling' Yes, assuredly; but only burning, unquenchable ha tred. Wo should havo tho irood of the wholo country before us. mid nut imrK- faction and strife. And if tho editors of tho Democrat ami Star were to adhere to good old Democratic iirliicliilcs. tlmv could endorso tho principles of tho Coi,- U.MIUA.V, in so lar as it adheres to tho Constitution as made by our fathers. It is clearly to bo seen, in tho article 11 A word to our Democratic Friends," that mercenary and parsimonious n... lugs nro prompting tho writing of such an artlclo, not principle. Tills is ouo very sure means for thoso respected mi. Iters to lose patronage instead of gain ing it, ana ot receiving contempt and scorn beside; If they keep iv llttlo easier as regards tlio "basiarti concern," as thoy term It, they will havo no cause to fear for their patronage. If a paper Is properly conducted, nnd well oxocu ted, It will recol vo patronage sufficient for a reasonable support. Will not this suf fice? Or Is their motto only "T.ikocaro of number ouo," or two. Rest easy, there will bo enough for both, without the sacrlfico of principles. An Onsi:uvi:n. THE PHILADELPHIA CONVEN TION. I'HII.AIIKI.I'IIIA, August 15. 1801. Titr. great National Union Conven tion which began yesterday is a success In regard to numbers and tho spirit manifested, and It has shown prudence in its proceedings. It will long bo re membered as very interesting by mem bers and spectators. There Is great har mony and good-will among all concern ed, nnd every one appears to bo actua ted by patriotism and a regard for pub lie welfare. The speech of General Dix yesterday was listened to with deep interest, and was well received. Ho Is a fine speaker, with a pleasant address, and in listening to him every ono thought of his patriotic and distinguished service during the war. Senator Doolittle, of Wisconsin, made a good speech to-day on taking tho chair as permanent President of tho Conven tion, ills voice is very powerful, and ho speaks with much forco of argument. The audience were pleased to hear him during the day repeat and apply to this tlmo Mr. Lincoln's saying, " That peace had to mo and come to stay," and the Southern men nppcarcd to endorse this sentiment as heartily as men of the North. The people present In tho enormous building 1 heard estimated at ten thous and, nnd many were unable to obtain admission, and were compelled to go away or remain outside. The Conven tion Is tlio great subject of Interest and conversation in the city, nnd a great deal of good is expected to result from It throughout tho country. This Convention is tho first meeting of men from all sections of tho country since tho year 1SG0, and it is a good sign of the future. Men who havo property aro not to have it wasted by war, and general prosperity Is not to bo sacrificed to soctlonnl passion and hatred. It is likely that tho Convention will conclude its business to-morrow, when resolutions and an address will be re ported by Senator Cowan of the com mittee of which he is chairman. They will bo acceptable to fair and reasonable men everywhere, and make a platform upon which all conservative men who love their country can stand. J. k. u. REPORT PROM AN AGENT OF THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU. The Commissioner of tho Froedmcn'i) Bureau lias received an elaborate report from a Special Inspector who was charged with tho duty of investigating the reports of destitution received from Alabama and Georgia. This officer visited, in the course of ids inspection, Northern Alabama and Georgia, ami traveled incog., In order the better to reach the truth among all classes. After giving a detailed report in reference to each county visited, lie says his observa tions have convinced him that there has not been a single caso of starvation in either State ; that the amount of desti tution lias been largely exaggerated, nnd so located as to be out of the way of In vestigation. That although some desti tution exists, and has existed, it is not absolute, but consists mainly in confine ment to some ono or a few articles of food, of which, in nearly all cases, thero has been a sufficiency, ami that it had been ascribablo in great part to tho idle ness of tlio people ; that tho issuo of rations, as at present conducted, is pro ducing great demoralization and idleness among tho people, and that so long ns It is continued tho apparent necessity for it will exist; that tho crops, though small, aro amply sufficient, with econo- liiy, to supply the peoplo with the neces saries of llfo till another crop is liar vested. PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S TASK. Tnu Anglo-American Time, publish ed in London, has an artlclo upon tho Memphis riots, which closes with tho following remarks : " Andrew Johnson has a gigantic task before him. Few of us can appreciate tlio enormous diffi culties with which lie has to contend. Pew of us can understand the means by which ho hopes to perform tho solemn promise lie there made. His measures may not nppcar to us directly to lead to such an object, nnd wo must not forget that tho children of Israel passed to their promised land through forty years of suffering in the desert, aud that their leader was only permitted to get a gliinpso of tho country which Provi dence had marked out for his followers. There aro those who bellevo that tho President' heart has failed him in the task; that ho has fallen off from tho stem resolve required for tho weary struggle. But wo do not bellevo tills. Wo beliovo Andrew Johnson to bo a patrlot-iWlth his heart fixed on tho grand object of reconstructing tho Union, of giving to tho South the law, peace, order, and equal rights of tho North. It Is no fault of his if slavery has so de graded a largo section of tho citizens he rules that nothing but years of patient legislation and strong government can elevnto tho lawless peoplo Into tholiich- est task of a civilized communitythat of governing Its own passions." Poim.AXp is now an active placo in spito of Its desolation. Preparations for rebuilding aro gotmr on viirornuslv. A single man is cinployinir nearlvn thous. and laborers In clearing away rubbish wiicro lio Is about to rcbu Id. and must oftiiostreets aro now passable. Thohoat, However, of tlio flro was so great that n very few of tho walls left btandlnir aro safe for use. UNION South Carolina and Massa chusetts Arm-in-Arm. Withdrawal of Mr, Olomont Vallandigham, L. Fornando Wood and nonry Doan Withdraw. Clay GENERAL JOHN A. DIX TEMPORARY PRESIDENT. cnnnnNTiAi, and ohoanization COMMITTKKS. Tlio Convention Proves? to bo u Grand SuooosJsi. SENATOR DOOLITTLE THE PERMANENT PRESIDENT. THE OPENING ADDEESS DELIV ERED BY GENERAL DIX. PHAYEn BY REV. M'DONALD. .T. N. FI11ST DAY't) I'UOCKr.DIMaS. Evkiiy hour of consultation has tend ed to harmony nnd cordial co-operation among tho members of tho Convention, and there is now every prospect that it will bo a splendid success, unimpaired by any essential differences of sentiment or action. On Monday Fernando Wood and Hen ry Clay Bean, whoso antecedents made them especially obnoxious to public opinion, withdrew their claim to seats in the Convention, aud Vallandigham alono remained obstinate. It was tho universal opinion that his presence would bo highly injurious and detri mental, and none Insisted upon his withdrawing more steadily and earnest ly than the Southern delegates, nnd the more considerate and Influential of his Democratic associates. He insisted per tinaciously upon his rights. Tho Ohio delegation discussed tho matter until a very lato hour, and hadcomo to tho con clusion, as had nearly every other dele gation, that ho must and should bo ex cluded in one way or another from participation in tho Convention. This morning ho applied to tho Chair man of tho delegation of Ohio for a ticket of admission to the Convention, and asked if ho was recognized as a del egate. After a protracted and stormy discussion on the question, a resolution was passed to the effect that tho delega tion recognized Mr. Vallandighnin as properly elected a member of their body, but asked him, under tho particular cir cumstances in which tho country Is now placed, to refrain from participation in the Convention. Upon receipt of this resolution, Vallandigham sent a letter to the delegation, saying that ho was glad to know that tho delegation recog nized his right to sit in tho Convention, but that lie gladly deferred to the Judg ment of long-tried friends, and there fore withdrew from thu delegation, leav ing his seat to his alternate. This letter is in the custody of tho Ohio delegation and will bo read to the Convention on Wednesday. General John A. I)ix, of New York,, being designated as temporary Chair man, came forward and delivered his pertinent and impressive address. To say that this address Was enthusiastical ly received, is to paint but feebly its re ception. Cheer after cheer interrupted tho sterling patriot during its delivery, and when ho sat down, tho whole Con vention testified their approbation by tumultuous applause. Then came a prayer by tho Rev. Mr. M' Donald, and on Its conclusion General Steeriman, of Ohio, moved a Committee of Thirteen on Credentials, but the time was not yet come for that, and so Sena tor Doolittlo begged tlio Indulgence of tho gentleman, and offered Ills resold tions, which were passed, when the or ganization was completed by tho np. pointment of the Secretaries. Montgomery Blair moved a Commit' too of ono from each delegation on Per inanent Organization, and tho Conven tion adjourned until Wednesday at twovo o'clock. It Is understood that tho New York- delegation selected by the Saratoga Con- volition is to be admitted into tho Con vention, to the exclusion of other claim ants. Hi:roxi day's ruocnnniNas. Tho temper displayed to-day both bv tho delegates and the largo assemblage outside, lining to repletion tho spacious galleries, was admirable. The composition of the Committeo on Besolutions will attract universal atten tion, embracing, as it docs, so many names of great weight in tho national affairs, Since the adjournment tho Com initteo havo had a protracted meeting, aim nave thus far encountered noobsta cles. Four or flvo sets of resolutions havo been submitted for tho considera tion of tho Committee, ono of thesi be ing from tho South nnd presented by tho .Mississippi delegation, Judge Sharkov being the author. Tho members of the Committeo anticipate no difficulty In coming to an agreement, and believed they would bo able to present their re port on Thursday at ten o'clock, to which timo tlio convention had ad journed. Tho Chairman announced a telegraph ic dispatch from President Johnson, and directed tnoSecretnry to read It. The announcement was tho signal for tlio wlioio Convention and the greater part of tho spectators to rise to their feet and cheer vehemently for Andrew John son. After tho applause had subsided tho dispatch was read as follows : Waxiii.niuo.v, I). (!., Annus! II, iNifl. Zli lion. O. , llnienlna anil lion, .(, If. Itumlnll, KiUiunal Union Omventlon, I'illaiMjMa ; I Chunk you for your rlieorlnuiiiiil imeoiirnclni. i!lp.ilili. Tho flngcr of rrovMunro In uucrrliiK, iiml will eulilo yim saivij- tumuKli, Tlio nuimlo iuui no inistmi mill tlio i-onntry will lo roMorpil, My f-iltli U imsU.iki-11 iu to tlio ultlmitln miccvss. Axniiew Jout.ox, THE NATIONAL CONVENTION. I.KTTUIl I'ltOM JUDGE U. II. CU11TI8. Hon. O. Jf. Drowning, Washington t Diiaii Silt, I thank you for sending mo a copy of the call for tho NntlO ml Convention, to bo held in Philadelphia on tho fourteenth day of August next. In tho present unhappy condition of our national affairs It seems to mo fit and important that delegates of tho peoplo should conio together from all parts of our country to manifest, In an authentic and convincing way, tho ad hesion of their constituents to tlio fund amental principles of our Government, and to that policy and courso of action which necessarily result from them. In my Judgment tlio propositions contain ed In tlio call of the Convention aro con sistent with those principles nnd that policy. The nature of our Government does not penult the United States to destroy a State, or acquire Its territory by con quest. Neither does It permit the peoplo of a State to destroy tho State, or lawfully affect, in any way, any one of its rela tions to tho United States. Ono Is as consistent with our Constitution as the other j while that Constitution remains operative each Is impossible. But the Government of tho United States may, and must, In tho dischargo of constitutional duty, subdue by arms any number of its rebellious citizens into quiet submission to its lawful authority. And if theofficersof aStato, having tho actual control of its govern ment, havo disobeyed tlio requirement to swear to support the Constitution, and have abused the power of the State by making war on tho United States, this presents tho caso of nn usurping and unlawful government of a State, which the United States may rightfully destroy by forco; for, undoubtedly, thu provision of the Constitution that " tho United States shall guaranteo to every State in this Wiioin Republican form of government" must mean a Itepublican form of government in harmony with the Constitution, and which Is so organ ized as to bo in this Union. But neither the power and duty of the Government of tho United States tosub due by arms rebellious people in tlio territorial limits of ono or more States, nor its power and duty to destroy an usurping government de facto, can pos sibly authorlzo tho United States to de stroy one of tho States of the Union, or, what must amount to tho same thing, to acquire that absolute right over its people and Its territory which results from conquest in foreign war. There aro only two alternatives; one is that in subduing rebellion tho United States act rightfully within the limits of powers conferred by tho Constitution ; the other is that they make war on a part of their own people because it is the will of those who control tho Government for tho time being to do so, and forsueh objects as they may choose to attain. The last of these alternatives lias not been asserted by either department of tho Government of the United States at any time, and I doubt if any consider able number of persons can bo found to sanction it. But if the first alternative bo adopted, It follows that the Constitution which authorized the war prescribed the ob jects which can nlono rightfully bo ac complished by It; and those objectsare, not tho destruction of ono or moro States, but their preservation ; not tho destruc tion of government in a State, but the restoration of its government to a repub lican form In harmony with theConstltu tion ; not the acquisition of the territory of a State, and of that absolute control over tho persons and property of its peo ple which a foreign conqueror would pos sess, but their submission to tho Consti tution and laws of tho United States. Hut It seems to mo a great and funda mental error to confound tho caso of tho conquest of a foreign territory aud peoplo with the caso of submission to n lawful and established constitutional government, enforced through the pow ers conferred on that government for that specific purpose. It is quite true that such a civil con test may have, and In our country has had, tho proportions of an actual war, and that humanity and public law unite in dictating the application of rules de signed to mitigate Its evils and regulato the conditions upon which it should be carried on. But those rules of public law which concern the rights aud power of a con queror of foreign territory, reduced by conquest to entire submission, havo no relation to thoactivo prosecution of war. Ilieir operation begins when war has ended in submission. Thoy are tho laws of a State of peace, and not of a state of war. 'io suppose that tho Government of tho United States can, in a state of peace, rightfully hold aud exercise ab solute and unlimited power over a part ol its territory aud people just so long as It may chooso to do so appears to mo to Do unwarranted by any rules of pub lie law, abhorrent to right reason, and i i .i . ... iiicoiisisieni wiin tno nature of our uovernment. "When war has ceased, when tho au thority of the Constitution and laws of tlio United States has been restored and established, tho United States are in possession, not under iv now title, as con querors, but under their old title, as tho lawful government of tho country and that title has been vindicated, not by the destruction of ono or more States, but by their preservation: nnd fliU preservation can bo worked out practi cally oniy ny tlio restoration of repub lican governments organized In har mony with tho Constitution. Tho tltlo of a conqueror Is necessarily Inconsistent with a republican govern ment, which can bo formed only by tho peoplo themselves, to express and oxo- cuto their will. And If tho preservation of tho States within tho Union was onoof theoblects of tho war, and they can bo preserved only by having republican governments organized in harmony with tho Const! tution, and such governments can be organized only by tho peoplo of thoso States, then manifestly It Is not only the right) but the constitutional duty, of tho peoplo of those States to organlzo such governments; and tho Govern ment of tho United States can havo no rightful authority to prohibit their or ganisation. But this right and duty of tho people of the several States can only begin when war has ceased, and tho nuthorltyof tlio Constitution nnd laws of the United States has been restored and established ; and, frotil tho nature of tho i'osCi tlio Government of the United Stales must determine When that tlmo has come. It Is a question of great Interest, cer tainly, but not, I think, of great diffi culty, how and by whom tho Govern ment of the United States should deter mine when that time has come. Tho question whether dc facto govern ments and hostile populations hnvo been completely subdued by nrms, and tho lawful authority of tho United States restored and established, Is a military nnd executive question. It does not re quire legislative action to ascertain the necessary facts ; and, from tho nature of thecase, leglslntlvooctlon cannot change or materially aifect them. As com-ninnder-iii-clilef of the army nnd navy, nnd ns the chief executive officer, whoso constitutional duty it is to see that tho laws aro faithfully executed, it Is the official duty of the President to know whether a rebellion has been suppress ed, and whether tho authority of tho Constitution nnd laws of tho United States has been completely restored and firmly established. Tho mere organization of a republican government, in harmony with the Union, by thcpeopleof onoof the exist ing States of tho United States, requires no enabling net of Congress, and I can find no authority in tho Constitution for any interference by Congress to prohibit or regulate tho organization of such government by thcpeopleof an existing State in tho Union. On the other hand, It is clearly necessary that the President should act, so far, at least, as to remove out of tho way military restrictions on the power of tlio people to assemble and do those acts which aro necessary to reorganize their government. This, I think, ho was bound to do as soon as he became satisfied that tho right tlmo had come. After much reflection, and witli no such partiality for executive power as would bo likely to lead mo astray, I have formed the opinion that tho South ern States aro now as rightfully, and should bo as effectually In the Union ns they were before the madness of their people attempted to carry them out of It; and in this opinion I bellove a ma jority of the people of tho Northern States agree. Tho work tho peoplo aro wal tl ng to have done this Convention may greatly help. If it will elevate itself nbovo sectional passions, ignore all party schemes, de- spiso tho sordid nnd party scramble for offices, and fairly represent tho national instinct that the timo now is when com plete union of all the States is a fact which it is a crime not to accomplish, Its action cannot fail to bo beneficial to our country. The passions generated in a great and divided people by long and bloody civil war are deepand formidable. They are not confined to one section ; tho victors as well as tho vanquished aro swayed by them. Thoy connect themselves with tho purest and tenderest sensibili ties of our nature; with our love of country; with our love of thoo who have laid down their lives in tho con test; with the sufferings which war, in multiplied forms, nlways brings to tho homes of men, and still more to tho homes of women, and which civil war, most of all, brings to the homes of all ; and theso passions aro tho sharp and ready tools or party spirit, of self-interest, of 1'EiivniiHiTY, and, most of all. of that fierce Infatuation which finds its best satisfaction in hatred, and Its only enjoyment in revenge. No statesman who is acquainted with the nature of man nnd the necessities of civil government can contemplnto such passions without tho deepest concern, or fail to do what ho fitly may to allay them. Hard enough tho work will prove to be, at the best. But n scrupu lous regard for tho rights of all aud a magnaulnious clemency nro twlco bless ed; they both elevate and soften the powerful, nnd they reach and subduo what laws and bayonets cannot control. I bellevo there is now a general con viction among tlio people that this great and difficult work is practicable. That It will long remain so, if tho present stato of things eon tiuues, I havo not the hardihood to trust. I look to this Con vention with hopo that It will do much to help onward this Instinctive desire of tho peoplo of tho United States for union and harmony and peaco; that it will assert, strongly aud clearly, thoso prin ciples which are tho foundations of our Government; that it will exhibit tho connection between their violation and tho present distracted condition of our country ; that it will rebuke the violence or party spirit, and (specially of that spirit of hatred which Is as Inconsistent with tho truolovo our country as It is with tho truolovo of our brethren; and that it will do much to eonvlnco the peoplo of tho United States that thov must act soon, and in tho wisest way. or siiiiuruviis wmcn tneyand their pos terity will long deplore. "With great respect, I am your obedient servnnt, b. , Cuuns Tin: recent general order Issued by i I-. . . . . uuni-nii urum, requiring department commanders to forward copies of such now-spapcrs within their respective com- mauds as contained sentiments or rife. loyalty nnd hostility to tho Government In any of Its branches, with a view to their suppression, has been revoked. unxint.u, Hi'iNxini. United States Treasurer, lias decided that tho only protection to tho owner against tho pay. incut of u bond or heven-thirtv nntn that may havo been stolen Is by enter ing a caveat at tho olllco of tho Secre tary of tho Treasury. GENERAL PjtESB DISPATCHES , Sinch my dispatch of a few days ago, the programme for tho Presidential trip to Chicago has been altered by omitting Saratoga from the list of stopping placesi The railroad tlnie-tablo for tho trill iw now arranged takes the party from tllli city In the half-past soven morning tritln on Tuesday, August twenty-eighth, at riving at Philadelphia at half past ono o'clock r.M. Tho party remain In that city until eight o'clock tho nextmorii' tug, Wednesday, when they leave for New York, arriving at tho latter placo at noon Thursday, August thirteenth. Leave New York via Hudson BlVef steamer In tho morning, and nrrlvo at Albany in tho evening. Friday, August thlrty-Ilrst, leave Albany in tho morn ing for Auburn r Schenectady, Utlca, and Syracuse. Saturday, September first, leave Auburn for Niagara Falls via Geiieva,Canandnigiia, Rochester) Broek port, Albion, and Lockport, Remain at Niagara Falls Sunday, and lcavo there Monday morning, September third, M Bull'alo, where they halt for three houtrtj and then proceed to Cleveland via Krio and Dunkirk, arrlvlngatClcs'eland In tho evening. Tuesday, September fourth, lcavo Cleveland in tho morning for Detroit ri'ri Toledo and Monroevllle, stopping threchoursat Toledo. Wednes day, September fifth, leave Detroit W Ami Harbor, Jackson, Marshall, Kala mazoo, aud Michigan City, and arriving at Chicago at about eight o'clock in tlio evening. Mr. Seward Is tho only mem ber of tho Cabinet that has positively arranged to nceompauy tho President ; but there Is a probability that Postmaster-General llandall and Secretary M'Culloch may bo or tho company. Tho magnificent passenger car built rorIr. Lincoln Is to convey tho Presidential party through the trip. How long Mr. Johnson will remain in Chicago is not determined, but not over two days prob ably. Ho has been urged to visit Madi son, Wisconsin, after he gets through at Chicago, and he will no doubt accept tho invitation. Returning to Washington, it is understood, tho President will conio via luritnnopolis, Cincinnati, Columbus, and Pittsburg. It Is also understood that on the trip from New York to Albany the party will stop ot West Point, where there will be a military re view and u collation served up. General M'Callum, who formerly had charge of the military railroads, Is to 'have tho conduct ot the transportation, and H. A. Chadwlck, Esq., or Willard's Hotel, Is to take charge or the provisioning and quartering or the party along the route. Tho ladies or the White Houso and or Mr. Seward's family aro to bo of tho company. Official information was received at the State Department on Inst Saturday of the Inauguration of the State Govern ment or Texas. Kx - Postmaster - General Dcnnison'B letter to certain citizens ot Albany, in defence of Congress, occasions surprise here among those who had conversations with Mr. Dcnnlson just prior to his withdrawal from the Cabinet. His ex traordinary revolution in opinion and estimate of the President's policy as ex pressed In his letter, are difficult to rec oncile with his verbal expressions of po litical opinion. We get tho news from Ohio that Mr. Dcnnlson Is an opponent of Mr. Wade for tho position orSenator from that State at the expiration of tho present term of Mr. Wade. A new navy register has just been Is sued containing the various promotions which have occurred through tho action or Congress and otherwise sinco tho be ginning of the present year. General Spinner, United States Treas urer, has decided that the only protec tion to tho owner against the payment of a bond or seven-thirty note that may havo been stolen is by entering a caveat at the office of tho Secretary or tho Treas ury. Coupons are as negotiable at all times as a bank note, and will bo paid In tho hands or a third party and bona fidn holders, even in tho case where it Is known that they have been stolen. The General Land Olllco has issued iirtcen patents for California Ranches, being private land claims, varying from eight to twenty-seven thousand acres. By an act of Mexico grants of land were given to settlers In her uninhabited counties as largo ns they choso to an- piy mr. rsuusequentiy, in Wl, theso grants were restricted to twenty-four and forty-eight thousand acres. Tlio ceding of California, New Mexico, and Texas to tho United States transferred these patents to our Government; but by act of Congress In 18'S no ono paten tee was allowed to hold moro than forty-eight thousand acres, that being Intended by the act of Mexico (if lRiM. The largest ranclio deeded by tho United States Is that or General John A. Slitters, tho discoverer and informer of Califo ruin gold. Ho has forty-elght thousand eight hundred and thlrty-nlno acres at New Helvetia, California. Snmn nf !. largest claims which aro now being acted upon In tho Umd Olllco aro M. R. A. Do Poll, San Buenaventura, California, for ono hundred and forty four thousand eight hundred und sev enty and twenty-four ono huiidrcth acres. M. Tourl, New Mexico, ouo hun dred and twenty-ono thousand and flvo hundred nnd ninety-four nud fifty-three onejhundreth acres ;Siml,CallforiiIn,ono hundred and thirteen thousnnd and nlno and twenty-ono ono hundredth acres; Jacoba Feliz, San Francisco, California, ono hundred and two thousand and twonty-nvo nnd tweuty-Uvo ono hun dredth acres, v All donation claims on Washington Territory reported for patent havo been granted, excepting a few which nro sus pended for causes pointed out by tho Register nnd Receiver at the local hind olllcw. Those arc, however, in courso of correction. A similar reportis mario for Oregon, AVhat cases nro now mnnrl. ed from Oregon City and Roseburg are now being arranged. Gii.vkhal OllANT has been Invited fo deliver tho address at tho AVfsmnsln Stato Fair, in Jauesvllle, In September.