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I VNi' t V -if V I Oil) v Ml(i) - AN INDEPENDENT JOURNAL, j, H riMLmlriu eyehV tUTfnii.vv, im jjllloom'lmrtf, t'nliliiltiln Count)-, In. MM T!;UM'. 'iTwo Dollnri n yenr, In ciclvmico. If not M In iiJvSncc, Two pollnrs nwl I'lfl' Ccuti. lilurins nil letters to Sk cieoikii: ii. Mooiti:, IMIIor of Hip (.'oi.fMlit.vv, ltloniiHburi;( Columbia County, l'n, VOL. T.-XO. 17. ttLOCfllSMJIlG, SATURDAY, AUGUST 25, I860. I'll I OH FiVH CENTS. mm of gdwrlising. imp Wttnro. oti of tfirN Ifi-Tllon., , $1 50 Marti nnlmfinrnt IhMtiit.n low tlian tlilrtit'ii, )neH)Uuri!oii inoutli 2 M i wo " ' It ) Tin " " ft W I'our " " i (I W llnlf column " ...... 10 00 One column " ..... . 13 CI Kxecutor'n nnd Ad(nlnl-trtor' Notice 3 00 Auditor Not I'm 2 M I-'dltorlnl Not low twenty criits pr line, Otlirrnilvrrll-cmcmts Itwttut iircorillnglors cliileoiitnict. UNION RES TORATION AND PEACE ADDRESS OF THE NATIONAL UNION CONVENTION. THE I'OXVKNTION'S MmUATlOX 1 OF l'ltlM-ll'liltt. The Grandest Platform on Political Record. iFfDFiCLAUKS SLAVISH V A150L- m ISliKI). i -r- a r- s- rs-r- rx -t-i I r- ii;i uur i o i nt NATIONAL DEBT. 1IT 1110 VIDKS FOll TUB SOLDIERS' ORPHANS. Jt... XL f .J KXDOIISKS P1JF.SL- DJCNT -IOIINSON. to tiii: itjiim.k op nti: i'Niii:n hi'wt.s. t 1 1 .Wl Nt! met in Convention, at Hip tff'itv of Philadelphia, in the Stitlc of ,lPonnsvivnnin, this sixteenth tiny ol' August, isiiti, as tin1 representatives of tho people in till sections, and from till L the States mitt Territories nf Hie L'nion, to consult upon tint condition untl the wants of our coniiiion country, we wi ld ress to you thlsPeelaratlnn of our Prin ciples, and of the political purposes we seek to promote. Since the mootingof the last National . Convention, in the year l.Vitl, events have occurred which have changed the v character of our internal polities, am v; given the I'nitcil States a new place union'' the nations of the earth. Our ' Ciovernniont has passed through tin ' vicissitudes and the perils of civil war a war which, though inainly sectional ' in its character, has, nevertheless, do " eided political (inferences that I'roni the very beginning of the (iovernnient liail ' threatened the unity of our national ex igence, and has left its impress deci) and ineiraeeahle upon all the interests, the seiiliinents, and the destiny of the Kepuhlie. While it has. inflicted upon i tlie whole country severe losses in life, ami in property, and has imposed bur - dens which niiiU weigh on its iv.our- ces for generations to ct mo, it has dovol '. oped a decree of national c iiirago in the presence of national dangers a capacity for military organization and achieve ment, and a devotion on Hie part of the people to the form of government which tliev have ordained, and to the princi ples of liberty which that government was designed to promote, which mu-t confirm the confidence of the nation in the perpetuity of its republican institu tions, and command the respect of the civilized world. Like all great contents which rouse the passions and test the endurance of nations, this war has given new scope to the ambition of political parties, and i fresh Impulse to plans of Innovation and reform. Amid the chaos of coullieting '(. sentiments in.-eparablo from suchnn era ; v while the public heart is keenly alive to nil the paions that can sway the public judgment and allect the public action ; while the wounds of war are still fre-h and bleeding on either Ide, and fear for tlie future take unjii-t proportion from the memories and resentments of the, past, it is a dillicult but an impera tive duty which, on your behalf, we, who are here as.-enibled, have under taken to perform. , ,' For the first time after six long yearn of alienation and of conflict, we have ,J" como together from every State and every section of our laud, tw citizen-, of ' ' ti common country, under that Hag, the ' symbol again of a conmiun glory, to con-tilt together how best to cement and x perpetuate, that l'nion which Is again ' the object of our common love, and thus .secure the blessings of liberty to our selves and our po-terity. i I. In the llr.-t place, we Invoke you to remember always and everywhere, that the war Is ended and tho nation is again lit peace. The shock of coiitendlngarnis no longer a-salls the shuddering heart of the Republic. The in.iiirrectlon against the supreme authority of the nation ha been suppre ed, and that authority has been again acknowledged, by word and act, in every Statu and by every citien within Its Jurisdiction. eare no Ion or required or permitted to regard or treat each other as enemies. Not only have tho acts of war been discontinued, mid Hie weapons of war laid aside, but tliestato of war no longer exl-ls,iind the sentiments, the paions, tho relations of war have no longer lawful or right fill place anywhere, throughout our broad domain. o are again peoplo of the united Slates, lellow-cltlzens ol one country, bound by tho duties and obli gallons of a common patriotism, and having neither rights nor Interests apart from a common dc-tlny. I lie dutle that devolve upon in now are again the duties of peace, and no longer tne duties of war. Wo luivo a -enibled here take counsel concerning the intere.-h of peace to decide how wo may nio- wluly and eU'ectually heal tho wound tho war has iniide, and perfect ami v.uriHHu.Ue, tho benullts It, has secur ed, and the blessings which, uudtir w!ki and benign I'rovldeive, hav 'lining up In it I Wry track. This is the work, not of passion, but of calm anil sober Judgment, not of resentment for past ollences prolonged beyond tbellinlfs which Justice and reason prescribe, but of a liberal statesmanship which toler ates what it cannot prevent, and builds its plans and Its hopes for the future rather upon n community of Interest and ambition than upon distrust and the' weapons of force. II. In the next place, we call upon you to recognize In their full significance, and to accept with all their legitimate oii-eqiicncos, the political results ol the war just closed. In two mo-t Import ant particulars the victory achieved by the National Government has been llnal tint dccMve. I'ii'nl. It has established beyond all further controversy, anil by the highest of all htinihli sanctions, the nb-olute supremacy of the National iov- rninent, as dellned and limited by the Constitution of the I'nited States, and the permanent Integrity and indis-olii- illity ofliie Federal I n ion as a necessary on-equence j ami, chii.i, it lias pin an end llnally and forever lo the existence of slavery upon the soil or within the urisdiction of the Cnit ed States, Itoth these points became directly Involved in the contest, and controversy upon both was ended ab-olutely and finally by the result. III. In the third place, we deem it of theutmo-t importance that the real char- icter of the w annul the victory by which it was clncd should be accurately under stood. Tlie war was carried on by the (iovernnient ofHiernitedStntesin main tenance of its own authority and in de- fenceof its own existence, both of which were menaced by the insurrection which it sought to suppress, Tlie suppression of that in-urreclion acconipli-hed that result. The Government of the I'nited States maintained by force ol arms the supreme authority over all the territory, and over all the States and people with in its jurisdiction, which the Constitu tion confers upon it; but it acquired thereby no new power, no enlarged Ju risdiction, no rights either of territorial possfs.-ion or of civil authority which it did not pos-iss before the lt"bell!on broke out. All the rightful power it can ever possess is that which is confer red upon it, either in express terms or by fairand nece ary implication, by the Constitution of the I'nited States. It was that power and that authority which the Rebellion sought to overthrow, and the victory of the Federal aruu was simply the defeat of that attempt. The (iovernnient of the I'nited States acted throughout the war on tliedefensive. It sought only lo hold po-.-c.-ion of what was already its own. Neither the war, nor the victory by which it was closed, changed in any way the Constitution of the I'nited Slates. The war was carried on bv virtue of its urovi-ioii-, and un der tlie limitations which they prescribe; and the result of the war did not either enlarge, abridge, or in any way change orab'ect the powers it colliers upon the Federal Government, or relca-e that' (iovernnient from tlie restrictions which it has imposed. The Coii-titution of the United States is to-day precisely as it was before the war, the "supreme law of the land, any thing in (lie Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding;" and to-day also, precisely as before the war," all the powers not conferred by the Constitution upon tlie General Govern ment, nor prohibited by it to the State-, are reserved to the several States, or to the people thereof." This position is vindicated not only by the essential nature of our (iovern nient, anil the language and spirit of the Constitution, but by all the acts and the tnguugu ol our iiovcriiiiitui, m an us enforced nt the present lime. Nor does and the validity of the Uoverninent it- It Hud any support In the theory that self i iirotint in qucsiion. i.m uu- thu States thus excluded are in rebel-: gross at tne present moineoi imn e.x lion against the Government, ami are I eludes from representation, ' I'oth therefore prceludiil from sharing Its nit- brandies oi i ongrcss, iuii mines m me lartmeiits, and at all times from the mtbroak of the Rebellion to its llnal overthrow. 1 u every me.-sage and proc lamation of the Fxecutive it was implic itly declared that tho sole oljeit and . power, in theadmlnistralioii of govern- thoilty. They are not thus in rebellion. Tliev are one and all In an attitude of loyalty toward tho Government, and of sworn allegiance to the Constitution of the Cnlted States. In no one ol' them Is there tho slightest Indication of resist ance to tills authority, or the slightest protest against Its Just and binding ob ligation. This condition of renewed loyalty has been otUciaily recognized by solemn proclamation of the Kxecttttvo Department. The laws of Hie Failed States have been extended by Congress over all these States and the people thereof. Federal courts lime been re opened, and Federal taxes liiipo-cd and levied. And in every respect, except that they are denied representation in Congrc.-s anil the Klcctoral College, tho States once in rebellion are recognized as holding the same position, as owing tlie same obligations, and subject to the same duties as the other States of our common Fnlon. Jt seems to us, in tlie exoivNo of the calnie-t and mo-t candid Judgment we can bring to the stibjecl, that such a claim, so enforced, Involves as fatal an overthrow of tho authority of the Con stitution, and as complete a destruction of the ( iovernnient and l'nion, a-that which was sought to be ell'ected by the States and people in armed Insurrection against them both. Jt cannot escape observation that the power thus assort ed to exclude certain Slates from repre sentation is made to rest wholly in the will and discretion of the Congress that as-erts it. It i not made to depend upon anyspoeilled conditions or circum stances, nor to besubioct to any rules or regulations whatever. The right assert ed and oxerci. ed Is absolute, without qualification or restriction, not confined to Stales in rebellion, nor to Stales that have rebelled ; it is the right of any Con- gre-s, in lormai pos-e.-.-ionoi legi-niuve authority, looxcludeany Statoor States, and any portion of the people thereof, at any time, from representation In Congiv.-s and in the Klectoral College, at its own discretion, and until they shall perform such acts and comply with such conditions as it may dictate. Ob viously, Hie reasons for such exclusion la ing wholly within the discretion of Congress, may change as Congress itsilf shall change. One Congress may ex clude a Vitato from all .-bares in the (iovernnient for one reason, and, that rea-on removed, the next Congress may exclude it for another. One Slate may bo excluded on one ground to-day, and another may be excluded on the oppo-itu ground to-morrow. Northern ascendancy may exclude Southern States from one Congress; the a-iendancy of Western or of Southern yitcri.-ts, or of both combined, may exclude the North ern or the Fa-torn States from the next. Improbable as such usurpations may seem, the establishment of the principle now a ertoil and aciou upon y con gress will render ihcni by no means ini ioIble. The character, indeed the very existence of Congress and the l'nion, is thus made dependent solely and entirely upon the party and sectional exigencies or forbearance of the hour. Wo need not stop lo show that such an action not only finds no warrant in the Constitution, but is at war witli every principle of ourGovo . anient, and with Hie very oxi-tence of free institu tions. It I-, indeed, the identical prac tice which ha- rendered lrultloss all at tempts hithi rto to o-tabli-h and main tain free (iovernnient in Mexico and the States of South America. Party neces sities a-scrt thoni-elvos a- superior to the fundamental law, which i- set a-Ide in reckle-s obedience to their behests. Stability, whether in the o.crci-e of Fnlon. dcnvliiL' them all share In the enactment of laws by which they are to be governed, and all paitlclpaflon In the election of thcrulunf by whom tho-e laws are to be enforced. In other words, a Congress in which only twenty-six State- are represented assorts tlie right to govern; absolutely and In its own dis cretion, all the thlrly-stx State," which compo-e the Fnlon to make their laws and choo-e their rulers, and to exclude the ofher ten from all share In their own Government until It sees tit to ail- mlt tbeiii thereto. What Is there lo di-tiiv'iiish the nower thus asserted and I'voicised from the most absolute and Intolerable tyranny? IV. Nor do these extravagant and un-jtt-t claims on the part of Congress to powers and authority never conferred upon the Government by the Constitu tion find any warrant in tlie arguments! nr evc'iises uri'od on their behalf. It Is That these States, by the act of rebellion and by voluntarily withdraw ing their members, from Congress, for feited their rigid of representation, and that they can only receive it again at the hands of the supremo legislative authority of the (iovernnient, on its own terms and at its own tn-crouou. ji representation in Congress nnd partici natioii in the Government wore -imply amendment of the Constitution Ithiir, nnd such amendment can bo made only In the modes which the Constitution It self proscribes. Tho claim that tho sup pression of an insurrection ngalnst the Government gives additional authority and power to that Government, espe cially that It enlarges tho Jurisdiction of Congress and glved that, body the right to exclude States from representation in the national councils, without which the nation Itself can have no authority and no existence, seems to us at variance alike with the principles of the Constl tution nml with tho public safety. ThtnL Hut It Is alleged that in certain particulars thoCotistittition of the Fni led States fails to secure the .absolute Justice and impartial equality which tho principles of our Government n: quire; that It wa-i In these respects the result of compromises and concessions to which, however necessary when tlie Constitution was formed, we are no longer compelled to submit, and that now, having the power through success ful war and just warrant for Its exercise In the hostile conduct of tlie insurgent section, the actual Government of tho Fnited States may impo-o Its own con ditions, and make the Constitution con form in all Its provisions to its own ideas of equality and tlie rights of man. Con grossat its last section propo-ed amend ments to the Constitution, enlarging in some very Important particulars the authority of the General Government apprehension or nn unjust perversion of existing facts. Wo do not hesitate, to nfllrm thai there is nn section of the country whero the Constitution and laws of the United Slates find a more prompt anil cntho obedience than In those States and among those, peoplo who wero lately in arms against thctn; or where there is less purpose or danger of any future at tempt to overthrow their authority. It would seem to bo both natural and In evitable that, in States and sections so recently swept by the whirlwind of war, where all the ordinary modes and methods of organized Industry have been broken up, and tho bonds nnd In fluences that guarantee social order have been destroyed where thousands and tens of thousands of turbulent spirits have been suddenly loo-eucd from the discipline of war, and thrown without resources or restraint upon a disorgan ized and chaotic society, and where the keen ollso, of defeat is added to the overthrow of ambition and hope, scenes of violence should defy for aflnio the Imperfect discipline of law, and excite anew the foara and forebodings of tho patriotic and well disposed. It Is un questionably true that social disturban ces of this kind, accompanied by more or loss of violence, do still occur. Rut they are confined entirely to the cities and larger towns of the Southern States, where different races and interests are brought most closely in contact, and over that of tho several States, and re- where passions and resentments are al- ducing, by Indirect disfranchisement, the privileges coliierreu mm nem m.n iot" i representative power .11 ine marcs in which slavery formerly existed; anil it this statement might have the merit of plausibility. Rut representation l-undcr the Coii-titution not only oxpro-Iy rec ognized as a right, but It is inipo-ed as a duty; and it is es-ontial in both aspects lo the exi-tonce of the Government and to the maintenance of its authority. In free governments fundamental and es sential rights cannot be forfeited, except .,., linllvldiials bvdtie proce-s of law ; purpo-e of the war was lo maintain the authority of the ( 'oiistltution and to pre- erve the inti ..rity of the l nion ; and Congress more than once reiterated this solemn declaration, and added the as- urance that whenever Hie object should be attained the war should cease, and all tho States should retain their equal glitr; and dignity unimpaired. ft is only since the war has clo-ed that other rights have been iis-ortcd on be half of one department of the General iovernnient. it has been proclaimed bv Congress that, In addition to the powers conferred upon it by the Consti tlon, the Federal (iovernnient may now claim over the States, the territory, and the peoplo Involved in the Insurrection, the rights of war the right of conquest iiulof conllscation, the right to abrogate all existing governments, Institutions, and laws, and to mhjoet the territory conquered and Its Inhabitant to nidi laws, regulations, and deprivations as tho legislative department of the Gov ernment may seo fit to Impose. Under this broad nnd sweeping claim, that claii-o of the Constitution which pro vides that " no State shall without its consent be deprived of It- equal sttll'rage In the Senate of the I'nited Stales," ba boon annulled, and ten Slates have been li'fu-ed, and are still refu.-ed, represen ti.tlon altogether lu both branches) of the Federal Congress. And a Congress in which only a part of tho Slates and of thu people of the Fnlon are ropresonti d has incited the rl J it Huts to exclude the re-t from representation, and from all share lu making their own laws or choosing their own rulers until they shall comply with such conditions and porforni eitcli lugsusthls Congress thus composed may It-elf proscribe. That light has not only been asserted, but it litis been c.eivl-ed, and Is practically moot, or lnt been oyiuent ol lights, lie conies lninossliiie ; aim uie coiinicis oi .i i nor call con-muiioiiai uuiu- nni obligations be discarded or lam aside. The enjoyment of rights may be for a time suspended by the failure to claim tin m, and duties may be evaded by the refu-al to perforin them. Tlie with drawal of their member-) from Congros by the State.- v.liicli resisted the ieneral (iovernnient was among thciraetsof in. surrcction was one of the i tcans and agencies by which they sought to impair the authority and defeat the action of the Government; and that act was an nulled and rendered V'-'d wli'-n the in-..iii-1-eclIonit.selfwassur.pressed. Neither the right of representation nor the duty (,. i. ...!. vnjontnl was in the least im paired by the fact of Insurrection ; but it may have been that by reason of the in-iirreotion the conditions on which the enjoyment ol Unit rigm ami i.ie nerlori'iiiinceof that duty for the time depended could not be ftillllled. This was, in fact, the ca-e. An in-urgent power, in Hie exorcise of n-nrped and unlawful authority, had prohibited within the territory under its control, that alleuianco to the Con-Hlutinn and law-of Hie I'nited States which is made by that fundamental law the os-eutial condition of representation In Us (iov ernnient. No man within tlie insur gent States was allowed to take the oath to support the Constitution of the I'nited Slate-, and, asancccs-ary conse quence, no man could lawfully represent Uio-eState- in Hie councils of the Union. Rut tiii- wa-only an obstacle tot hoenjiiy niont m" the right nnd to the di-charge ol' a duty it did not annul the one nor abrogate the other, audit cea-ed toexi-t when' the usurpation by which It was (ivitcil lia 1 been overthrown and the States hail again resumed their alle giance lo the Constitution and laws of the I'nited States. Xrmitl. Rut it i- inserted, in support of the authority claimed by tho Con gress now in pos-o-lnu of power, that it llows directly from the laws of war; .i. t :. tin. ilt. lit.! which I l.ll il. IS UIIO'llM ... ,- is claimed that these amendments may be made valid as parts of tlie original Constitution without the concurrence of the States to be mo-t seriously affected by them, or may be imposed upon those States by three-lbui-His of the remaining Slates, as conditions of tiioirreadnii-sion to representation in Congress nnd in the Klcctoral College. It is the unquestionable right of Hip people of the United States to make such changes in the Constitution us they, upon due deliberation, may deem expe dient. Rut we insist that they shall be made in the mode which the Constitu tion it.-elf points out in conformity with the letter and the spirit of that In strument, and with the principles of self-government and of equal right which lie at tlieba-isof our republican institutions. Wo deny tho rigid of Con- gross to make the-e changes in the funda mental law without the concurrence of three fourths of all the States, including especially tho-e to be mo-t seriously tif looted by them, or to iinpo-e them upon State- or people, a- conditions ol reprc sontntion or of adiniioii to any of the ri.dits, duties, or obligations which be long under the Constitution to all the States alike. And with still greater emphasis do we deny the right of any portion of the States, excluding Hie rest partv, which, under constitutional gov-1 victorious war always coiH'ers upon the erni.'ients, are the conditions and means conquerors, and which the conqueror of political pi-ogre-", are merged In the conflicts of anus to which they directly and inevitably tend. Jt was against this poill, -n conspic uous and so fatal to all free govern ments, that our ( 'oiistltution was intend ed especially to provide. Not only the stability but the very existence of the (iovernnient Is made by Its provi-lon-to depend upon the right and the fact of ropro-oiitullon. The Congr -s upon which is conferred all the legislative power of tho National Government, con--1-ts of two branches, the Senate and llou-o ot Representative.-;, v, lime joint concurrence or assent is es-onilal to the validity of any law. of those the Iou-o of Jtopi'e.-oiitativos.says the Constitution tartlcle l., section -j, "niiiiu !)' coiupo-cu of members chosen every second year by tho people of the several States." Not only is tho right of representation thus recognized as possessed by all the States and by every State without re striction, qualification, or condition of any kind, but tho duty of ehoo-lng rep-lo.-eiitalivos Is imposed upon Hie peoplo of eaeli and every State alike, without distinction, or Hie authority to make distinctions among them, forany rea-on or upon any grounds whatever. And In the Senate, so careful Is the Constitu tion to si cure to every State this right jof lopn -cutatluii, It Is on pro-sly pro vided that " no State shall, without It-con-cut, bo deprived of its equal siif frage" In that body, even by an amend ment of tho Constitution Itself. When, therefore, any Statu Is excluded from such repiescntalion, not only la it right of thoSltttodenlcdibut Ihoeonstltutlon ttl Integrity of thy .ivnalo U liiiahvil, !.... t.: niav exerel-o or waive in iw m eretlon. To this wo reply that the laws in question relate solely, so far as the rights tliey confer ate concerned, to wars waged between alien and Independent nations, and can have no place or force, In tills regard, inn war waged bytiGov oriimenl to siippre-- an liistirrivHon or Its own people, ii poll Its own soil, again-t its authority. If w hail carried on suc cessful war against any foreign nation we luiyht thereby have acquired po-so.-.-Ioii and Jurisdiction of their soil, with tlie light to eiilorce our laws upon their people, ami to impose upon them such laws and such obligations a.- we might choose. Rut we had before the warcoin- ploto Jurisdiction over the soil of the Southern State-, llllliteil only lv our own Constitution. Our laws wore tin onlv national laws In force upon it. The (iovernnient of Hie United States was the only Government through which those Statesai.dtheirpeoplohad relations with foreign nations, and Its Hag vastheonly iliiL? bv which they wero recognized or known anywhere oil the face of Hi earth. In all tho-e le.-peels.'-aiid In all other respects Involving national Inter ests and lights, our possession was per feet and complete. Jtdldltot need to hi acquired, but only to bo maintained and victorious waragaln-t the Rebellion could do nothing more than maintain It It could only vindieatoand re-esl.ibll tho disputed supremacy of tlie Coiisil tution. It could neither enlarge ivr diminish the authority which that Con stitullim confers upon tho Government bv which it was achieved. Mich an enlnriicment or abridgement of coti.-tl tullunal power can bo cllVvtvil only by of Hie States from any share m their councils, to propo-e or sanction changes in the Constitution which are to affect permanently their political relationsand control or coerce the legitimate action of the several members of tho common l'nion. Such an oxcrci-e of power i simplya usurpation; ju-t as unwarrant able when exercised by Northern States as it would be ifoxorci.-ed by Southern, and not to bo fortified or palliated by anything in the past hi-lory either of tho-e by whom it is attempted or of tho-e upon who-e rights and liberties it is to take affect. It finds no warrant in the Constitution. It is at war with the fundamental principles of our form of (iovernnient. If tolerated lu one in-tance, it becomes the precedent for future Invasions of all liberty and con stitutional right dependent solely upon the will of the paity in pos-i ion of powir, aim mils loan--, ny ittrect nun necessary consequence, lo the most fatal and intolerable of all tyrannies the tvranny of shifting and irrespon- iblo polltictl faction-, it I.- agaln.-t this, the mo-t formidable ot all the dangers which menace the stability ot free government, that the Constitution of the Fnited States was intended most ireful v to provide. Wo demand a liiei and steadfast adherence to Us pro vllons. In this, and in this alone, can we find a ba-lsof permanent union and peace. Ihnrih. Rut it Is alleged, in JlisUlica Hon of the usurpation which we con- lenin, that the condition of the South crn States and people is not such a renders safe their readini-slou to a share in Hie ( iovernnient of the country ; that tliev are still disloyal In sentiment and purpose, and that neither the honor, tlie credit, nor the interests of the nation would be Mile It they were readmit! ton share in Us counsels. Wo might reply to this: 1. That wo have no right, lor such . , , i reasons, lo deny in any poinou oi me States or people rights expressly eon ferrod upon them by tho Constitution of the Fulled States. , That so long as their acts are tlio-c of ovnllv so onir a- uiey comorni in all their public conduct to the require incut,; of the Const ttttiotl and law Wl novo no rl"bt to exact from them con forudty in their sentiments and opln Ions to our own. il. That we have no right lo distru- the purpo-e or the ability of Hie peoph of the I nam lo proieei aim iieieini, un dor all contingencies and by whatov means may be required, Us honor and It-welfare, The.-e would, In our Judgment, bo full and coiuiii-lvoaiiswers to the plea thu advanced for the exclusion or flic s.ntes from tho Fnlon. We say further that this I'l-'a i'wh l''i- H complete ml ways most easily fed and fanned into outbreak ; and even there, they are quite as much the fruit of untimely and hurt ful political agitation as of any hos tility on lie- v,,rt (lt' the peoplo to the authority or the National (iovernnient. Rut the concurrent testimony of tho-e best acquainted with thocondUion of so ciety and the state of public sentiment in the South Including that or It rep resentatives in this Convention estab lishes the fict that the groat mass or the Southern people accept, with as rail and sincere submission as do the people or the other States, re-established su premacy of tho national authority, and are prepared, in tho most loyal spirit, and with a zeal qtnekencdalikeby their interest and their pride, to co-operato I with other States and sections in what ever may be nece-sary to defend the rights, maintain tho honor, nnd proinote the welfare of our common country. History alfords no instance where a people, so powerful in numbers, in resource-, and in public spirit, after n war so long in Us duration, so destructive In its progrc.-s, and so adverse in its issue, have accepted defeat and it- coiiquen ces with so much of good faith as has marked the conduct of the people lately in insurrection agiiin-t the United States, Revond all question tills has been largely due to the wise generosity with which their enforced surrender was accepted by the President of the United States and the generals in im mediate command of their armies, and to the liberal measures which wore af terward taken to restore order, tran quility, and law to the States where all had for the time been overthrown. No steps could have been bettor calculated to command the re-pect, win the eonll- dence, revive the patrioti-ni, and secure the permanent and atlectionate allegi ance of the people of the South to the 'oiistltution and laws of the l'nion than tho-e which have been so firmly taken and so steadfastly pursued by the Pre-idont of the Fulled States. And If that confidence and loyalty have been since impaired ; if the peo ple of the South are to-day loss cor dial in their allegiance tlian they were Immediately upon the clo-e of the war, wo believe it is due to the changed tone of the legislallvedepartiiiont of the General Government toward them; to the action by which Congress has en- leavorod to supplant and defeat the resident's wise and benetlcont policy of restoration ; lo their exclusion from ill participation in our common Gov- rument; to the withdrawal Iromtlieni of rights conferred and guaranteed oy the Constitution ; and to the evident purpose of Congress, in the exerci-eof a usurped and unlaw hit authority, to re duce them from Hie rank ol free and equal members of a republic of States, with rights and dignities unimpaired, to the condition of conquered provinces and a conquered people, in all things ubordiu.de and subject to the will of their conquerors; lree only lo obey laws in making which they tiro not al lowed to share. No people lias ever yet oxi-ted who-e loyalty and faith -mil treatment long continued would not alienate and im- pair. And the ten millions of Ameri cans who live In the South would be unworthy citizens of a free country, degenerate sons of a heroic unco-try. unlit ever to become guardians of tin lights and liberties bequeathed to its by the fathers and founders of this Re public, if they could accept, with un complaining siibnil iveno'-, the hu miliations thus sought to bo imposed upon tlieni, Ri-entiiiont or injustice is always and everywhere os-ontinl to free dom; and Hie spirit which prompts tlie states and people lately in insurrection, but insurgent now no longer, lo protest against the Imposition of unjust and de grading conditions, makes them all the more worthy lo share in tho Gov iranieut of a free ( oiiinlonwoalth, and glvis still firmer assurance of the future power and freedom of the llopublie. For wiialovor responsibility tlie South ern people may Jiavo inclined in resist ing tho authority of the National Gov ernment and In taking up vu Un its overthrow, they uiny be held lo muwer, as individual!!, before th Judicial tribu nals of tho innd, and for that conduct, r.s soclotiw and organised communities, they have nl ready jiuhl the most fearful penalties that ran fall on olfeudliig Stated In tho looses, the sulforings, and humiliation of unsuccessful war. Hut whatever uiny bo thu guilt or tho pun ishment of tlio conscious aiithoni of tho insurrection, candor and common Jus tice demand tho concession that ha great nuns of those who became in volved In Its responsibility acted Upon what they belloved to bo their duly, in defense of what they had been taught to believe their rights, or under ti com pulsion, physical and moral, which they wero powerless to resist. Nor can it bo tiinlss to remember that, terrible nshavo been thu bereavements and the los.-;cs of this war, they havo fallen exclusively upon neither section and upon neither party that they havo fallen, Indeed, with far greater weight npontlio-o with whom the war began ; that in tliedeatli of relatives and friends ; tlie dispersion of families; the disruption of social sys tems and social ties; tho overthrow of governments; of Jaw and order; tho destruction of property and of forms and modes and means of industry; the loss of political, commercial, and moral influence, in every shape and form which great calamities can as sume, the States and peoplo which engaged in tlie war against the Gov ernment of thu United States havo suffered tenfold more than those who remained in allegiance to its Consti tution and laws. These considerations may not, as they certainly do not, Justify Hie action of the people of Hie insurgent States; but no ju-t or generous mind will refuse to them very considerable weight in de termining the line of conduct which the Government of tho United States should pursue toward them. They accept, if not with alacrity, cer tainly without sullen resentment, tho defeat and overthrow they havesitstain ed. They acknowledge and acqule-co in tho results, to, themselves and tho country, which that defeat involves. They no longer claim for any State tiio right to secede from the Union ; they no longer assert for any State ail allegiance paramount to that which is due to tho (ieneral Government. They have ac cepted the destruction of slavery, abol ished it by their State constitutions, and concurred with tlie States and peo ple of the whole Union in prohibiting its existence forever upon tho soil or within the Jiirl-dlctlon of the Vnited States. They indicate and evince their purpose jti.-t .-o fast as may bo po-siblo and safe to adapt their domestic laws to Uiochangetl condition of their society, and to secure by law and its tribu nals equal and Impartial justice to all cla-.-os of their inhabitants. They ad mit the invalidity of all acts of resist ance to the national authority, and of all debts incurred in attempting its overthrow. They avow their willing ness to -hare the burdens and di-ehargo all the duties and obligations which rest upon them, in common witli oilier States and other sections of the Union; and they renew, through their represen tatives in this Convention, by all their public conduct, in every way and by the mo-t solemn acts by which States and societies ran pledge their faith, their engagement to bear true faith and allegiance, through all time to come, to the Constitution of the United States, and to all laws that may be made in pursuance thereof. Fellow countrymen : "We call upon you, in full reliance upon your intel ligence and your patrioti-m, to ac cept, witli generous and ungrudging confidence, this full surrender on the part of tho-e lately In arms again-t your authority, and to share with tln-m the honor and renown that await tho.-n who bring back peace and concord to jarring States. Tlie war ju-t elo-cd, with all its sorrows and disasters, lias opened a new career of glory to the na tion it lias saved, it has swept away the hostilities of sentiment nml of Inter est which wero a standing menace to Its ponce, it has destroyed the Institu tion of slavery, always a cause of sec tional agitation and strife, and hasopeii ed for our country Hie way to unity of interest, of principle, and of iii'tion, through all time to come. It has devel oped in both sections a military capacity an aptitude for achievement - of war, both by sea and land before unknown oven to our-olves, and destined to exer-ci-o hereafter, under united counsels, an Important hillticneo upon Hie character and detlny of the continent and (ho world. And w hile it has thus revealed, disciplined, and compacted our power, it ha- proved to us, beyond controversy or doubt, by the course pursued toward both contending sections by foreign powers, that wo must no uie guardians of our own Independence, and that tho principles of republican freedom wo represent can find among tlie nations of the earth no friends or defenders but our-olves. Wo call upon you, therefore, by every con-lderatlon of your own dignity and safety, and In the name of liberty throughout the world, to complete tho work of restoration and peace which the Pre-idont of the United Slates has so well begun, and which tin policy adopted and the principles assorted by tho present Congress alone obstruct, Tho time is do-eat hand when iiirmbers of a now Congro- are to bo elected. If that Congress shall perpetuate tin- poli cy, and, by excluding loyal stairs mid people from ropie-cnlalloii lu Its halls shall continue tlie ti-urpatioii by w hlch llto kgWlutivo power of tju Govuu